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helminths of the spotted seal, phoca largha, from the bering sea.fifty-five spotted seals, phoca largha, from the seasonal pack ice of the bering sea were examined for helminth parasites. twelve species of helminths were found: anophryocephalus ochotensis, diplogonoporus tetrapterus, diphyllobothrium cordatum, phocanema decipiens, contracaecum osculatum, dipetalonema spirocauda, phocitrema fusiforme, corynosoma semerme, c. strumosum, c. validum, c. villosum, and bolbosoma sp. six species are new host records (a. ochotensis, d. tetrapterus, d. cordatum, d. spi ...19827097871
identification of novel cytochrome p450 1a genes from five marine mammal species.marine mammals, being endangered by the chronic exposure of hydrophobic environmental contaminants as an assorting result of global pollution, are especially focused as indicators for organochlorine pollution. the use of contaminant-induced xenobiotic metabolizers, particularly p450 (cyp) 1a, in marine mammals can be effective as potential biomarkers of the contaminant exposure and/or toxic effects. in this study, we identified the first marine mammalian cyps. six novel cyp1a cdna fragments were ...200011064121
concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements in marine mammal tissues archived in the u.s. national biomonitoring specimen bank.the u.s. national biomonitoring specimen bank (nbsb) provides for the long term storage of well documented and preserved specimens representing several types of environmental matrices. a major part of this inventory consists of marine mammal tissues (e.g., blubber, liver, kidney, and muscle). within the nbsb selected specimens are periodically analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements. although only 20% of the 560 marine mammal specimens in the nbsb have been analyzed, the databas ...19979159906
nasal mites (acari:halarachnidae) in the spotted seal, phoca largha pallas, and other pinnipeds of alaskan waters.the nasal passages of 349 pinnipeds of seven species were examined for halarachnid mites. each of seven steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus), 75 of 99 harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and four of 71 spotted seals (p. largha) were infected, but none of 28 walruses (odobenus rosmarus), 43 ringed seals (phoca hispida), 58 ribbon seals (p. fasciata), and 43 bearded seals (erignathus barbatus) was infected. the sea lions harbored orthohalarachne attenuata (banks, 1910) and o. diminuata (doetschman, 1 ...19827097872
carbon sources and trophic relationships of ice seals during recent environmental shifts in the bering sea.dramatic multiyear fluctuations in water temperature and seasonal sea ice extent and duration across the bering-chukchi continental shelf have occurred in this century, raising a pressing ecological question: do such environmental changes alter marine production processes linking primary producers to upper trophic-level predators? we examined this question by comparing the blubber fatty acid (fa) composition and stable carbon isotope ratios of individual fa (δ¹³cfa) of adult ringed seals (pusa h ...201627411254
p450 in wild animals as a biomarker of environmental impact.the impact of environmental pollution on selected animals was tested by monitoring the hepatic content of cytochromes p450 and their enzyme activities or by calculating teq values from the concentration of pollutants in the body. fish-eating stellars sea eagles, haliaeetus pelagicus, found dead in the northern part of hokkaido island accumulated high levels of pcbs and ddt and metabolites. the teq values calculated from the pcb concentration in the eagles were high enough to cause a significant ...200123886053
molecular analysis of parapoxvirus from a spotted seal phoca largha in japan.a spotted seal phoca largha with nodular and scab lesions on the whole body was brought to an aquarium in nagoya, japan. we extracted dna from the lesions and used the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method for detecting orthopoxvirus and parapoxvirus dna. parapoxvirus but not orthopoxvirus dna was detected. the partial nucleotide sequence of the envelope gene was determined from the pcr product, and the sequence was seen to be closely related to 2 parapoxvirus strains from spotted seals in alas ...201122235590
genetic variation in the harbor seal (phoca vitulina) and spotted seal (phoca largha) around hokkaido, japan, based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.the harbor seal (phoca vitulina) and spotted seal (phoca largha) are the main seal species around hokkaido, japan. while some investigations have been conducted on the ecology and morphology of these two species, there is a lack of genetic information. we studied variation in mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences in the two species. fifteen haplotypes were observed in 39 harbor seals from erimo, akkeshi, and nosappu, and 23 were observed in 31 spotted seals from erimo, akkeshi, nosappu, rausu, ya ...201020192695
