postharvest decay control of citrus fruit by preharvest pyrimethanil spray.preharvest infections or conidia load on fruit surface by penicillium digitatum, p. italicum, alternaria citri and other filamentous fungi can cause important postharvest losses of citrus fruit. reduction in pruning frequency occurred in the last decade together with un-picked yield that eventually rots on the trees have increased the risk of postharvest decay especially when environmental conditions at picking time are favourable to pathogens' development. sanitation procedures in the packingho ...201325145229
determination of fungicide pyrimethanil in grapes, must, fermenting must and wine.this study determined the evolution of pyrimethanil, a fungicide commonly used to control botrytis cinerea, throughout the winemaking process in grapes, must, fermenting must and wine. tempranillo grapevines were treated with pyrimethanil according to both good agricultural practices (gap) and critical agricultural practices (cap). fermentation was carried out in an experimental winery. grape analysis was based on an ethyl acetate extraction method. samples from fermentation were analysed by sol ...201323258318
involvement of salicylic acid, glutathione and protein s-thiolation in plant cell death-mediated defence response of mesembryanthemum crystallinum against botrytis cinerea.the response of mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants performing c3 photosynthesis and crassulacean acid metabolism (cam) to the non-host necrotrophic pathogen botrytis cinerea was analyzed at the local and systemic levels. the induction of programmed cell death, lignin and callose deposition, changes in salicylic acid, glutathione and cysteinylglycine pools as well as the content of thiolated proteins were studied. the infected c3 and cam plants exhibited hypersensitive-like defence response, ho ...201323228550
the arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase-vi.2 is a functional protein kinase and is dispensable for basal resistance to botrytis cinerea.sensing of microbial pathogens by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps) through pattern recognition receptors (prrs) elicits a defense program known as pamp-triggered immunity (pti). recently, we have shown that the arabidopsis thaliana l-type lectin receptor kinase-vi.2 (lecrk-vi.2) positively regulates bacterial pti. in this report, we suggest by in silico analysis that the kinase domain of lecrk-vi.2 is functional. lecrk-vi.2 also demonstrated auto-phosphorylation activity in vitro i ...201323221759
synthesis and fungicidal activity of tubulin polymerisation promoters. part 3: imidazoles.a novel class of experimental fungicides has been discovered, which consists of special tetrasubstituted imidazoles. they are highly active against important phytopathogens, such as botrytis cinerea (grey mould), uncinula necator (grape powdery mildew), mycosphaerella graminicola (wheat leaf blotch) and alternaria solani (potato and tomato early blight). their fungicidal efficacy is due to their ability to promote fungal tubulin polymerization, which leads to a disruption of microtubule dynamics ...201323218777
a shared biosynthetic pathway for botcinins and botrylactones revealed through gene deletions.isotopic labelling experiments and the study of mutants with disrupted genes encoding botcinic acid have revealed a common link in the biosynthesis of the polyketide toxins excreted by botrytis cinerea: botcinins and botrylactones. furthermore, the results reported here shed light on the origin of the starter unit, thereby solving a long-standing mystery in the biosynthesis of botcinins.201323203902
nitrogen fertilization of the host plant influences production and pathogenicity of botrytis cinerea secondary inoculum.the influence of nitrogen (n) nutrition on a plant's susceptibility to botrytis spp. and other pathogens is well documented. however, little is known of possible effects on sporulation of the pathogen on diseased tissue and on the pathogenicity of resulting secondary inoculum. to address this question, sporulation by two strains of botrytis cinerea was quantified on tomato plants produced under different n irrigation regimes with inputs of no(3)- at 0.5 to 45 mmol liter(-1) (mm). sporulation dec ...201323151188
frequent gain and loss of introns in fungal cytochrome b this study, all available cytochrome b (cyt b) genes from the gobase database were compiled and the evolutionary dynamics of the cyt b gene introns was assessed. cyt b gene introns were frequently present in the fungal kingdom and some lower plants, but generally absent or rare in chromista, protozoa, and animalia. fungal cyt b introns were found at 35 positions in cyt b genes and the number of introns varied at individual positions from a single representative to 32 different introns at posi ...201223145081
role of sterol 3-ketoreductase sensitivity in susceptibility to the fungicide fenhexamid in botrytis cinerea and other phytopathogenic fungi.the narrow-spectrum fungicide fenhexamid was introduced into french vineyards in 2000 to control grey mould caused by a complex of two cryptic species: botrytis cinerea, the predominant species sensitive to fenhexamid, and botrytis pseudocinerea, naturally resistant. fenhexamid was suggested to inhibit the 3-ketoreductase involved at c-4 demethylation steps during ergosterol biosynthesis, as revealed by its effects on the b. cinerea sterol profile. resistance monitoring studies have hitherto ide ...201323139232
synthesis and fungicidal activity of novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives.a novel series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing a 5-phenyl-2-furan moiety were synthesized from the intermediates diacylhydrazine 3 and acylhydrazone 5 via an efficient approach under microwave irradiation in good yields. their structures were characterized by ir, (1)h nmr, and elemental analysis. the antifungal tests indicated that the title compounds showed in vivo fungicidal activity against botrytis cinerea and rhizoctonia solanii at 500 μg/ml obviously. some tested compounds even ...201223134289
the homeobox bchox8 gene in botrytis cinerea regulates vegetative growth and morphology.filamentous growth and the capacity at producing conidia are two critical aspects of most fungal life cycles, including that of many plant or animal pathogens. here, we report on the identification of a homeobox transcription factor encoding gene that plays a role in these two particular aspects of the development of the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea. deletion of the bchox8 gene in both the b. cinerea b05-10 and t4 strains causes similar phenotypes, among which a curved, arabesque-like ...201223133556
antibacterial and antifungal activities of otanthus maritimus (l.) hoffmanns. & link essential oil from sicily.the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the flowers of otanthus maritimus l., a perennial plant growing wild in maritime sands in the mediterranean region, was investigated by gc and gc-ms analyses. totally 66 were identified. the oil was dominated by the high content of monoterpene compounds, especially oxygenated monoterpenes which accounted for 73.1%. the most abundant components were yomogi alcohol (20.8%), camphor (15.8%), artemisyl acetate (15.3%) and artemisia alcohol ...201323126552
