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host specificity of sheep and cattle nematodes in são paulo state, brazil.the trial was carried out to investigate parasite host specificity and to analyse the dynamics of infection with nematodes parasitizing sheep and cattle raised together or separately in são paulo state, brazil, and, also to clarify doubts about the systematics of species of the genus haemonchus on the basis of cytological and morphological studies. ten steers and 32 ewes were randomly assigned to three paddocks (p), as follows: p1, 5 steers; p2, 5 steers and 16 ewes; and p3, 16 ewes. the animals ...19979477496
the efficacy of eprinomectin against induced infections of immature (fourth larval stage) and adult nematode parasites in cattle.eprinomectin is a new endectocide of the avermectin chemical group developed for use in cattle. to establish its effectiveness against cooperia spp., dictyocaulus viviparus, haemonchus contortus, nematodirus helvetianus, oesophagostomum radiatum, ostertagia ostertagi, trichostrongylus axei and trichostrongylus colubriformis (immature infections only), six trials were conducted in europe at two trial sites. in each trial, animals were artificially infected with a number of nematode species and tr ...19979477498
parasites of stomach and small intestine of 70 horses slaughtered in the netherlands.the prevalence of metazoan parasites in the stomach and small intestine was investigated in 70 horses slaughtered in the period february 1994-july 1994. most horses were young (1.5-3 years) and in good condition. trichostrongylus axei was the most prevalent parasite species in the stomach (51.4%), followed by gasterophilus intestinalis (41.4%) and habronema spp. (4.3%). in the small intestine, parascaris equorum (28.6%) and paranoplocephala mamillana (1.4%) were found. the mean worm burden of t. ...19989477534
feasibility of genus-specific real-time pcr for the differentiation of larvae from gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.results of real-time pcr analysis of coproculture third stage larvae (l3) using genus specific taqman minor groove binder probes were compared with the results of morphological differentiation of l3 after coprocultured and direct morphological worm differentiation from gastrointestinal samples of eight sheep with naturally acquired nematodes infections. faecal egg counts prior to postmortem confirmed infections with trichostrongyles with a geometric mean count of 4828 eggs per gram for all sheep ...200617009713
prevalence and seasonal incidence of nematode parasites and fluke infections of sheep and goats in eastern ethiopia.a 2-year abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, abundance and seasonal incidence of gastro-intestinal (gi) nematodes and trematodes (flukes) of sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of eastern ethiopia. during may 2003 to april 2005, viscera including liver, lungs and gi tracts were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at 4 abattoirs located in the towns of haramaya, harar, dire dawa and jijiga in eastern ethiopia. all animals were raised in the farming areas ...200717969715
[helminth infection in cattle from schleswig-holstein (germany) after one grazing season].fifteen holstein-friesian bulls which grazed together for one season (april to november) in schleswig-holstein were necropsied after housing for 2 to 6 weeks. the approximately 12-month old bulls weighed 378 to 491 kg at slaughter and did not receive any anthelmintic on pasture. the most prevalent species of the gastrointestinal tract was ostertagia ostertagi (prevalence; geometric mean worm count; minimum-maximum) (100%; 1,355; 130-4,590) followed by cooperia (c.) oncophora (86.7%; 343; 20-14,8 ...200312592928
arrested development of sheep strongyles: onset and resumption under field conditions of central europe.two tracer tests were conducted between august 2004 and march 2007 at an ecological farm in western bohemia. the first tracer test was performed for the summer-autumn grazing period (onset of arrested development), the second for spring (resumption of arrested development). in the first tracer test, the percentage of nematodes arresting development over the winter months reached 87.7% for teladorsagia circumcincta, 66.7% for haemonchus contortus, 89.9% for nematodirus filicollis, 21.6% for trich ...200818454350
the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in pigs in kenya.the prevalence of helminth infection, species spectrum and worm burdens in kenyan pigs was examined. a total of 115 gastrointestinal tracts (git) from 61 growers and 54 adult pigs were examined between february 2005 and january 2006. seventy eight (67.8%) had one or more helminth parasites, of which thirty six (31.3%) were mixed infection. ten types of helminth parasites encountered in descending order of prevalence were, oesophagostomum dentatum (39.1%), trichuris suis (32.2%), ascaris suum (28 ...200818509940
dose determination studies for monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative, against fourth stage gastro-intestinal nematode larvae infecting sheep.monepantel is the first compound from the recently discovered amino-acetonitrile derivative (aad) class of anthelmintics to be developed for use in sheep. three dose determination studies were conducted in australia and switzerland to identify the minimum therapeutic dose of monepantel when formulated for the oral treatment of sheep to control fourth stage (l4) gastro-intestinal nematode larvae. in each study, sheep infected with the target nematodes (selected from haemonchus contortus, teladors ...200818760536
linear distribution of nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of tracer lambs.forty-eight tracer lambs were killed in 2004-2007. the abomasum, duodenum, small intestine (jejunum and ileum), colon and caecum were collected and processed for parasites enumeration and identification-mucosal scrapings of both abomasums and intestines were digested. out of 48 gastrointestinal tracts examined, all were found to be positive for nematode infection. seventeen species of gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered: bunostomum trigonocephalum, cooperia curticei, haemonchus contortus, ...200818766377
efficacy of topically administered doramectin against eyeworms, lungworms, and gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.to evaluate efficacy of topically administered doramectin against eyeworms, lungworms, and gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.199910376888
the contribution to the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep with special focus on the survival of infective larvae in winter conditions.tracer tests conducted over a 3-year period were aimed at measuring the level and species nematode composition of survival on pastures with a special focus on winter months. the survival of infective larvae in chilly conditions is not significantly affected by trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, trichostrongylus vitrinus and chabertia ovina. on the contrary, the number of teladorsagia circumcincta and nematodirus filicollis significantly increased in milder winter conditions. ...200919031086
