antigenic relationship of two strains of simian hemorrhagic fever virus.serological comparison of the prototype and an epizootic (corbell) strain of simian hemorrhagic fever virus revealed that the two viruses were serologically similar. the prototype strain differs from the corbell strain in that the latter cannot be cultivated in vitro. serological comparison of the prototype virus grown in tissue culture and its homologous antibody and the prototype and corbell viruses recovered from rhesus monkey serum and their homologous antibodies showed differences and sugge ...1978100652
simian hemorrhagic fever virus: a new togavirus.using the prototype strain of shf virus, we have confirmed the nature of the genome (rna), the presence of an envelope (derived from an internal membrane), the virion size (45-50 nm), and probable cubic symmetry. we have also described four viral structural proteins and determined the phospholipid content of the virions. the known properties of shf virus suggest that it should be classified in the togavirus family, and possibly in the flavivirus group.19751208594
lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, equine arteritis virus, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus: a new group of positive-strand rna viruses. 19921315480
structural proteins of equine arteritis virus.we have recently shown that the genome of equine arteritis virus (eav) contains seven open reading frames (orfs). we now present data on the structural proteins of eav and the assignment of their respective genes. virions are composed of a 14-kda nucleocapsid protein (n) and three membrane proteins designated m, gs, and gl. m is an unglycosylated protein of 16 kda, and gs and gl are n-glycosylated proteins of 25 and 30 to 42 kda, respectively. the broad size distribution of gl results from heter ...19921328669
primate viral diseases in perspective.the recent occurrence of fatal herpesvirus simiae (b virus) infection in human subjects has again focused the attention of primatologists on this virus. b virus, however, is only one of a number of viral diseases that plays a role in primate colony management. this report is to emphasize to the primatologist a number of viruses other than h. simiae, with high morbidity and mortality rates, of importance for health management of nonhuman primate animal colonies. this concept is supported by the r ...19902174083
the cap structure of simian hemorrhagic fever virion rna.the molecular weight of simian hemorrhagic fever virus rna is 4.19 +/- 0.53 x 10(6) as determined by electron microscopy. its base composition is 19.5 +/- 0.3 a, 33.3 +/- 0.3 u, 26.7 +/- 0.9 g, and 19.7 +/- 0.3 c per 100 nucleotides. the rna of simian hemorrhagic fever virus contains a single type i cap per molecule, in the form m7g(5')ppp(5')am.19862421482
problems in the laboratory isolation of simian hemorrhagic fever viruses and isolatse metaboli enterobacteriaceae classificat enterobacteriaceae enzymology hydrogen peroxide metaboli enterobacteriaceae metaboliion of the agent responsible for the sussex-69 least six epizootics of simian hemorrhagic fever have occurred at four different primate centers. although these diseases could easily be transmitted to other monkeys of the macaca species, difficulty has been encountered in isolating the causative virus in cell culture. the results of this study have shown that the isolation of simian hemorrhagic fever virus strains in cell culture is dependent upon the use of a susceptible ma-104 cell strain and that the ability of such strains to support t ...19724626908
[a further study of simian hemorrhagic fever virus]. 19695003795
method to detect asymptomatic carriers of simian hemorrhagic fever virus.evidence was obtained that mononuclear phagocytic cells are the target cells for simian hemorrhagic fever virus replication. using peritoneal macrophages from rhesus monkeys in an in vitro, 18 of 20 asymptomatic chronically infected patas monkeys were detected from coded samples. the two chronically infected patas monkeys not detected by the test, nevertheless, contained virus. this was determined by inoculating macrophage cultures with plasma from macaques dying as a result of inoculation with ...19806257971
studies on simian hemorrhagic fever virus nucleocapsids.purified simian hemorrhagic fever (shf) virions are shown to have a sedimentation coefficient of 214s when compared with previously determined figures for sindbis virus cosedimented in neutral sucrose gradients. the nucleic acid content in shf virions was about 8 per cent of the total virionic mass. nucleocapsids obtained by treating shf virions with nonionic detergent and analyzed by ultracentrifugation in neutral sucrose gradients gave rnase sensitive- but dnase resistent particles with a repr ...19846541899
characterization of proteins encoded by orfs 2 to 7 of lelystad virus.the genome of lelystad virus (lv), a positive-strand rna virus, is 15 kb in length and contains 8 open reading frames (orfs) that encode putative viral proteins. orfs 2 to 7 were cloned in plasmids downstream of the sp6 rna polymerase promoter, and the translation of transcripts generated in vitro yielded proteins that could be immunoprecipitated with porcine anti-lv serum. synthetic polypeptides of 15 to 17 amino acids were selected from the amino acid sequences of orfs 2 to 7 and antipeptide s ...19957831770