natural variation in the velvet gene bcvel1 affects virulence and light-dependent differentiation in botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea is an aggressive plant pathogen causing gray mold disease on various plant species. in this study, we identified the genetic origin for significantly differing phenotypes of the two sequenced b. cinerea isolates, b05.10 and t4, with regard to light-dependent differentiation, oxalic acid (oa) formation and virulence. by conducting a map-based cloning approach we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) in an open reading frame encoding a velvet gene (bcvel1). the snp in ...201223118899
genome update of botrytis cinerea strains b05.10 and t4.we report here an update of the botrytis cinerea strains b05.10 and t4 genomes, as well as an automated preliminary gene structure annotation. high-coverage de novo assemblies and reference-based alignments led to a correction of wrong base calls, elimination of sequence gaps, and improved joining of contigs. the new assemblies have substantially lower numbers of scaffolds and a concomitant increase in the n(50).the list of protein-coding genes was generated using the evidence-driven gene predic ...201223104368
gray mold populations in german strawberry fields are resistant to multiple fungicides and dominated by a novel clade closely related to botrytis cinerea.the gray mold fungus botrytis cinerea is a major threat to fruit and vegetable production. strawberry fields usually receive several fungicide treatments against botrytis per season. gray mold isolates from several german strawberry-growing regions were analyzed to determine their sensitivity against botryticides. fungicide resistance was commonly observed, with many isolates possessing resistance to multiple (up to six) fungicides. a stronger variant of the previously described multidrug resist ...201323087030
the botrytis cinerea cerato-platanin bcspl1 is a potent inducer of systemic acquired resistance (sar) in tobacco and generates a wave of salicylic acid expanding from the site of application.systemic acquired resistance (sar) is a potent plant defence system that, in response to a first contact with a plant pathogen, prepares the whole plant for subsequent attacks, so that it becomes more resistant to the same and to other pathogens. bcspl1, a cerato-platanin family protein abundantly secreted by botrytis cinerea, is required for full virulence and elicits the hypersensitive response in the host. here, we report that bcspl1 is also able to induce in tobacco systemic resistance to tw ...201323072280
signal cross talk in arabidopsis exposed to cadmium, silicon, and botrytis cinerea.the role of defence gene expression triggered by cd toxicity in the plant's response to botrytis cinerea was investigated in arabidopsis thaliana columbia 0. silicon (0 or 1.5 mm) and cd (0, 1 or 10 μm) were supplied to 3-month-old solution-cultured plants. after 3 days, half of the plants of each treatment were inoculated with botrytis. supplied cd concentrations were below the toxicity threshold and did not cause shoot growth inhibition or evidence of oxidative stress, while botrytis infection ...201323070523
hplc analysis of midodrine and desglymidodrine in culture medium: evaluation of static and shaken conditions on the biotransformation by fungi.a high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) method is presented for the simultaneous determination of midodrine and desglymidodrine (dmae) in czapek-dox culture medium, to be used in biotransformation studies by fungi. the hplc analysis was conducted using a lichrospher 100 rp18 column, acetonitrile-40 mmol/l formic acid solution (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase, and ultraviolet detection at 290 nm. the sample preparation was conducted by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate as extractor ...201323051063
acquired immunity of transgenic torenia plants overexpressing agmatine coumaroyltransferase to pathogens and herbivore pests.we investigated the ability of transgenic torenia (scrophulariaceae) plants to resist fungi and arthropod herbivores. torenia hybrida cv. summerwave blue was manipulated to produce arabidopsis agmatine coumaroyltransferase (atact). this catalyses the last step in the biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (hcaas) which function in defence. transgenic plants accumulated substantial hcaas, predominantly p-coumaroylagmatine, and the hcaas were isomerized from the trans-form to the cis-form in ...201223008754
ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, ogubc1, confers resistance against uv-b radiation and botrytis infection in arabidopsis thaliana.a previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. the ogubc1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 e3 interaction residues. both exogenous application of salicylic acid and uv-b irradiation triggered expression of ogubc1 in leaves of wild rice. recombinant ogubc1 protei ...201223000158
[identification and secondary metabolites of endophytic fungal strain pr35 from paeonia delavayi].to identify the endophytic fungal strain pr35 separated from paeonia delavayi and study chemical constituents of its secondary metabolites.201222993990
evaluation of fast volatile analysis for detection of botrytis cinerea infections in strawberry.grey mold (botrytis cinerea) is one of the major phytopathogens causing serious losses during strawberry postharvest and storage. b. cinerea-host interaction affect emissions of volatile compounds during infection resulting in a characteristic earthy, mushroom odor. therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate two analytical techniques based on fast volatile analysis on their performance for monitoring evolution and early detection of b. cinerea infections in strawberry. in a first exp ...201222986207
farnesol induces apoptosis-like phenotype in the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea.this study demonstrates that the isoprenoid farnesol produces a toxic effect on the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea in solid and liquid media. in solid media farnesol retarded 72 h the beginning of mycelial growth. also, it was demonstrated that the toxic effect is due to farnesol triggers apoptosis in b. cinerea because ros accumulation, dna fragmentation and phosphatidylserine externalization were detected in farnesol-treated mycelium. therefore, compounds that increase the intracellul ...201322962358
necrotrophic pathogens use the salicylic acid signaling pathway to promote disease development in tomato.plants use different immune pathways to combat pathogens. the activation of the jasmonic acid (ja)-signaling pathway is required for resistance against necrotrophic pathogens; however, to combat biotrophic pathogens, the plants activate mainly the salicylic acid (sa)-signaling pathway. sa can antagonize ja signaling and vice versa. npr1 (noninducible pathogenesis-related 1) is considered a master regulator of sa signaling. npr1 interacts with tga transcription factors, ultimately leading to the ...201222950753
