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simultaneous production and synergistic action of oxalic acid and polygalacturonase during pathogenesis by sclerotium rolfsii. 196514274523
biocontrol of collar rot disease of betelvine (piper betle l.) caused by sclerotium rolfsii by using rhizosphere-competent pseudomonas fluorescens nbri-n6 and p. fluorescens nbri-n.collar rot disease of betelvine (piper betle l.) caused by sclerotium rolfsii is difficult to control by conventional means by use of chemicals; therefore, use of biocontrol agents is desirable. in the present study, 186 bacterial strains of different morphological types were screened for their biocontrol activity against s. rolfsii under in vitro conditions. two strains, pseudomonas fluorescens nbri-n6 and p. fluorescens nbri-n, were selected for further studies because of their ability to inhi ...200314506865
growth promoting influence of siderophore-producing pseudomonas strains grp3a and prs9 in maize (zea mays l.) under iron limiting conditions.maize seeds were bacterized with siderophore-producing pseudomonads with the goal to develop a system suitable for better iron uptake under iron-stressed conditions. siderophore production was compared in fluorescent pseudomonas spp. grp3a, prs9 and p. chlororaphis atcc 9446 in standard succinate (ssm) and citrate (scm) media. succinate was better suited for siderophore production, however, deferration of media resulted in increased siderophore production in all the strains. maximum siderophore ...200314521234
viridepyronone, a new antifungal 6-substituted 2h-pyran-2-one produced by trichoderma viride.a new antifungal 6-substituted 2h-pyran-2-one, named viridepyronone, has been isolated from a cultural filtrate of a strain of trichoderma viride showing antagonistic activity in vitro toward sclerotium rolfsii, which is the causal agent of crown and stem rot of artichoke. viridepyronone was characterized as 6-(4-oxopentyl)-2h-pyran-2-one 2 with spectroscopic methods. bioassays showed that viridepyronone had a good antifungal activity against s. rolfsii, and its minimum inhibitory concentration ...200314611154
role of two g-protein alpha subunits, tgaa and tgab, in the antagonism of plant pathogens by trichoderma virens.g-protein alpha subunits are involved in transmission of signals for development, pathogenicity, and secondary metabolism in plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi. we cloned two g-protein alpha subunit genes, tgaa and tgab, from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma virens. tgaa belongs to the fungal galphai class, while tgab belongs to the class defined by gna-2 of neurospora crassa. we compared loss-of-function mutants of tgaa and tgab with the wild type for radial growth, conidiation, germinatio ...200414711686
formation and regeneration of protoplasts in sclerotium rolfsii atcc 201126.different cultural conditions for forming and reverting protoplasts were systematically studied to establish a rapid and efficient protocol for sclerotium rolfsii atcc 201126.200414723686
immunolocalization and functional role of sclerotium rolfsii lectin in development of fungus by interaction with its endogenous receptor.many fungi are known to secrete lectins, but their functional roles are not clearly understood. sclerotium rolfsii, a soilborne plant pathogenic fungus capable of forming fruiting bodies called sclerotial bodies, secrete a cell wall-associated thomsen-friedenreich antigen-specific lectin. to understand the functional role of this lectin, we examined its occurrence and expression during development of the fungus. furthermore, putative endogenous receptors of the lectin were examined to substantia ...200415253931
fungistatic and bacteriostatic activities of alkamides from heliopsis longipes roots: affinin and reduced amides.this work demonstrates the fungistatic and bacteriostatic activities of affinin, the main alkamide of heliopsis longipes (gray) blake (asteraceae) roots and two alkamides obtained by catalytic reduction of affinin: n-isobutyl-2e-decenamide and n-isobutyl-decanamide. the bioactivity was tested against rhizoctonia solani groups ag3 and ag5, sclerotium rolfsii, sclerotium cepivorum, fusarium sp., vertcillium sp., phytopathogenic fungi; phytophthora infestans, a phytopathogenic chromista; saccharomy ...200415264902
siderophore production by a marine pseudomonas aeruginosa and its antagonistic action against phytopathogenic fungi.a marine isolate of fluorescent pseudomonas sp. having the ability to produce the pyoverdine type of siderophores under low iron stress (up to 10 microm iron in the succinate medium) was identified as pseudomonas aeruginosa by using biolog breathprint and siderotyping. pyoverdine production was optimum at 0.2% (w/v) succinate, ph 6.0, in an iron-deficient medium. studies carried out in vitro revealed that purified siderophores and pseudomonas culture have good antifungal activity against the pla ...200415304753
biosensor based on cellobiose dehydrogenase for detection of catecholamines.a cellobiose dehydrogenase (cdh)-modified graphite electrode was designed for amperometric detection of catecholamines in the flow injection mode, by their recycling between the graphite electrode (+300 mv vs ag|agcl) and the reduced fad cofactor of adsorbed cdh, resulting in an amplified response signal. the high efficiency of the enzyme-catecholamine reaction leads to a detection limit below 1 nm and a sensitivity of 15.8 a.m(-1) x cm(-2) (approximately 1150 na/microm) for noradrenaline, with ...200415307778
a non-specific lipid transfer protein with antifungal and antibacterial activities from the mung bean.a non-specific lipid transfer peptide (nsltp) with antimicrobial activity was isolated from the mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds. the procedure entailed aqueous extraction, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex and high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on poros-hs-20. the peptide exhibited a molecular mass of 9.03 kda in mass spectrometry. it exerted antifungal action toward fusarium solani, fusarium oxysporum, pythium aphanidermatum and sclerotium rolfsii, and antibacterial action ...200415350690
growth promotion and yield enhancement of peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) by application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.although plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) have been reported to influence plant growth, yield and nutrient uptake by an array of mechanisms, the specific traits by which pgpr promote plant growth, yield and nutrient uptake were limited to the expression of one or more of the traits expressed at a given environment of plant-microbe interaction. we selected nine different isolates of pgpr from a pool of 233 rhizobacterial isolates obtained from the peanut rhizosphere on the basis of acc ...200415646384
molecular cloning, recombinant gene expression, and antifungal activity of cystatin from taro (colocasia esculenta cv. kaosiung no. 1).a cdna clone, designated cecpi, encoding a novel phytocystatin was isolated from taro corms (colocasia esculenta) using both degenerated primers/rt-pcr amplification and 5'-/3'-race extension. the full-length cdna gene is 1,008 bp in size, encodes 206 amino acid residues, with a deduced molecular weight of 29 kda. it contains a conserved reactive site motif gln-val-val-ser-gly of cysteine protease inhibitors, and another consensus arfav sequence for phytocystatin. sequence analysis revealed that ...200515647900
