a facile synthesis and biological activity of novel tetrahydrobenzo[4',5']thieno[3',2':5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3h)-ones.the synthesis and biological activity of 2-substituted-8,9,10,11-tetrahydrobenzo[4',5']thieno[3',2':5,6] pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3h)-ones are described. bioassay results indicated that these compounds have antifungal activity against botrytis cinerea at a concentration of 50mg/l. in addition, compounds 5m and 5n were effective to both kb cells and their parent multidrug resistant kbv200 cells with the overexpression of abcb1. for example, compound 5m showed the best inhibition against kb and kb ...200919846302
amino acid changes during sunflower infection by the necrotrophic fungus b. cinerea.metabolic changes that occur in host tissues during a necrotrophic plant/fungal interaction have been poorly investigated. whereas carbon metabolism reprogramming and photosynthesis disturbances have been studied, data on plant amino acids stores during infection are scarce. here we report an analysis of sunflower cotyledon amino acid content during infection with the necrotrophic fungus botrytis cinerea, by using (13)c-nmr spectroscopy. a rapid disappearance of plant amino acids was observed, m ...200919847103
the botrytis cinerea aspartic proteinase family.the ascomycete plant pathogen botrytis cinerea secretes aspartic proteinase (ap) activity. functional analysis was carried out on five aspartic proteinase genes (bcap1-5) reported previously. single and double mutants lacking these five genes showed neither a reduced secreted proteolytic activity, nor a reduction in virulence and they showed no alteration in sensitivity to antifungal proteins purified from grape juice. scrutiny of the b. cinerea genome revealed the presence of nine additional bc ...201019853057
isolation and molecular cloning of venom peptides from orancistrocerus drewseni (hymenoptera: eumenidae).three venom peptides (odvp1, odvp2 and odvp3) were isolated from the venom of the solitary wasp orancistrocerus drewseni (hymenoptera: eumenidae). the mature venom peptide sequences were determined via esi-q-tof ms/ms and by searching the o. drewseni venom gland/sac-specific est library. all of the odvps shared the typical characteristics of amidated c-termini proteins and contained a high content of hydrophobic and positively charged amino acids, suggesting that they adopt an amphipathic alpha- ...201019857508
broad-spectrum disease resistance to necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens in transgenic carrots (daucus carota l.) expressing an arabidopsis npr1 gene.the development of transgenic plants highly resistant to a range of pathogens using traditional signal gene expression strategies has been largely ineffective. modification of systemic acquired resistance (sar) through the overexpression of a controlling gene such as npr1 (non-expressor of pr genes) offers an attractive alternative for augmenting the plants innate defense system. the arabidopsis (at) npr1 gene was successfully introduced into 'nantes coreless' carrot under control of a camv 35s ...200919859731
the order of death of organisms larger than a previous paper it has been shown that the logarithmic order of death of bacteria can be accounted for by the assumption of some very unstable molecules so essential for reproduction that the inactivation of only one such molecule per cell prevents reproduction and makes the cell appear "dead" according to the standard method of counting living bacteria. in the present paper dealing with the order of death of larger organisms, only a motile alga, chlamydomonas, is shown to have the same orde ...193119872588
dissection of the complex phenotype in cuticular mutants of arabidopsis reveals a role of serrate as a mediator.mutations in lacerata (lcr), fiddlehead (fdh), and bodyguard (bdg) cause a complex developmental syndrome that is consistent with an important role for these arabidopsis genes in cuticle biogenesis. the genesis of their pleiotropic phenotypes is, however, poorly understood. we provide evidence that neither distorted depositions of cutin, nor deficiencies in the chemical composition of cuticular lipids, account for these features, instead suggesting that the mutants alleviate the functional disor ...200919876373
construction of a recombinant bacillus velezensis strain as an integrated control agent against plant diseases and insect construct a new recombinant strain of bacillus velezensis that has antifungal and insecticidal activity via the expression of the insecticidal bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein, a b. thuringiensis expression vector (pht1k-1ac) was generated that contained the b. thuringiensis cry1ac gene under the control of its endogenous promoter in a minimal e. coli-b. thuringiensis shuttle vector (pht1k). this vector was introduced into a b. velezensis isolate that showed high antifungal activities a ...200919884784
disruption of poly(adp-ribosyl)ation mechanisms alters responses of arabidopsis to biotic stress.poly(adp-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational protein modification in which adp-ribose (adp-rib) units derived from nad(+) are attached to proteins by poly(adp-rib) polymerase (parp) enzymes. adp-rib groups are removed from these polymer chains by the enzyme poly(adp-rib) glycohydrolase (parg). in animals, poly(adp-ribosyl)ation is associated with dna damage responses and programmed cell death. previously, we hypothesized a role for poly(adp-ribosyl)ation in plant defense responses when we detec ...201019889874
a combination of heat treatment and pichia guilliermondii prevents cherry tomato spoilage by fungi.this study investigated the effectiveness of heat treatment and pichia guilliermondii, either alone or in combination, to combat postharvest fungal spoilage in cherry tomato fruit. in vitro experiments demonstrated that heat treatment at 38 degrees c significantly inhibited mycelial growth of three different pathogens (botrytis cinerea, alternaria alternata and rhizopus stolonifer ehrenb). in vivo experiments unveiled that either heat treatment or p. guilliermondii reduced decay caused by these ...201019923029
trichoderma biocontrol: signal transduction pathways involved in host sensing and mycoparasitism.fungi of the genus trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like rhizoctonia spp., pythium spp., botrytis cinerea and fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. plant disease control by trichoderma is based on complex interactions between trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of trichoderma against the plant ...200719936091
gene disruption and characterization of a class v chitin synthase in botrytis cinerea.cell-wall chitin biosynthesis in the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea involves 7 classes of chitin synthases. in this study, we disrupted a gene encoding a chitin synthase with a myosin-like motor domain (bcchsv) through agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. the resulting mutant was not significantly affected in either growth characteristics or pathogenicity on tomato leaves. surprisingly, the bcchsv mutant exhibited a 31% (m/m) increase in its chitin content compared with th ...200919940935
[chemical constituents and bioactivity of teucrium pilosum].to study the chemical constituents and bioactivity of teurium pilosum.200919943482
