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the effects of light and tyrosinase during sclerotium development in sclerotium rolfsii sacc.some effects of light on morphogenesis in sclerotium rolfsii sacc. were studied. physiological competence to visible light developed during the first 120 h after inoculation, with an optimum sensitivity phase between 84 and 96 h that coincided with the leading hyphae reaching the edge of the petri dish. although sclerotial initials were produced in dark-grown cultures, light was necessary for the continuation of the developmental and maturation phases of sclerotial morphogenesis. tyrosinase acti ...197715716
proteolytic activity of trichoderma viride in mixed culture with sclerotium rolfsii in soil.cultures of sclerotium rolfsii and trichoderma viride together in autoclaved soil were assayed at intervals during 8 days of incubation for proteolytic activity (pa) of t. viride. significant proteolytic activity was detected only in soil containing t. viride (i.e., t. viride alone or s. rolfsii + t. viride); greatest activity occurred between 3 and 4 days after infestation and declined rapidly thereafter. maximal pa in the mixed-culture soil was accompanied by an increase in soil ph. optimal ph ...197825130
microbial biodegradation of cellophase.the microbial biodegradation of cellophane (u.c.b.--division sidac) was studied. preliminary experiments with pure cultures of seven cellulolytic microorganisms (aspergillus sp., penicillium sp., chaetomium crispatum, ch. globosum, sclerotium rolfsii and two actinomycetes) revealed that the substrate as such was very recalcitrant, probably due to the occurrence of insoluble coating agents. therefore, mixed cultures of the above mentioned cellulolytic microorganisms were used as inoculum. the cel ...197829381
enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic materials by sclerotium rolfsii culture filtrate for sugar production.the hydrolysis of purified celluloses (cotton, avicel, cellulose-123, solka floc sw40) and cellulosic wastes (rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, wood powders, paper factory effluents) by sclerotium rolfsii cpc 142 culture filtrate was studied. factors which effect saccharification such as ph, temperature, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, produce inhibition, adsorption, and inactivation of enzyme and particle size were studied. virtually no inhibition (less than 3%) of cellulose hydroly ...197938898
demonstration of acid phosphatase-containing vacuoles in hyphal tip cells of sclerotium rolfsii.a lysosomal system was demonstrated in hyphal tip cells of sclerotium rolfsii by light and electron microscopy observations of the sites of acid phosphatase activity visualized by a modified gomori lead nitrate method. the cytochemical reaction product was found to be present in numerous vacuoles, each aout 0.5 mum in diameter, which were seen as chains of spheres when viewed with the light microscope. they usually did not occur in the first 30 to 40 mum of the hyphal tip cell, but were concentr ...1975171255
localization of beta-(1,3)-glucanase in the mycelium of sclerotium rolfsii.the role of the lytic enzyme beta-(1,3)-glucanase in cell wall synthesis and its distribution in the mycelium of the fungus sclerotium rolfsii were studied. enzyme activity was determined after enzyme extraction with triton x-100 from a cell wall preparation. specific zones of immunofluorescence appeared in the hyphal tips, clamp connections, new septa, and lateral branching when a specific antiserum was used with the indirect method of the fluorescent antibody staining. enzymatic activity in th ...1978350824
the relationship between rhythmic hyphal growth and circadian formation of sclerotia in sclerotium rolfsii sacc.the mycelium of the phytopathogenic fungus sclerotium rolfsii type r (atcc 26326) grown on a solid medium supplemented with 70 mm l-threonine exhibits a synchronous formation of sclerotia in circles whereas both leading and lateral hyphae enter into a rhythmic growth rate. a rhythmic activity of malate synthetase (malate synthase, ec 4.1.3.2) which accompanied the hyphal rhythm and preceded the formation of sclerotial circles was demonstrated. both translocation of l-[14c]threonine and incorpora ...1977560903
6-methylpurine-induced inhibition of sclerotia morphogenesis in sclerotium rolfsii and its reversal by adenosine.in liquid synthetic medium inoculated with sclerotium rolfsii (sr), addition of 6-methylpurine (mp, 50microgram/ml) immediately after inoculation led to approximately 100% reduction in sclerotia production. adenosine, and to a lesser extent guanosine, each at final concentration of 100microgram/ml significantly reduced inhibition of sclerotia formation by sr in presence of 50microgram/ml mp. uridine and cytidine each at 100microgram/ml had no such effect. the inhibition of sclerotia morphogenesi ...1977563978
inhibition of sclerotial formation of sclerotium rolfsii by cadmium. 1978569253
fluctuation in amino-acid constituents of a developing culture of sclerotium rolfsii sacc. and its relation to growth.altogether eleven amino acids were detected in the mycelial extract of sclerotium rolfsii sacc. here, with the appearance of aspartic acid and homoserine on the 5th day, growth was initiated. the maximum mycelial output, achieved by the 15th day, coincided with the detection of leucine/isoleucine and valine in the mycelial extract and of methionine in the culture filtrate. lysine and gamma-amino-butyric acid which appeared late in the mycelium did not contribute to its growth. tyrosine, an aroma ...1979573035
interaction of atrazine with soil microorganisms: population changes and accumulation.a loam soil treated with atrazine at rates of 10, 30, and 100 microgram/g soil resulted in increased populations of actinomycetes, bacteria, and fungi over those in non-treated soil. the increases were in proportion to the amount of atrazine and persisted for at least 2 months. living actinomycete amd fungal mycelia were incubated for 48 h in distilled water, nutrient broth, or soil containing 5 microgram/ml (g) of the herbicide. actinomycete and fungal mycelia accumulated atrazine from water to ...1978728848