differences in the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of eight species of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants.genetic differences in the nucleotide sequence of the second internal transcribed spacers (its-2) among trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, ostertagia ostertagi, cooperia oncophora, cooperia punctata, nematodirus helvetianus, nematodirus filicollis, and haemonchus contortus are described. the its-2 sequences of the 8 species ranged between 230 and 241 base pairs in length. sequence similarities between the different genera varied between 60% and 80%. identities between the dif ...199910386433
dose confirmation studies for monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative, against fourth stage gastro-intestinal nematode larvae infecting sheep.monepantel is the first compound from the recently discovered amino-acetonitrile derivative (aad) class of anthelmintics to be developed for use in sheep. nine dose confirmation studies were conducted in australia, new zealand and switzerland to confirm the minimum therapeutic oral dose of monepantel to control fourth stage (l4) gastro-intestinal nematode larvae in sheep (target species were haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia (ostertagia) circumcincta, teladorsagia trifurcata, trichostrongylus a ...200919135310
predatory behaviour of trapping fungi against srf mutants of caenorhabditis elegans and different plant and animal parasitic nematodes.the initial infection process of nematode-trapping fungi is based on an interaction between the trapping structure of the fungus and the surface of the nematode cuticle. a bioassay was designed to investigate the predatory response of several isolates of nematode-trapping fungi against 3 mutants of caenorhabditis elegans (at6, at10 and cl261), which have been reported to differ in the reaction of their cuticle to antibodies and lectins. the bioassay was also applied to infective larvae of animal ...199910446708
gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of ethiopia.the general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. for the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. the study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.coprol ...201019548106
effect of fasting sheep for a short period on the efficacy and safety of monepantel.eighteen, six- to seven-month-old lambs were infected experimentally with larvae of haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, cooperia curticei and nematodirus spathiger, and allocated to three equal groups. the infections were timed to ensure that fourth-stage larvae were present when groups 1 and 2 were treated orally with monepantel. group 1 was not fed for 24 hours before the treatment, group 2 was fed two hours before the treatme ...200919596676
dose confirmation of moxidectin pour-on against natural nematode infections in lactating dairy cows.the nematocidal effectiveness of moxidectin, administered topically at the rate of 500 mcg/kg bw, was determined for lactating dairy cows. naturally infected animals were given either topical vehicle or moxidectin (cydectin pour-on fort dodge animal health) at the rate of 1 ml/10 kg bw (10 animals per treatment group), and sacrificed 14-18 days post-treatment for nematode enumeration. 100% efficacies were recorded for ostertagia lyrata males, cooperia punctata males and oesophagostomum radiatum ...199910536978
diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes infecting sheep in qalubia governorate by infective thrid stage larvae.a total of 300 faecal samples obtained from living sheep in qalubia governorate, 128 (42.66%) harboured eggs of nematodes. the gastrointestinal nematodes had been differentiated through the infective third stage larvae. details of the general and differential categories of each were given. the recovered species were trichostrongylus axei, t. colubriformis, ostertagia circumcincta, haemonchus contortus, bunostomum trigonocephalum and oesophagostomum venulosum.199912561888
the efficacy of monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative, against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in three countries of southern latin america.the efficacy of the novel anthelmintic, monepantel (an amino-acetonitrile derivative), was investigated in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in five studies in argentina, brazil, and uruguay. monepantel, administered at 2.5 mg/kg liveweight, was highly effective (>99.7%) against haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia (ostertagia) circumcincta, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, cooperia curticei, cooperia mcmasteri, cooperia oncophora, cooperia pectinata, c ...200919789895
the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy cattle in central kenya.the epidemiology of h. placei and of other gastrointestinal nematodes in yearling dairy cattle was examined on two farms in kiambu district, central kenya during each of 13 one-month periods from april 1993 to april 1994. on each farm, 32 newly weaned dairy calves were given a single dose of albendazole and then placed on experimental pastures. twelve of the animals were designated for bimonthly slaughter (n = 2) and analysis of worm population characteristics and 20 were designated for blood an ...200111360797
quantification of total sheep ige concentration using anti-ovine ige monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme immunoassay.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which recognize separate epitopes on ovine immunoglobulin e (ige) have been used to develop a non-competitive antibody sandwich enzyme immunoassay (eia) for quantitating ovine ige. purified anti-ige mab (yd3) coated onto polystyrene microtitre plates was used to capture ige in serum samples. biotinylated anti-ige mab (xb6) followed by streptavidin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase were used to detect captured ige. tetramethylbenzidine and h2o2 were used as enzym ...19979261963
the effect of sheep breed, age, and gender on the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative.this analysis investigated the influence of breed and gender on the pharmacokinetics of monepantel, and influence of breed, age, and gender on its efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. in a comparison of pharmacokinetic profiles from two studies, merino lambs had significantly greater maximum concentrations of monepantel and monepantel sulfone, and faster times to reach these concentrations than dorset cross lambs. males had a statistically greater area under the curve (0-504 h) ...201019898870