polygalacturonase inhibiting protein: isolation, developmental regulation and pathogen related expression in panax ginseng c.a. meyer.polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (pgips) are the major defense proteins which play an important role in resistance to infection of pathogens. a putative novel gene encoding pgip was isolated from panax ginseng c.a. meyer, which shows 70.3 and 68.4% homology with chick pea and arabidopsis pgips. the race pcr was preformed to isolate the full-length pgip cdna from panax ginseng. sequence analysis revealed that the cdna of pgpgip is of 1,275 bp in length and that it's containing orf encodes fo ...201019946753
transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey.combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. the fungal genus trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however.200919948043
synthesis and biological activity of organotin 4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxylates and benzo[1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carboxylates.a series of organotin 4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxylates and benzo[1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carboxylates have been synthesized and characterized by nmr ((1)h, (13)c, and (119)sn), ir, and elemental analyses. the structure of the dimeric complex {[(bthco(2))snet(2)](2)o}(2) (bth represents benzo[1,2,3]thiadiazol-7-yl) has been further confirmed by x-ray diffraction crystallography. assessment for fungicidal activity indicates that all of the newly synthesized compounds exhibit good growth inhib ...201020014765
novel bifunctional nucleases, ombbd and atbbd1, are involved in abscisic acid-mediated callose deposition in arabidopsis.screening of the expressed sequence tag library of the wild rice species oryza minuta revealed an unknown gene that was rapidly and strongly induced in response to attack by a rice fungal pathogen (magnaporthe oryzae) and an insect (nilaparvata lugens) and by wounding, abscisic acid (aba), and methyl jasmonate treatments. its recombinant protein was identified as a bifunctional nuclease with both rnase and dnase activities in vitro. this gene was designated ombbd (for o. minuta bifunctional nucl ...201020018603
fungicide-driven evolution and molecular basis of multidrug resistance in field populations of the grey mould fungus botrytis cinerea.the grey mould fungus botrytis cinerea causes losses of commercially important fruits, vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. fungicide treatments are effective for disease control, but bear the risk of resistance development. the major resistance mechanism in fungi is target protein modification resulting in reduced drug binding. multiple drug resistance (mdr) caused by increased efflux activity is common in human pathogenic microbes, but rarely described for plant pathogens. annual monitoring f ...200920019793
tryptophan-derived metabolites are required for antifungal defense in the arabidopsis mlo2 mutant.arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) genes mildew resistance locus o2 (mlo2), mlo6, and mlo12 exhibit unequal genetic redundancy with respect to the modulation of defense responses against powdery mildew fungi and the control of developmental phenotypes such as premature leaf decay. we show that early chlorosis and necrosis of rosette leaves in mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 mutants reflects an authentic but untimely leaf senescence program. comparative transcriptional profiling revealed that transcripts of seve ...201020023151
characterization of 14 raspberry cultivars by solid-phase microextraction and relationship with gray mold susceptibility.fourteen raspberry varieties were evaluated over two cropping seasons by solid-phase microextraction (spme) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. thirty-six compounds were fully identified, and 10 more compounds were tentatively identified. despite interannual variability, raspberry varieties can be divided in two main groups on the basis of terpenes and c-13 norisoprenoids. susceptibility toward botrytis cinerea , one of the most relevant pathogenic fungi for soft fruits during stor ...201020025221
chitinolytic and antifungal activity of a bacillus pumilus chitinase expressed in arabidopsis.the bacillus pumilus sg2 chitinase gene (chis) and its truncated form lacking chitin binding (chbd) and fibronectin type iii (fniii) domains were transformed to arabidopsis plants and the expression, functionality and antifungal activity of the recombinant proteins were investigated. results showed that while the two enzyme forms showed almost equal hydrolytic activity toward colloidal chitin, they exhibited a significant difference in antifungal activity. recombinant chis in plant protein extra ...201020035370
synthesis, fungicidal activity, and structure-activity relationship of spiro-compounds containing macrolactam (macrolactone) and thiadiazoline rings.two series of novel spiro-compounds containing macrolactam or macrolactone and thiadiazoline rings, 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4,9-triaza-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4f) and 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4-diaza-9-oxa-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4g), were synthesized from 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactam and 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactone, respectively. their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, (1)h nmr, and (13)c nmr. the conformation of compounds 4f was determined via the crystal structure ...201020041703
exposure to the airborne mould botrytis and its health effects.most investigations into the correlation between exposure to fungi and detrimental health effects focus on the 2-4 most prevalent genera in ambient air, both outdoors and indoors. yet over 80 genera of fungi have been shown to have allergenic potential. also, there is no agreement about threshold values for exposure to fungi. one of the fungal genera expected to be less prevalent in ambient air and known to cause allergy is botrytis. in this review, we investigate the airborne exposure level and ...200920047250
important phytopathogenic airborne fungal spores in a rural area: incidence of botrytis cinerea and oidium spp.the effects of the climatic changes more and more frequently, favour the emergence and the development of plant diseases. botrytis cinerea and oidium spp. spores are often responsible for enormous productivity losses in cultures with high commercial interests such as the grapevine. this work aims to detect these airborne spores, before the emergence of lesions in vitis vinifera. in the rural area of amares, the seasonal distribution of the concentration of the 2 spore types, was continuously stu ...200920047251
inhibitory effect of boron against botrytis cinerea on table grapes and its possible mechanisms of action.boron, an essential plant micronutrient, was effective in the form of potassium tetraborate for control of postharvest gray mold caused by botrytis cinerea on table grapes stored at room temperature or at 0 degrees c. the inhibition of fruit decay was closely correlated with boron concentrations and partially influenced by ph value of the solution. boron strongly inhibited spore germination, germ tube elongation, and mycelial spread of b. cinerea in the culture medium. application of boron at 1% ...201020060611