fungal exudates.the exudates or liquid droplets on various structures of a number of fungi were examined. the droplets were enveloped in membranous material and were associated with actively growing mycelia, including fruiting structures. osmium tetroxide vapour-fixed droplets of claviceps purpurea, myrothecium roridum, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, sclerotium rolfsii, and thanathephorus cucumeris did not dry to a powder but remained intact as spheres when freeze-dried. fractured spheres, examined with the scanning ...1978728849
effects of phenylthiourea on growth and sclerotial formation of sclerotium rolfsii and whetzelinia sclerotiorum.the growth of sclerotium rolfsii and whetzelinia sclerotiorum was reduced when 5 x 10(-4) to 2 x 10(-3) m 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (ptu) was incorporated into synthetic media and potato dextrose agar (pda). whetzelinia sclerotiorum produced heavy aerial mycelia and few, if any, sclerotia in synthetic glucose-nitrate liquid medium containing 10(-3) and 2 x 10(-3) m ptu. at the same ptu concentrations in pda. w. sclerotiorum formed abnormal sclerotia covered with a yellowish green exudate. sclerotium r ...1976943219
metabolism of l-threonine and its relationship to sclerotium formation in sclerotium rolfsii.the activities of l-threonine dehydrogenase (i), 2-amino-3-oxybutyrate:coa ligase (ii), malate synthetase (iii), isocitrate lyase (iv), glyoxylate dehydrogenase (v), glycine decarboxylase (vi), l-serine hydroxymethyltransferase (vii), glucan synthetase (viii), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (ix) and succinic dehydrogenase (x) were detected in cell-free extracts prepared from the mycelium of the fungus sclerotium rolfsii type r. transfer of s. rolfsii to a threonine-containing medium resulted ...1976986416
the effect of light on acid-soluble polysaccharide accumulation in sclerotium rolfsii sacc.a light-stimulated increase in beta-1,3 glucan accumulation was observed for sclerotium rolfsii sacc. the acid-soluble polysaccharide accumulated in large quantities in 'white' light- and blue light-grown cultures. this polysaccharide also accumulated in both dark- and red light-grown cultures as well. however, the quantities were significantly lower when compared to the 'white' light- and blue light-grown cultures. a greater quantity of polysaccharide accumulated in red light-grown cultures tha ...1976986867
the effect of glucose and lactose on beta-d-galactosidase activity and formation of sclerotia in sclerotium rolfsii.addition of 0.5% (w/v) lactose to a glucose-mineral mdeium (sm) induced formation of sclerotia and beta-d-galactosidase (beta-d-galactoside galactohydrolase)(ec 3.2.1.23) synthesis in sclerotium rolfsii types a and r; these effects as well as lactose uptake were inversely related to glucose concentration within the tested range of 0.5 to 2.5% (w/v). transfer of lactose-grown colonies to a glucose-supplemented medium nullified the inducible effect of lactose on formation of sclerotia, whereas tr ...19751170931
specific inhibition of sclerotium formation by 2-mercaptoethanol and related sulfhydryl compounds in sclerotium rolfsii.sclerotium formation in sclerotium rolfsii was completely inhibited by 2-mercaptoethanol at a concentration of 2-4 mm without any adverse effect on mycelial growth. concentrations lower than 2 mm had no effect on mycelial growth and sclerotium formation, whereas both were inhibited at concentrations higher than 4 mm. complete inhibition of sclerotium formation with no effect on mycelial growth was also obtained by propyl mercaptan, 1-butyl mercaptan and 2-butyl mercaptan at a concentration of 0. ...19751238158
ethanol production from cellulose by coupled saccharification/fermentation using saccharomyces cerevisiae and cellulase complex from sclerotium rolfsii uv-8 mutant.using cellulase/hemicellulase complex of sclerotium rolfsii uv-8 mutant and saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation, the coupled saccharification/fermentation (csf) of 15% at-rice straw was carried out at 40 degrees c, ph 4.5 for the first 24 h and further incubation was performed at 30 degrees c for 72 h. increasing the amount of cellulase activity from 3-12 iu fpa/g of substrate resulted in increased yields of ethanol from 1.5-3.6% in 96 h. it has been observed that the coupled system was ad ...19921288411
production of carbohydrases by sclerotium rolfsii.coproduction of alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, amyloglucosidase, cellulase, xylanase, pectinase and beta-galactosidase by sclerotium rolfsii was studied on various polysaccharides. starch induced alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, amyloglucosidase and beta galactosidase; cellulose induced cellulase, xylanase, pectinase and beta-galactosidase; and pectin induced pectinase and beta-galactosidase. none of the enzymes studied except beta-galactosidase were induced on xylan. group controlled mechanism for pr ...19921289302
biomimics of fungal cell-cell recognition by use of lectin-coated nylon fibers.when the mycoparasitic, biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum was allowed to grow on nylon fibers treated with concanavalin a or sclerotium rolfsii lectin, it coiled around the nylon fibers and produced hooks in a pattern similar to that observed with the real host hyphae. the incidence of interaction between t. harzianum and s. rolfsii lectin-treated fibers was significantly higher than that of the controls (untreated or blocked activated fibers). these findings provide direct evidence for th ...19921732197
factors affecting stability of sclerotium rolfsii uv-8 mutant cellulase complex under saccharification conditions.enzyme stability studies in case of sclerotium rolfsii uv-8 mutant have been investigated under the conditions used for saccharification of cellulose (50 degrees c, ph 4.5, 48 h). avicelase (measure of exoenzymes) and xylanase were found to be less stable than cmcase (endoglucanase) and beta-glucosidase. merthiolate (and other hg compounds) added as a biocide, inactivated avicelase and xylanase about 60-70%. of the antibiotics tested, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin sulfate were ...19911796812
efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of agricultural residues by saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida shehatae. the d-xylose fermenting yeast.simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (ssf) experiments were carried out on agricultural residues using culture filtrate of sclerotium rolfsii, which produces high levels of cellulases and hemicellulases for the saccharification of rice straw and bagasse, and candida shehatae--the d-xylose fermenting yeast, and saccharomyces cerevisiae, both separately and in coculture, for fermenting the released sugars. the coculture system showed efficient utilization of hydrolyzed sugars with 30-38% ...19902091527
[antagonism in vitro among phytopathogenic and saprobic fungi from horticultural soils].two methods were tested in order to determine the existence of in vitro antagonism among saprobic and pathogenic fungi. these microorganisms were the most common isolates from horticultural soils of la plata (buenos aires). trichoderma harzianum; t. koningii and penicillium sp. were antagonistic to all the pathogenic fungi tested, fusarium solani; f. oxysporum; alternaria solani; colletotrichum sp. and sclerotium rolfsii spicaria sp., paecilomyces sp. and chaetomiun sp. were antagonistic only to ...19902287718
antagonistic potential of gliocladium virens and trichoderma longibrachiatum to phytopathogenic fungi.three isolates of gliocladium virens (g1, g2 and g3) and two of trichoderma longibrachiatum (t1 and t2) were screened against isolates of three soilborne plant pathogens namely rhizoctonia solani, sclerotium rolfsii and pythium aphanidermatum. g. virens exhibited stronger hyperparasitism and wider biological spectrum than t. longibrachiatum. further, similarities as well as variation was observed in the ability of the various isolates to invade the test pathogens in dual culture. for the hyperpa ...19902325746
production of amylolytic enzymes in culture by botryodiplodia theobromae and sclerotium rolfsii associated with the corm rots of colocasia esculenta.extracellular amylase was detected in culture filtrates of botryodiplodia theobromae and sclerotium rolfsii. during 10 days incubation s. rolfsii produced more amylase than b. theobromae. b. theobromae produced the greatest amount of amylase at 25 degrees c, while s. rolfsii at 30 degrees c. both organism exerted the highest amylase activity at ph 6-7. in starch-free medium extracellular amylase was in very low quantities. there was a positive correlation between increase in starch concentration ...19882469279
in vitro studies on toxicity of heavy metals against sclerotium rolfsii sacc. a foot-rot pathogen of barley. 19883170263
studies on competitive saprophytic colonization of sclerotium rolfsii sacc. causing foot-rot disease of barley under certain pesticidal treatments. 19883255750
toxicity of copper and zinc against sclerotium rolfsii sacc. causing foot rot of barley. 19873450683
a phosphatidase produced by sclerotium rolfsii. 19694305960
[comparative study of enzymes produced by 2 kinds of mycelium composing the thallus of corticium rolfsii (sacc.) curzi]. 19724350817
the relationship between the chemical structure of s-triazines and fungitoxicity to sclerotium rolfsii. 19734697260
increased activity of soil microorganisms near sclerotia of sclerotium rolfsii in soil. 19714928632
[demonstration of a fundamental type of hypha in corticium rolfsii (sacc.) curzi. experimental study of its functions]. 19664963907
the control mechanism of sclerotial formation in sclerotium rolfsii sacc. 19684978672
effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on the sclerotia of sclerotium rolfsii. 19714994558
properties of purified -l-arabinofuranosidase from corticium rolfsii. 19715143344
proteins from plant cell walls inhibit polygalacturonases secreted by plant pathogens.proteins extracted from the cell walls of red kidney bean hypocotyls, tomato stems, and suspension-cultured sycamore cells can completely inhibit the activity of the polygalacturonases (polygalacturonide hydrolases, ec 3.2.1.15) secreted by the fungal plant pathogens colletotrichum lindemuthianum, fusarium oxysporum, and sclerotium rolfsii. the inhibitor of the c. lindemuthianum polygalacturonase, purified 560-fold from bean hypocotyl extracts, is 40 times as effective an inhibitor of the c. lin ...19715288769
production and properties of galactosidases from corticium rolfsii.when corticum rolfsii was grown in a medium containing bran extract under aerobic conditions, it secreted alpha-d-galactosidase and beta-d-galactosidase into the culture fluid. pectin also stimulated the production of these enzymes, whereas galactose, glucose, and sucrose stimulated their production to a lesser degree. c. rolfsii produced greater amounts of both enzymes than aspergillus niger. both galactosidases in the culture medium hydrolyzed alpha- and beta-p-nitrophenyl-d-galactosides as we ...19695370656
growth response of sclerotium rolfsii to the herbicide eptc in liquid culture and soil. 19705461749
studies on the basidial formation by sclerotium rolfsii sacc. 8. abortive basidial formation on media. 19685662489
x-ray analysis of hyphal and sclerotial walls of sclerotium rolfsii sacc. 19685684684
effect of atrazine on growth activity of sclerotium rolfsii and trichoderma viride in soil. 19685751554
purification and properties of an unusually acid-stable endo-polygalacturonase produced by corticium rolfsii. 19695781723
enzymatic degradation of galactan, galactomannan, and xylan by sclerotium rolfsii. 19695799566
studies on the basidial formation by sclerotium rolfsii sacc. 3. perfect stage of s. rolfsii isolates from potato, colocasia and groundnut on a new medium. 19665966456
melanins and resistance of fungi to lysis.hyphal walls of aspergillus phoenicis and sclerotium rolfsii are composed of large amounts of glucose- and n-acetylhexosamine-containing polysaccharides, and the walls are extensively digested by streptomycete culture filtrates or by a mixture of purified chitinase and beta-(1 --> 3) glucanase preparations with the release of the monomeric units. a. phoenicis conidial walls also contain polymers of glucose and n-acetylhexosamine, but these walls are resistant to digestion by microorganisms or th ...19676032507