streptococcus phocae isolated from a spotted seal (phoca largha) with pyometra in alaska.a spotted seal harvested by subsistence hunters in kotzebue sound, alaska (usa), showed a grossly enlarged uterus and associated lymph nodes. streptococcus phocae was isolated from the purulent uterine discharge. histopathologic examination revealed inflammation that was limited to the uterine mucosa. lymph nodes draining the affected organ were reactive but no evidence of active infection was found in the lymph nodes. this report is the first streptococcus phocae isolated from spotted seals as ...201122946378
serologic evidence of brucella infection in pinnipeds along the coast of hokkaido, the northernmost main island of japan.brucella infection in hokkaido was serologically surveyed in four species of pinnipeds inhabiting cape erimo during 2008-2013 and the shiretoko peninsula in 1999, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using brucella abortus and b. canis as antigens. anti-brucella positive sera showed higher absorbance to b. abortus than b. canis in almost all samples. anti-b. abortus antibodies were detected in serum samples from 24% (n=55) of western pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina stejnegeri) in cape erimo ...201728262966
comparison of serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol and lipoproteins in captive marine mammals (bottlenose dolphins, spotted seals and west indian manatees) and terrestrial mammals.concentrations of serum lipid components, lipid peroxide (lpo) and alpha-tocopherol and electrophoretic patterns of lipoproteins in serum samples obtained from captive marine mammals and terrestrial mammals were compared. serum concentrations of total cholesterol, free fatty acid, and phospholipid in fish-eating animals were significantly higher than those in manatees and cows. serum lpo and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the fish-eating animals were also significantly higher than those in m ...200918723198
growth variation in skull morphology of kuril harbor seals (phoca vitulina stejnegeri) and spotted seals (phoca largha) in hokkaido, japan.we examined morphological growth variations in skull features between the kuril harbor seal and the spotted seal in hokkaido, japan. skulls from 80 kuril harbor seals and 41 spotted seals were collected, and we measured 29 metric and 6 non-metric cranial characteristics. three growth classes were defined according to the postnatal developmental stage: pups (0 year), subadults (1-4 years old) and adults (more than 5 years old). we detected sexual dimorphism in kuril harbor seal pups, subadults, a ...200920025123
the use of non destructive biomarkers in the study of marine mammals.marine mammals have been subject to heavy anthropogenic pressure by direct killing and chemical pollution all over the world. most studies of contamination and biomarker responses in marine mammals have been conducted using animals killed by hunting out of a total of 12 cetacean species studied, 45 of the specimens were obtained by sacrificing the animal; out of a total of eight pinniped species studied, 40 of the specimens were obtained by killing. the development of a series of non destructive ...199723899212
genetic identification of novel poxviruses of cetaceans and pinnipeds.novel poxviruses were identified in skin lesions of several species of cetaceans and pinnipeds using polymerase chain reaction targeting dna polymerase and dna topoisomerase i genes of members of the subfamily chordopoxvirinae. with the exception of parapoxviruses, no molecular data of marine mammal poxviruses were available to infer genetic and evolutionary relatedness to terrestrial vertebrate poxviruses. viruses were assigned to a cetacean poxvirus 1 (cpv-1) group based on nucleotide and amin ...200616328132
inorganic nutrients and contaminants in subsistence species of alaska: linking wildlife and human health.to determine inorganic nutrient and contaminant concentrations in subsistence foods consumed by alaska natives, concentration changes related to common preparation methods and provide a basic risk-benefit analysis for these foods.200919331242
toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, sarcocystis neurona, and sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals.toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, sarcocystis neurona, and s. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. recently, t. gondii and s. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. as yet, there is no report of natural exposure of n. caninum in marine mammals. in the present study, antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. for t. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50 ...200314580799
arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience.evolutionary selection has refined the life histories of seven species (three cetacean [narwhal, beluga, and bowhead whales], three pinniped [walrus, ringed, and bearded seals], and the polar bear) to spatial and temporal domains influenced by the seasonal extremes and variability of sea ice, temperature, and day length that define the arctic. recent changes in arctic climate may challenge the adaptive capability of these species. nine other species (five cetacean [fin, humpback, minke, gray, an ...200818494369