transfer of the beta-tubulin gene of botrytis cinerea with resistance to carbendazim into fusarium graminearum.resistance to carbendazim and other benzimidazole fungicides in botrytis cinerea (pers. ex fr.) and most other fungi is usually conferred by mutation(s) in a single chromosomal beta-tubulin gene, often with several allelic mutations. in fusarium graminearum schwade, however, carbendazim resistance is not associated with a mutation in the corresponding beta-tubulin gene.201020063268
ethylene signaling renders the jasmonate response of arabidopsis insensitive to future suppression by salicylic acid.cross-talk between jasmonate (ja), ethylene (et), and salicylic acid (sa) signaling is thought to operate as a mechanism to fine-tune induced defenses that are activated in response to multiple attackers. here, 43 arabidopsis genotypes impaired in hormone signaling or defense-related processes were screened for their ability to express sa-mediated suppression of ja-responsive gene expression. mutant cev1, which displays constitutive expression of ja and et responses, appeared to be insensitive t ...201020064062
the role of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase signalling components and the ste12 transcription factor in germination and pathogenicity of botrytis all fungi studied so far, mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase cascades serve as central signalling complexes that are involved in various aspects of growth, stress response and infection. in this work, putative components of the yeast fus3/kss1-type map kinase cascade and the putative downstream transcription factor ste12 were analysed in the grey mould fungus botrytis cinerea. deletion mutants of the map triple kinase ste11, the map kinase kinase ste7 and the map kinase adaptor protein st ...201020078780
geobacillus sp., a thermophilic soil bacterium producing volatile antibiotics.geobacillus, a bacterial genus, is represented by over 25 species of gram-positive isolates from various man-made and natural thermophilic areas around the world. an isolate of this genus (m-7) has been acquired from a thermal area near yellowstone national park, mt and partially characterized. the cells of this organism are globose (ca. 0.5 mu diameter), and they are covered in a matrix capsule which gives rise to elongate multicelled bacilliform structures (ranging from 3 to 12 mum) as seen by ...201020091406
sexual mating of botrytis cinerea illustrates prp8 intein heg activity.strains of botrytis cinerea are polymorphic for the presence of an intein in the prp8 gene (intein +/-). the intein encodes a homing endonuclease (heg). during meiosis in an intein +/- heterozygote, the homing endonuclease initiates intein 'homing' by inducing gene conversion. in such meioses, the homing endonuclease triggers gene conversion of the intein together with its flanking sequences into the empty allele. the efficiency of gene conversion of the intein was found to be 100%. the extent o ...201020093192
synthesis of 1-acyl-3-isopropenylbenzimidazolone derivatives and their activity against botrytis cinerea.a series of 1-acyl-3-isopropenylbenzimidazolone derivatives were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by (1)h and (13)c nmr and elemental analysis. their fungicidal activities against botrytis cinerea were also evaluated by spore germination assay. the acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, 4-chlorophenyl acetic acid, and 2-chlorobenzoic acid derivatives exhibited strong fungicidal activity. this implied that benzimidazolones might be potential fungicide leading compounds.201020102200
aromatic potential of botrytized white wine grapes: identification and quantification of new cysteine-s-conjugate flavor precursors.sweet wines made from botrytized grapes contain much higher concentrations of volatile thiols, especially 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3sh), than dry white wines. three new specific volatile thiols (3-sulfanylpentan-1-ol (3sp), 3-sulfanylheptan-1-ol (3shp), and 2-methyl-3-sulfanylbutan-1-ol (2m3sb) were recently identified in sauternes wines. like most volatile thiols, these compounds were almost totally absent from must, mainly being formed during alcoholic fermentation. in this work, we describe the ...201020103162
local lesions and induced resistance.the local lesion phenomenon is one of the most notable resistance mechanisms where virus after multiplying in several hundred cells around the point of entry, does not continue to spread and remains in a local infection. several types of local lesions are known, inter alia, necrotic, chlorotic, and starch lesions. cells inside the lesion generally contain much less virus than cells in a systemic infection. cytopathic changes accompany the local lesion development. proteases that may have propert ...201020109664
tomato plants transformed with the inhibitor-of-virus-replication gene are partially resistant to botrytis cinerea.tomato plants transformed with a cdna clone encoding the inhibitor-of-virus-replication (ivr) gene were partially resistant to botrytis cinerea. this resistance was observed as a significant reduction in the size of lesions induced by the fungus in transgenic plants compared with the lesions on the nontransgenic control plants. this resistance was weakened when plants were kept at an elevated temperature, 32 degrees c, before inoculation with b. cinerea compared with plants kept at 17 to 22 degr ...201020128695
novel insights into mannitol metabolism in the fungal plant pathogen botrytis order to redefine the mannitol pathway in the necrotrophic plant pathogen botrytis cinerea, we used a targeted deletion strategy of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, bcmtdh (b. cinerea mannitol dehydrogenase) and bcmpd (b. cinerea mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase). mobilization of mannitol and quantification of bcmpd and bcmtdh gene transcripts during development and osmotic stress confirmed a role for mannitol as a temporary and disposable carbon storage compound. in orde ...201020136633
phenotypic analysis of arabidopsis mutants: oomycete pathogens.various fungal pathogens are used in arabidopsis pathogen studies, including fusarium oxysporum, alternaria brassicicola, botrytis cinerea, and others. the oomycete pathogen peronospora parasitica has been used by several groups and is described in this protocol. working with peronospora is complicated by the fact that it is an obligate biotroph, and consequently cultures must be maintained on living plants. there is no central repository for peronospora stocks, but most investigators who work w ...200920147042
synthesis and fungicidal activity of aryl carbamic acid-5-aryl-2-furanmethyl ester.chitin, a major structural component of insect cuticle and fungus cell wall but absent in plants and vertebrates, is regarded as a safe and selective target for pest control agents. chitin synthesis inhibitors (csis) have been well-known as insect growth regulators (igrs) but rarely found as fungicides in agriculture. to find novel csis with good activity, benzoylphenylurea, a typical kind of csis, was chosen as the lead compound and 26 novel aryl carbamic acid-5-aryl-2-furanmethyl esters were d ...201020151651
the botrytis cinerea xylanase xyn11a contributes to virulence with its necrotizing activity, not with its catalytic activity.the botrytis cinerea xylanase xyn11a has been previously shown to be required for full virulence of this organism despite its poor contribution to the secreted xylanase activity and the low xylan content of b. cinerea hosts. intriguingly, xylanases from other fungi have been shown to have the property, independent of the xylan degrading activity, to induce necrosis when applied to plant tissues, so we decided to test the hypothesis that secreted xyn11a contributes to virulence by promoting the n ...201020184750