chemical composition of hyphal and sclerotial walls of sclerotium rolfsii sacc. 19676035531
effect of atrazine on growth response of sclerotium rolfsii and trichoderma viride. 19676070712
effect of paraquat on growth of sclerotium rolfsii in liquid culture and soil. 19676077711
isolation and characterization of glyoxylate dehydrogenase from the fungus sclerotium rolfsii.glyoxylate dehydrogenase (glyoxylate:nad+ oxidoreductase) was purified 600-fold in three steps from crude extracts of the fungus sclerotium rolfsii (corticium rolfsii curzi). two of the purification steps involved dye-affinity chromatography. the enzyme is a tetramer of mr 250 000, with identical subunits of mr 57 000. inhibition studies suggest that there is one essential thiol group per active site.19846712607
purification, characterization, and properties of beta-glucosidase enzymes from sclerotium rolfsii. 19816786226
studies on the etiology and symptomatology of root and storage rot disease of cocoyam in nigeria.the losses caused by root and storage rot of cocoyam in nigeria are estimated as 40 to 45%. field symptoms of the disease include inhibited growth, leaf chlorosis followed by necrosis and shrivelling of affected parts, and finally premature death of the aerial portions of the plant. a large proportion of the roots are destroyed. poor production of cormels and reduced corm size are other field symptoms of the disease, differing according to the type of causal agent. botryodiplodia theobromae, fus ...19826891209
mycoparasitism of sclerotial fungi by teratosperma oligocladum.sclerotia of sclerotinia minor were parasitized by teratosperma oligocladum, a recently described dematiaceous hyphomycete. the mycoparasite was cultured on living sclerotia placed on water agar and on sclerotia in moist sand. it grew poorly on several common laboratory media but growth in vitro was enhanced by supplements of soil extract and, especially, by aqueous extracts of sclerotia. sclerotia of s. minor, s. sclerotiorum, s. trifoliorum, sclerotium cepivorum, and botrytis cinerea were para ...19817198002
carbon and nitrogen nutrition of plant pathogenic fungi associated with basal stem rots of cowpeas, vigna unguiculata (l) walp in nigeria.pythium aphanidermatum, rhizoctonia bataticola (syn. = macrophomina phaseolina), botryodiplodia theobromae, and two strains of sclerotium rolfsii readily utilized for growth the monosaccharides glucose, fructose and mannose, the disaccharides sucrose and maltose and the polysaccharides dextrin and starch. in addition, s. rolfsii grew appreciably well on carboxymethylcellulose (cmc). when filter paper (nature cellulose) was supplied as sole carbon source, it was decomposed by b. theobromae, s. ro ...19807376690
effect of different nitrogen sources on the yield of oxalic acid by sclerotium rolfsii.of the different sources of nitrogen used for the yield of oxalic acid by parent and x-ray mutated strains of sclerotium rolfsii, organic nitrogen sources gave better results than inorganic nitrogen sources. cysteine is the best nitrogen source for the parent and one mutant strain while phenylalanine is for the second one.19807439846
[in vitro tests of the antagonistic behavior of trichoderma spp. against pathogenic species of the horticultural region of la plata, argentina].the antagonistic properties of seven trichoderma species in front of the pathogens fusarium oxysporum, f. equiseti, f. solani, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, s. minor, rhizoctonia sp. and sclerotium rolfsii was evaluated in vitro. those microorganisms were isolated from horticultural soils of la plata in order to test the antagonistic-pathogenic relationship. dual cultures on pda 2% were used. all the species of trichoderma grew in the culture medium with a colonization value higher than 50%. differe ...19947772296
a newly isolated lectin from the plant pathogenic fungus sclerotium rolfsii: purification, characterization and role in mycoparasitism.a novel lectin was isolated and purified from the culture filtrate of the soilborne plant pathogenic fungus sclerotium rolfsii by anion-exchange chromatography using a deae-sepharose column. the lectin came through the column with the flow-through, whereas all the non-agglutinating proteins present in the crude preparation remained bound to the column until elution in a nacl gradient. sds-page analysis of the agglutinating fraction revealed a single band corresponding to a protein with a molecul ...19948012587
synthesis and antifungal activity of medicagenic acid saponins on plant pathogens: modification of the saccharide moiety and the 23 alpha substitution.the study of structure-antifungal activity relationships of medicagenic acid saponins was widened to include synthetic glycosides of mannose, galactose, cellobiose, and lactose as well as a 23 alpha-hydroxymethyl analog of medicagenic acid, namely, methyl 2 beta,3 beta-dihydroxy-23 alpha-hydroxymethyl-delta (12)-oleanene-28 beta-carboxylate, against sclerotium rolfsii, rhizoctonia solani, trichoderma viride, aspergillus niger, and fusarium oxysporum. the native glucose-containing saponin was a m ...19938339299
the role of recognition in the induction of specific chitinases during mycoparasitism by trichoderma harzianum.the induction of chitinolytic enzymes in the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum during parasitism on sclerotium rolfsii and the role of fungal-fungal recognition in this process were studied. a change in the chitinolytic enzyme profile was detected during the interaction between the fungi, grown in dual culture on synthetic medium. before coming into contact with each other, both fungi contained a protein with constitutive 1,4-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase activity. as early as 12 h after con ...19958535510