a study of helminth parasites in culled cows from ireland.the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal nematode, lungworm and liver fluke infection in culled cows in ireland. abomasa, colorectal contents and livers were collected from 30 to 68 culled beef and dairy cows during autumn 2002 and summer 2003, respectively. ostertagia ostertagi were found in the abomasa of only three (10%) cows sampled in autumn and in 38 (57%) cows examined in summer. the majority of positive animals had low burdens of o. os ...200616777251
[forming of gastro-intestinal nematodes fauna of free ranging european bison in bialowieza primeval forest during last 17 years (1984-2001)].28 european bison of both sexes and in different age shot in białowieza primeval forest in january 1984, (10 animals), january 1992 (10 animals) and in january and the beginning of february 2001 (8 animals) have been necropsied. the examined animals in mentioned years were of similar age. there were examined abomasa and duodena of shot animals. all necropsied bison were infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes. the highest intensity of infection with nematodes of abomasum was found in 1992 year ...200216894720
the use of parasites as bioindicators of pesticide exposure.organisms used in risk assessment of pesticides must be the most sensitive ones to pesticides exposure. the aim of this study was to observe the effect of two commercial pesticide products (containing glyphosate and tolylfluanid) to larval stages of parasites cooperia curticei, ostertagia circumcincta, haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus axei. there were two concentrations tested for each product vs. control group. larvae (500 individuals/petri dish) were incubated at 27 °c and observed da ...200921217852
benzimidazole resistance in trichostrongylus axei in sheep: long-term monitoring of affected sheep and genotypic evaluation of the parasite.this is the first report of benzimidazole (bz) resistance in the nematode trichostrongylus axei in sheep. trichostrongylus axei infects several species of herbivores including sheep, cattle and horses, and the emergence of anthelmintic resistance could lead to significant problems in its control. benzimidazole resistance in two sheep flocks in central france was detected by post-treatment worm counts. the sequencing of a central region of the isotype 1 beta-tubulin gene from adult t. axei recove ...201018980850
a comparison of the first internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal dna in seven species of trichostrongylus (nematoda: trichostrongylidae).the first internal transcribed spacer (its-1) of the ribosomal dna of seven species of trichostrongylus was sequenced. the length of its-1 in the different species varied from 387 to 390 bases. the g + c content of the its-1 sequences were approximately 42%. little or no intraspecific variation was detected in the three species. trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis and trichostrongylus vitrinus, for which multiple isolates from different geographical regions were sequenced. in c ...19989762572
gastro-intestinal parasites of cattle in the communal grazing system of botshabelo in the free state.twelve bonsmara tracer calves (aged 6-12 months) were used to monitor helminth infections in the communal farming system of botshabelo in the free state. one calve was slaughtered each month from december 1995 to november 1996 and processed for helminth recovery. all the calves harboured worms, but the numbers were always low. the order of prevalence of the major parasites was trichostrongylus axei, haemonchus placei, cooperia punctata and cooperia pectinata.199910486833
the dynamics, prevalence and impact of nematode infections in organically raised sheep in sweden.a three-year survey (1997-99) was carried out on organically reared sheep flocks throughout sweden. the aim was to determine the prevalence and intensity of nematode infections and to establish relationships between sheep management practices and parasite infections. faecal samples from ewes and lambs were collected from 152 organic flocks around lambing-time and during the grazing-period for analysis. results were compared with the different management practices that farmers use to prevent para ...200111887398
efficacy of a combined oral formulation of derquantel-abamectin against the adult and larval stages of nematodes in sheep, including anthelmintic-resistant strains.derquantel (dql), a semi-synthetic member of a novel anthelmintic class, the spiroindoles, in combination with abamectin (aba) [as the combination product startect(-«)] is a new entry for the treatment and control of parasites in sheep. the 19 studies reported herein were conducted in australia, new zealand, south africa and the united kingdom to demonstrate the efficacy of derquantel-abamectin (dql-aba) against a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal and respiratory nematodes of sheep, and to supp ...201121684691
studies on trichostrongylus axei. ii. the pathogenesis of t. axei in sheep maintained on a high plane of nutrition. 195413211864
efficacy of doramectin against naturally acquired adult and inhibited larval infections by some nematode parasites in cattle in new zealand.a study was conducted to determine the therapeutic efficacy of 1% doramectin injected subcutaneously at 200 microg/kg into cattle harbouring naturally acquired infections of inhibited ostertagia ostertagi larvae. sixteen yearling friesian bulls, grazed without anthelmintic treatment throughout the autumn-winter, were selected on the basis of similar body weights and serum pepsinogen activities. after removal from pasture on day -23 they were weighed and randomly assigned to two treatment groups ...199516031810
therapeutic efficacy of eprinomectin extended-release injection against induced infections of developing (fourth-stage larvae) and adult nematode parasites of cattle.the therapeutic efficacy of eprinomectin in an extended-release injection (eri) formulation was evaluated against induced infections of developing fourth-stage larval or adult gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes of cattle in a series of six studies under two identical protocols (three each for developing fourth-stage larvae or adults) conducted in the usa, germany or the uk (two studies at each location, one per stage). each study initially included 16 nematode-free cattle. the cattle were ...201223273929
nematode burdens of pastured cattle treated once at turnout with eprinomectin extended-release injection.the efficacy of eprinomectin in an extended-release injection (eri) formulation was evaluated against infections with third-stage larvae or eggs of gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes in cattle under 120-day natural challenge conditions in a series of five studies conducted in the usa (three studies) and in europe (two studies). for each study, 30 nematode-free (four studies) or 30 cattle harboring naturally acquired nematode infections (one study) were included. the cattle were of various ...201223273928