a transcriptomic study of grapevine (vitis vinifera cv. cabernet-sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus eutypa lata.eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. in the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (vitis vinifera cv. cabernet-sauvignon) responses to eutypa lata, the causal agent of eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. qiagen/operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14,500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhou ...201020190040
effect of canopy manipulation on cane and fruit botrytis in protected raspberry.botrytis cinerea causes disease on both the fruit and cane of raspberry. the incidence of latent and post-harvest fruit botrytis was examined in 19 commercial open-field and protected crops. many samples showed a high incidence of infected fruit (>50%), even on protected crops sprayed with fungicides. differences between open-field and protected crops, between sprayed and unsprayed crops and between two varieties (glen ample and tulameen) were not statistically significant. the incidence of late ...200920222545
temperature-dependent growth of botrytis cinerea isolates from potted plants.botrytis cinereo is a common aggressive saprophyte fungus which also invades injured plant tissues, causing botrytis blight (grey mould) in many ornamental plants, including potted flowering plants. several b. cinerea isolates from potted plants (pelargonium x hortorum, lantana camara, lonicera japonica, hydrangea macrophylla, and cyclamen persicum) affected by botrytis blight in the south of spain were studied and identified by pcr. the isolates showed phenotypic differences between them, as pr ...200920222557
selection of bacterial antagonists for the biological control of botrytis cinerea in apple (malus domestica) and in comparison with application of this study fifteen strains of identified pseudomonas fluorescens and bacillus subtilis were investigated for biological control activity against botrytis cinerea. p. fluorescens p-35 and b. subtilis b-16 showed the most inhibitory zone in dual culture assay against b. cinerea, in vitro. after ten days, p. fluorescens p-5 and b. subtilis b-3 showed the considerable results against b. cinerea on apple fruits and could reduce the grey mould from 100% to less than 35%. after twenty days, p. fluor ...200920222558
infection of raspberry leaves by botrytis cinerea in relation to leaf and cane age.botrytis cinerea pers, ex fr. can cause diseases on both cane and fruit on raspberry. previous observations in field crops led to formulation of the hypothesis that infection of canes arose from invasion by mycelium from the petioles of infected leaves and that only mature and old leaves are susceptible. inoculation studies in protected crops were conducted to investigate infection of raspberry leaves and canes by b. cinerea with a particular emphasis on determining the timing of cane infection ...200920222562
effect of essential oils in control of plant this study, antifungal activity of some essential oils, extracted from syzygium aromoticum, foeniculum vulgare, cuminum cyminum and mentha piperita were investigated against grey mould of apple. the essential oils of s. aromaticum and f. vulgare showed considerable antifungal activities on pda medium against botrytis cinerea. results indicated that the increasing of dosage of the essential oils caused to the more antifungal activity against b. cinerea in vitro condition. after 10 days, result ...200920222570
determination of trans- and cis-resveratrol in serbian commercial wines.resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin produced by grapevines in response to fungal infection, particularly to botrytis cinerea. it has been shown that it possess various biological effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases and anti-inflammatory and anticancerogenic properties. red wines are a primary source of resveratrol. although a number of investigations have focused on the determination of resveratrol in wines of different countries, there is no similar ...201020223091
the flavohemoglobin bcfhg1 is the main no detoxification system and confers protection against nitrosative conditions but is not a virulence factor in the fungal necrotroph botrytis cinerea.flavohemoglobins constitute a group of proteins involved in the metabolism of nitric oxide (no). botrytis cinerea was shown to have a single flavohemoglobin coding gene, bcfhg1. its expression was developmentally regulated, with maximum expression levels during germination of conidia, and was enhanced very quickly upon exposure to no of germinating conidia, but not of mycelium growing and branching actively. expression in planta paralleled the expression pattern during saprophytic growth with ma ...201020223291
effects of heat treatment on wound healing in gala and red fuji apple fruits.this study investigated the effects of heat treatment (hot air at 38 degrees c for 4 days) on wound healing in gala and red fuji apple fruits (malus domestica borkh.) and the possible mechanism. wounded apples were healed at either 20 or 38 degrees c for 4 days. during the treatment, ethylene, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal), peroxidase (pod), polyphenol oxidase (ppo), hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)), and phenolic and lignin contents were measured. following the treatment, healed wounds were inoc ...201020232915
effect of culture media and ph on the biomass production and biocontrol efficacy of a metschnikowia pulcherrima strain to be used as a biofungicide for postharvest disease control.few strains of metschnikowia pulcherrima (pitt) m.w. miller are under development for control of postharvest pathogens on fruit. a substrate was developed to optimize the biomass production of m. pulcherrima strain bio126. different complex nutrient sources, with or without ph control, were tested. growth in yeast extract provided at concentrations > or =30 g*l-1 yielded the highest biomass. the addition of two carbon sources, d-mannitol and l-sorbose, at 5 g*l-1 each, significantly improved yea ...201020237574
oligomycins a and c, major secondary metabolites isolated from the newly isolated strain streptomyces diastaticus.during the screening program for fungicides, one actinomycete strain eco 00047 was isolated with the potential activity against fungus. according to the morphology and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16s rrna gene (1500 bp) this isolate was identified as streptomyces diastaticus. the active compounds were separated by silica gel column chromatography, sephadex lh-20 gel filtration and then purified by flash chromatography on c18 (20-45 microm). the chemical structure of the bioactive ...201020336498
insights into the mechanisms of toxicity and tolerance to the agricultural fungicide mancozeb in yeast, as suggested by a chemogenomic approach.abstract saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to uncover the mechanisms underlying tolerance and toxicity of the agricultural fungicide mancozeb, linked to cancer and parkinson's disease development. chemogenomics screening of a yeast deletion mutant collection revealed 286 genes that provide protection against mancozeb toxicity. the most significant gene ontology (go) terms enriched in this dataset are associated to transcriptional machinery, vacuolar organization and biogenesis, intracellular tra ...201020337531