antifungal activity of new compounds from nepeta leucophylla and nepeta clarkei.iridodial beta-monoenol acetate, isolated from the essential oil of nepeta leucophylla benth, and actinidine from n. clarkei benth were screened for antifungal activities against aspergillus flavus, aspergillus ochraceus, penicillium citrinum, and penicillium viridicatum, all known mycotoxin-producing taxa, and sclerotium rolfsii and macrophomina phaseolina, potential soybean pathogens. iridodial beta-monoenol acetate was most effective against s. rolfsii, while actinidine was highly active agai ...19968593072
cloning of corticium rolfsii glucoamylase cdna and its expression in saccharomyces cerevisiae.a cdna coding for the glucoamylase of corticium rolfsii ahu 9627 was cloned using synthetic oligonucleotide probes that code for inner amino acid sequences of the purified enzyme. this clone (cg 15) is 1900 base pairs long and contains the entire coding region for a polypeptide of 579 residues. comparison with amino acid sequences of other fungal glucoamylases showed homologies of 35%-56%, and most homology with that of aspergillus niger. the expression plasmid pacg 115 was constructed by introd ...19958597548
effect of some fungicides on extracellular enzymes of sclerotium rolfsii sacc.the effect of four fungicides on rot of cocoyam tubers, vegetative growth and extracelluar enzymes of the pathogen was investigated. at 200 ppm concentration, rot was completely prevented by dithane m45. benomyl and iprodione in tubers of xanthosoma sagittifolium. there was better protection by the fungicides for cocoyam tubers treated with fungicides before spraying with hyphal suspension than those sprayed first with hyphal suspension of sclerotium rolfsii sacc. at 600 ppm, benomyl and iprodio ...19968766668
[effect of monensin on the growth and secretion of exopolysaccharides in botrytis cinerea pers. and sclerotium rolfsii sacc].the addition of various concentrations of monensin (1,5, and 10 micrograms/ml) to the culture medium inhibits the fungal growth and perturbs exopolysaccharides secretion, provoking a decrease of production in botrytis cinerea and an increase in sclerotium rolfsii. the ionophore induces also modifications in both polymer composition and structure. new monomers were observed in the two species and a decreased branching rate for sclerotium rolfsii. these modifications show that monensin affects the ...19968925490
aryl beta-galactosidase from sclerotium rolfsii: physiological and biochemical studies.production of beta-galactosidase by sclerotium rolfsii ncim 1084 was studied under submerged fermentation conditions. the enzyme was produced extracellularly and constitutively on glucose. the enzyme production was enhanced when galactose, raffinose, cellobiose, sucrose, xylose, maltose, cellulose and pectin were used as carbon sources. cellulose and diammonium hydrogen phosphate were best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. surfactants such as sag, paraffin oil, tween 20 and tween 80 inc ...19958972138
changes in phenol oxidase and peroxidase levels in cocoyam tubers of different postharvest ages infected by sclerotium rolfsii sacc.crude aqueous extracts from the peripheral rot zone of cocoyam tubers infected by sclerotium rolfsii sacc were shown to be inhibitory to dialysed in vivo polygalacturonase (pg) of the pathogen. the pg inhibitory action, phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were higher in cocoyam tubers of the xanthosoma sagittifolium varieties than in those of the coolocasia esculenta varieties. the levels of phenol oxidase, peroxidase and pg inhibitory activities also decreased as the postharvest age of the ...19968975142
syntheses and biological activities of dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain derivatives.the syntheses and biological activities of dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain derivatives against plant pathogenic fungi and termites were investigated. dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain was isolated by a simple method without chromatography from the leaves of alpinia speciosa k. schum. the white crystalline compound obtained was identified as dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (1) by instrumental analyses. 4-hydroxy-6-(2-phenylethyl)-2h-pyran-2-one (3) was prepared by hydrolyzing dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain. three dihydro ...19968987662
determination of radial growth rate of colonies of sclerotium rolfsii f-6656 for the evaluation of culture medium, optimum incubation temperature, osmo- and halotolerance.the measurement of the colony radial growth rate (kr) on solid medium of colonies of sclerotium rolfsii proimi f-6656 for the evaluation of scleroglucan production medium and other different media, incubation temperature and tolerance to diverse concentrations of sucrose and nacl were studied. the optimum growth temperature observed was 30 degrees c. the kr value reached on the production medium used (0.66 mm.h-1) showed no differences compared with those of the other media tested, indicating th ...19969017854
efficient production of mannan-degrading enzymes by the basidiomycete sclerotium rolfsii.sclerotium rolfsii cbs 191.62 was cultivated on a number of carbon (c) sources, including mono- and disaccharides, as well as on polysaccharides, to study the formation of different mannan-degrading enzyme activities. highest levels of mannanase activity were obtained when alpha-cellulose-based media were used for growth, but formation of mannanase could not be enhanced by employing galactomannan as the only carbon source. although both xylanase and cellulase formation was almost completely repr ...19989627405
purification and properties of the raw-starch-digesting glucoamylases from corticium rolfsii.corticium rolfsii ahu 9627, isolated from a tomato stem, is one of the strongest producers of raw-starch-digesting amylase. the amylase system secreted by c. rolfsii ahu 9627 consisted of five forms of glucoamylase (g1-g5) and a small amount of alpha-amylase. among these amylases, g1, g2 and g3 were able to hydrolyze raw starch. five forms of glucoamylase were separated from each other and purified to an electrophoretically homogeneous state. the molecular masses were: g1 78 kda, g2 78 kda, g3 7 ...19989802217