efficacy of doramectin against experimental infections by some nematode parasites in cattle in new zealand.a study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of the novel avermectin, doramectin, against experimental larval and adult infections of three species of nematode parasite important to cattle production in new zealand. eighteen worm-free dairy bull beef calves were randomly allocated on live weight to three similar treatment groups. each calf was given 30,000 ostertagia ostertagi, 20,000 cooperia spp. and 10,000 trichostrongylus axei infective larvae as a single dose. one group was treated with ...199516031811
prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal nematodes on 32 organic and conventional commercial sheep farms in ontario and quebec, canada (2006-2008).in order to characterize the epidemiology of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional flocks in canada, a longitudinal study was carried out from may 2006 to march 2008 on 32 purposively selected farms in ontario (on) and quebec (qc): 8 certified organic (co), 16 non-certified organic (nco), and 8 conventional (c) farms. on each farm, 10 ewes and 10 female lambs were selected. farm visits were undertaken monthly during the grazing season, and twice in the winter. at each visi ...201020236769
population genetic structure and history of a generalist parasite infecting multiple sympatric host species.host specificity is predicted to shape patterns of parasite gene flow between host species; specialist parasites should have low gene flow between host species, while generalists are predicted to have high gene flow between species. however, even for generalist parasites external forces, including ecological differences between host species may sometimes intervene to limit gene flow and create genetic structure. to investigate the potential for cryptic parasite genetic structure to arise under s ...201120828576
metazoan-protozoan parasite co-infections and host body weight in st kilda soay sheep.for hundreds of years, the unmanaged soay sheep population on st kilda has survived despite enduring presumably deleterious co-infections of helminth, protozoan and arthropod parasites and intermittent periods of starvation. important parasite taxa in young soay sheep are strongyles (trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus vitrinus and teladorsagia circumcincta), coccidia (11 eimeria species) and keds (melophagus ovinus) and in older animals, teladorsagia circumcincta. in this research, associat ...200818215336
a survey of seasonal gastrointestinal parasitic infections in donkeys from a semiarid sub-saharan region, sudan.out of 92 donkeys examined for gastrointestinal parasites, 90 animals were found infected by one or more gastrointestinal parasites with an overall prevalence rate of 97.78%. the distributions of the recovered parasites in the different parts of the body were as follows: stomach, 92.4%, small intestine, 19.6%, caecum, 88%, colon, 80.4%, rectum, 73.9%, and cranial mesenteric artery, 64.1%. a significant difference was found between mean parasite counts and seasons. hot wet season had higher mean ...201627298739
prevalence, intensity and seasonality of gastrointestinal parasites in abattoir horses in germany.prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites were studied through a longitudinal survey in 400 horses over a 17-month period in an abattoir in germany. three hundred and ten horses (77.5 %) were demonstrated harbouring endoparasites either by direct recovery of parasites from the digestive tract and/or in terms of faecal egg counts (strongyles). the following parasites were found (percentage prevalence, range of counts): gasterophilus intestinalis larvae (2.25 %, 1-154), gasterophilus ...201323052780
the parasitic fauna of the european bison (bison bonasus) (linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. part 1. the summarising list of parasites noted.during the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in bison bonasus. these are 22 species of protozoa (trypanosoma wrublewskii, t. theileri, giardia sp., sarcocystis cruzi, s. hirsuta, s. hominis, s. fusiformis, neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium sp., eimeria cylindrica, e. subspherica, e. bovis, e. zuernii, e. canadensis, e. ellipsoidalis, e. alabamensis, e. bukidnonensis, e. auburnensis, e. pellita, e. brasiliensis, babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species ...201425119348
the relative contributions of t. colubriformis, t. vitrinus, t. axei and t. rugatus to sheep infected with trichostrongylus spp. on the northern tablelands of new south wales.this survey was designed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution and the relative contributions of trichostrongylus colubriformis, trichostrongylus vitrinus, trichostrongylus axei and trichostrongylus rugatus to sheep infected with trichostrongylus spp. on the northern tablelands of nsw. thirty completed larval cultures were collected from a commercial parasitology laboratory servicing the northern tablelands of nsw between june and december 2007. cultures were selected at random from ...200919632782
studies on trichostrongylus axei. iv. factors in the causation of pathogenic effects by t. axei. 195513263451
studies on trichostrongylus axei (cobbold, 1879). iv. some aspects of treatment, pathogenicity, and quantification in experimental injections of a horse strain in calves. 195914415512
a multiplex pcr-based method to identify strongylid parasite larvae recovered from ovine faecal cultures and/or pasture samples.a multiplex pcr-based method was developed to overcome the limitations of microscopic examination as a means of identifying individual infective larvae from the wide range of strongylid parasite species commonly encountered in sheep in mixed sheep-cattle grazing situations in new zealand. the strategy employed targets unique species-specific sequence markers in the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) region of ribosomal dna of the nematodes and utilises individual larval lysates as reacti ...201424373513
real-time pcr/dna melting curve-based assay to identify individual strongylid larvae recovered from ovine faecal cultures.a closed-tube real-time pcr (rt pcr) method was developed to identify individual strongylid nematode larvae recovered from ovine faecal cultures. the method builds on an earlier conventional pcr assay established by our group and similarly targets species-specific sequence motifs in the its-2 region of ribosomal dna. the new procedure combines rt pcr with dna melting curve analyses to identify species-specific amplicons, thus avoiding the need to undertake gel electrophoresis. as with the earlie ...201526526096
establishment rate of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).to investigate the establishment of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes (gin) in red deer, five red deer and five sheep aged 5-6 months were challenged with a mixed burden of sheep gin at a rate of 327l3/kg bodyweight. the lsmean (se) establishment rates (%) for haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta, cooperia curticei, trichostrongylus spp. and oesophagostomum+chabertia spp. were 18.6 (0.03), 35.5 (0.04), 30.7 (0.04), 74.9 (0.05), 19.9 (0.06), respectively in sheep and 10.5 (0.03), 1.0 (0 ...201525657087