metabolomics reveals simultaneous influences of plant defence system and fungal growth in botrytis cinerea-infected vitis vinifera cv. chardonnay berries.botrytis cinerea is a fungal plant pathogen of grape berries, leading to economic and quality losses in wine production. the global metabolite changes induced by b. cinerea infection in grape have not been established to date, even though b. cinerea infection is known to cause significant changes in chemicals or metabolites. in order to better understand metabolic mechanisms linked to the infection process and to identify the metabolites associated with b. cinerea infection, (1)h nmr spectroscop ...201222945941
the botrytis cinerea type iii polyketide synthase shows unprecedented high catalytic efficiency toward long chain acyl-coas.bpks from botrytis cinerea is a novel type iii polyketide synthase that accepts c(4)-c(18) aliphatic acyl-coas and benzoyl-coa as the starters to form pyrones, resorcylic acids and resorcinols through sequential condensation with malonyl-coa. the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/k(m)) of bpks was 2.8 × 10(5) s(-1) m(-1) for palmitoyl-coa, the highest ever reported. substrate docking analyses addressed the unique features of bpks such as its high activity and high specificity toward long chain acyl-c ...201222945364
botrytis cinerea mutants deficient in d-galacturonic acid catabolism have a perturbed virulence on nicotiana benthamiana and arabidopsis, but not on tomato.d-galacturonic acid is the most abundant monosaccharide component of pectic polysaccharides that comprise a significant part of most plant cell walls. therefore, it is potentially an important nutritional factor for botrytis cinerea when it grows in and through plant cell walls. the d-galacturonic acid catabolic pathway in b. cinerea consists of three catalytic steps converting d-galacturonic acid to pyruvate and l-glyceraldehyde, involving two nonhomologous galacturonate reductase genes (bcgar1 ...201322937823
[subcellular localization and resistance to botrytis cinerea of a new type lipid transfer protein atdhyprp1 from arabidopsis thaliana].genetic transformation was adopted to analyze the subcellular localization and the resistance to fungal pathogens of arabidopsis lipid transfer protein atdhyprp1. the coding sequence of atdhyprp1 amplified by pcr from ws ecotype was used to construct the plant binary expression vector pri101-an-atdhyprp1 and the fusion expression vector pcambia1302-atdhyprp1-gfp. transgenic tobacco and arabidopsis plants were produced by leaf disc and floral dip protocols, respectively. atdhyprp1 could improve t ...201222916498
functional and structural comparison of pyrrolnitrin- and iprodione-induced modifications in the class iii histidine-kinase bos1 of botrytis cinerea.dicarboximides and phenylpyrroles are commonly used fungicides against plant pathogenic ascomycetes. although their effect on fungal osmosensing systems has been shown in many studies, their modes-of-action still remain unclear. laboratory- or field-mutants of fungi resistant to either or both fungicide categories generally harbour point mutations in the sensor histidine kinase of the osmotic signal transduction the present study we compared the mechanisms of resistance to the dicarbo ...201222912706
different roles of glycine-rich rna-binding protein7 in plant defense against pectobacterium carotovorum, botrytis cinerea, and tobacco mosaic viruses.glycine-rich rna-binding protein7 (atgrp7) has previously been demonstrated to confer plant defense against pseudomonas syringae dc3000. here, we show that atgrp7 can play different roles in plant defense against diverse pathogens. atgrp7 enhances resistance against a necrotrophic bacterium pectobacterium carotovorum scc1 or a biotrophic virus tobacco mosaic virus. by contrast, atgrp7 plays a negative role in defense against a necrotrophic fungus botrytis cinerea. these results provide evidence ...201222902796
a fast and precise method to identify indolic glucosinolates and camalexin in plants by combining mass spectrometric and biological this manuscript, a fast and accurate identification and quantitation by mass spectrometry of indolic glucosinolates and camalexin involved in defense in arabidopsis thaliana are described. two elicitation systems, inoculation with botrytis cinerea and treatment with agno(3), were used in col-0 wild-type and mutant genotypes impaired in the biosynthesis of the selected metabolites. identification of analytes was carried out by nontargeted lc/esi-qtof-ms profiling. confirmation of indolic gluco ...201222870889
recombinant expression of the coat protein of botrytis virus x and development of an immunofluorescence detection method to study its intracellular distribution in botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea is infected by many mycoviruses with varying phenotypical effects on the fungal host, including botrytis virus x (bvx), a mycovirus that has been found in several b. cinerea isolates worldwide with no obvious effects on growth. here we present results from serological and immunofluorescence microscopy (ifm) studies using antiserum raised against the coat protein of bvx expressed in escherichia coli fused to maltose-binding protein. due to the high yield of recombinant protein it ...201222855784
the ca2+/calcineurin-dependent signaling pathway in the gray mold botrytis cinerea: the role of calcipressin in modulating calcineurin the gray mold fungus botrytis cinerea the gα subunit bcg1 of a heterotrimeric g protein is an upstream activator of the ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. in this study we focused on the functional characterization of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (bccna) and its putative regulator calcipressin (bcrcn1). we deleted the genes encoding both proteins to examine their role concerning growth, differentiation and virulence. the δbccna mutant shows a severe growth defect, do ...201222844520
overexpression of shcyp51b and shatrd in sclerotinia homoeocarpa isolates exhibiting practical field resistance to a demethylation inhibitor fungicide.we investigated genetic factors that govern the reduced propiconazole sensitivity of sclerotinia homoeocarpa field isolates collected during a 2-year field efficacy study on dollar spot disease of turf in five new england sites. these isolates displayed a >50-fold range of in vitro sensitivity to a sterol demethylation inhibitor (dmi) fungicide, propiconazole, making them ideal for investigations of genetic mechanisms of reduced dmi sensitivity. the cyp51 gene homolog in s. homoeocarpa (shcyp51b ...201222798361