cranial features of the spotted seal, phoca largha, in the nemuro strait, considering age effects.cranial features (development, individual variation, and sexual dimorphism) were examined from the 23 metrical characters and 2 nonmetrical characters (the degree of closure of the 9 cranial sutures and the presence of sagittal crest) in the two spotted seal specimen groups at the nemuro strait, hokkaido. one specimen group was incidentally taken in the salmon trap nets between 1982 and 1983 (n = 70), and the other was randomly sampled by damage control kill between 1997 and 1998 (n = 82). the d ...200211913550
negative correlation between plasma thyroid hormone levels and chlorinated hydrocarbon levels accumulated in seals from the coast of hokkaido, japan.chlorinated hydrocarbon (chc) levels in the blubber of larga seals (phoca largha) and ribbon seals (phoca fasciata) collected from the coastal waters of hokkaido, japan, were determined in order to assess the hormonal effects of chc exposure in free-ranging pinnipeds. plasma thyroid hormone levels, including total thyroxine (t4), free thyroxine (free t4), total triiodothyronine (t3), and free triiodothyronine (free t3), were also measured. higher concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congen ...200111337873
hepatic microsomal cytochrome p450s and chlorinated hydrocarbons in largha and ribbon seals from hokkaido, japan: differential response of seal species to ah receptor agonist exposure.from 16 largha seals (phoca largha) and 15 ribbon seals (phoca fasciata) in the coastal waters of hokkaido, japan, blubber chlorinated hydrocarbon (chc) levels and hepatic cytochrome p450 (cyp) catalytic activities and their immunochemically detected protein content levels were measured. concentrations of ddts (2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene,p,p'-dde; 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane, p,p'-ddd; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, p,p'-ddt), polychlorinated biphenyl congeners ...200211951954
contraceptive effect of proligestone on spotted seals and crossbreeds of spotted seals and harbor seals.spotted seals (phoca largha) and related crossbreeds maintained at kamogawa sea world breed seasonally from the end of january to middle of march. for contraception in these animals, the effect of a single administration of a contraceptive synthetic luteal hormone for dogs, proligestone (prg), was investigated. the animals tested were 10 seals aged 4-24 years old, and a total of 35 trials were performed over five years. prg was administered in 23 trials during january, which was one month before ...200312808215
immunohistochemical localization of steroidogenic enzymes and prolactin receptors in the corpus luteum and placenta of spotted seals (phoca largha) during late pregnancy.to study luteal function in the late gestational period of phocidae (seals), we analyzed the localization of steroidogenic enzymes (p450scc, 3betahsd and p450arom) and prolactin receptors in the corpora lutea of pregnant spotted seals (larga seal; phoca largha) immunohistochemically. p450scc, 3betahsd and prolactin receptors were present in all luteal cells of each corpus luteum, and most luteal cells were immunostained for p450arom. although we analyzed only two specimens, p450scc, 3betahsd and ...200212014578
cardiac output and its distribution through capillaries and a-v shunts in diving seals.regional blood flow and cardiac output were determined by distribution of radioactive microspheres injected via catheter into the left ventricle during experimental diving and recovery in juvenile spotted seals (phoca vitulina largha) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus). cardiac output was 9.7 l/min before diving, declined 90% during submersion and increased to 12.1 l/min after 40 s of recovery. left ventricular myocardial perfusion declined from 179 +/- 24 (21) to 25 +/- 2 (6) ml/min . 100 g at ...19836624500
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in seals around hokkaido, japan.serological analysis was performed to detect toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in seals in hokkaido. serum samples were collected from 322 kuril harbor seals (phoca vitulina stejnegeri) at nosappu, akkeshi and erimo, from 46 spotted seals (p. largha) at nosappu, erimo, yagishiri island, hamamasu and syakotan, and from 4 ribbon seals (p. fasciata) and a bearded seal (erignathus barbatus) at nosappu between 1998 and 2006. recombinant surface antigen of t. gondii (sag2t) and n. canin ...200717485927
scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue and lingual papillae of the adult spotted seal, phoca largha.we observed the external surface and connective tissue cores (ctcs) of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae) of adult spotted seals (phoca largha) using sem and light microscopy. the tongue was v-shaped and its apex was rather rounded. on the dorsal surface from apex to the one-third posterior of the tongue, the lingual mucosa was densely covered by filiform papillae, with a scatted distribution of dome-like fungiform papillae, which have orthokeratinized epithelium. at ...200718186221