morphological identification of parasitic nematode infective larvae of small ruminants and cattle: a practical lab guide.in 2004, a new concept was introduced for simplifying identification of larvae of the common nematodes of cattle, sheep and goats that comprises estimates of the lengths of the sheath tail extensions of infective third-stage larvae (l3) of each genus and/or species to that of trichostrongylus spp., instead of having to be dependent only on measurements in micrometre. for example, if the mean length of the sheath tail extension (the extension of the sheath caudad, beyond the caudal tip of the lar ...201323718204
helminths of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in the middle black sea region of turkey.fifteen roe deer were examined at necropsy from northern turkey in the period 2006-2010 for the helminth infections. totally 6470 helminth specimens were collected and identified by morphological criteria. twenty-five helminth species were identified (1 of the class trematoda, 1 of cestoda and 23 of nematoda). dicrocoelium dendriticum (prevalence 20%) was found in liver. cysticercus tenuicollis (6.6%) was found in mesentery. haemonchus contortus (53.3%), ostertagia leptospicularis (73.3%), o. le ...201222766455
a novel snapback primer probe assay for the detection and discrimination of sympatric haemonchus species using dna melting analysis.different sympatric species of haemonchus parasites infecting ruminants and camels can be distinguished morphologically, but involves tedious microscopic examinations, measurements and several other limitations. information on internal transcribed spacer-2 (its-2) sequence provides confirmatory differentiation of sympatric haemonchus species. the present study introduces a novel, snapback primer probe based, real time pcr assay for the differentiation of three sympatric haemonchus species, h. co ...201728242041
lack of efficacy of monepantel against trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep in brazil.multiple drug resistance of nematodes against anthelmintics has become one of the most important economic problems in sheep production worldwide. the aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficacy of monepantel (2.5mg/kg) against gastrointestinal nematodes in fecal egg count reduction test (fecrt) and controlled efficacy test (ct) in naturally infected sheep. we used 30 sheep for the fecrt and 20 sheep for the ct, equally divided into control and treated groups. in the fecrt, the reduction ...201626801587
in vivo anthelmintic activity of anogeissus leiocarpus guill & perr (combretaceae) against nematodes in naturally infected sheep.the identification of new anthelmintic drugs becomes a priority because of the availability of a handful of drugs, cost of treatments, and recent emergence of drug resistance. medicinal plants are a good source of bioactive compounds for development of drugs. in this study, in vivo efficacy of anogeissus leiocarpus was assessed in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. fecal examination, serological analyses, and necropsy were carried out to determine the egg and worm-burden r ...201323657462
studies on trichostrongylus axei (cobbold, 1879). v. some quantitative and pathologic aspects of experimental infections with a horse strain in sheep. 196014415513
studies on trichostrongylus axei (cobbold, 1879). vi. total serum protein, blood and plasma volume, and electrophoretic serum fractionation in infected and uninfected lambs. 196014415514
therapeutic and persistent efficacy of moxidectin 1% nonaqueous injectable formulation against natural and experimentally induced lung and gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle.four controlled trials were conducted to evaluate the therapeutic and persistent efficacy of a new moxidectin formulation (moxidectin 1% nonaqueous injectable) against nematode parasites in cattle. this injectable moxidectin formulation, given as a single subcutaneous injection at a dose rate of 0.02 ml/kg bw to provide 0.2 mg moxidectin/kg bw, was highly efficacious (>90-100%) against larval and/or adult stages of many species of nematodes in cattle including, dictyocaulus viviparus, ostertagia ...200415063941
abomasal parasites in wild sympatric cervids, red deer, cervus elaphus and fallow deer, dama dama, from three localities across central and western spain: relationship to host density and park management.a survey of abomasal parasites in cervids from central spain was conducted at 3 sites, quintos de mora (toledo), maluéñez de arriba (cáceres), and la herguijuela (cáceres). commonly occurring helminths belonged to 3 polymorphic species of the ostertagiinae: spiculopteragia asymmetricals. quadrispiculata, ostertagia leptospicularis/o. kolchida, and o. drozdzi/o. ryjikovi. trichostrongylus axei was found in very few cases. ostertagia drozdzi/o. ryjikovi and the minor male morphotype, s. quadrispic ...200415715232
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xlv. helminths of dairy calves on dry-land kikuyu grass pastures in the eastern cape province.successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the eastern cape province. with the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from december 1982 to march 1985. the day after removal from the pastures one calf of ...200415732456
parasites of chamois in new zealand.abstract sir, - andrews'((2)) checklist of helminth parasites of wild ruminants in new zealand recorded the presence of 10 species of gastrointestinal nematodes in chamois (rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra l.) from "central south island". in october 1978 we examined 28 freshly-shot chamois cadavers from the harper-avoca watershed in the headwaters of the rakaia river. six of the nematode species reported by andrews were found again; viz. ostertagia ostertagi, o. circumcincta, o. trifurcata, nemat ...198122133071
[sheep trichostrongylidosis in van province].this study was performed in the van municipality slaughterhouse from january to december 2001. abomasums and small intestines from a total of 104 sheep were transported to the parasitology laboratory of the veterinary faculty of yüzüncü yil university for parasitological examination. the abomasums and small intestines of the animals were opened with appropriate technique in the laboratory, and male nematodes were collected from the contents of the abomasums and small intestines using a sampling ...200919851969
evaluation of the persistent activity of moxidectin (10%) long-acting (la) injectable formulation against dictyocaulus viviparus, haemonchus placei, trichostrongylus axei and oesophagostomum radiatum infections in cattle.two controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the persistent efficacy of moxidectin (10%) long-acting (la) injectable formulation against dictyocaulus viviparus, haemonchus placei, trichostrongylus axei and oesophagostomum radiatum in cattle. the moxidectin la injectable formulation was administered as a single subcutaneous injection into the proximal third of the ear at a dose rate of 0.01ml/kg bw to provide 1.0mg moxidectin/kg bw. the product had persistent efficacy of >90% against d. vivi ...201019896772