identification of differentially expressed genes associated with changes in the morphology of pichia fermentans on apple and peach fruit.pichia fermentans (strain disaaba 726) is an effective biocontrol agent against monilinia fructicola and botrytis cinerea when inoculated in artificially wounded apple fruit but is an aggressive pathogen when inoculated on wounded peach fruit, causing severe fruit decay. pichia fermentans grows as budding yeast on apple tissue and exhibits pseudohyphal growth on peach tissue, suggesting that dimorphism may be associated with pathogenicity. two complementary suppressive subtractive hybridization ...201222780886
dual-level regulation of acc synthase activity by mpk3/mpk6 cascade and its downstream wrky transcription factor during ethylene induction in arabidopsis.plants under pathogen attack produce high levels of ethylene, which plays important roles in plant immunity. previously, we reported the involvement of acs2 and acs6, two type i acs isoforms, in botrytis cinerea-induced ethylene biosynthesis and their regulation at the protein stability level by mpk3 and mpk6, two arabidopsis pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks). the residual ethylene induction in the acs2/acs6 double mutant suggests the involvement of additional acs iso ...201222761583
expression of recombinant earli1, a hybrid proline-rich protein of arabidopsis, in escherichia coli and its inhibition effect to the growth of fungal pathogens and saccharomyces cerevisiae.earli1 is an arabidopsis gene with pleiotropic effects previously shown to have auxiliary functions in protecting plants against freezing-induced cellular damage and promoting germinability under low-temperature and salinity stresses. here we determined whether recombinant earli1 protein has anti-fungal activity. recombinant earli1 protein lacking its signal peptide was produced in escherichia coli bl21(de3) using isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (iptg) induction and the prokaryotic express ...201222759515
expression of the ginseng pgpr10-1 in arabidopsis confers resistance against fungal and bacterial infection.korean ginseng (panax ginseng c. a. meyer) consists of nine cultivars from three jakyung, chungkyung, and hwangsook lines. among three previously identified pr-10 homologs from ginseng (pgpr10-1, pgpr10-2, and pgpr10-3), we found that the exact same sequence of pgpr10-2 exist in all tested nine cultivars. but a deletion and snp was found in american ginseng (panax quinquefolius). pr-10 proteins are known to be small and cytosolic, and showed similar three-dimensional structure. here we show that ...201222750300
exploring pathogenic mechanisms of botrytis cinerea secretome under different ambient ph based on comparative proteomic analysis.botrytis cinerea causes gray mold rot on over 200 plant species worldwide, resulting in great economic loss every year. cooperation of proteins secreted by b. cinerea plays an important role in its successful infection to host plants. the ambient ph, as one of the most important environmental parameters, can regulate expression of secreted proteins in various fungal pathogens. in the present study, we mainly investigated the effect of ambient ph on secretome of b. cinerea strain b05.10 with a co ...201222746291
forecasting arima models for atmospheric vineyard pathogens in galicia and northern portugal: botrytis cinerea spores.botrytis cinerea is the cause of the most common disease in the galician and portuguese vineyards. knowledge of the spore levels in the atmosphere of vineyards is a tool for forecasting models of the concentration of spores in order to adjust the phytosanitary treatments to real risk infection periods. the presented study was conducted in two vineyards, one located in cenlle (spain) and other in amares (portugal), from 2005-2007. a volumetric trap, model lanzoni vpps-2000, was used for the aerob ...201222742797
essential oils to control botrytis cinerea in vitro and in vivo on plum fruits.the consequence of misusing chemical biocides in controlling pests and diseases has drawn the attention of policy makers to the development of methods potentially available in nature for this purpose. in the present study the inhibitory effects of black caraway, fennel and peppermint essential oils against botrytis cinerea were tested at various concentrations in vitro and in vivo.201322740387
antagonism of trichoderma harzianum ets 323 on botrytis cinerea mycelium in culture conditions.abstract previous studies have shown that the extracellular proteins of trichoderma harzianum ets 323 grown in the presence of deactivated botrytis cinerea in culture include a putative l-amino acid oxidase and have suggested the involvement of this enzyme in the antagonistic mechanism. here, we hypothesized that the mycoparasitic process of trichoderma spp. against b. cinerea involves two steps; that is, an initial hyphal coiling stage and a subsequent hyphal coiling stage, with different coili ...201222734558
proteomic analysis of proteins secreted by botrytis cinerea in response to heavy metal toxicity.although essential in many cellular processes, metals become toxic when they are present in excess and constitute a global environmental hazard. to overcome this stress, fungi have evolved several mechanisms at both intracellular and extracellular levels. in particular, fungi are well known for their ability to secrete a large panel of proteins. however, their role in the adaptation of fungi to metal toxicity has not yet been investigated. to address this question, here, the fungus botrytis cine ...201222706205
in vitro and in vivo antifungal properties of cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit.higher plants possess several mechanisms of defense against plant pathogens. proteins actively synthesized in response to those stresses are called defense-related proteins which, among others, include certain protease inhibitors. it is of particular relevance to investigate plant natural defense mechanisms for pathogen control which include cystatins-specific inhibitors of cysteine proteases.201222653546
up-regulation of antioxidants in tobacco by low concentrations of h₂o₂ suppresses necrotic disease symptoms.pretreatment of tobacco leaves with low concentrations (5 to 10 mm) of h₂o₂ suppressed hypersensitive-type necrosis associated with resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) or pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. the same pretreatment resulted in suppression of normosensitive necrosis associated with susceptibility to botrytis cinerea. this type of h₂o₂-mediated, induced disease symptom resistance correlated with enhanced host antioxidant capacity, i.e., elevated enzymatic activities of catala ...201222646244
disruption of the eng18b engase gene in the fungal biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride affects growth, conidiation and antagonistic ability.the recently identified phylogenetic subgroup b5 of fungal glycoside hydrolase family 18 genes encodes enzymes with mannosyl glycoprotein endo-n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (engase)-type activity. intracellular engase activity is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway (erad) of misfolded glycoproteins, although the biological relevance in filamentous fungi is not known. trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasitic fungus that is used for biological control o ...201222586463