[an estimation of the time of divergence of the seals phoca vitulina, phoca largha and phoca sibirica from a common ancestral species]. 20069381856
blood concentrations of some persistent organohalogens in free-ranging spotted seals (phoca largha) from bristol bay, alaska.in recent years, the relatively high levels of organochlorine contaminants and increasing levels of brominated flame retardants found in tissues of marine mammals have raised concerns that exposure to these marine pollutants may compromise individual health. in this pilot study, levels of 11 polychlorinated biphenyls, 3 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and the ddt metabolite p,p'-diphenyldichloroethylene were analyzed in whole blood of 7 free-ranging spotted seals (phoca largha) from bristol bay, ...200717885935
prevalence of algal toxins in alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment.current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (habs), making algal toxins a growing concern in alaskan marine food webs. two of the most common hab toxins along the west coast of north america are the neurotoxins domoic acid (da) and saxitoxin (stx). over the last 20 years, da toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in m ...201628073526
population genetic structure of the spotted seal phoca largha along the coast of hokkaido, based on mitochondrial dna sequences.population genetic structure of the spotted seal, phoca largha, along coastal regions of hokkaido was investigated, using mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequences. a 571-bp fragment of the mtdna control region and adjacent threonine and proline transfer rna genes was sequenced from 66 seals. we categorized all individuals into three groups considering sampling area and season: twenty-four seals from the sea of okhotsk in winter, 11 seals from the sea of okhotsk coast in fall, and 31 seals from the se ...200312832831
coronary blood flow and myocardial segment dimensions during simulated dives in seals.three harbor seals phoca vitulina richardsi and five spotted seals phoca vitulina largha were used in studies of acute episodes of local myocardial ischemia in open-chest, anesthetized animals and of coronary blood flow and regional function as indicated by left ventricular segment dimensions during experimentally simulated dives of conscious, instrumented animals. we observed that seal myocardium, in which there are few coronary anastomoses, responded to brief local occlusion with prompt local ...19854073282
color discrimination by a bering sea spotted seal, phoca largha. 1978676085
tooth size variation in pinniped dentitions.it is contentious whether size variation among mammalian teeth is heterogeneous or homogeneous, whether the coefficient of variation is reliable, and whether the standard deviation of log-transformed data and the residual of standard deviation on mean variable size are useful replacements for the coefficient of variation. most studies of tooth size variation have been on mammals with complex-crowned teeth, with relatively little attention paid to taxa with simple-crowned teeth, such as pinnipedi ...201526317362
a verification of weber's law for visual discrimination of disc sizes in the bering sea spotted seal, phoca largha. 1976960608
halogenated phenolic contaminants in the blood of marine mammals from japanese coastal waters.information on accumulation of halogenated phenolic contaminants in the blood of marine mammal is limited. the present study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of chlorinated and brominated phenolic contaminants (oh-pcbs, oh-pbdes and bromophenols) in the blood collected from pinnipeds (northern fur seal, spotted seal, steller sea lion and ribbon seal) and small cetaceans (harbor porpoise and dall's porpoise) from japanese coastal waters. concentrations of pcbs and oh-pcbs found in p ...201424060385
amphibious hearing in ringed seals (pusa hispida): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.ringed seals (pusa hispida) are semi-aquatic marine mammals with a circumpolar arctic distribution. in this study, we investigate the amphibious hearing capabilities of ringed seals to provide auditory profiles for this species across the full range of hearing. using psychophysical methods with two trained ringed seals, detection thresholds for narrowband signals were measured under quiet, carefully controlled environmental conditions to generate aerial and underwater audiograms. masked underwat ...201525987727
development of a statistical oil spill model for risk assessment.to gain a better understanding of the impacts from potential risk sources, we developed an oil spill model using probabilistic method, which simulates numerous oil spill trajectories under varying environmental conditions. the statistical results were quantified from hypothetical oil spills under multiple scenarios, including area affected probability, mean oil slick thickness, and duration of water surface exposed to floating oil. the three sub-indices together with marine area vulnerability ar ...201728743093