role of the trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene, ech42, in mycoparasitism.the role of the trichoderma harzianum endochitinase (ech42) in mycoparasitism was studied by genetically manipulating the gene that encodes ech42, ech42. we constructed several transgenic t. harzianum strains carrying multiple copies of ech42 and the corresponding gene disruptants. the level of extracellular endochitinase activity when t. harzianum was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42-fold in multicopy strains as compared with the wild type, whereas gene disruptants exhibited p ...199910049844
synthesis of a trichoderma chitinase which affects the sclerotium rolfsii and rhizoctonia solani cell walls.a trichoderma sp. isolate, hereafter called t6, produces a 46-kda endochitinase (chit 46) which had been shown to drastically affect in vitro the cell walls of the phytopathogens sclerotium rolfsii and rhizoctonia solani. we attempted to gain insight into its properties. the chit 46 n-terminal amino acid sequence shares a very high homology with other fungal chitinases. western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies anti-chit 46 revealed that this enzyme is immunologically distinct from other ...199910489693
induction of stable benomyl-tolerant phenotypic mutants of trichoderma pseudokoningii mtcc 3011, and their evaluation for antagonistic and biocontrol potential.trichoderma pseudokoningii mtcc 3011 is a very useful strain for biological control of the plant pathogen sclerotium rolfsii under post-harvest conditions. in the present investigation, several benomyl-tolerant phenotypic mutants of this strain have been generated using a two step mutagenesis-chemical followed by gamma irradiation. the mutants differed from the wild type strain in antibiotic and disease control potential. some of the mutants are superior to the wild type in biocontrol potential ...199910522159
[the effect of the substance exin on development of microbial infections and isolation of ethylene in plants].effects of exin on infection of tomato, potato, and cabbage plants with pseudomonas solanacearum and erwinia carotovora and a fungus sclerotium rolfsii were studied. the treatment of infected plants with exin caused no significant effect on the development of the disease. treatment with streptomycin as a standard for comparison completely inhibited the growth of these microorganisms. pretreatment with exin one to eight days before infecting inhibited the development of diseases. the numbers of t ...200010780015
hydrolysis of isolated coffee mannan and coffee extract by mannanases of sclerotium rolfsii.different mannanase preparations obtained from the filamentous fungus sclerotium rolfsii were used for the hydrolysis of coffee mannan, thus reducing significantly the viscosity of coffee extracts. mannan is the main polysaccharide component of these extracts and is responsible for their high viscosity, which negatively affects the technological processing of instant coffee. coffee mannan was isolated from green defatted arabica beans by delignification, acid wash and subsequent alkali extractio ...200010908793
antimicrobial activities of ferulago essential oils.essential oils from ferulago asparagifolia boiss., f. galbanifera (miller) w. koch, f. humilis boiss. (endemic), f. trachycarpa boiss. growing in turkey were evaluated against 15 microorganisms for their antifungal and antibacterial activity using an agar tube dilution and microdilution broth susceptibility assay, respectively. the essential oil compositions were investigated by gc/ms. inhibitory effects against escherichia coli, enterobacter aerogenes, candida albicans, gaeumannomyces graminis ...200011204191
purification and characterization of cellobiose dehydrogenase from the plant pathogen sclerotium (athelia) rolfsii.cellobiose dehydrogenase (cdh) is an extracellular hemoflavoenzyme produced by several wood-degrading fungi. in the presence of a suitable electron acceptor, e.g., 2,6-dichloro-indophenol (dcip), cytochrome c, or metal ions, cdh oxidizes cellobiose to cellobionolactone. the phytopathogenic fungus sclerotium rolfsii (teleomorph: athelia rolfsii) strain cbs 191.62 produces remarkably high levels of cdh activity when grown on a cellulose-containing medium. of the 7,500 u of extracellular enzyme act ...200111282631
antifungal activity of a novel endochitinase gene (chit36) from trichoderma harzianum rifai tm.a novel 36-kda endochitinase named chit36 has been isolated and characterized from trichoderma harzianum rifai tm. partial amino acid sequences from the purified protein were used to clone the fungal cdna, based on polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers. the complete open reading frame encodes a 344-amino acid protein which shows 84% similarity to a putative chitinase from streptomyces coelicolor. chit36 was overexpressed under the pki1 constitutive promoter from trichoderma reesei vi ...200111425470
characterization of a chitinase and an endo-beta-1,3-glucanase from trichoderma harzianum rifai t24 involved in control of the phytopathogen sclerotium rolfsii.of 24 trichoderma isolates, t harzianum rifai (t24) showed a potential for control of the phytopathogenic basidiomycete sclerotium rolfsii. when t24 was grown on different carbon sources, growth inhibition of s. rolfsii by the t24 culture filtrate correlated with the activity of extracellular chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase. the 43-kilodalton (kda) chitinase and the 74-kda beta-1,3-glucanase were purified from the t24 culture filtrate in two and three steps, respectively, using ammonium sulphat ...200111499921
indigo degradation with purified laccases from trametes hirsuta and sclerotium rolfsii.the degradation of the textile dye indigo with purified laccases from the fungi trametes hirsuta (thl1 and thl2) and sclerotium rolfsii (srl1) was studied. all laccases were able to oxidize indigo yielding isatin (indole-2,3-dione), which was further decomposed to anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid). based on the oxygen consumption rate of the laccases during indigo degradation, a potential mechanism for the oxidation of indigo involving the step-wise abstraction of four electrons from indigo ...200111500206