first report of a novel plant lysozyme with both antifungal and antibacterial activities.a novel lysozyme exhibiting antifungal activity and with a molecular mass of 14.4kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds using a procedure that involved aqueous extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex, and high-performance liquid chromatography on poros hs-20. its n-terminal sequence was very different from that of hen egg white lysozyme. its pi was estimated to be above 9.7. the specific act ...200515649419
[isolation and purification of ribosome-inactivating proteins from bitter melon seeds by ion exchange chromatographic columns in series].an anion exchange chromatographic column (deae-650c) and a cation exchange chromatographic column (cm-650c) were connected in series on a perfusion chromatography workstation. the crude extract of bitter melon seeds flowed through the two columns and the unadsorbed fraction on the deae-650c column was then directly readsorbed on the cm-650c column. two protein components with antifungal activity were eluted from the cation exchange chromatographic column by linear salt gradient. both of them wer ...200415706947
a chitinase with antifungal activity from the mung bean.a chitinase with antifungal activity was isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds. the procedure entailed aqueous extraction, (nh4)2so4 precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose, high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on poros hs-20, and gel filtration on sephadex g-75. the protein exhibited a molecular mass of 30.8 kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. its pi was 6.3 as determined by isoelectric focusing. the specific activity of the chitinase was estimat ...200515766863
production of scleroglucan from sclerotium rolfsii mtcc 2156.scleroglucan, a neutral homopolysaccaride consisting of a linear chain of beta-d-(1-3)-glucopyranosyl and beta-d-(1-6)-glucopyranosyl groups, was produced by pure culture fermentation from sclerotium rolfsii mtcc 2156 by submerged culture. fermentation process was optimized in two steps. in the first step, one-factor-at-a-time method was used to investigate the effects of medium constituents such as carbon and nitrogen sources. in the second step, concentration of medium components was optimized ...200616026982
biological control of collar rot disease with broad-spectrum antifungal bacteria associated with groundnut.bacteria associated with 6 habitats of groundnut were evaluated for their broad-spectrum antifungal activity and suppression of collar rot (aspergillus niger) of groundnut. three hundred and ninety-three strains were tested against 8 fungal pathogens of groundnut including 5 necrotrophic fungi, aspergillus flavus, a. niger, rhizoctonia bataticola, rhizoctonia solani, and sclerotium rolfsii, and 3 biotrophic fungi, cercospora arachidicola, phaeoisariopsis personata, and puccinia arachidis. pseudo ...200516091770
trichoderma mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is involved in induction of plant systemic resistance.the role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) tmka in inducing systemic resistance in cucumber against the bacterial pathogen pseudomonas syringae pv. lacrymans was investigated by using tmka loss-of-function mutants of trichoderma virens. in an assay where trichoderma spores were germinated in proximity to cucumber roots, the mutants were able to colonize the plant roots as effectively as the wild-type strain but failed to induce full systemic resistance against the leaf pathogen. inter ...200516204544
fungal solid state culture of palm kernel cake.palm kernel cake (pkc), an agro-industrial by-product used extensively in the animal feed industry, has limited use in fish feeds due to its high fiber and low protein contents. in this study, pkc was processed under solid state culture conditions with five fungal strains and the effect of this fungal culturing on the amino acid, fatty acid, cellulose and hemicellulose fractions was evaluated. fungal strains used were sclerotium rolfsii, trichoderma harzianum, trichoderma longiobrachiatum, trich ...200616216731
effect of temperature on antagonistic and biocontrol potential of trichoderma sp. on sclerotium rolfsii.sclerotium rolfsii is a destructive soil-borne and post-harvest plant pathogen. use of the antagonistic fungus trichoderma sp. has been earlier reported by us to successfully control this pathogen under post-harvest conditions. in the present paper we report on the effects of temperature on the growth and biocontrol potential of trichoderma sp. on s. rolfsii. experimental results indicated that s. rolfsii and trichoderma sp. have different temperature optima for growth: 30-35 degrees c for the p ...199716283454
evaluation of ash from some tropical plants of nigeria for the control of sclerotium rolfsii sacc. on wheat (triticum aestivum l.).eleven ash samples, from organs of nine tropical plants, were screened for their abilities to inhibit mycelial growth and sclerotial germination of a nigerian isolate of sclerotium rolfsii on agar and in the soil. ten ash samples showed some activity against mycelial growth of s. rolfsii in vitro. ash samples from delonix regia stem wood, mangifera indica leaf and vernonia amygdalina leaf were most effective as each totally inhibited mycelial growth of s. rolfsii in vitro. ocimum gratissimum lea ...199816284852
enhanced cellulase production by a mutant of sclerotium rolfsii.a mutant of sclerotium rolfsii cpc 142 that secretes about two times more filter paper-degrading activity in nm-2 growth medium in submerged cultures than the parent strain was obtained by ultraviolet mutagenesis of crushed sclerotia. the production of endo-beta-glucanase in the mutant was affected to a lesser extent. with the parent strain, the addition of 3% rice bran to nm-2 medium was essential for optimal formation of cellulase, including filter paper-degrading activity. however, with the m ...197916345449
high cellobiase and xylanase production by sclerotium rolfsii uv-8 mutant in submerged culture.sclerotium rolfsii uv-8 mutant secretes high levels of cellobiase and xylanase in addition to having high cellulase production. the apparent k(m) and v(max) of cellobiase (grown in nm-2 + 2% corn steep liquor medium) with cellobiose as a substrate were 5.6 mm and 22.2 mumol of glucose liberated per min per ml of culture filtrate, respectively. the addition of 2% corn steep liquor to nm-2 medium increased endo-beta-glucanase, cellobiase, and xylanase yields by approximately 1.5-fold.198016345562
activity stain for rapid characterization of pectic enzymes in isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels.a system was developed for the rapid characterization of microbial pectic enzyme complexes and then tested on erwinia chrysanthemi and sclerotium rolfsii. pectic enzymes in minute samples of crude culture filtrates were resolved by ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then assayed with an ultrathin pectate-agarose overlay stained with ruthenium red. the simple procedure can be completed within 30 min after isoel ...198516346881