gastrointestinal nematode species burdens and host mortality in a feral sheep population.every few years a large proportion of the feral sheep on hirta, st kilda die due to food shortage. the effects of malnutrition are exacerbated by gastrointestinal nematodes. as found in sheep flocks in mainland britain, teladorsagia circumcincta has long been considered the predominant and most pathogenic nematode species in all age classes of soay sheep. previous research indicated that intensity of this species showed a negative association with host age and comprised 75% of the entire gastroi ...200616817995
phenotypic assessment of the ovicidal activity of monepantel and monepantel sulfone on gastro-intestinal nematode eggs.the in vitro ovicidal activity of the amino acetonitrile derivative, monepantel (mptl) and its active metabolite monepantel sulfone (mptl-so2) were assessed against a number of commercially important nematode species of ruminants, namely teladorsagia circumcincta, haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus axei. an egg hatch test (eht) was used to make the assessment of both drug sensitive and drug resistant isolates. both mptl and mptl-so2 showed moderate ovicidal activity in vitro against all o ...201626995727
co-infection of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus spp. among livestock in malaysia as revealed by amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer ii dna region.haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus spp. are reported to be the most prevalent and highly pathogenic parasites in livestock, particularly in small ruminants. however, the routine conventional tool used in malaysia could not differentiate the species accurately and therefore limiting the understanding of the co-infections between these two genera among livestock in malaysia. this study is the first attempt to identify the strongylids of veterinary importance in malaysia (i.e., h. contortus ...201424502557
efficacy of an energy block containing duddingtonia flagrans in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.the efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus duddingtonia flagrans incorporated into an energy block was evaluated for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. four naturally parasitised sheep with average nematode egg counts of 2,470 eggs per gram grazed by pairs on two similar parasite-free paddocks for 30-ádays. during that period, one pair of sheep (treated animals, t1) received an energy block containing chlamydospores of d. flagrans at a dose of 200,000 chlamydopores/kg bw/day, ...201121380576
resistance of trichostrongylus spp. (nematoda) to benzimidazole in algerian cattle herds grazed with sheep.drug resistance in cattle strongyles to anthelmintics is rarely described in europe and in the mediterranean areas. the faecal egg counts are usually low in cattle, and detection of resistance may be particularly difficult. we used the method of twice-repeated treatments and used various estimations of efficacies in order to detect cattle strongyle resistance to benzimidazoles. resistance was found in two farms among eight that were studied. trichostrongylus axei was the resistant species in one ...201121789585
molecular evidence of trichostrongylus colubriformis and trichostrongylus axei infections in humans from thailand and lao pdr.human trichostrongylosis has been reported in thailand. recent reports in lao people's democratic republic concerning species identification urged us to investigate species distribution in thailand. we report eight human cases in thailand and lao people's democratic republic that were found to be infected by trichostrongylus colubriformis and t. axei identified and confirmed by molecular techniques. this evidence is the first molecular evidence of human t. colubriformis and t. axei infection in ...201323798585
eprinomectin pour-on (eprinex® pour-on, merial): efficacy against gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes and pharmacokinetics in sheep.the anthelmintic efficacy of the 0.5% w/v topical formulation of eprinomectin (epn), eprinex® pour-on (merial) when administered at 1 mg/kg body weight was evaluated in sheep in two dose confirmation laboratory studies and one multicenter field study. in addition, the pharmacokinetics of epn when administered at that dosage to adult sheep was determined.201728558828
the efficacy of trichlorphon and naphthalophos against multiple anthelmintic-resistant nematodes of naturally infected sheep in argentina.an anthelmintic efficacy trial was conducted in sheep harbouring anthelmintic-resistant worms in argentina. seventy lambs were selected from a flock that had been grazed on pastures infected with trichostrongyles previously shown to be resistant to the main anthelmintic groups. lambs were allocated to comparable groups of ten animals each and treated with trichlorphon (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) orally); naphthalophos (50 mg/kg b.w. orally); ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg b.w. subcutaneously); fenbendaz ...201121739383
availability of gastro-intestinal nematode larvae to sheep following winter contamination of pasture with six nematode species on the northern tablelands of new south wales.this experiment was designed to determine the infective consequences of winter pasture contamination by sheep infected with 6 species of trichostrongylid gastro-intestinal nematode (gin) at armidale in the new england region of nsw. ten helminthologically inert pasture plots were contaminated using 'donor' sheep harbouring artificial infections of haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus colubriformis, trichostrongylus vitrinus, trichostrongylus axei, nematodirus spathiger and teladorsagia circumc ...200919070435
comparative efficacy of trichlorphon and trichlorphon/ivermectin combination treatment against anthelmintic-resistant cattle nematodes in argentina.twenty-four holando argentino male calves were treated orally with 50 mg/kg body weight trichlorphon (tcf); 0.2 mg/kg body weight subcutaneous ivermectin (ivm); a combination of tcf+ivm at the same doses and administration routes; or remained untreated (control group). all calves were necropsied at day 14 post treatment for counting and identification of worms from abomasum, small and large intestines and lungs to determine the absolute efficacy (controlled efficacy test) for each treatment. usi ...201121739380
the activity of albendazole against adult and larval gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected calves in the netherlands.summary the activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected calves in the netherlands was tested. the calves were in their fist grazing season and kept in two groups of ten. one of these groups was grazed alternately with sheep. five out of each group were drenched with albendazole (7.5 mg/kg) on the day they were housed (november 1). before and 2, 14, and 28 days after treatment individual faecal samples were taken from all calves and larval cultures were mad ...197922039826