beta-carotene production and its role in sclerotial differentiation of sclerotium rolfsii.the fungus sclerotium rolfsii produces beta-carotene, the main detected carotenoid, in levels dependent upon oxidative growth conditions and upon differentiation. beta-carotene accumulation is 5-, 6.5-, and 6.7-fold higher in undifferentiated mycelia, sclerotia, and differentiated mycelia, respectively, at high than at low oxidative stress. it accumulates more in older than in younger mycelia and is 2-fold higher in differentiated than in undifferentiated mycelia. we propose that beta-carotene i ...200111567548
carbohydrate specificity of a lectin isolated from the fungus sclerotium rolfsii.in order to investigate the functional roles of a phytopathogenic fungal lectin (srl) isolated from the bodies of sclerotium rolfsii, the binding properties of srl were studied by enzyme linked lectinosorbent assay and by inhibition of srl-glycan interaction. among glycoproteins (gp) tested for binding, srl reacted strongly with galnac alpha1-->4ser/thr (tn) and/or gal beta1-->3galnac alpha1-->(t(alpha)) containing gps: human t(alpha) and tn glycophorin, asialo salivary gps, and asialofetuin, bu ...200111589519
determination of cellular carbohydrates in peanut fungal pathogens and baker's yeast by capillary electrophoresis and electrochromatography.in this work, the quantitation of cellular carbohydrates, namely chitin and glucan, in peanut fungal pathogens and baker's yeast was carried out by capillary electrophoresis (ce) and capillary electrochromatography (cec). the chitin and glucan of the fungi were hydrolyzed by the enzymes chitinase and glucanase, respectively, to their corresponding sugar monomers n-acetylglucosamine (glcnac) and glucose (glc). these two monosaccharides were then tagged with 6-aminoquinoline (6-aq) to allow their ...200111714314
in vivo volatile emissions from peanut plants induced by simultaneous fungal infection and insect damage.peanut plants, arachis hypogaea, infected with white mold. sclerotium rolfsii, emit a blend of organic compounds that differs both quantitatively and qualitatively from the blend emitted from plants damaged by beet armyworm (baw; spodoptera exigua) larvae or from uninfected, undamaged plants. attackby baw induced release of lipoxygenase products (hexenols, hexenals, and hexenyl esters), terpenoids, and indole. the plant-derived compound methyl salicylate and the fungal-derived compound 3-octanon ...200211868672
decolorization of textile dyes by laccases from a newly isolated strain of trametes modesta.four ligninolytic fungi, trametes modesta, trametes hirsuta, trametes versicolor and sclerotium rolfsii, were compared for their ability to produce laccases. the fungal laccases were screened for their ability to decolorize eight synthetic dyes (anthraquinone, azo, indigo and triarylmethane). the decolorization rate depended both on the source of the enzyme preparation and on the structure of the dye. based on laccase production and dye decolorizing ability, t. modesta was selected for further s ...200211996335
lipofuscins and sclerotial differentiation in phytopathogenic fungi.lipofuscins of lipidic and proteinaceous origin were identified by their excitation and emission spectra in phytopathogenic fungal representatives of different sclerotial differentiation types. lipofuscin pigments in sclerotium rolfsii, rhizoctonia solani, sclerotinia minor and sclerotinia sclerotiorum showed similar excitation and emission maxima (ex-em 330-450, 330-450, 330-470 and 330-470 nm, respectively). sclerotial differentiation of these fungi was proceeded by a 4.2, 2.5, 2.7, 2.5 and 6, ...200212014481
in vitro evaluation on inhibitory nature of some neem formulations against plant pathogenic fungi.different neem formulations derived from the neem tree (azadirachta indica) have been found to be potential fungicides against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi. some neem formulations viz. achook (0.15% ec), bioneem (0.03% ec), nimbecidine (0.03% ec) and neemark (0.03% ec) were examined against some plant pathogenic fungi such as (fusarium oxysporum, alternaria solani, curvularia lunata, helminthosporium sp. and sclerotium rolfsii). among these achook (0.15% ec) was found to be more ac ...199912024976
volatile compounds emitted by sclerotia of sclerotinia minor, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and sclerotium rolfsii.volatile compounds emitted by sclerotia of sclerotinia minor, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and sclerotium rolfsii were identified by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectometry. both s. minor and s. sclerotiorum emitted 2-methylenebornane and 2-methylisoborneol. in addition, s. minor emitted mesityl oxide, gamma-butyrolactone, cis- and trans-linalool oxide, linalool, and trans-nerolidol. s. sclerotiorum emitted 2-methyl-2-bornene, 1-methylcamphene, and a diterpen ...200212059156
studies on exudate-depleted sclerotial development in sclerotium rolfsii and the effect of oxalic acid, sclerotial exudate, and culture filtrate on phenolic acid induction in chickpea (cicer arietinum).exudate depletion from developing sclerotia of sclerotium rolfsii sacc. in culture caused reduced size and weight of sclerotia. germination of exudate-depleted sclerotia was delayed on cyperus rotundus rhizome meal agar medium when compared with that of control sclerotia. the exudate-depleted sclerotia caused infection in chickpea (cicer arietinum) plants in a glasshouse. different temperatures and incubation periods had no effect on the germination ability of the exudate-depleted sclerotia. oxa ...200212109884
activation of a bean chitinase promoter in transgenic tobacco plants by phytopathogenic fungi.the temporal and spatial expression of a bean chitinase promoter has been investigated in response to fungal attack. analysis of transgenic tobacco plants containing a chimeric gene composed of a 1.7-kilobase fragment carrying the chitinase 5b gene promoter fused to the coding region of the gus a gene indicated that the chitinase promoter is activated during attack by the fungal pathogens botrytis cinerea, rhizoctonia solani, and sclerotium rolfsii. although induction of [beta]-glucuronidase act ...199012354948