surreptitious sympatry: exploring the ecological and genetic separation of two sibling species.climate change is having profound impacts on animal populations, and shifts in geographic range are predicted in response. shifts that result in range overlap between previously allopatric congeneric species may have consequences for biodiversity through interspecific competition, hybridization, and genetic introgression. harbor seals (phoca vitulina) and spotted seals (phoca largha) are parapatric sibling species and areas of co-occurrence at the edges of their range, such as bristol bay, alask ...201728331583
low-frequency temporary threshold shift not observed in spotted or ringed seals exposed to single air gun impulses.underwater hearing thresholds were measured at 100 hz in trained spotted (phoca largha) and ringed seals (pusa hispida) before and immediately following voluntary exposure to impulsive noise from a seismic air gun. auditory responses were determined from psychoacoustic data and behavioral responses were scored from video recordings. four successive exposure conditions of increasing level were tested, with received unweighted sound exposure levels from 165 to 181 db re 1 μpa(2) s and peak-to-peak ...201627794299
in-air vocal repertoires of spotted seals, phoca largha.spotted seals (phoca largha) are thought to be less vocal than other phocids. however, acoustic communication behaviors of spotted seals have been reported several times. in this study, the vocal repertoires of spotted seals housed in dalian sun aquarium, china were recorded and analyzed. the frequencies of the sounds made by the seals ranged from 139.3 to 2323.1 hz, and the time durations lasted from 92.8 to 1208 ms, depending on age and gender (p < 0.01). the peak-to-peak sound source levels w ...201627586740
psychoacoustic studies of spotted (phoca largha) and ringed (pusa hispida) seals.human development of the marine environment raises questions regarding the potential adverse effects of anthropogenic noise on marine mammals. for species that live in remote arctic regions, recent and expanding human intrusions may pose a particular threat. northern seals are poorly studied relative to their temperate counterparts and little is known of their acoustic ecology or behavior. given this scarcity of relevant data, studies of hearing in arctic seals are essential to characterize thei ...201626611064
variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (pops) are often based on octanol-water (kow) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. it has been suggested that compounds with low kow and high octanol-air partitioning (koa) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. here we evaluate differences in concentrations of pops for two trophically matched arctic species, spotted seal (p ...201526440545
serum testosterone, progesterone, and estradiol concentrations and sexual maturation in spotted seals (phoca largha).spotted seals (phoca largha) are ice-breeding phocid found in eight different breeding colonies all over the world. they exhibit a seasonal breeding pattern, with annual and synchronous cycles; however, little is known about their reproductive endocrinology. in this study, we measured serum testosterone, progesterone, and 17β-estradiol concentrations in captive spotted seals (simple number: female n = 68; male n = 89) throughout a full reproductive cycle. males that were older than 4 years had s ...201424938800
amphibious hearing in spotted seals (phoca largha): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.spotted seals (phoca largha) inhabit arctic regions that are facing both rapid climate change and increasing industrialization. while little is known about their sensory capabilities, available knowledge suggests that spotted seals and other ice seals use sound to obtain information from the surrounding environment. to quantitatively assess their auditory capabilities, the hearing of two young spotted seals was tested using a psychophysical paradigm. absolute detection thresholds for tonal sound ...201424574387
retraction notice to "characterization of the spotted seal phoca largha transcriptome using illumina paired-end sequencing and development of ssr markers" [comp. biochem. physiol. 7 (3) (2012) 277-284]. 201323841143
de novo assembly and characterization of spotted seal phoca largha transcriptome using illumina paired-end sequencing.spotted seal (phoca largha) is categorized as a critically endangered species in china. the aim of this study was to investigate spotted seal transcriptome by the approach of illumina paired-end sequencing technology. we obtained a total of 52,146,394 reads for the mixed tissues of liver and spleen from the spotted seal. the de novo assemblies yielded 354,014 contigs and 178,466 unigenes. in the transcriptome, 193 unigenes were assigned to defense mechanisms. three unigenes encoded mhc class i a ...201323396151