prevalence of non-strongyle gastrointestinal parasites of horses in riyadh region of saudi arabia.this study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the riyadh region of saudi arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. we conducted necropsy for 45 horses from september 2006 to november 2007 in the riyadh region, saudi arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. infestations with seven nematode species and two species of gasterophilus larva were fo ...201123961139
gastrointestinal nematode species diversity in soay sheep kept in a natural environment without active parasite control.molecular methods based on its2 sequence analysis were used to identify strongylid parasites and describe their diversity in a management intervention and anthelmintic drug treatment-free sheep flock. fourteen different nematode parasite species were identified in the flock and the results showed a greater level of nematode species diversity than is normally reported in managed farmed flocks, with the presence of parasites such as bunostomum trigonocephalum, ostertagia leptospicularis, spiculopt ...201627523929
epizootological study of small ruminant gastrointestinal strongyles in gamo-gofa zone, southern ethiopia.the study was conducted with the objective to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal strongyles and identifying the prevailing strongyle species gamo-gofa zone. a total of 598 animals (241 sheep and 357 goats) and 45 animals (20 sheep and 25 goats) were examined coproscopically and by post mortem, respectively. the overall coproscopic prevalence of strongylosis in the study area was 51.4 %. strongyles were more prevalent in sheep than goats (95 % ci is 74.6-84.8 % and 58.6-68.6 % for sheep ...201627413323
gastrointestinal parasites in an isolated norwegian population of wild red deer (cervus elaphus).thirteen red deer (cervus elaphus), culled from the isolated population at the mongstad oil refinery, norway, were investigated for gastrointestinal helminths. these animals, enclosed by the refinery fence, do not have contact with other ruminants and have a high population density considering the available browsing area (1 km(2)) within the refinery site (3 km(2)). the population was estimated to be 110-130 at the time of culling.201425294401
control trial and fecal egg count reduction test determinations of nematocidal efficacies of moxidectin and generic ivermectin in recently weaned, naturally infected calves.an anthelmintic efficacy study was performed with young, naturally infected beef-type calves obtained at local farms. presumably, the study calves had been recently weaned and had not been treated with a parasiticide prior to study acquisition. after blocking the 24 study calves in accordance with calculated cooperia spp epg counts, the calves were randomly allocated within each block to one of four treatment groups, resulting in 6 animals per treatment group (untreated controls, topical ivermec ...201323380250
seasonal occurrence of infective nematode larvae in california high sierra pastures grazed by cattle.worm-free holstein calves were used to assess the seasonal variation in numbers of nematode infective larvae on herbage at 2 commercial cow-calf ranches in the sierra nevada mountains. both ranches used herefords as their basic breed. one ranch near sattley, california, is at an elevation of approximately 1,500 m above sea level, whereas the study area on the 2nd ranch near susanville is at an elevation of approximately 1,250 m above sea level. worm-free tracer calves were allowed to graze for a ...198424049905
a review of the epidemiology and control of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in zimbabwe.in this review, the main gastrointestinal nematodes infecting cattle in zimbabwe and the epidemiological factors influencing their occurrence are reviewed and discussed. nineteen gastrointestinal nematode species that belong to seven families have been found to occur in cattle in zimbabwe. the main genera reported to date are cooperia, haemonchus, trichostrongylus and oesophagostomum and the dominant species are cooperia pectinata, cooperia punctata, haemonchus placei and trichostrongylus axei. ...201324396919
nematode resistance to ivermectin (630 and 700μg/kg) in cattle from the southeast and south of brazil.two high doses of ivermectin (630μg/kg and 700μg/kg) that are sold commercially in brazil were evaluated in dose-and-slaughter trials with 144 naturally nematode-infected cattle from eight regions within the states of minas gerias, são paulo and rio grande do sul in brazil. treatment groups were based on fecal egg counts 1, 2, and 3days before treatment; all animals studied had a minimum egg count of at least 500 eggs per gram of feces (epg). post-mortem analyses were conducted on day 14. the hi ...201425130588
resistance against gastrointestinal nematodes in crioulo lageano and crossbred angus cattle in southern brazil.gastrointestinal nematode (gin) infection is a major cause of production losses in cattle. this study was carried out to evaluate the natural resistance against nematode infection in crioulo lageano and crossbred angus male calves. crioulo lageano is a local cattle breed in the state of santa catarina, in southern brazil. ten weaned calves of each breed were grazed together on pasture and naturally infected with nematodes between july 2009 and december 2010. once every 28 days, we collected feca ...201323177359
the efficacy of eprinomectin extended-release injection against naturally acquired nematode parasites of cattle, with special regard to inhibited fourth-stage ostertagia larvae.the efficacy of eprinomectin in an extended-release injection (eri) formulation in the treatment of cattle harboring naturally acquired nematode populations (including inhibited nematodes) was evaluated. five studies were conducted under a similar protocol in the usa, the uk, and in germany. all study animals were infected by grazing naturally contaminated pastures. the adequacy of pasture infectivity was confirmed by examining tracer calves prior to allocation and treatment of the study animals ...201223273781
an eprinomectin extended-release injection formulation providing nematode control in cattle for up to 150 days.a series of 10 dose confirmation studies was conducted to evaluate the persistent activity of an extended-release injectable (eri) formulation of eprinomectin against single point challenge infections of gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes of cattle. the formulation, selected based on the optimal combination of high nematode efficacy, appropriate plasma profile, and satisfactory tissue residue levels, includes 5% poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolic)acid (plga) and is designed to deliver eprinomect ...201223273777