purification of a chitinase from trichoderma sp. and its action on sclerotium rolfsii and rhizoctonia solani cell walls.trichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent of several important plant pathogenic fungi. this trichoderma species attacks other fungi by secreting lytic enzymes, including beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinolytic enzymes. superior biocontrol potential may then be found in strains having a high capacity to produce these enzymes. we have therefore evaluated the capacity of six unidentified trichoderma spp. isolates to produce chitinolytic enzymes and beta-1,3-glucanases in comparison with t. ...199712501351
effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and culture filtrate of sclerotium rolfsii on phenolic and salicylic acid contents in chickpea (cicer arietinum).two plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr), viz., pseudomonas fluorescens strain pf4 and p. aeruginosa strain pag, protected chickpea ( cicer arietinum) plants from sclerotium rolfsii infection when applied singly or in combination as seed treatment. pag gave the best protection to the seedlings, applied either singly (mortality 16%) or in combination with pf4 (mortality 17%) compared with 44% and 24% mortality in control and pf4 treatment, respectively. the two pgpr strains induced the syn ...200312520369
crystallization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic analysis of sclerotium rolfsii lectin.sclerotium rolfsii lectin (srl), from the soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus s. rolfsii, has been crystallized. srl crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using an mpd-ammonium acetate mixture in tris-hcl buffer ph 8.5. a complete data set from a single crystal at 100 k was collected to 1.1 a resolution using synchrotron radiation. preliminary crystallographic analysis showed that the crystals belong to the tetragonal space group p4(2)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = ...200312554954
optimisation of cellobiose dehydrogenase production by the fungus sclerotium (athelia) rolfsii.the phytopathogenic fungus sclerotium (athelia) rolfsii cbs 191.62 is a very efficient producer of the hemoflavoprotein, cellobiose dehydrogenase (cdh), forming up to 225 mg l(-1) (15,000 units cytochrome c activity l(-1)) of this protein, which is of biotechnological interest for sensors, biocatalysis and bioremediation. both cellulose as inducing substrate and the use of a rich medium containing increased concentrations of peptone from meat or suitable amino acids are important for attaining h ...200312658512
in vitro activities of maesa lanceolata extracts against fungal plant pathogens.in vitro tests were carried out using extracts of maesa lanceolata var. goulungensis weir against a broad range of fungal plant pathogens such as phytophthora cryptogea, trichoderma virens, aspergillus niger, phoma sp., fusarium oxysporium, pythium ultimum, cochliobolus heterostrophus, rhizoctonia solani, sclerotium rolfsii and pyrenophora teres. m. lanceolata extracts were very active against all the pathogens tested except p. ultimum and r. solani.200312727503
phylogenetic relationship of sclerotium rolfsii (teleomorph athelia rolfsii) and s delphinii based on its sequences.the phylogenetic relationships of the stem rot pathogens sclerotium rolfsii and s. delphinii were examined, based on their rdna its sequences. the its regions were cloned and sequenced to identify three distinct its types: r-1, r-2, and r-3. two different its types exist within s. rolfsii and s. delphinii strains. japanese strains and one strain of s. rolfsii from the usa contain types r-1 and r-2, whereas another strain from the usa and one from chile have only one its type, r-2. s. delphinii s ...200312747327
tmka, a mitogen-activated protein kinase of trichoderma virens, is involved in biocontrol properties and repression of conidiation in the dark.trichoderma virens is a mycoparasitic fungus used in biocontrol of soilborne plant pathogens. it inhibits or kills plant-pathogenic fungi through production of antifungal antibiotics and parasitism of hyphae and sclerotia. conidiation, or the production of asexual spores, an inducible process triggered by light or nutrient stress, is an important trait in survival and also development of formulation products. in many fungi, signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) ca ...200312796289
an efficient method for the purification and characterization of nematicidal azadirachtins a, b, and h, using mplc and esims.azadirachtin a enriched concentrate containing 60% active ingredient (a.i.) was prepared from the methanolic extract of the de-fatted neem (azadirachta indica a. juss) seed kernels. azadirachtins a, b, and h, the three major bioactive constituents of neem seed kernel, were purified from this methanolic concentrate by employing reverse phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography (mplc), using methanol-water solvent system as an eluant. the three pure azadirachtin congeners thus obtained were char ...200312822931
cloning, sequencing, and heterologous expression of a cellobiohydrolase cdna from the basidiomycete corticium rolfsii.from a corticium rolfsii cdna library, a clone homologous to other fungal cellobiohydrolase (cbh1) genes was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction. in the nucleotide sequence, one 1.6 kb long open reading frame coding for a polypeptide of 530 amino acid residues was detected which showed 64% identity with cbh1 of phanerochaete chrysosporium. with expression of the 1.8 kb cdna using the aspergillus oryzae expression system, we detected microcrystalline cellulose (avicel) hydrolyzing activi ...200312843660
[on the presence of atropine in sclerotinia minor jagger and corticium rolfsii curzi]. 196013727173
the component fatty acids found in sclerotia of sclerotium rolfsii. 196414206903
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