electrophoretic and immunological comparisons of developmentally regulated proteins in members of the sclerotiniaceae and other sclerotial fungi.the fungal stroma is a distinct developmental stage, a compact mass of hyphal cells enveloped by a melanized layer of rind cells which is produced from vegetative mycelium. two types of stromata that are characteristic of members of the sclerotiniaceae but are also produced in a wide range of other fungi, i.e., the determinate tuberlike sclerotium and the indeterminate platelike substratal stroma, were compared in these studies. developmental proteins found in determinate sclerotial and indeterm ...199116348418
induction of mannanase, xylanase, and endoglucanase activities in sclerotium rolfsii.induction of mannanase, xylanase, and cellulase (endoglucanase) synthesis in the plant-pathogenic basidiomycete sclerotium rolfsii was studied by incubating noninduced, resting mycelia with a number of mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. the simultaneous formation of these three endoglycanases could be provoked by several polysaccharides structurally resembling the carbohydrate constituents of lignocellulose (e.g., mannan and cellulose), by various disaccharide catabolites of these lignocellulos ...199816349502
production and properties of alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase from corticium rolfsii.when corticium rolfsii is grown under aerobic conditions in a medium containing one of several simple sugars or polysaccharides, it release alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase into the culture fluid. araban and bran extract were found to be the most effective carbon sources in stimulating the production of the enzyme. pectin and arabinose stimulated the production of the enzyme to a lesser degree, whereas xylose, glucose, galactose, and sucrose caused the formation of a relatively small amount of alpha- ...196916349850
post harvest spoilage of sweetpotato in tropics and control measures.sweetpotato storage roots are subjected to several forms of post harvest spoilage in the tropical climate during transportation from farmers' field to market and in storage. these are due to mechanical injury, weight loss, sprouting, and pests and diseases. sweetpotato weevil is the single most important storage pest in tropical regions for which no control measures or resistant variety are yet available. several microorganisms (mostly fungi) have been found to induce spoilage in stored sweetpot ...200516371331
histopathological studies of sclerotia of phytopathogenic fungi parasitized by a gfp transformed trichoderma virens antagonistic strain.the gfp gene from the jellyfish aequorea victoria, coding for the green fluorescent protein (gfp), was used as a reporter gene to transform a trichoderma virens strain i10, characterized as having a promising biocontrol activity against a large number of phytopathogenic fungi. on the basis of molecular and biological results, a stable gfp transformant was selected for further experiments. in order to evaluate the effects of gfp transformation on mycoparasitic ability of t. virens i10, sclerotia ...200616388938
antifungal efficacy of chitosan and its thiourea derivatives upon the growth of some sugar-beet pathogens.chitosan (cs) was modified by reaction with benzoyl thiocyanate to give a thiourea derivative (tucs). the antifungal behavior of chitosan and its thiourea derivative was investigated in vitro on the mycelial growth, sporulation and germination of conidia or sclerotia of the following sugar-beet: beta vulgaris pathogens isolated in egypt, rhizoctonia solani kühn (ag(2-2)) sclerotium rolfsii sacc. and fusarium solani (mart.) sacc. all the prepared thiourea derivatives had a significant inhibiting ...200616413607
cell surface display of chi92 on escherichia coli using ice nucleation protein for improved catalytic and antifungal activity.the gene encoding chitinase 92 (chi92) from aeromonas hydrophila jp10 has been displayed on the cell surface of escherichia coli using the n-terminal region of ice nucleation proteins (inpn) as an anchoring motif. immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that chi92 was anchored on the cell surface. western blot analysis further identified the synthesis of inp derivatives containing the n-terminal domain inpn-chi92 fusion protein of the expected size (112 kda). whole cell enzyme assay indicated th ...200616487328
antifungal activity of 4-methyl-6-alkyl-2h-pyran-2-ones.a number of 4-methyl-6-alkyl-alpha-pyrones were synthesized and characterized on the basis of 1h nmr and mass spectroscopy. these compounds were tested in vitro against pathogenic fungi, namely, sclerotium rolfsii saccardo, rhizoctonia bataticola (taub.) butler, pythium aphanidermatum (edson) fitz., macrophomina phaseolina (tassi), pythium debaryanum (hesse), and rhizoctonia solani nees. lower homologues were less effective, whereas compounds such as 4-methyl-6-butyl-alpha-pyrone, 4-methyl-6-pen ...200616536586
reaction of selected soybean cultivars to rhizoctonia root rot and other damping-off disease agents.eight soybean cultivars; giza 21. giza 22, giza 35, giza 82, giza 83, crawford, holladay and toamo were evaluated to rhizoctonia root rot using agar plate and potted plant techniques. data cleared that, in agar plate assay all soybean cultivars were moderately susceptible (ms), although the differences between them were significant (p=0.05). generally, in potted assay, the reactions were resistant (r) or moderately resistant (mr) to root rots. also, the differences between cultivars were signifi ...200516637203
enhanced production of scleroglucan by sclerotium rolfsii mtcc 2156 by use of metabolic precursors.the aim of this work was to study the effect of addition of different amino acids and sugar nucleotides as metabolic precursors on the production of scleroglucan. a maximum yield of 20.00 g/l and 22.32 g/l was obtained with optimized media supplemented with l-lysine (1.1 mm) and uridine mono-phosphate (ump), respectively as compared to 16.52 g/l scleroglucan achieved with the control in the absence of metabolic precursors.200716806909
use of complex media for the production of scleroglucan by sclerotium rolfsii mtcc 2156.submerged fermentation was carried out for the production of scleroglucan by sclerotium rolfsii mtcc 2156 using complex media, such as coconut water, sugarcane molasses and sugarcane juice at 28+/-2 degrees c and 180 rpm for 72 h. sugarcane juice gave maximum scleroglucan production of 23.87 g/l as compared to 12.58 and 18.45 g/l with coconut water and sugarcane molasses, respectively. utilization of these substrates would be ecologically sound and economically advantageous.200716822667
purification and characterization of an exochitinase from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai and its action against phytopathogenic fungi.a chitinolytic enzyme from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai has been purified and its molecular mass was estimated ca. 66 kda by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). the enzyme was able to hydrolyze chitin to chitobiosides but not carboxymethylcellulose, cellulose, pullulan, and laminarin. optimal ph and temperature were detected at 6 and 50 degrees c, respectively. stability, in the absence of substrate, was observed at temperatures less than 60 degrees c a ...200616917521