involvement of trichoderma trichothecenes in the biocontrol activity and induction of plant defense-related genes.trichoderma species produce trichothecenes, most notably trichodermin and harzianum a (ha), by a biosynthetic pathway in which several of the involved proteins have significant differences in functionality compared to their fusarium orthologues. in addition, the genes encoding these proteins show a genomic organization differing from that of the fusarium tri clusters. here we describe the isolation of trichoderma arundinaceum ibt 40837 transformants which have a disrupted or silenced tri4 gene, ...201222562989
synthesis and fungicidal activity of novel pimprinine analogues.a simple and efficient synthetic protocol for 5-(3-indolyl)-oxazoles has been developed and further used to synthesize a series of novel analogues of natural product pimprinine. all new compounds were identified by (1)h nmr, high resolution mass spectrometry, and the structures of 10 and 18o were further confirmed by x-ray crystallographic diffraction analysis. bioassay conducted at syngenta showed that several of the synthesized compounds exhibited fungicidal activity. compounds 10, 17, 18 h, 1 ...201222560632
pretreatment of the yeast antagonist, candida oleophila, with glycine betaine increases oxidative stress tolerance in the microenvironment of apple response to wounding, harvested fruit tissues of apple and citrus exhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ros). ros production is greater when yeast antagonists used as biocontrol agents are applied in the wounds. these phenomena result in an oxidative stress environment for the yeast antagonists. it has been demonstrated that pre-exposure of some of these yeast antagonists to sublethal abiotic stress (heat or hydrogen peroxide), or stress-ameliorating compounds such as glycine bet ...201222560021
physcomitrella patens activates reinforcement of the cell wall, programmed cell death and accumulation of evolutionary conserved defence signals, such as salicylic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, but not jasmonic acid, upon botrytis cinerea infection.the moss physcomitrella patens is an evolutionarily basal model system suitable for the analysis of plant defence responses activated after pathogen assault. upon infection with the necrotroph botrytis cinerea, several defence mechanisms are induced in p. patens, including the fortification of the plant cell wall by the incorporation of phenolic compounds and the induced expression of related genes. botrytis cinerea infection also activates the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and cell de ...201222551417
identification and characterization of the defensin-like gene family of grapevine.defensins are a class of small and diverse cysteine-rich proteins found in plants, insects, and vertebrates, which share a common tertiary structure and usually exert broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. we used a bioinformatic approach to scan the vitis vinifera genome and identified 79 defensin-like sequences (defl) corresponding to 46 genes and allelic variants, plus 33 pseudogenes and gene fragments. expansion and diversification of grapevine defl has occurred after the split from the la ...201222550957
two new antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus, seimatosporium sp.two new acaranoic acids, named seimatoporic acid a and b (1, and 2), together with six known compounds, r-(-)-mellein (3), cis-4-hydroxymellein (4), trans-4-hydroxymellein (5), 4r-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (6), (-)-5-hydroxymethylmellein (7), and ergosterol (8) were isolated from an endophytic fungus, seimatosporium sp, by a bioassay-guided procedure. the structures of the new compounds have been assigned from analysis of the 1h and 13c nmr spectra, dept, and by 2d cosy, hmqc, hmbc and noesy exper ...201222545398
overexpressing mhnpr1 in transgenic fuji apples enhances resistance to apple powdery mildew.fuji is susceptible to fungal diseases like apple powdery mildew. non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (npr1) plays a key role in regulating salicylic acid (sa)-mediated systemic acquired resistance (sar). previous studies show that overexpressing the malus hupehensis-derived npr1 (mhnpr1) gene in tobacco induces the transcript expression of pathogenesis-related genes (prs) and resistance to the fungus botrytis cinerea. in this study we introduced the mhnpr1 gene into the 'fuji' apple vi ...201222539187
purification, characterization of a ckchn134 protein from cynanchum komarovii seeds and synergistic effect with cktlp against verticillium dahliae.cynanchum komarovii al iljinski is a desert plant that has been used as analgesic, anthelminthic, and antidiarrheal, but also as herbal medicine to treat cholecystitis in people. in this work, an antifungal protein with sequence homology to chitinase was isolated from c. komarovii seeds and named ckchn134. the three-dimensional structure prediction of ckchn134 indicated that the protein has a loop domain formed a thin cleft, which is able to bind molecules and substrates. the protein and cktlp s ...201222532259
arabidopsis rap2.2 plays an important role in plant resistance to botrytis cinerea and ethylene responses.• ethylene plays a crucial role in plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens, in which ethylene response factors (erfs) are often involved. • here, we evaluated the role of an erf transcription factor, related to ap2 2 (rap2.2), in botrytis resistance and ethylene responses in arabidopsis. we analyzed the resistance of transgenic plants overexpressing rap2.2 and the t-dna insertion mutant to botrytis cinerea. we assessed its role in the ethylene signaling pathway by molecular and genetic approa ...201222530619
the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase bcos4 is required for vegetative differentiation and pathogenicity in botrytis cinerea.the high-osmolarity glycerol signal pathway plays an important role in the response of fungi to various environmental stresses. in this study, we characterized a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase gene bcos4 in botrytis cinerea, which is homologous to saccharomyces cerevisiae ssk2/ssk22. the bcos4 deletion mutant was significantly impaired in vegetative growth and conidial formation. the mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to the osmotic, oxidative stresses and to the fungicides i ...201222526788
redox-sensitive gfp2: use of the genetically encoded biosensor of the redox status in the filamentous fungus botrytis cinerea.the production of reactive oxygen species (ros) is part of the defence reaction of plants against invading pathogens. the effect of ros on filamentous fungi is still unclear. in this study, ratiometric redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (rogfp) was introduced as a tool for in vivo measurement of the cellular redox status in filamentous fungi. a fungal expression system for rogfp2 was constructed. expressed in botrytis cinerea, rogfp2 reversibly responded to redox changes induced by incuba ...201222524254