genetic characterization of grapevine-infecting botrytis cinerea isolates from argentina.botrytis cinerea is an ascomycete with a high genetic diversity and complex population structure, as reported from several hosts and sites. however, nothing is known about its genetic diversity in argentina.201020346300
a new group of aromatic prenyltransferases in fungi, catalyzing a 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene 3-dimethylallyl-transferase reaction.five fungal genomes from the ascomycota (sac fungi) were found to contain a gene with sequence similarity to a recently discovered small group of bacterial prenyltransferases that catalyze the c-prenylation of aromatic substrates in secondary metabolism. the genes from aspergillus terreus nih2624, botryotinia fuckeliana b05.10 and sclerotinia sclerotiorum 1980 were expressed in escherichia coli, and the resulting his(8)-tagged proteins were purified and investigated biochemically. their substrat ...201020351110
the arabidopsis p450 protein cyp82c2 modulates jasmonate-induced root growth inhibition, defense gene expression and indole glucosinolate biosynthesis.jasmonic acid (ja) is a fatty acid-derived signaling molecule that regulates a broad range of plant defense responses against herbivores and some microbial pathogens. molecular genetic studies have established that ja also performs a critical role in several aspects of plant development. here, we describe the characterization of the arabidopsis mutant jasmonic acid-hypersensitive1-1 (jah1-1), which is defective in several aspects of ja responses. although the mutant exhibits increased sensitivit ...201020354503
wounding-induced wrky8 is involved in basal defense in arabidopsis.the wrky family of plant transcription factors controls several types of plant stress responses. arabidopsis wrky8, localized to the nucleus, is mainly induced by abscissic acid, h(2)o(2), wounding, pseudomonas syringae and botrytis cinerea infection, and aphid and maggot feeding. to determine its biological functions, we isolated loss-of-function t-dna insertion mutants and generated gain-of-function overexpressing wrky8 transgenic plants in arabidopsis. plants expressing the mutated wrky8 gene ...201020367464
2-de proteomic approach to the botrytis cinerea secretome induced with different carbon sources and plant-based elicitors.botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungus infecting a number of crops (tomatoes, grapes and strawberries), which has been adopted as a model system in molecular phytopathology. b. cinerea uses a wide variety of infection strategies, which are mediated by a set of genes/proteins called pathogenicity/virulence factors. many of these factors have been described as secreted proteins, and thus the study of this sub-proteome, the secretome, under changing circumstances can help us to understand the ...201020376862
[construction of t-dna insertion mutants of botrytis cinerea via agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation and sequence analysis of insertion site].construction of botrytis cinerea t-dna insertion mutant library through agrobacterium-mediated transformation and for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of botrytis cinerea.201020387458
improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic cavendish banana (musa spp. aaa group) cv. grand nain.the most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by mycosphaerella fijiensis. in this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene then-42 from trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (stsy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35s promoter and the inducible pr-10 promoter, respectively. the superoxide dismutase ge ...201120397044
deficiencies in jasmonate-mediated plant defense reveal quantitative variation in botrytis cinerea pathogenesis.despite the described central role of jasmonate signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens, the existence of intraspecific variation in pathogen capacity to activate or evade plant jasmonate-mediated defenses is rarely considered. experimental infection of jasmonate-deficient and jasmonate-insensitive arabidopsis thaliana with diverse isolates of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen botrytis cinerea revealed pathogen variation for virulence inhibition by jasmonate-mediated plant defen ...201020419157
a domain swap approach reveals a role of the plant wall-associated kinase 1 (wak1) as a receptor of oligogalacturonides.oligogalacturonides (ogs) released from the plant cell wall are active both as damage-associated molecular patterns (damps) for the activation of the plant immune response and regulators of plant growth and development. members of the wall-associated kinase (wak) family are candidate receptors of ogs, due to their ability to bind in vitro these oligosaccharides. because lethality and redundancy have hampered the study of waks by reverse genetics, we have adopted a chimeric receptor approach to e ...201020439716
role of nitric oxide and reactive oxide species in disease resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.nitric oxide (no) and reactive oxygen species (ros) are important signaling molecules in plant immunity. however, roles of no and ros in disease resistance to necrotrophic pathogens are not fully understood. we have recently demonstrated that no plays a pivotal role in basal defense against botrytis cinerea and the expression of the salicylic acid (sa) -responsive gene pr-1in nicotiana benthamiana. by contrast, ros function negatively in resistance or positively in expansion of disease lesions d ...201020448455
synthesis of nh006--a photostable fungicide effective against botrytis cinerea--according to the asymmetric total synthesis of mk8383.mk8383, isolated from phoma sp. t2526 in 1993, exhibits potent antibiotic activities against a variety of phytopathogens and has been considered a promising fungicide against botrytis cinerea. unfortunately, mk8383 is a photosensitive compound and it undergoes irreversible decomposition. although much effort has been devoted to improving the photostability of mk8383 by chemical modification of its structure by a research group organized by meiji seika kaishya, ltd. and mitsubishi chemical corpor ...201020449485
antifungal activities of an endophytic pseudomonas fluorescens strain pf1tz harbouring genes from pyoluteorin and phenazine clusters.pseudomonas fluorescens pf1tz was inhibitory in vitro to a number of phytopathogenic fungi and could protect vine plantlets against botrytis cinerea. total protection was reached after 3 weeks of bacterial inoculation. the endophytism of pf1tz was confirmed by confocal microscopy using its inherent fluorescence. the molecular characterization of pf1tz indicated the presence of genes from clusters encoding pyoluteorin and phenazine. the chromatographic purification and lc-ms(n) analysis revealed ...201020458521
expression of barley bax inhibitor-1 in carrots confers resistance to botrytis cinerea.summary bax inhibitor-1 (bi-1) is a protein that controls heterologous bax-induced cell death, the hypersensitive reaction and abiotic stress-induced cell death in plants. when over-expressed in epidermal cells of barley, barley bi-1 induces susceptibility to the biotrophic fungal pathogen blumeria graminis. when we expressed barley bi-1 in carrot susceptible to the necrotrophic fungus botrytis cinerea, we obtained bi-1-mediated resistance to fungus-induced leaf cell death and less fungal spread ...200620507447