viridenepoxydiol, a new pentasubstituted oxiranyldecene produced by trichoderma viride.a new pentasubstituted oxiranyldecene, named viridenepoxydiol, has been isolated (0.9 mg/l) from the culture filtrate of a strain of trichoderma viride showing in vitro and in vivo antagonistic activity against sclerotium rolfsii, which is the causal agent of crown and stem rot of artichoke. viridenepoxydiol was characterized as 3,5,9-trimethyl-2-oxiranyl-dec-8-ene-2,5-diol (3) using spectroscopic methods. it showed inhibitor effect on mycelial growth of s. rolfsii and its minimum inhibitory con ...200616939313
plant growth-promoting methylobacterium induces defense responses in groundnut (arachis hypogaea l.) compared with rot pathogens.this study, framed in two different phases, studied the plant-growth promotion and the induction of systemic resistance in groundnut by methylobacterium. seed imbibition with methylobacterium sp. increased germination by 19.5% compared with controls. combined inoculation of methylobacterium sp. with rhizobium sp. also significantly increased plant growth, nodulation, and yield attributes in groundnut compared with individual inoculation of rhizobium sp. methylobacterium sp. challenge-inoculated ...200616941245
isolation and characterization of a novel mung bean protease inhibitor with antipathogenic and anti-proliferative activities.a novel protease inhibitor, designated mungoin, with both antifungal and antibacterial activities, and exhibiting a molecular mass of 10kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds. the isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex, and high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on sp-toyopearl. its isoelectric point was estimated to be 9.8 by isoelectri ...200616971020
evaluation of chenopodium ambrosioides oil as a potential source of antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity.essential oil extracted from the leaves of chenopodium ambrosioides linn. (chenopodiaceae) was tested against the aflatoxigenic strain of test fungus aspergillus flavus link. the oil completely inhibited the mycelial growth at 100 microg/ml. the oil exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against aspergillus niger, aspergillus fumigatus, botryodiplodia theobromae, fusarium oxysporum, sclerotium rolfsii, macrophomina phaseolina, cladosporium cladosporioides, helminthosporium oryzae and pythium debary ...200717174000
structural basis for the carbohydrate recognition of the sclerotium rolfsii lectin.the crystal structure of a novel fungal lectin from sclerotium rolfsii (srl) in its free form and in complex with n-acetyl-d-galactosamine (galnac) and n-acetyl- d -glucosamine (glcnac) has been determined at 1.1 a, 2.0 a, and 1.7 a resolution, respectively. the protein structure is composed of two beta-sheets, which consist of four and six beta-strands, connected by two alpha-helices. sequence and structural comparisons reveal that srl is the third member of a newly identified family of fungal ...200717391699
camp signalling is involved in growth, germination, mycoparasitism and secondary metabolism in trichoderma virens.an adenylate-cyclase-encoding gene, tac1, of trichoderma virens, a soil fungus used in the biocontrol of plant pathogens, has been cloned and sequenced. the tac1 orf spanned 7032 bp, encoding a protein of 2153 aa, which shared an identity of 65 % with the adenylate cyclase of colletotrichum lagenarium. deletion of tac1, through double-crossover homologous recombination, lowered the intracellular camp levels to below the detection limit. the mutants showed only 5-6 % of the wild-type growth rate ...200717526831
molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of a chitinase from the entomopathogenic fungus paecilomyces javanicus.paecilomyces javanicus is an entomopathogenic fungus of coleopteran and lepidopteran insects. here we report on cloning, characterization, and expression patterns of a chitinase from p. javanicus. a strong chitinase activity was detected in p. javanicus cultures added to chitin. the full-length cdna, designated pjchi-1, was cloned from mycelia by using both degenerate primer/reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) amplification and 5'-/3'-race extension. the 1.18-kb cdna gene co ...200717551789
sclerotium rolfsii scleroglucan: the promising behavior of a natural polysaccharide as a drug delivery vehicle, suspension stabilizer and emulsifier.gel matrices of scleroglucans from sclerotium rolfsii atcc 201126 (eps i and eps ii, from 48-h and 72-h fermentations, respectively) were evaluated on their release kinetics of theophylline (th). equivalent polymer (2%, w/w) and th (0.2%, w/w) concentrations showed almost coincident drug release patterns, independently of polymer molecular weight or the microstructural properties of gel matrices. dynamic rheological studies of scleroglucan hydrogel structures (storage, g', and loss, g'', moduli) ...200717586039
[study of the effect of volatile metabolites of trichoderma hamatum on the growth of phytopathogenic soilborne fungi.].volatile compounds produced by trichoderma hamatum were tested for their capacity to suppress in vitro the growth of alternaria citri, bipolaris cynodontis, bipolaris sorokiniana, curvularia brachyspora, curvularia lunata, curvularia oryzae-sativae, drechslera tritici-repentis, rhizoctonia solani, sclerotinia minor and sclerotium rolfsii. the organisms were cultured in an apparatus made with two erlenmeyer flasks assembled by their top parts. with the aid of the gas chromatographic technique the ...199717655390
further evidence relative to the varietal resistance of peanuts to sclerotium rolfsii. 191817750216
fungitoxicity of lyophilized and spray-dried garlic extracts.among the compounds discussed for anti-microbial and anti-fungal use allicin (allylthiosulfinate, diallyl disulfide-s-monoxide), an active ingredient of garlic, has attracted considerable attention. the objective of this study is to determine the antifungal activity of a local garlic ecotype (voghiera) extracts against different pathogens. primary screening was carried out by the agar plates technique using ethanol garlic extract at four final concentrations against the following organisms: alte ...200717763036
thiol redox state and oxidative stress affect sclerotial differentiation of the phytopathogenic fungi sclerotium rolfsii and sclerotinia sclerotiorum.to investigate the involvement of oxidative stress and thiol redox state (trs) in sclerotial differentiation of sclerotium rolfsii and sclerotinia sclerotiorum.200817850300
x-ray sequence ambiguities of sclerotium rolfsii lectin resolved by mass spectrometry.x-ray crystallography, although a powerful technique for determining the three-dimensional structure of proteins, poses inherent problems in assigning the primary structure in residues asp/asn and glu/gln since these cannot be distinguished decisively in the electron density maps. in our recently published x-ray crystal structure of the sclerotium rolfsii lectin (srl) at 1.1 a resolution, amino acid sequence was initially deduced from the electron density map and residues asp/asn and glu/gln wer ...200818163177
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro (colocasia esculenta (l.) schott) with a rice chitinase gene for improved tolerance to a fungal pathogen sclerotium rolfsii.taro (colocasia esculenta) is one of the most important crops in the pacific islands, however, taro yields have been declining in hawaii over the past 30 years partly due to diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens. in this study, an efficient agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for taro is first reported. in total, approximately 200 pieces (8 g) of embryogenic calluses were infected with the super-virulent a. tumefaciens strain eha105 harboring the plant transformat ...200818301900