molecular characterization of the 3' terminus of the simian hemorrhagic fever virus genome.the 3' end of the simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) single-stranded rna genome was cloned and sequenced. adjacent to the 3' poly(a) tract, we identified a 76-nucleotide noncoding region preceded by two overlapping reading frames (orfs). the ultimate 3' orf of the viral genome encodes the capsid protein, and the penultimate orf encodes the smallest shfv envelope protein. these two orfs overlap each other by 26 nucleotides. northern (rna) blot hybridization analyses of cytoplasmic rna extracts ...19957884922
analysis of simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) subgenomic rnas, junction sequences, and 5' leader.full-length simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) genome rna (about 15 kb in length) and six subgenomic rnas, ranging in size from 0.65 to 4.7 kb, were detected by northern blot hybridization in ma104 cytoplasmic extracts with a 3' genomic antisense probe. the 5' regions of the two smallest subgenomic rnas (rnas 6 and 7) were cloned and sequenced. sequence analysis indicated that these two rnas contained a common 5' leader sequence joined to the subgenomic rna bodies via a highly conserved junct ...19957886957
lelystad virus belongs to a new virus family, comprising lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, equine arteritis virus, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus.lelystad virus (lv) is an enveloped positive-stranded rna virus, which causes abortions and respiratory disease in pigs. the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of lv has been determined. this sequence is 15.1 kb in length and contains a poly(a) tail at the 3' end. open reading frames that might encode the viral replicases (orfs 1a and 1b), membrane-associated proteins (orfs 2 to 6) and the nucleocapsid protein (orf7) have been identified. sequence comparisons have indicated that lv is di ...19948032274
molecular characterization of positive-strand rna viruses: pestiviruses and the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv).molecular characterization has become an important tool for the analysis of viruses including their classification. the manuscript focuses on the molecular analysis of two members of the genus pestivirus (hog cholera virus, hcv and bovine viral diarrhea virus, bvdv) and of the recently discovered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv). the first protein encoded within the single large pestivirus orf is a nonstructural protein with autoproteolytic activity. the cleavage site ...19938219812
complete genomic sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (ldv).the apparently complete sequence of the rna genome of the neurovirulent isolate of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (ldv-c) has been determined. the ldv-c genome is at least 14,222 nucleotides in length and contains eight open reading frames (orfs). orf 1a, which encodes a protein of 242.8 kda and is located at the 5' end of the genome, contains at least two putative papain-like cysteine protease domains, and one putative chymotrypsin-like serine protease domain. this orf terminates with a ...19938389075
detection of related positive-strand rna virus genomes by reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers for common replicase sequences.a set of degenerate sense and antisense primers were designed on the basis of short segments with identical amino acids in the predicted orf 1b replicase proteins of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (ldv), equine arteritis virus (eav) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, strain lelystad virus (prrsv-lv), which are members of a new group of positive-strand rna viruses. reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction amplification using this set of degenerate primers yield ...19958837898
sequence of the 3' end of the simian hemorrhagic fever virus genome.shfv is a member of a new virus family which includes the genus arterivirus. we have cloned and sequenced 6,314 nt from the 3' end of the shfv genome. this sequence encompasses nine complete orfs which is three additional orfs as compared to the other arteriviruses. we have numbered these orfs 2a, 2b, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. at the 5' end of this sequence is a partial orf (orf 1b) of 1590 nt and at the 3' end is a poly(a) tract preceded by a 76 nt noncoding region. the coding capacity for each o ...19979218721
molecular characterization of lelystad virus.lelystad virus (lv), the prototype of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus, is a small enveloped virus, containing a positive strand rna genome of 15 kb. lv is tentatively classified in the family arteriviridae, which consists of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (ldv), equine arteritis virus (eav) and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv). these viruses have a similar genome organization and replication strategy as coronaviruses, but the size of the genome is much smaller (12-15 ...19979220614
[porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: ten years of experience (1986-1996) with this undesirable viral infection].porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (prrs) is an infectious disease in swine that emerged 10 years ago. today, prrs is endemic in many if not all the pig-producing countries. the syndrome is due to a small enveloped rna virus which belongs to the new arteriviridae group. this group also includes the equine arterivirus and the simian hemorrhagic fever virus. the disease produces many clinical symptoms in pigs of any age but the two major features of the syndrome are respiratory and repr ...19979312328