the slt2-type map kinase bmp3 of botrytis cinerea is required for normal saprotrophic growth, conidiation, plant surface sensing and host tissue colonization.summary mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) play important roles in signal transduction and regulation of various aspects of saprotrophic and pathogenic growth in plant pathogenic fungi. we have generated a botrytis cinerea knock-out mutant in the bmp3 gene encoding a homologue of the yeast slt2 cell wall integrity mapk. the deltabmp3 mutant showed reduced vegetative growth on various media, strongly impaired conidiation and loss of sclerotia formation. growth retardation of the mutant was ...200720507489
botrytis cinerea: the cause of grey mould disease.introduction: botrytis cinerea (teleomorph: botryotinia fuckeliana) is an airborne plant pathogen with a necrotrophic lifestyle attacking over 200 crop hosts worldwide. although there are fungicides for its control, many classes of fungicides have failed due to its genetic plasticity. it has become an important model for molecular study of necrotrophic fungi. taxonomy: kingdom: fungi, phylum: ascomycota, subphylum: pezizomycotina, class: leotiomycetes, order: helotiales, family: sclerotiniaceae, ...200720507522
methodological improvements in the expression of foreign genes and in gene replacement in the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea.summary genetic transformation is generally carried out in botrytis cinerea by random integration of the foreign dna into the genome, resulting in transformants that show differences among them in, for example, the expression of a reporter gene. here we report a system for site-directed integration in which a novel recipient strain containing a 5'-truncated copy of the hygromycin resistance gene, hph, is transformed with a vector containing another truncated copy, now in the opposite end, of the ...200720507541
a copper-transporting atpase bcccc2 is necessary for pathogenicity of botrytis cinerea.copper is an essential trace element that serves as a cofactor for numerous enzymes. in eukaryotes, copper-transporting atpases deliver copper to various copper-containing proteins in the trans-golgi network. this study identified a copper-transporting atpase gene bcccc2 in a fungus pathogenic to plants, botrytis cinerea. we investigated the biological roles of bcccc2 by generating null mutants for bcccc2. melanization, conidiation and the formation of sclerotia were severely affected in deltabc ...201020526618
evaluation of fungal and yeast diversity in slovakian wine-related microbial communities.since the yeast flora of slovakian enology has not previously been investigated by culture-independent methods, this approach was applied to two most common cultivars frankovka (red wine) and veltlin (white wine), and complemented by cultivation. model samples included grapes, initial must, middle fermenting must and must in the end-fermentation phase. the cultured isolates were characterized by length polymorphism of rdna spacer two region using fluorescence pcr and capillary electrophoresis (f ...201020556654
arabidopsis thaliana plant defensin atpdf1.1 is involved in the plant response to biotic stress.*previously, it was shown that the arabidopsis thaliana plant defensins atpdf1.1 (at1g75830) and atpdf1.2a (at5g44420) exert in vitro antimicrobial properties and that their corresponding genes are expressed in seeds and induced in leaves upon pathogen attack, respectively. *in this study, the expression profile of both atpdf1.1 and atpdf1.2a is analysed in wild-type plants upon different stress-related treatments and the effect of modulation of their expression in transgenic plants is examined ...201020561213
the botrytis cinerea early secretome.the extracellular proteome, or secretome, of phytopathogenic fungi is presumed to be a key element of their infection strategy. especially interesting constituents of this set are those proteins secreted at the beginning of the infection, during the germination of conidia on the plant surfaces or wounds, since they may play essential roles in the establishment of a successful infection. we have germinated botrytis cinerea conidia in conditions that resemble the plant environment, a synthetic med ...201020564262
functional analysis of h(2)o(2)-generating systems in botrytis cinerea: the major cu-zn-superoxide dismutase (bcsod1) contributes to virulence on french bean, whereas a glucose oxidase (bcgod1) is dispensable.summary the oxidative burst, a transient and rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ros), is a widespread defence mechanism of higher plants against pathogen attack. there is increasing evidence that the necrotrophic fungal pathogen botrytis cinerea itself generates ros, and that this capability could contribute to the virulence of the fungus. two potential h(2)o(2)-generating systems were studied with respect to their impact on the interaction of b. cinerea and its host plant phaseolus ...200420565578
the jasmonate-insensitive mutant jin1 shows increased resistance to biotrophic as well as necrotrophic pathogens.summary jasmonic acid and related oxylipin compounds are plant signalling molecules that are involved in the response to pathogens, insects, wounding and ozone. to explore further the role of jasmonates in stress signal transduction, the response of two jasmonate-signalling mutants, jin1 and jin4, to pathogens and ozone was analysed in this study. upon treatment with the biotrophic bacterial pathogen pseudomonas syringae, endogenous jasmonate levels increased in jin1 and jin4 similar to wild-typ ...200420565618
a constitutive pr-1::luciferase expression screen identifies arabidopsis mutants with differential disease resistance to both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens.summary a complex signal transduction network involving salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene underlies disease resistance in arabidopsis. to understand this defence signalling network further, we identified mutants that expressed the marker gene pr-1::luciferase in the absence of pathogen infection. these cir mutants all display constitutive expression of a suite of defence-related genes but exhibit different disease resistance profiles to two biotrophic pathogens, pseudomonas syringae pv. ...200520565636
evaluation of tolerance to pierce's disease and botrytis in transgenic plants of vitis vinifera l. expressing the pear pgip gene.summary polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (pgips) are plant cell-wall proteins that specifically inhibit fungal endo-polygalacturonases (pgs) that contribute to the aggressive decomposition of susceptible plant tissues. the inhibition of fungal pgs by pgips suggests that pgips have a role in plant tolerance to fungal infections and this has been observed in transgenic plants expressing pgips. xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of pierce's disease (pd) in grapevines, has genes that encode c ...200520565637
determinants of pseudomonas putida wcs358 involved in inducing systemic resistance in plants.summary pseudomonas putida wcs358 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium originally isolated from the rhizosphere of potato. it can suppress soil-borne plant diseases by siderophore-mediated competition for iron, but it has also been reported to result in induced systemic resistance (isr) in arabidopsis thaliana. bacterial determinants of this strain involved in inducing systemic resistance in arabidopsis were investigated using a tn5 transposon mutant defective in biosynthesis of the fluore ...200520565648