spectral and thermal studies with anti-fungal aspects of some organotin(iv) complexes with nitrogen and sulphur donor ligands derived from 2-phenylethylamine.some complexes of 2-phenylethyl dithiocarbamate, thiohydrazides and thiodiamines with dibenzyltin(iv) chloride, tribenzyltin(iv) chloride and di(para-chlorobenzyl)tin(iv) dichloride have been synthesized and investigated in 1:2 and 1:1 molar ratio. the dithiocarbamate ligand act as monoanionic bidentate and thiohydrazide, thiodiamines act as neutral bidentate ligand. the synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and molecular weight determination studies and their bondi ...200818337163
production of lactose-free galacto-oligosaccharide mixtures: comparison of two cellobiose dehydrogenases for the selective oxidation of lactose to lactobionic acid.galacto-oligosaccharides, complex mixtures of various sugars, are produced by transgalactosylation from lactose using beta-galactosidase and are of great interest for food and feed applications because of their prebiotic properties. most galacto-oligosaccharide preparations currently available in the market contain a significant amount of monosaccharides and lactose. the mixture of galacto-oligosaccharides (galos) in this study produced from lactose using recombinant beta-galactosidase from lact ...200818353295
thiol redox state and related enzymes in sclerotium-forming filamentous phytopathogenic fungi.thiol redox state (trs) reduced and oxidized components form profiles characteristic of each of the four main types of differentiation in the sclerotiogenic phytopathogenic fungi: loose, terminal, lateral-chained, and lateral-simple, represented by rhizoctonia solani, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, sclerotium rolfsii, and sclerotinia minor, respectively. a common feature of these fungi is that as their undifferentiated mycelium enters the differentiated state, it is accompanied by a decrease in the l ...200818400483
pitfalls in the assay of carboxymethylcellulase activity.a purified endocellulase from sclerotium rolfsii and a crude cellulase preparation from trichoderma reesei are used to illustrate several pitfalls associated with the assay of carboxymethylcellulase activity and the subsequent attainment of linear enzyme dilution curves. it is shown that the nature of both the enzymes and the substrate make the assay unsuitable for use in the calculation of enzyme recovery and purity.198318548658
mode of action and properties of xylanase and beta-xylosidase from neurospora crassa.extracellular beta-xylosidase (1,4-beta-d-xylan xylohydrolase, ec 3.2.1.37) from culture filtrates of neurospora crassa was purified to homogeneity by preparative isoelectric focusing followed by gel electrophoresis. the molecular weight of the purified xylosidase was 83,000 d and the k(m) on p-nitrophenyl-beta-d-xyloside was 0.047mm. the homogeneous xylanase (1,4-beta-d-xylan xylanohydrolase, ec 3.2.1.8) and beta-xylosidase showed differences in their mode of action towards xylooligosaccharides ...198618555300
production of hemicellulose- and cellulose-degrading enzymes by various strains of sclerotium rolfsii.a number of wild-type isolates of sclerotium rolfsii were screened for their capacity to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes when grown on a cellulose-based medium.s. rolfsii proved to be an efficient producer of hemicellulolytic enzymes under the conditions selected for this screening, although there was a great variability in enzyme activities formed by the different isolates. in addition to xylanase and mannanase, which were produced in remarkably high levels, a number of accessory enzymes, whi ...199718576081
fungistatic activity of iron-free bovin lactoferrin against several fungal plant pathogens and antagonists.lactoferrin (lf) is a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding glycoproteins. it is also a multifunctional protein of 80 kda that is synthesized by glandular epithelial cells and secreted into mucosal fluid. high levels of lf are present in colostrom and milk and low levels in tears, saliva, and gastrointestinal and reproductive secretions. data regarding the antifungal effects of lf are limited. studies have been performed on candida albicans, which demonstrated that lf inhibits the gro ...200818629710
fungitoxicity of some higher plants and synergistic activity of their essential oils against sclerotium rolfsii sacc. causing foot-rot disease of barley.twenty five plant species were screened for their volatile components against hyphal growth and sclerotia formation of sclerotium rolfsii causing foot rot disease of barley (hordeum vulgare). leaves of chenopodium ambrosioides (ca), lippia alba (la), azadirachta indica (ai) and eucalyptus globulus (eg) were found to be strongly toxic. their volatile active factors were isolated in the form of essential oils which were tested for toxicity individually and in six combinations (1:1 v/v) viz. ca-la, ...200518697732
a thermostable chitinase with chitin-binding activity from phaseolus limensis.a 28.6-kda chitinase with chitin-binding activity was isolated from the large lima bean (phaseolus limensis) seeds. the procedure entailed extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, and high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on sp-toyopearl. there was an almost 108-fold increase in specific activity of the purified chitinase compared with that of the crude extract. the enzyme exhibited a pi of 7.8 by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. the ...200818782228
effect of the new pyrazole carboxamide fungicide penthiopyrad on late leaf spot and stem rot of peanut.management of early leaf spot (cercospora arachidicola hori.), late leaf spot [cercosporidium personatum (berk. & ma curtis) deighton] and stem rot (sclerotium rolfsii sacc.) of peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) in the southeastern usa is heavily dependent upon sterol biosynthesis inhibitor (sbi) and quinone outside inhibitor (qoi) fungicides. effective new fungicides with different modes of action could improve overall disease control and extend the utility of the current fungicides. penthiopryad is ...200918785218
antifungal potential of extracellular metabolites produced by streptomyces hygroscopicus against phytopathogenic fungi.indigenous actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere soils were assessed for in vitro antagonism against colletotrichum gloeosporioides and sclerotium rolfsii. a potent antagonist against both plant pathogenic fungi, designated sra14, was selected and identified as streptomyces hygroscopicus. the strain sra14 highly produced extracellular chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase during the exponential and late exponential phases, respectively. culture filtrates collected from the exponential and stationar ...200818825279