identification of the leader-body junctions for the viral subgenomic mrnas and organization of the simian hemorrhagic fever virus genome: evidence for gene duplication during arterivirus evolution.simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) was recently reclassified and assigned to the new virus family arteriviridae. during replication, arteriviruses produce a 3' coterminal, nested set of subgenomic mrnas (sgrnas). these sgrnas arise by discontinuous transcription, and each contains a 5' leader sequence which is joined to the body of the mrna through a conserved junction sequence. only the 5'-most open reading frame (orf) is believed to be transcribed from each sgrna. the shfv genome encodes ni ...19989420301
a 68-nucleotide sequence within the 3' noncoding region of simian hemorrhagic fever virus negative-strand rna binds to four ma104 cell proteins.the 3' noncoding region (ncr) of the negative-strand rna [3'(-)ncr rna] of the arterivirus simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) is 209 nucleotides (nt) in length. since this 3' region, designated 3'(-)209, is the site of initiation of full-length positive-strand rna and is the template for the synthesis of the 5' leader sequence, which is found on both full-length and subgenomic mrnas, it is likely to contain cis-acting signals for rna synthesis and to interact with cellular and viral proteins ...19989557724
cell proteins bind to a 67 nucleotide sequence within the 3' noncoding region (ncr) of simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) negative-strand rna.the 3'ncr of the shfv negative-strand rna [shfv 3'(-)ncr rna] is thought to be the initiation site of full-length and possibly also subgenomic positive-strand rna and so is likely to contain cis-acting signals for viral rna replication. cellular and viral proteins may specifically interact with this region to form replication complexes. when in vitro transcribed shfv 3'(-)ncr rna was used as a probe in gel mobility shift assays, two rna-protein complexes were detected with ma104 s100 cytoplasmic ...19989782286
organization of the simian hemorrhagic fever virus genome and identification of the sgrna junction sequences.shfv is a member of the arteriviridae family. viruses within this family encode eight open reading frames (orfs), two of which are translated from the full-length genome rna. the remaining six orfs are translated from a nested set of six or seven 3' co-terminal, subgenomic rnas (sgrnas). we have cloned and sequenced approximately 6000 nucleotides (nt) from the 3' end of the shfv genome. eleven orfs, numbered orfs 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, were identified, three more than the other ...19989782294
current knowledge on the structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (prrs) virus: comparison of the north american and european isolates.porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) belongs to the recently recognized arteriviridae family within the genus arterivirus, order nidovirales, which also includes equine arteritis virus (eav), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (ldv), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv). mature viral particles are composed of an envelope 50-72 nm in diameter, with an isometric core about 20-30 nm enclosing a linear positive-stranded rna genome of approximately 15 kb. the virions ar ...200010893147
autoantibodies against golgi apparatus induced by arteriviruses.members of the genus arterivirus within the monogeneric family arteriviridae are lactate dehydrogenase-elvating virus (ldv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), equine arteritis virus (eav) and simian hemorrhagic fever virus. in ldv-infected mice the appearance of autoantibodies against golgi-antigen dominated the early immune response. shared antigenicity between ldv and golgi-antigen of normal cells could not be demonstrated. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reacted either ...200212030432
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against simian hemorrhagic fever virus.better assays are needed for the detection of simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv), which induces persistent infection without overt signs of disease in most old world monkeys, but causes a fatal hemorrhagic fever in macaques. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is described here that is useful in identifying primates previously exposed to shfv. this assay involves testing serum samples against shfv and cell antigens to obtain an odvirus-to-odcell ratio that eliminates potential high b ...200212102567
the immune response to equine arteritis virus: potential lessons for other arteriviruses.the members of the family arteriviridae, genus arterivirus, include equine arteritis virus (eav), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (ldv) of mice, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv). prrsv is the newest member of the family (first isolated in north america and europe in the early 1990s), whereas the other three viruses were recognized earlier (eav in 1953, ldv in 1960, and shfv in 1964). although arterivirus infections are s ...200415507299