a novel seven-helix transmembrane protein btp1 of botrytis cinerea controls the expression of gst-encoding genes, but is not essential for pathogenicity.summary to gain new insights into the signalling mechanisms of the grey mould botrytis cinerea, which causes several pre- and post-harvest diseases on a variety of host plants, we cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized a gene, btp1, encoding a novel 391-amino acid transmembrane protein. the protein btp1 shows similarity to the transmembrane protein pth11, which is essential for appressorium formation and successful colonization of plant tissue in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grise ...200520565654
molecular and functional characterization of a secreted lipase from botrytis cinerea.summary a previous study has indicated that a cutinolytic lipase from botrytis cinerea was required for penetration of an intact plant host cuticle and infection (comménil et al., 1998, physiol. mol. plant pathol. 52, 1-14). in order to clarify the role of this lipase, the corresponding gene (lip1) was cloned. in vitro, the lip1-encoded lipase was inducibly expressed and subject to catabolite repression. on the leaf surface, the cuticle served as an inducer. lip1 knock-out mutants lacked lipase ...200520565655
functional analysis of botrytis cinerea pectin methylesterase genes by pcr-based targeted mutagenesis: bcpme1 and bcpme2 are dispensable for virulence of strain b05.10.summary botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen that produces an array of enzymes capable of attacking the plant cell wall components. we have previously shown that growth of the fungus in planta is accompanied by the degradation of pectin and that endopolygalacturonase (bcpg) genes are expressed during infection of different plant tissues. it was assumed that pectin demethylation by pectin methylesterases (pme) was essential for the subsequent depolymerization by bcpgs to occur efficiently. ...200520565686
resistance to fungal pathogens triggered by the cf9-avr9 response in tomato and oilseed rape in the absence of hypersensitive cell death.summary in tomato and related species, the cf9 resistance gene induces hypersensitive cell death and activates downstream defence pathways upon recognition of the avr9 elicitor. we investigated whether the cf9-avr9 response without hypersensitive cell death symptoms increases resistance to several fungi. a low avr9 dose that does not cause hypersensitive cell death was injected in cf9 tomato and transgenic cf9 oilseed rape plants. subsequently, the injected leaves were infected with different fu ...200220569306
functional analysis of an extracellular catalase of botrytis cinerea.summary there is evidence that the necrotrophic fungal pathogen botrytis cinerea is exposed to oxidative processes within plant tissues. the pathogen itself also generates active oxygen species and h(2)o(2) as pathogenicity factors. our aim was to study how the pathogen may defend itself against cellular damage caused by the accumulation of h(2)o(2) and the role of an extracellular catalase in its detoxification during the infection of tomato and bean plants by b. cinerea. chloronaphthol stainin ...200220569330
t-dna tagging of a pathogen inducible promoter in arabidopsis thaliana.summary many events associated with the plant defence responses are regulated on the transcriptional level. here we report the results of a promoter tagging approach to identify promoters that are induced upon pathogen attack in arabidopsis thaliana. a line was identified in a t-dna uida tagged arabidopsis library with induced gus expression after botrytis cinerea infection around the site of fungal infection. the upstream sequence was isolated and fused to the uida gene and tested in transgenic ...200220569331
the adenylate cyclase (bac) in botrytis cinerea is required for full pathogenicity.summary the grey mould botrytis cinerea is an economically important plant pathogen. previously we found that null mutants of bcg1 encoding one of the two galpha subunits of heterotrimeric gtp-binding proteins differed in colony morphology and showed reduced pathogenicity. to further understand the mechanisms involved in infection, we cloned the bac gene encoding adenylate cyclase, the enzyme that catalyses production of camp from atp. the deduced protein sequence consists of 2300 amino acids, t ...200220569351
cloning and characterization of a glutathione s-transferase homologue from the plant pathogenic fungus botrytis cinereadouble dagger.abstract a gene was cloned from botrytis cinerea that encodes a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase (gst). the gene, denominated bcgst1, is present in a single copy and represents the first example of such a gene from a filamentous fungus. the biochemical function of gsts is to conjugate toxic compounds to glutathione, thereby detoxifying the compound. in many other organisms, gst plays a role in chemical stress tolerance. we anticipated that gst functions for b. cinerea as a potenti ...200020572963
biocatalytic preparation and absolute configuration of enantiomerically pure fungistatic anti-2-benzylindane derivatives. study of the detoxification mechanism by botrytis cinerea.enantiomerically pure 2-benzylindane derivatives were prepared using biocatalytic methods and their absolute configuration determined. (1r,2s)-2-benzylindan-1-ol ((1r,2s)-2) and (s)-2-benzylindan-1-one ((s)-3) were produced by fermenting baker's yeast. lipase-mediated esterifications and hydrolysis of the corresponding racemic substrates gave rise to the enantiopure compounds (1s,2r)-2-benzylindan-1-ol ((1s,2r)-2) and (1r,2s)-2-benzylindan-1-ol ((1r,2s)-2), respectively. the antifungal activity ...201020574563
potent cryoprotective activity of cold and co2-regulated cherimoya (annona cherimola) endochitinase.a cryoprotective chitinase (bchi14) was isolated and purified from the mesocarp of co(2)-treated cherimoya fruit (annona cherimola mill.) stored at chilling temperature by anion exchange and chromatofocusing chromatography. this hydrolase was characterized as an endochitinase with a m(r) of 14.31 kda and a pi of 8.26, belonging to the family 19 of glycosyl hydrolases (gh19). while it was stable over a wide ph range and active in a broad acidic ph range, it had an optimum ph of 7.0. its optimum t ...201020576315
isolation and identification of 5-hydroxyl-5-methyl-2-hexenoic acid from actinoplanes sp. hbdn08 with antifungal activity.a bioactivity-guided approach was employed to isolate and determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents with antifungal activity from actinoplanes sp. hbdn08. the structure of the antifungal metabolite was elucidated as 5-hydroxyl-5-methyl-2-hexenoic acid on the basis of spectral analysis. this compound showed strong in vitro antifungal activity against botrytis cinerea, cladosporium cucumerinum and corynespora cassiicola, with an ic(50) of 32.45, 27.17, and 30.66 mg/l, respectively; ...201020584599
the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase bos5 is involved in regulating vegetative differentiation and virulence in botrytis cinerea.we present a characterization of bos5 from botrytis cinerea, a gene that encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (mapkk), which is homologous to os-5 of neurospora crassa. the bos5 gene deletion mutant exhibited reduced vegetative growth and strongly impaired conidiation. the mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to the dicarboximide fungicide iprodione and to osmotic stress mediated by nacl or kcl. western-blot analysis showed that the bcsak1 protein, the putative downstream com ...201020595070