effect of synthetic and organic soil fertility amendments on southern blight, soil microbial communities, and yield of processing tomatoes.abstract soil fertility amendments, including composted cotton-gin trash, swine manure, a rye-vetch green manure, or synthetic fertilizers, were applied to subplots and tillage on bare soil; or tillage followed by surface mulch with wheat straw were applied to main plots to determine the effect on the incidence of southern blight caused by sclerotium rolfsii, yield of processing tomato, and soil microbial communities. the amendment-tillage interaction was significant in 1997 and disease incidenc ...200218943092
enhanced resistance to sclerotium rolfsii in populations of alfalfa selected for quantitative resistance to sclerotinia trifoliorum.abstract sclerotinia trifoliorum and sclerotium rolfsii are pathogens for which similar mechanisms of parasitism have been proposed. this suggested that resistance to these pathogens may be related in a common host plant. this study was undertaken to determine whether selection for quantitative resistance to sclerotinia trifoliorum in alfalfa also increases resistance to sclerotium rolfsii as expressed in excised leaf tissues and whole plants. resistance in excised leaf tissues was evaluated acc ...200218943095
modeling the survival of two soilborne pathogens under dry structural solarization.abstract structural (space) solarization of a closed, empty greenhouse for sanitation involves dry heating to 60 degrees c and higher and low relative humidity (rh), under a fluctuating temperature and rh regime. survival of inocula of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and sclerotium rolfsii during structural solarization was studied for 4 years (total of 12 experiments) in an attempt to develop a dynamic model for expressing the thermal inactivation of the pathogens. after 20 days o ...200318944324
combined soil treatments and sequence of application in improving the control of soilborne pathogens.abstract the effects of reduced doses of methyl bromide (mb) or metham sodium, heating, short solarization, and soil microbial activity, alone or in combination, on survival of soilborne fungal pathogens were tested in a controlled-environment system and field plots. sublethal doses of heating or mb delayed germination of sclerotium rolfsii sclerotia. combining mb and heating treatments was more effective than either treatment alone in controlling s. rolfsii and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilic ...200018944494
genetic variability within and among mycelial compatibility groups of sclerotium rolfsii in south africa.abstract isolates of sclerotium rolfsii, the causal organism of stem rot or southern blight of groundnut, can be placed in mycelial compatibility groups (mcgs) based on hyphal interactions between isolates. the aim of this study was to determine whether amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis was a suitable technique to assess genetic variability between isolates and mcgs of s. rolfsii. for preliminary genetic analysis, 10 isolates were selected from each of two mcgs and compared ...200018944529
biological control of sclerotium rolfsii and verticillium dahliae by talaromyces flavus is mediated by different mechanisms.abstract ten wild-type strains and two benomyl-resistant mutants of talaromyces flavus were examined for their ability to secrete the cell wall-degrading enzymes chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, and cellulase, to parasitize sclerotia of sclerotium rolfsii, to reduce bean stem rot caused by s. rolfsii, and to secrete antifungal substance(s) active against verticillium dahliae. the benomyl-resistant mutant ben(r)tf1-r6 overproduced extracellular enzymes and exhibited enhanced antagonistic activity a ...199718945040
effect of beta-glucans on an etec infection in piglets.the effect of orally administered beta-glucans in protecting pigs against an etec infection after weaning was analysed in this study. three beta-glucans that differed in origin (saccharomyces cerevisiae (mcg (macrogard) and g2) or sclerotium rolfsii (g3)) and/or extraction procedure were tested. pigs fed for 2 weeks after weaning with these glucans were less susceptible to an f4+ etec infection in comparison with the control group. this was evidenced by a reduction in the faecal excretion of f4+ ...200919046775
structural stability of sclerotium rolfsii atcc 201126 beta-glucan with fermentation time: a chemical, infrared spectroscopic and enzymatic approach.sclerotium rolfsii atcc 201126 exopolysaccharides (epss) recovered at 48 h (eps i) and 72 h (eps ii) of fermentation, with differences in rheological parameters, hydrogel topography, salt tolerance, antisyneresis, emulsifying and suspending properties, were subjected to a polyphasic characterization in order to detect structural divergences.200919054236
biocontrol potential of soybean bacterial endophytes against charcoal rot fungus, rhizoctonia bataticola.a total of 137 bacterial isolates from surface sterilized root, stem, and nodule tissues of soybean were screened for their antifungal activity against major phytopathogens like rhizoctonia bataticola, macrophomina phaseolina, fusarium udam, and sclerotium rolfsii. nine bacterial endophytes suppressed the pathogens under in vitro plate assay. these were characterized biochemically and identified at the genus level based on their partial sequence analysis of 16s rdna. eight of the isolates belong ...200919067044
new developments and prospective applications for beta (1,3) glucans.publications and patents relative to newly observed functions of beta-(1,3)-d-glucans have notably increased in the last few years with the exploitation of their biological activities. the term beta-(1,3)-d-glucans includes a very large number of polysaccharides from bacterial, fungal and vegetable sources. their structures have a common backbone of beta-(1,3) linked glucopyranosyl residues but the polysaccharidic chain can be beta-(1,6) branched with glucose or integrate some beta-(1,4) linked ...200719075833
short chain regioselectively hydrolyzed scleroglucans induce maturation of porcine dendritic cells.branched beta-1,3/1,6-glucans (scleroglucan) were produced by cultivation of sclerotium rolfsii atcc 15205. regioselective hydrolysis at the beta-1,3-linkage of the cell-free and purified polysaccharide was performed in borosilicate glass bottles at ph 5, 121 degrees c, and 1 bar for 72 h. the mixture was divided into four molar mass fractions by stepwise cross-flow filtration using different cutoffs. in vitro studies revealed that scleroglucan hydrolysates with a low molar mass of less than 5 k ...200919107473
identification and investigation on antagonistic effect of trichoderma spp. on tea seedlings white foot and root rot (sclerotium rolfsii sacc.) in vitro condition.the aim of this two years research work is to recognize bio control agents and its antagonistic efficiency on sclerotium rolfsii in vitro condition. sclerotium rolfsii sacc. is a causal agent of white foot and root rot disease in many plants. this fungi causing damage in tea nurseries of tea cultivated countries especially in iran. due to importance this disease in tea nurseries of iran and impossibility using of chemical control against this damaging agent in this research, five species of tric ...200819137869
synthesis, spectral, thermal and anti-fungal studies of organotin(iv) thiohydrazone complexes.the reaction of tribenzyltin(iv) chloride and di(para-chlorobenzyl)tin(iv) dichloride with thiohydrazones derived by condensation of 2-phenylethyl n-thiohydrazide with benzaldehyde, salicaldehyde, p-methylacetophenone and cinnamaldehyde have been investigated in 1:1 molar ratio. these ligands act as neutral, bidentate species and coordinate to the central tin (iv) atom through the thiosulphur and azomethine nitrogen. the newly synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis a ...200919162535