two cellular proteins that interact with a stem loop in the simian hemorrhagic fever virus 3'(+)ncr rna.both full-length and subgenomic negative-strand rnas are initiated at the 3' terminus of the positive-strand genomic rna of the arterivirus, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv). the shfv 3'(+) non-coding region (ncr) is 76 nts in length and forms a stem loop (sl) structure that was confirmed by ribonuclease structure probing. two cell proteins, p56 and p42, bound specifically to a probe consisting of the shfv 3'(+)ncr rna. the 3'(+)ncr rnas of two additional members of the arterivirus genus sp ...200415763141
novel, divergent simian hemorrhagic fever viruses in a wild ugandan red colobus monkey discovered using direct pyrosequencing.simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) has caused lethal outbreaks of hemorrhagic disease in captive primates, but its distribution in wild primates has remained obscure. here, we describe the discovery and genetic characterization by direct pyrosequencing of two novel, divergent shfv variants co-infecting a single male red colobus monkey from kibale national park, uganda.201121544192
simian hemorrhagic fever virus infection of rhesus macaques as a model of viral hemorrhagic fever: clinical characterization and risk factors for severe disease.simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) has caused sporadic outbreaks of hemorrhagic fevers in macaques at primate research facilities. shfv is a bsl-2 pathogen that has not been linked to human disease; as such, investigation of shfv pathogenesis in non-human primates (nhps) could serve as a model for hemorrhagic fever viruses such as ebola, marburg, and lassa viruses. here we describe the pathogenesis of shfv in rhesus macaques inoculated with doses ranging from 50 pfu to 500,000 pfu. disease se ...201122014505
domain organization and evolution of the highly divergent 5' coding region of genomes of arteriviruses, including the novel possum five experimentally characterized arterivirus species, the 5'-end genome coding region encodes the most divergent nonstructural proteins (nsp's), nsp1 and nsp2, which include papain-like proteases (plps) and other poorly characterized domains. these are involved in regulation of transcription, polyprotein processing, and virus-host interaction. here we present results of a bioinformatics analysis of this region of 14 arterivirus species, including that of the most distantly related virus, wob ...201728053107
reorganization and expansion of the nidoviral family arteriviridae.the family arteriviridae presently includes a single genus arterivirus. this genus includes four species as the taxonomic homes for equine arteritis virus (eav), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (ldv), porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (prrsv), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv), respectively. a revision of this classification is urgently needed to accommodate the recent description of eleven highly divergent simian arteriviruses in diverse african nonhuman primates ...201626608064
modulation of innate immune signaling by nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in the family arteriviridae.arteriviruses infect immune cells and may cause persistence in infected hosts. inefficient induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type i ifns are observed during infection of this group of viruses, suggesting that they may have evolved to escape the host immune surveillance for efficient survival. recent studies have identified viral proteins regulating the innate immune signaling, and among these, nsp1 (nonstructural protein 1) is the most potent ifn antagonist. for porcine reproductive an ...201425262851
biogenesis of non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) and nsp1-mediated type i interferon modulation in arteriviruses.type i interferons (ifns-α/β) play a key role for the antiviral state of host, and the porcine arterivirus; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), has been shown to down-regulate the production of ifns during infection. non-structural protein (nsp) 1 of prrsv has been identified as a viral ifn antagonist, and the nsp1α subunit of nsp1 has been shown to degrade the creb-binding protein (cbp) and to inhibit the formation of enhanceosome thus resulting in the suppression of if ...201424928046
simian hemorrhagic fever virus cell entry is dependent on cd163 and uses a clathrin-mediated endocytosis-like pathway.simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) causes a severe and almost uniformly fatal viral hemorrhagic fever in asian macaques but is thought to be nonpathogenic for humans. to date, the shfv life cycle is almost completely uncharacterized on the molecular level. here, we describe the first steps of the shfv life cycle. our experiments indicate that shfv enters target cells by low-ph-dependent endocytosis. dynamin inhibitors, chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, chloroquine, and concanamycin a dra ...201525355889
functional analyses of the three simian hemorrhagic fever virus nonstructural protein 1 papain-like proteases.the n-terminal region of simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) nonstructural polyprotein 1a is predicted to encode three papain-like proteases (plp1α, plp1β, and plp1γ). catalytic residues and cleavage sites for each of the shfv plp1s were predicted by alignment of the shfv plp1 region sequences with each other as well as with those of other arteriviruses, and the predicted catalytic residues were shown to be proximal by homology modeling of the shfv nsp1s on porcine respiratory and reproductive ...201424899184