characterization of the spotted seal phoca largha transcriptome using illumina paired-end sequencing and development of ssr markers.next-generation sequencing provides a powerful new approach for developing functional genomic tools for non-model species. this study aims to investigate the spotted seal (phoca largha) transcriptome by the approach of illumina paired-end sequencing technology. we obtained a total of 52,146,394 reads for the mixed tissues of liver and spleen from spotted seal. the de novo assemblies yielded 354,014 contigs and 178,466 unigenes. in addition, bioinformatics analysis revealed a total of 4425 simple ...201222677091
organic nutrients and contaminants in subsistence species of alaska: concentrations and relationship to food preparation method.to determine nutrient and contaminant concentrations, document concentration changes related to common preparation methods and provide a basic risk-benefit analysis for select subsistence foods consumed by residents of kotzebue, alaska.200919917188
classification of underwater vocalizations of wild spotted seals (phoca largha) in liaodong bay, china.underwater vocalizations were recorded and classified from wild spotted seals (phoca largha) in liaodong bay, china. the spotted seals exhibited an extensive underwater vocal repertoire but with limited complexity. four major call types, representing 77.8% of all calls recorded, were identified using multivariate analyses of ten acoustic parameters; knock, growl, drum, and sweep. the calls were relatively brief (12-270 ms, mean of -10 db duration) pulsating sounds of low-frequency (peak frequenc ...201728372138
complete mitochondrial genome of the korean spotted seal phoca largha (mammalia, pinnipedia, phocidae): genetic differences between p. largha and phoca vitulina. 200919900058
study on reproduction of captive marine mammals.the reproductive endocrinological characteristics of beluga, killer whale, spotted seal and bottlenose dolphin were evaluated and used in conjunction with applied reproductive research to enhance captive breeding programs. results from 8 y of biweekly serum progesterone determination in a female beluga indicated that sexual maturity occured at approximately age 13, two to seven estrous cycles, lasting 37 +/- 3.9 days, per yr began in april-may every year. rectal temperature was positively correl ...201020203429
high-frequency hearing in seals and sea lions.existing evidence suggests that some pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) can detect underwater sound at frequencies well above the traditional high-frequency hearing limits for their species. this phenomenon, however, is not well studied: sensitivity patterns at frequencies beyond traditional high-frequency limits are poorly resolved, and the nature of the auditory mechanism mediating hearing at these frequencies is unknown. in the first portion of this study, auditory sensitivity pattern ...201626519092
sequence variation and gene duplication at the mhc drb loci of the spotted seal phoca largha.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is one of the most important genetic systems associated with resistance to infectious diseases in vertebrates. the spotted seal (phoca largha) is one of the most endangered species in china. in this study, we present the first step in the molecular characterization of a drb-like locus in the spotted seal by analyzing the nucleotide sequence of the polymorphic exon 2 segments, a 288-nucleotide sequence. by examining the segment from a group of 41 individ ...201525867351
seals and sea lions are what they eat, plus what? determination of trophic discrimination factors for seven pinniped species.mixing models are a common method for quantifying the contribution of prey sources to the diet of an individual using stable isotope analysis; however, these models rely upon a known trophic discrimination factor (hereafter, tdf) that results from fractionation between prey and animal tissues. quantifying tdfs in captive animals is ideal, because diet is controlled and the proportional contributions and isotopic values of all prey items are known.201627060839
the commercial harvest of ice-associated seals in the sea of okhotsk, 1972-1994.sealing log books from 75 out of 79 commercial harvest cruises carried out between 1972 and 1994 in the sea of okhotsk, russia, were analyzed to describe spatial and temporal allocation of ice-associated seal harvest effort, species composition of catches, total harvest rates, and related parameters for species including ringed (pusa hispida), ribbon (histriophoca fasciata), bearded (erignathus barbatus) and spotted (phoca largha) seal. variations in catch per unit effort were explored in relati ...201728796843
comparative anatomy of the ophthalmic rete and its relationship to ocular blood flow in three species of marine mammal.to examine the blood supply to the eyes of bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus), spotted seal (phoca largha), and california sea lion (zalophus californianus). emphasis is placed on exploring the anatomic function in the context of aquatic life.201423742618
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