effects of resveratrol on the ultrastructure of botrytis cinerea conidia and biological significance in plant/pathogen interactions.many roles have been ascribed to stilbenes, namely as antimicrobial, deterrent or repellent compounds in plants, protecting them from attacks by fungi, bacteria, nematodes or herbivores, acting both as constitutive and active defense (phytoalexin) compounds. more recently, stilbenes (especially resveratrol and its derivatives) were acclaimed for their wondrous effects and wide range of purported healing and preventive powers as cardioprotective, antitumor, neuroprotective and antioxidant agents. ...201222516542
antifungal saponins from bulbs of garlic, allium sativum l. var. voghiera.a bioassay-guided phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the bulbs of garlic, allium sativum l., var. voghiera, typical of voghiera, ferrara (italy), allowed the isolation of ten furostanol saponins; voghieroside a1/a2 and voghieroside b1/b2, based on the rare agapanthagenin aglycone; voghieroside c1/c2, based on agigenin aglycone; and voghieroside d1/d2 and e1/e2, based on gitogenin aglycone. in addition, we found two known spirostanol saponins, agigenin 3-o-trisaccharide and gitogeni ...201222513009
tools for botrytis cinerea: new expression vectors make the gray mold fungus more accessible to cell biology approaches.targeted gene inactivation is extensively used in the plant pathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea for gene function analysis while strategies involving the expression of reporter genes have been rarely used due to the lack of appropriate expression vectors. hence, an approach was initiated to establish an expression system for b.cinerea possessing the following features: (i) the targeted integration of constructs at defined gene loci which are dispensable under standard growth conditions, (ii) the ...201222503771
synthesis and fungicidal activity of tubulin polymerisation promoters. part 2: pyridazines.special tetrasubstituted pyridazines are potent fungicides by promoting the tubulin polymerisation, hereby disrupting the microtubule dynamics in the fungus. they are monocyclic analogs of similar substituted triazolopyrimidines and pyridopyrazines with the same mode of action. the fungicidal activity of these pyridazines was evaluated against the plant pathogens botrytis cinerea (grey mould), mycosphaerella graminicola (wheat leaf blotch) and alternaria solani (potato and tomato early blight). ...201222494843
genetic analysis and molecular characterisation of laboratory and field mutants of botryotinia fuckeliana (botrytis cinerea) resistant to qoi fungicides.qoi fungicides, inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration, are considered to be at high risk of resistance development. in several phytopathogenic fungi, resistance is caused by mutations (most frequently g143a) in the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. the genetic and molecular basis of qoi resistance were investigated in laboratory and field mutants of botryotinia fuckeliana (de bary) whetz. exhibiting in vitro reduced sensitivity to trifloxystrobin.201222488841
the top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology.the aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal molecular plant pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a 'top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. the survey generated 495 votes from the international community, and resulted in the generation of a top 10 fungal plant pathogen list for molecular plant pathology. the top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) magnaporthe oryzae; (2) botrytis cinerea; (3) ...201222471698
the lysm receptor-like kinase lysm rlk1 is required to activate defense and abiotic-stress responses induced by overexpression of fungal chitinases in arabidopsis plants.application of crab shell chitin or pentamer chitin oligosaccharide to arabidopsis seedlings increased tolerance to salinity in wild-type but not in knockout mutants of the lysm receptor-like kinase1 (cerk1/lysm rlk1) gene, known to play a critical role in signaling defense responses induced by exogenous chitin. arabidopsis plants overexpressing the endochitinase chit36 and hexoaminidase excy1 genes from the fungus trichoderma asperelleoides t203 showed increased tolerance to salinity, heavy-met ...201222461667
effects of airflow and changing humidity on the aerosolization of respirable fungal fragments and conidia of botrytis cinerea.the purpose of this study was to investigate the aerosolization of particles (micro- and macroconidia and fragments) from botrytis cinerea cultures in relation to potential human inhalation in indoor environments. the influence of the following factors on the aerosolization of b. cinerea particles was studied: exposure to airflow, relative humidity (rh), changing rh, and plant or building materials. the aerodynamic diameter (d(a)) and the respirable fraction of the aerosolized particles were det ...201222447608
uvr8 mediates uv-b-induced arabidopsis defense responses against botrytis cinerea by controlling sinapate accumulation.light is emerging as a central regulator of plant immune responses against herbivores and pathogens. solar uv-b radiation plays an important role as a positive modulator of plant defense. however, since uv-b photons can interact with a wide spectrum of molecular targets in plant tissues, the mechanisms that mediate their effects on plant defense have remained elusive. here, we show that ecologically meaningful doses of uv-b radiation increase arabidopsis resistance to the necrotrophic fungus bot ...201222447155
thermal inactivation of botrytis cinerea conidia in synthetic medium and strawberry puree.botrytis cinerea is one of the most important post-harvest molds that cause quality deterioration of strawberries and other fruits even during refrigeration storage. this research studied the effects of thermal inactivation of b. cinerea in synthetic medium and strawberry puree using hot water baths at different temperatures. these media were studied in order to determine if results obtained in a solution with the major components of the fruit (synthetic media), are comparable to the ones obtain ...201222445202
biotransformation of clovane derivatives. whole cell fungi mediated domino synthesis of rumphellclovane we describe the biotransformation of clovane derivatives by filamentary fungi pestalotiopsis palustris and penicillium minioluteum, and the application of the latter to the synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of rumphellclovane a (2). methoxyclovanol (1), a growth inhibitor of the phytopathogen botrytis cinerea, is metabolised by p. palustris to yield rumphellclovane a (2), a natural compound recently isolated from the gorgonian coral rumphella antipathies, two new com ...201222411102