endoparasites of horses from the formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of minas gerais, brazil.with the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of minas gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. by means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. the subfamily cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by trichostrongylus axei, oxyuris equi, triodontophorus serratus, strongyloides westeri, strongylus edentatus, habronema muscae, parascaris e ...201725517536
prevalence and intensity of gastro-intestinal helminths in horses in the sudano-guinean climatic zone of cameroon.it is important to understand the biology and health impact of parasites affecting horses in the western highlands of cameroon.201223508513
epidemiological study of gastrointestinal helminths of equines in damot-gale district, wolaita zone, ethiopia.the prevalence of equines helminthosis studied from november 2011 to may 2012 in two agroecological zones damot-gale district, wolaita zone, southern ethiopia. the objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, and to see the distribution of internal helminth parasites of equines. a total of 500 faecal samples collected for coprological examination of gastrointestinal helminth ova. from each species of studied animals 200 positive faecal samples were pooled and cultured, and then the lar ...201526064026
trichostrongylus colubriformis: possible most common cause of human infection in mazandaran province, north of iran.infection with trichostrongylus spp. is common among human and herbivorous in most parts of iran, especially in southern and northern areas. the aim of present study was to identify trichostrongylus spp. among human population using excreted egg specimens, by the molecular method, in mazandaran province, northern iran.201725904953
re-establishment of nematode infra-community and host survivorship in wild soay sheep following anthelmintic treatment.compared to mainland britain, where there has been decades of anthelmintic use, the natural host-parasite relationship of the wild soay sheep on the remote archipelago of st. kilda has remained undisturbed. small-scale anthelmintic bolus experiments on the island have previously shown that the removal of gastrointestinal nematodes can improve over-winter survival of young and male sheep in high host density years. this study, in which two-year-old sheep were treated, is the first to examine patt ...200919150178
fecal egg count reduction and control trial determinations of anthelmintic efficacies for several parasiticides utilizing a single set of naturally infected calves.in this study, a single set of naturally infected calves was used for the conduct of a fecal egg count reduction test (fecrt) immediately followed by a control trial; all, to evaluate the efficacies of several commonly used, non-generic anthelmintics. ten animals were allocated into each of the five treatment groups; untreated control (utc), injectable 1% moxidectin given at 0.2 mg kg(-1)bw (mxd), injectable 1% ivermectin given at 0.2 mg kg(-1)bw (ivm), 9.06% oxfendazole given orally at 4.5 mg k ...200919615822
activity of ivermectin long-acting injectable (ivomec(®) gold) in first-season grazing cattle exposed to natural challenge conditions in germany.the persistent activity of ivermectin long-acting injection (ivm lai; ivomec® gold, merial; 3.15% ivermectin w/v) against nematode infections of cattle was evaluated under natural challenge conditions. seventy nematode-free brown swiss calves were blocked by pre-treatment bodyweight and allocated randomly to seven groups of 10 animals each: saline (control) at 1 ml/50 kg bodyweight once on day 0 or ivm lai at 1 ml/50 kg bodyweight (630 mcg ivm/kg) on either days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35. after ho ...201525280515
reevaluation of efficacy against nematode parasites and pharmacokinetics of topical eprinomectin in cattle.a study was conducted to confirm the efficacy of topical eprinomectin against nematodes and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics in cattle prevented from having physical contact with other cattle and from self-grooming. sixteen male brown swiss calves were infected with larvae of recently isolated nematode parasites. inoculation was scheduled so that the nematodes were expected to be adults at the time of treatment. animals were blocked based on pretreatment body weight and randomly allocated to the ...201222638921
susceptibility of helminth species from horses against different chemical compounds in brazil.by means of parasitological necropsies, the present study aimed to evaluate, in six experiments, the degree of susceptibility or resistance of different helminth species which naturally infect horses to ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg, abamectin 0.2 mg/kg, moxidectin 0.4 mg/kg, trichlorfon 35 mg/kg, ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg+praziquantel 2.5 mg/kg, abamectin 0.2 mg/kg+praziquantel 2.5 mg/kg and ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg+6.6 mg/kg pyrantel. at experimental day zero, the horses were allocated to treatment groups based ...201526277565
establishment rate of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer can be infected with some gastrointestinal nematodes (gin) of cattle but it is unknown to what extent. an indoor study was conducted to determine the establishment rate of cattle gin in young deer. five young calves and 5 young red deer were used. they were effectively treated with anthelmintics when housed and then infected 2 weeks later. after four weeks they were killed for total worm counts. establishment rates were assessed comparing worm counts to the infective dose which were ide ...201728807276
molecular phylogenetics of trichostrongylus species (nematoda: trichostrongylidae) from humans of mazandaran province, iran.the present study was performed to analyze molecularly the phylogenetic positions of human-infecting trichostrongylus species in mazandaran province, iran, which is an endemic area for trichostrongyliasis. dna from 7 trichostrongylus infected stool samples were extracted by using in-house (ih) method. pcr amplification of its2-rdna region was performed, and products were sequenced. phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence data was performed using mega 5.0 software. six out of 7 isolates ...201728719952
a multiplex restriction enzyme-pcr for unequivocal identification and differentiation of trichostrongylus species in human samples.trichostrongylus species remain one of the major health challenges in the tropical and summer rainfall regions worldwide. identification of strongylid species diagnostic methods is vital for obtaining a deep understanding of the epidemiology, population biology, anthelmintic treatment efficacy, and drug resistance in order to design effective parasite control strategies. we evaluated a multiplex re-pcr for the diagnosis of key trichostrongylus spp. genomic dna amplification of trichostrongylus c ...201728595822
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