within-host evolution of simian arteriviruses in crab-eating macaques.simian arteriviruses are a diverse clade of viruses infecting captive and wild nonhuman primates. we recently reported that kibale red colobus virus 1 (krcv-1) causes a mild and self-limiting disease in experimentally infected crab-eating macaques, while simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) causes lethal viral hemorrhagic fever. here we characterize how these viruses evolved during replication in cell culture and in experimentally infected macaques. during passage in cell culture, 68 substituti ...201727974564
specific detection of two divergent simian arteriviruses using rnascope in situ hybridization.simian hemorrhagic fever (shf) is an often lethal disease of asian macaques. simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) is one of at least three distinct simian arteriviruses that can cause shf, but pathogenesis studies using modern methods have been scarce. even seemingly straightforward studies, such as examining viral tissue and cell tropism in vivo, have been difficult to conduct due to the absence of standardized shfv-specific reagents. here we report the establishment of an in situ hybridizatio ...201626963736
divergent simian arteriviruses cause simian hemorrhagic fever of differing severities in macaques.simian hemorrhagic fever (shf) is a highly lethal disease in captive macaques. three distinct arteriviruses are known etiological agents of past shf epizootics, but only one, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv), has been isolated in cell culture. the natural reservoir(s) of the three viruses have yet to be identified, but african nonhuman primates are suspected. eleven additional divergent simian arteriviruses have been detected recently in diverse and apparently healthy african cercopithecid ...201626908578
zoonotic potential of simian arteriviruses.wild nonhuman primates are immediate sources and long-term reservoirs of human pathogens. however, ethical and technical challenges have hampered the identification of novel blood-borne pathogens in these animals. we recently examined rna viruses in plasma from wild african monkeys and discovered several novel, highly divergent viruses belonging to the family arteriviridae. close relatives of these viruses, including simian hemorrhagic fever virus, have caused sporadic outbreaks of viral hemorrh ...201526559828
historical outbreaks of simian hemorrhagic fever in captive macaques were caused by distinct arteriviruses.simian hemorrhagic fever (shf) is lethal for macaques. based on clinical presentation and serological diagnosis, all reported shf outbreaks were thought to be caused by different strains of the same virus, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv; arteriviridae). here we show that the shf outbreaks in sukhumi in 1964 and in alamogordo in 1989 were caused not by shfv but by two novel divergent arteriviruses. our results indicate that multiple divergent simian arteriviruses can cause shf.201525972539
a simian hemorrhagic fever virus isolate from persistently infected baboons efficiently induces hemorrhagic fever disease in japanese macaques.simian hemorrhagic fever virus is an arterivirus that naturally infects species of african nonhuman primates causing acute or persistent asymptomatic infections. although it was previously estimated that 1% of baboons are shfv-positive, more than 10% of wild-caught and captive-bred baboons tested were shfv positive and the infections persisted for more than 10 years with detectable virus in the blood (100-1000 genomes/ml). the sequences of two baboon shfv isolates that were amplified by a single ...201525463617
simian hemorrhagic fever virus: recent advances.the simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) genome differs from those of other members of the family arteriviridae in encoding three papain-like one proteases (plp1α, plp1β and plp1γ) at the 5' end and two adjacent sets of four minor structural proteins at the 3' end. the catalytic cys and his residues and cleavage sites for each of the shfv plp1s were predicted and their functionality was tested in in vitro transcription/translation reactions done with wildtype or mutant polyprotein constructs. m ...201525455336
genome sequences of simian hemorrhagic fever virus variant nih lvr42-0/m6941 isolates (arteriviridae: arterivirus).simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) variant nih lvr42-0/m6941 is the only remaining shfv in culture, and only a single genome sequence record exists in genbank/refseq. we compared the genomic sequence of nih lvr42-0/m6941 acquired from the atcc in 2011 to nih lvr42-0/m6941 genomes sequenced directly from nonhuman primates experimentally infected in 1989.201425301647
two novel simian arteriviruses in captive and wild baboons (papio spp.).since the 1960s, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv; nidovirales, arteriviridae) has caused highly fatal outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever in captive asian macaque colonies. however, the source(s) of these outbreaks and the natural reservoir(s) of this virus remain obscure. here we report the identification of two novel, highly divergent simian arteriviruses related to shfv, mikumi yellow baboon virus 1 (mybv-1) and southwest baboon virus 1 (swbv-1), in wild and captive baboons, respectivel ...201425187550