in vitro control of post-harvest fruit rot fungi by some plant essential oil components.eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three mediterranean aromatic plants (verbena officinalis, thymus vulgaris and origanum vulgare), previously found active against some phytopathogenic fungi and stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, botrytis cinerea, penicillium italicum, p. expansum, phytophthora citrophthora and rhizopus stolonifer. the tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carva ...201222408454
genes under positive selection in a model plant pathogenic fungus, botrytis.the rapid evolution of particular genes is essential for the adaptation of pathogens to new hosts and new environments. powerful methods have been developed for detecting targets of selection in the genome. here we used divergence data to compare genes among four closely related fungal pathogens adapted to different hosts to elucidate the functions putatively involved in adaptive processes. for this goal, ests were sequenced in the specialist fungal pathogens botrytis tulipae and botrytis ficari ...201222406010
nitric oxide production mediates oligogalacturonide-triggered immunity and resistance to botrytis cinerea in arabidopsis thaliana.nitric oxide (no) regulates a wide range of plant processes from development to environmental adaptation. in this study, we investigated the production and/or function of no in arabidopsis thaliana leaf discs and plants elicited by oligogalacturonides (ogs) and challenged with botrytis cinerea. we provided evidence that ogs triggered a fast and long lasting no production which was ca(2+) dependent and involved nitrate reductase (nr). accordingly, ogs triggered an increase of both nr activity and ...201222394204
iron deficiency affects plant defence responses and confers resistance to dickeya dadantii and botrytis cinerea.iron is an essential element for most living organisms, and pathogens are likely to compete with their hosts for the acquisition of this element. the bacterial plant pathogen dickeya dadantii has been shown to require its siderophore-mediated iron uptake system for systemic disease progression on several host plants, including arabidopsis thaliana. in this study, we investigated the effect of the iron status of arabidopsis on the severity of disease caused by d. dadantii. we showed that symptom ...201222375884
the mitogen-activated protein kinase bcsak1 of botrytis cinerea is required for pathogenic development and has broad regulatory functions beyond stress response.the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) bcsak1 of botrytis cinerea is activated upon exposure to h(2)o(2) and, hence, might be involved in coping with oxidative stress during infection. however, beside osmotic and oxidative stress sensitivity, δbcsak1 mutants have a pleiotropic phenotype, as they do not produce conidia and are unable to penetrate unwounded host tissue. in this study, the role of bcsak1 was investigated in the stress response and during infection of french beans by botrytis c ...201222352714
biotransformations of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and 6',7'-epoxybergamottin by the citrus-pathogenic fungi diminish cytochrome p450 3a4 inhibitory activity.penicillium digitatum, as well as five other citrus pathogenic species, (penicillium ulaiense link, geotrichum citri link, botrytis cinerea p. micheli ex pers., lasiodiplodia theobromae (pat.) griffon & maubl., and phomopsis citri (teleomorph diaporthe citri)) were observed to convert 6',7'-epoxybergamottin (1) into 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (2), bergaptol (3), and an opened lactone ring metabolite 6,7-furano-5-(6',7'-dihydroxy geranyloxy)-2-hydroxy-hydrocoumaric acid (4). metabolism of 2 by th ...201222342630
botrytis caroliniana, a new species isolated from blackberry in south carolina.blackberry fruits symptomatic for gray mold were collected from three commercial blackberry fields in northwestern south carolina. single-spore isolates were generated and two distinct phenotypes were discovered in each location; one sporulated on pda and one did not. one isolate of each phenotype and location (six isolates total) were selected for in depth molecular and morphological characterization. glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (g3pdh), heat-shock protein 60 (hsp60) and dna-depend ...201222314589
increase in antioxidant gene transcripts, stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of candida oleophila following sublethal oxidative stress exposure.a pretreatment of the yeast, candida oleophila, with 5 mm h(2)o(2) for 30 min (sublethal) increased yeast tolerance to subsequent lethal levels of oxidative stress (50 mm h(2)o(2)), high temperature (40 °c), and low ph (ph 4). compared with non-stress-adapted yeast cells, stress-adapted cells exhibited better control of apple fruit infections by penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea and had initially higher growth rates in apple wounds. suppression subtractive hybridization analysis was used ...201222313238
design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 2-methylpyrimidine-4-ylamine derivatives as inhibitors of escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex potential inhibitors of escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex e1 (pdhc e1), a series of novel 2-methylpyrimidine-4-ylamine derivatives were designed based on the structure of the active site of pdhc e1 and synthesized using 'click chemistry'. their inhibitory activity in vitro against pdhc e1 and fungicidal activity were examined. some of these compounds such as 3g, 3l, 3n, 3o, and 5b demonstrated to be effective inhibitors of pdhc e1 from e. coli and exhibited antifungal activity. ...201222305934
inducible malondialdehyde pools in zones of cell proliferation and developing tissues in arabidopsis.malondialdehyde (mda) is a natural and widespread genotoxin. given its potentially deleterious effects, it is of interest to establish the identities of the cell types containing this aldehyde. we used in situ chemical trapping with 2-thiobarbituric acid and mass spectrometry with a deuterated standard to characterize mda pools in the vegetative phase in arabidopsis thaliana. in leaves, mda occurred predominantly in the intracellular compartment of mesophyll cells and was enriched in chloroplast ...201222298768
horizontal transfer and death of a fungal secondary metabolic gene cluster.a cluster composed of four structural and two regulatory genes found in several species of the fungal genus fusarium (class sordariomycetes) is responsible for the production of the red pigment bikaverin. we discovered that the unrelated fungus botrytis cinerea (class leotiomycetes) contains a cluster of five genes that is highly similar in sequence and gene order to the fusarium bikaverin cluster. synteny conservation, nucleotide composition, and phylogenetic analyses of the cluster genes indic ...201222294497