effects of switchgrass (panicum virgatum) rotations with peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) on nematode populations and soil microflora.a 3-year field rotation study was conducted to assess the potential of switchgrass (panicum virgatum) to suppress root-knot nematodes (meloidogyne arenaria), southern blight (sclerotium rolfsii), and aflatoxigenic fungi (aspergillus sp.) in peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) and to assess shifts in microbial populations following crop rotation. switchgrass did not support populations of root-knot nematodes but supported high populations of nonparasitic nematodes. peanut with no nematicide applied and ...200219265915
peanut-cotton-rye rotations and soil chemical treatment for managing nematodes and thrips.in the southeastern united states, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. the objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on tifton loamy sand (plinthic kandiudult) infested primarily ...199819274213
additive effects of meloidogyne arenaria and sclerotinin rolfsii on peanut.field observations have suggested that infection of peanut by meloidogyne arenaria increases the incidence of southern blight caused by sclerotium rolfsii. three factorial experiments in microplots were conducted to determine if interactions between m. arenaria and s. rolfsii influenced final nematode population densities, incidence of southern blight, or pod yield. treatments included four or five initial population densities of m. arenaria and three inoculum rates of s. rolfsii. final nematode ...199619277351
rotations with coastal bermudagrass, cotton, and bahiagrass for management of meloidogyne arenaria and southern blight in peanut.the efficacy of coastal bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for controt of root-knot nematode (meloidogyne arenaria) in 'florunner' peanut (arachis hypogoea) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. coastal bermudagrass-peanut rotation (cbp) was compared with peanut monoculture without nematicide (p - ) and peanut monoculture with aldicarb (p + ). the performance of cbp was also compared with 'pensacola' bahiagrass (paspalum notatum)-peanut (bp), and 'deltapine 90' cotton (gossypium ...199419279945
cotton as a rotation crop for the management of meloidogyne arenaria and sclerotium rolfsii in peanut.the value of cotton (gossypium hirsutum cv. deltapine 90) in rotation with peanut (arachis hypogaea cv. florunner) for the management of root-knot nematode (meloidogyne arenaria) and southern blight (sclerotium rolfsii) was studied for 6 years in a field at the wiregrass substation in southeast alabama. peanut yields following either 1 or 2 years of cotton (c-p and c-c-p, respectively) were higher than those of peanut monoculture without nematicide [p(-)]. at-plant application of aldicarb to con ...199119283179
rotations of bahiagrass and castorbean with peanut for the management of meloidogyne arenaria.the relative value of 'hale' castorbean (ricinus communis) and 'pensacola' bahiagrass (paspalum notatum) as rotational crops for the management of meloidogyne arenaria and southern blight (sclerotium rolfsii) in 'florunner' peanut (arachis hypogaea) production was studied for 3 years in a field experiment in southeast alabama. peanut following 2 years of castorbean (c-c-p) yielded 43% higher than monocultured peanut without nematicide. at-plant application of aldicarb (30.5 g a.i./100 m row in a ...199119283180
peanut-cotton rotations for the management of meloidogyne arenaria.the efficacy of 'deltapine 90' cotton (gossypium hirsutum) in rotation with 'florunner' peanut (arachis hypogaea) for the management of meloidogyne arenaria was studied for 2 years in a field in southeastern alabama. in 1985, m. arenaria juvenile populations in plots with cotton were 98% lower than in plots with peanut. peanut and cotton yields were increased by treatment with aldicarb (3.3 kg a.i./ha in a 20-cm-band) in 1985 but not in 1986. in 1986, peanut yields were highest and m. arenaria j ...198719290174
in vitro and in vivo antagonism of actinomycetes isolated from moroccan rhizospherical soils against sclerotium rolfsii: a causal agent of root rot on sugar beet (beta vulgaris l.).to evaluate the ability of the isolated actinomycetes to inhibit in vitro plant pathogenic fungi and the efficacy of promising antagonistic isolates to reduce in vivo the incidence of root rot induced by sclerotium rolfsii on sugar beet.200919302305
synthesis and pesticidal activity of new n-alkyl-n-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl]amines.a series of novel n-alkyl-n-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl]amines were synthesized as potential new agents to control pests. their structures were confirmed on the basis of ir, nmr and elemental analyses. six new n-alkyl-n-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl]amines were prepared by reduction of corresponding schiff bases using sodium borohydride in 80-87 % yields. these compounds were tested for their antifungal activity against two pathogenic fungi viz., rhizoctonia bataticola itcc 0482 and sclerotium rolfs ...200919365749
induce systemic resistance in lupine against root rot diseases.root rot caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks lupine plants. isolation trials from diseased plants in some areas of dakahlia province (egypt) was carried out. rhizoctonia solani and fusarium solani proved to be the most dominant isolates. meanwhile, fusarium oxysporum and sclerotium rolfsii were less frequent. efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors viz.: chitosan (chi), salicylic acid (sa) and hydroquinone (hq) in comparing to the fungicide rhizolex t-50 ...200919579949
analysis of gene expression profiles in leaf tissues of cultivated peanuts and development of est-ssr markers and gene discovery.peanut is vulnerable to a range of foliar diseases such as spotted wilt caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv), early (cercospora arachidicola) and late (cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, southern stem rot (sclerotium rolfsii), and sclerotinia blight (sclerotinia minor). in this study, we report the generation of 17,376 peanut expressed sequence tags (ests) from leaf tissues of a peanut cultivar (tifrunner, resistant to tswv and leaf spots) and a breeding line (gt-c20, susceptible to ts ...200919584933
schiff bases as potential fungicides and nitrification inhibitors.a number of substituted schiff bases were synthesized and characterized by (1)h nmr and mass spectrometry. these compounds were screened for antifungal activity in vitro against pathogenic fungi, namely, sclerotium rolfsii and rhizoctonia bataticola, and for their effect on nitrification inhibition under laboratory conditions. maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by (2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)-amine and (3-nitrobenzylidene)-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)-amine against both fu ...200919702271