pesticides' influence on wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. to obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. the most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (plasmopara viticola and uncinula necator), and gray mold (botrytis cinerea). on the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (l ...201020610173
validation of a predictive model for the growth of botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum on grape berries.the objective of this study was to develop and to validate a model for predicting the combined effect of temperature and a(w) on the radial growth rate, mu, of botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum on grape berries. the proposed strategy was based on the gamma-concept developed previously [zwietering, m.h., wijtzes, t., de wit, j.c., van't riet, k. 1992. a decision support system for prediction of the microbial spoilage in foods. journal of food protection. 12, 973-979]: mu=mu(opt).gamma(t). ...201020619474
mapk phosphatase mkp2 mediates disease responses in arabidopsis and functionally interacts with mpk3 and mpk6.mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) cascades have important functions in plant stress responses and development and are key players in reactive oxygen species (ros) signalling and in innate immunity. in arabidopsis, the transmission of ros and pathogen signalling by mapks involves the coordinated activation of mpk6 and mpk3; however, the specificity of their negative regulation by phosphatases is not fully known. here, we present genetic analyses showing that mapk phosphatase 2 (mkp2) regula ...201020626661
characters of aerated compost tea from immature compost that limit colonization of bean leaflets by botrytis cinerea.the aim was to produce and characterize an aerated compost tea (act) that suppressed growth of the plant pathogen botrytis cinerea.201020629795
antifungal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum.antifungal activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles (zno nps) and their mode of action against two postharvest pathogenic fungi (botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum) were investigated in this study. zno nps with sizes of 70 ± 15 nm and concentrations of 0, 3, 6 and 12 mmol l(-1) were used. traditional microbiological plating, scanning electron microscopy (sem), and raman spectroscopy were used to study antifungal activities of zno nps and to characterize the changes in morphology and cellula ...201120630731
inhibitory activity of tea polyphenol and hanseniaspora uvarum against botrytis cinerea investigate the effect of tea polyphenol (tp) and hanseniaspora uvarum alone or in combination against botrytis cinerea in grapes and to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved.201020633212
antimicrobial activity of confertifolin from polygonum hydropiper.confertifolin (6,6,9a-trimethyl-4,5,5a,6,7,8,9,9a-octahydronaphtho[1,2-c] furan-3 (1h)-one) was isolated from the essential oil of polygonum hydropiper l. (polygonaceae) leaves using column chromatography. confertifolin showed activity both in bacteria and fungi. the lowest mic for bacteria was observed against enterococcus faecalis (31.25 microg/ml). significant mic for fungi was observed against scopulariopsis sp (7.81 microg/ml), curvularia lunata (7.81 microg/ml), epidermophyton floccosum (7 ...201020645838
microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for improved analysis of geosmin and other fungal "off" volatiles in grape juice.geosmin is a volatile fungal metabolite with an earthy aroma produced in grape products from rotten grapes. the accumulation of geosmin in grapes is caused by the interaction of botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum. solid phase microextraction (spme) has great utility for collecting volatile compounds in wine. however, contamination with earthy odours may have occurred previously in the must and novel methods are required for this commodity. in the present report, several parameters of the ...201020655340
mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 and 6 regulate botrytis cinerea-induced ethylene production in arabidopsis.plants challenged by pathogens, especially necrotrophic fungi such as botrytis cinerea, produce high levels of ethylene. at present, the signaling pathways underlying the induction of ethylene after pathogen infection are largely unknown. mpk6, an arabidopsis stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) was previously shown to regulate the stability of acs2 and acs6, two type i acs isozymes (1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase). phosphorylation of acs2 and acs6 by mpk6 p ...201020659280
antifungal activity of glyceollins isolated from soybean elicited with aspergillus sojae.the aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of glyceollins isolated from soybean seeds elicited with aspergillus sojae for its antifungal potential. glyceollins i, ii, and iii were determined by hplc-ms analysis. the glyceollins (200 and 600 microg/disk) revealed remarkable antifungal effect against fusarium oxysporum , phytophthora capsici, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and botrytis cinerea, within the growth inhibition range of 10.9-61.0%, along with their respective mic values ranging from ...201020666365
disruption of the bcchs3a chitin synthase gene in botrytis cinerea is responsible for altered adhesion and overstimulation of host plant immunity.the fungal cell wall is a dynamic structure that protects the cell from different environmental stresses suggesting that wall synthesizing enzymes are of great importance for fungal virulence. previously, we reported the isolation and characterization of a mutant in class iii chitin synthase, bcchs3a, in the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea. we demonstrated that virulence of this mutant is severely impaired. here, we describe the virulence phenotype of the cell-wall mutant bcchs3a on the ...201020672878
genome characterization of a debilitation-associated mitovirus infecting the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea.the full-length sequences of botrytiscinereamitovirus 1 (bcmv1) and an associated rna (bcmv1-s) in strain canbc-1c-78 of botrytis cinerea were determined. sequence analysis showed that bcmv1 is 2804 nt long and au-rich (66.8%). bcmv1 shares 95% nucleotide sequence identity with ophiostomanovo-ulmimitovirus 3b (onumv3b). however, it is 472 nt longer than onumv3b. mitochondrial codon usage revealed that bcmv1 contains one open reading frame encoding rdrp, which is 96% identical to the rdrp of onum ...201020674953
exploring mechanisms of resistance to respiratory inhibitors in field strains of botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold.respiratory inhibitors are among the fungicides most widely used for disease control on crops. most are strobilurins and carboxamides, inhibiting the cytochrome b of mitochondrial complex iii and the succinate dehydrogenase of mitochondrial complex ii, respectively. a few years after the approval of these inhibitors for use on grapevines, field isolates of botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold, resistant to one or both of these classes of fungicide were recovered in france and germany. ...201020693447
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