bcatf1, a global regulator, controls various differentiation processes and phytotoxin production in botrytis cinerea.atf1-homologous basic region leucine zipper (bzip) transcription factors are known to act downstream of the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (sapk) cascade in mammals, as well as in several fungi; they regulate the transcription of genes involved in the general stress response. functional analyses of bcatf1 in botrytis cinerea show that it is also connected to the sapk bcsak1, as it shares several stress response target genes. however, δbcatf1 mutants are not hypersensitive to o ...201222293085
prp8 inteins in species of the genus botrytis and other ascomycetes.the mobile elements termed inteins have a sporadic distribution in microorganisms. it is unclear how these elements are maintained. inteins are intervening protein sequences that autocatalytically excise themselves from a precursor. excision is a post-translational process referred to as 'protein splicing' in which the sequences flanking the intein are ligated, reforming the mature host protein. some inteins contain a homing endonuclease domain (heg) that is proposed to facilitate propagation of ...201222285471
biological activity of the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fluopyram against botrytis cinerea and fungal baseline sensitivity.succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (sdhis) constitute a fungicide class with increasing relevance in crop protection. these fungicides could play a crucial role in successful management of grey mould disease. in the present study the effect of fluopyram, a novel sdhi fungicide, on several developmental stages of botrytis cinerea was determined in vitro, and the protective and curative activity against the pathogen was determined on strawberry fruit. furthermore, fungal baseline sensitivity was d ...201222262495
postharvest physio-pathological disorders in table grapes as affected by uv-c gain knowledge on the influence of postharvest treatments with ultraviolet-c light upon the keeping quality of table grapes, a trail was performed employing commercially mature 'corina', 'dawn seedless', 'centennial seedless' and 'gran perlon' grape cultivars (cvs). after grading, bunches were subjected to 0.0, 0.5, 1.5 or 3 kjm(-2) and then stored at 5 degrees c and 90% relative humidity (rh) for 6 weeks followed by a 2 day shelf-life at 25 degrees c and 70% rh. a weekly inspection was perfo ...201223885419
effect of acetic acid repeated treatments on post-harvest quality of "taloppo" table grape.the most important pathogen for table grapes is botrytis cinerea which causes a rapid deterioration of fruit. postharvest losses are controlled with so2 fumigations carried out every 7 or 10 days, but the use of this gas is becoming more difficult to justify because of undesirable effects on the fruit and the increasing concern for human health. acetic acid, classified as a gras compound, can be employed with no restriction as preservative and represents a possible substitute to sulphur dioxide. ...201223878976
natural resistance against pre- and post-harvest pathogens in sardinian pears germoplasm.natural resistance against venturia pirina and botrytis cinerea was investigated within the sardinian pears germplasm. the natural occurrence of v. pirina was monitored at the orchard level for 5 years, while resistance against b. cinerea was evaluated by a bioassay using methanolic extracts of the fruit rind or by artificially inoculation. methanolic extracts of the leaves were employed for the cladosporium bioassay on tlc plates. among the accessions, 8 resulted sensitive to v. pirina, vegetat ...201223878970
pathogenicity of the pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to japanese larch, larix kaempferi, seedlings.pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to japanese larch, larix kaempferi, seedlings was tested with inoculation experiments under nursery conditions. water suspensions of nematodes (mixed stages cultured on botrytis cinerea or dispersal fourth-stage juveniles (dj4) extracted from the adult japanese pine sawyer, monochamus alternatus) were injected into the stems of 2- and 3-year-old japanese larch and japanese black pine, pinus thunbergii, seedlings growing in a nu ...200922661789
etr1-, jar1- and pad2-dependent signaling pathways are involved in c6-aldehyde-induced defense responses of arabidopsis.c6-aldehydes [(e)-2-hexenal and (z)-3-hexenal] induce expression of defense genes, accumulation of antifungal substances, and resistance against botrytis cinerea with arabidopsis. in order to elucidate the signaling pathway mediating the defense responses induced by c6-aldehydes in arabidopsis, we compared the responses of arabidopsis mutants deficient in the signaling pathways; i.e., etr1-1 (ethylene resistant), jar1-1 (jasmonate resistant), npr1-1 (salicylic acid insensitive), or pad2-1 (phyto ...200622980212
the role of ca(2+) in elicitation of phytoalexin synthesis in cell culture of onion (allium cepa l.).treatment of allium cepa l. cellsuspension cultures with a biotic elicitor derived from the fungus botrytis cinerea, resulted in phytoalexin synthesis. two phytoalexins, 5-octylcyclopenta-1,3-dione and 5-hexyl-cyclopenta-1,3-dione, were accumulated in cultured onion cells. removal of extracellular ca(2+) by the calcium chelator ethylene glycol bis(b-aminoethyl ether) n,n'-tetraacetic acid abolished the elicitor-mediated phytoalexin synthesis. the calcium channel blockers, verapamil and 8-n,n-(di ...199624178280
effects of water extracts of a composted manure-straw mixture on the plant pathogen botrytis cinerea.manure-straw mixtures were composted and water extracts, made by incubating compost in water for 3 to 18 days, were assessed for antagonistic activity against botrytis cinerea, using a range of tests. extracts of all ages inhibited conidial germination on glass slides and reduced mycelial growth on agar. mixing extracts of all ages with droplets of suspensions of b. cinerea conidia on detached phaseolus bean leaves suppressed lesion development, but only 3- to 8-day-old extracts had an effect wh ...199424420879
antifungal activity in seed coat extracts of woodland plants.aqueous extracts from seeds of four woodland ground flora species (hyacinthoides non-scripta, allium ursinum, digitalis purpurea and hypericum pulchrum) were tested for antifungal activity using a petriplate technique. four species of fungi were investigated. the growth of three of these (trichoderma viride, rhizoctonia solani and pythium sp.) was not affected by any of the seed coat extracts. the growth of botrytis cinerea was inhibited by the seed coat extracts of digitalis purpurea and hyperi ...199228313065
induction of stilbene synthase by botrytis cinerea in cultured grapevine cells.the interaction between botrytis cinerea pers. and grapevine (vitis vinifera l.) was studied in a model system of reduced complexity. cultured plant cells and fragments of fungal cell wall were used to simulate some of the processes taking place upon infection of grapevine with b. cinerea. a soluble glucan elicitor was prepared from the fungal cell wall by acid hydrolysis. like the insoluble wall preparation, the soluble fragment derived from the cell wall acted upon plant cells in eliciting sti ...199124193635
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