each of the eight simian hemorrhagic fever virus minor structural proteins is functionally important.the simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) genome differs from those of other members of the family arterivirus in encoding two adjacent sets of four minor structural protein open reading frames (orfs). a stable, full-length, infectious shfv-lvr cdna clone was constructed. virus produced from this clone had replication characteristics similar to those of the parental virus. a subgenomic mrna was identified for the shfv orf previously identified as 2b. as an initial means of analyzing the function ...201425036340
high genetic diversity and adaptive potential of two simian hemorrhagic fever viruses in a wild primate population.key biological properties such as high genetic diversity and high evolutionary rate enhance the potential of certain rna viruses to adapt and emerge. identifying viruses with these properties in their natural hosts could dramatically improve disease forecasting and surveillance. recently, we discovered two novel members of the viral family arteriviridae: simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv)-krc1 and shfv-krc2, infecting a single wild red colobus (procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) in kibale ...201424651479
differential responses of disease-resistant and disease-susceptible primate macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells to simian hemorrhagic fever virus infection.simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) causes a fatal hemorrhagic fever in macaques but an asymptomatic, persistent infection in baboons. to investigate factors contributing to this differential infection outcome, the targets of shfv infection, macrophages (mφs) and myeloid dendritic cells (mdcs), were differentiated from macaque and baboon peripheral blood monocytes and used to compare viral replication and cell responses. shfv replicated in >90% of macaque mφs but in only ∼10% of baboon mφs. al ...201424335289
exceptional simian hemorrhagic fever virus diversity in a wild african primate community.simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) is an arterivirus that causes severe disease in captive macaques. we describe two new shfv variants subclinically infecting wild african red-tailed guenons (cercopithecus ascanius). both variants are highly divergent from the prototype virus and variants infecting sympatric red colobus (procolobus rufomitratus). all known shfv variants are monophyletic and share three open reading frames not present in other arteriviruses. our data suggest a need to modify t ...201323077302
the genome of simian hemorrhagic fever virus.techniques are described for preparing intact simian hemorrhagic fever (shf) virus rna. shf rna extracted by proteinase k digestion in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (sds) has a sedimentation coefficient of 49 s compared with a reference figure of 47 s for sindbis rna. purified shf rna in cesium sulphate gradient has a buoyant density of 1.63 g/ml similar to that of sindbis rna. this result leads to the conclusion that shf rna is single stranded. this is supported by results on rnase se ...19846497658
[a comparative study of 2 strains of simian hemorrhagic fever virus]. 20165003887
on the identity of two simian hemorrhagic fever virus strains (sukhumi and nih). 19715000135
clinical characterization of host response to simian hemorrhagic fever virus infection in permissive and refractory hosts: a model for determining mechanisms of vhf pathogenesis.simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) causes a fulminant and typically lethal viral hemorrhagic fever (vhf) in macaques (cercopithecinae: macaca spp.) but causes subclinical infections in patas monkeys (cercopithecinae: erythrocebus patas). this difference in disease course offers a unique opportunity to compare host responses to infection by a vhf-causing virus in biologically similar susceptible and refractory animals. patas and rhesus monkeys were inoculated side-by-side with shfv. unlike the ...201930650570
subclinical infection of macaques and baboons with a baboon simarterivirus.simarteriviruses (arteriviridae: simarterivirinae) are commonly found at high titers in the blood of african monkeys but do not cause overt disease in these hosts. in contrast, simarteriviruses cause severe disease in asian macaques upon accidental or experimental transmission. here, we sought to better understand the host-dependent drivers of simarterivirus pathogenesis by infecting olive baboons (n = 4) and rhesus monkeys (n = 4) with the simarterivirus southwest baboon virus 1 (swbv-1). surpr ...201830544677
development and characterization of a cdna-launch recombinant simian hemorrhagic fever virus expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein: orf 2b' is not required for in vitro virus replication.simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) causes acute, lethal disease in macaques. we developed a single-plasmid cdna-launch infectious clone of shfv (rshfv) and modified the clone to rescue an enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing rshfv-egfp that can be used for rapid and quantitative detection of infection. shfv has a narrow cell tropism in vitro, with only the grivet ma-104 cell line and a few other grivet cell lines being susceptible to virion entry and permissive to infection. using rs ...202133917085
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