toxic and signalling effects of oxalic acid: oxalic acid-natural born killer or natural born protector?oxalic acid is thought to be a key factor of the early pathogenic stage in a wide range of necrotrophic fungi. we have recently published that oxalic acid induces programmed cell death (pcd) in arabidopsis thaliana cells. this cell death results from an early anionic efflux which is a prerequisite for the synthesis of ethylene and the pcd. complementary experiments have been carried out by using seedlings of a. thaliana. the effects of millimolar concentrations of oxalic acid were analysed on a. ...200819704845
effect of continuous olive mill wastewater applications, in the presence and absence of nitrogen fertilization, on the structure of rhizosphere-soil fungal communities.olive mill wastewater (omw) is rich in potentially toxic organics precluding its disposal into water receptors. however, land application of diluted omw may result in safe disposal and fertilization. in order to investigate the effects of omw on the structure of soil fungal groups, omw was applied daily to pepper plants growing in a loamy sand and a sandy loam at two doses for a period of 3 months (total omw equivalents 900 and 1800 m(3) ha(-1)). nitrogen (n) fertilization alleviated n scarcity ...200919799632
endophytic bacteria from ocimum sanctum and their yield enhancing capabilities.endophytes are beneficial microbes that reside intercellularly inside the plants. interaction of endophytes with the host plants and their function within their host are important to address ecological relevance of endophyte. four endophytic bacteria os-9, os-10, os-11, and os-12 were isolated from healthy leaves of ocimum sanctum. these isolated microbes were screened in dual culture against various phytopathogenic fungi viz. rhizoctonia solani, sclerotium rolfsii, fusarium solani, alternaria s ...201019826860
application of gamma irradiation in ginseng for both photodegradation of pesticide pentachloronitrobenzene and microbial decontamination.this study investigates the feasibility of using gamma irradiation for photodegradation of a common residual fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene (pcnb), in ginseng, and for microbial decontamination. american ginseng, panax quinquefolius, was subjected to gamma irradiation. pcnb residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. eighty percent of pcnb (100 ppm) in a methanol aqueous solution was degraded by 5 kgy irradiation, and the primary degrad ...201019959285
superoxide radical induces sclerotial differentiation in filamentous phytopathogenic fungi: a superoxide dismutase mimetics study.this study shows that the superoxide radical (o(2) *( -)), a direct indicator of oxidative stress, is involved in the differentiation of the phytopathogenic filamentous fungi rhizoctonia solani, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, sclerotium rolfsii and sclerotinia minor, shown by using superoxide dismutase (sod) mimetics to decrease their sclerotial differentiation. the production rate of o(2) *(-) and sod levels in these fungi, as expected, were significantly lowered by the sod mimetics, with concomitan ...201020007647
antifungal activity of 4'-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3'-butene-2'-ketoxime n-o-alkyl ethers.a number of 4'-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3'-butene-2'-ketoxime n-o-alkyl ethers were prepared, separated into their e and z isomers, and characterized on the basis of (1)h nmr and mass spectroscopy. these compounds were tested in vitro for antifungal activity against four important phytopathogenic fungi, namely, sclerotium rolfsii , rhizoctonia bataticola , macrophomina phaseolina , and sclerotinia sclerotiorum . e isomers of 4'-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3'-butene-2'-ketoxime ...201020038099
synthesis of nalidixic acid based hydrazones as novel pesticides.thirty-one substituted hydrazones of nalidixic acid hydrazide were synthesized and characterized by spectral techniques. these compounds were evaluated for various biological activities, namely, fungicidal, insecticidal, and nitrification inhibitory activities. the antifungal activity was evaluated against five pathogenic fungi, namely, rhizoctonia bataticola , sclerotium rolfsii , rhizoctonia solani , fusarium oxysporum , and alternaria porii . they showed maximum inihibition against a. porii w ...201020131903
perfect stage of sclerotium rolfsii sacc. causing pseudostem-rot of plantain (musa sapientum). 194620280176
synthesis and bioefficacy evaluation of new 3-substituted-3,4-dihydro-1,3-benzoxazines.a new series of 1, 3-benzoxazines were synthesized, characterized ((1)h nmr and (13)c nmr) and evaluated for their pesticidal activity. six new 3-alkyl-3, 4-dihydro-4-methyl-2h-1, 3-benzoxazines (1-6) were prepared by hydroxymethylation of secondary amines with formaldehyde in 65-68% yields. these compounds were screened for there igr activity against spodoptera litura and for antifungal fungal activity in vitro against sclerotium rolfsii itcc 6181 by poisoned food technique. insect growth regul ...201020390939
transcriptome sequencing and comparative transcriptome analysis of the scleroglucan producer sclerotium rolfsii.the plant pathogenic basidiomycete sclerotium rolfsii produces the industrially exploited exopolysaccharide scleroglucan, a polymer that consists of (1 --> 3)-beta-linked glucose with a (1 --> 6)-beta-glycosyl branch on every third unit. although the physicochemical properties of scleroglucan are well understood, almost nothing is known about the genetics of scleroglucan biosynthesis. similarly, the biosynthetic pathway of oxalate, the main by-product during scleroglucan production, has not been ...201020504312
microwave synthesis and antifungal evaluations of some chalcones and their derived diaryl-cyclohexenones.microwave irradiation (mwi) of acetophenones and substituted benzaldehydes in water resulted in a "green-chemistry" procedure for the preparation of chalcones (1-14), through base catalyzed claisen-schmidt condensation reaction, in good yields. further 3,5-diaryl-6-carbethoxy-2-cyclohexen-1-ones (1a-14a) were prepared through base catalyzed cyclocondensation of above chalcones with ethylacetoacetate using mwi as the energy source and silica as support. out of fourteen cyclohexenones, ten (1a, 4a ...201020574873
structure-biological activity relationships in triterpenic saponins: the relative activity of protobassic acid and its derivatives against plant pathogenic fungi.triterpenic saponins from sapindus mukorossi gaertn. and diploknema butyracea jf gmelin were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi. the study of the structure-antifungal activity relationships of protobassic acid saponins was widened by including semi-synthetic derivatives.201020603877
overlapping and distinct functions of two trichoderma virens map kinases in cell-wall integrity, antagonistic properties and repression of conidiation.we have studied the functions of the trichoderma virens tmkb, a homologue of the yeast cell-wall integrity map kinase slt2, using gene knockout. the functions of tmkb were compared to those of the pathogenicity map kinase homologue (tmka). like the tmka loss-of-function mutants, tmkb mutants exhibited reduced radial growth and constitutive conidiation in dark as well as in liquid shake cultures. the tmkb mutants, in contrast to tmka mutants, had cell-wall integrity defects, as shown by autolysis ...201020633533
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