subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians.subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, persian onager, przewalski's wild horse, malayan sun bear, asian elephant, east african river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. it was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin ...19938408784
anatomical observations on a musk-ox calf (ovibos moschatus) with particular reference to thoracic and abdominal topography. 19655838416
some helminth parasites from the small intestine of free-ranging muskoxen ovibos moschatus (zimmermann) of devon and ellesmere islands, northwest territories. 19807363187
[the problem of q fever in zoo ungulates].antibodies to coxiella burnetii were recorded from approximately 13% of 469 ungulates which had been examined by means of micro-cft (complement fixation test). particular reference is made to a q-fever situation in a musk ox herd. the results obtained from these investigations are likely to support the conclusion that latent q-fever infection may be expected to occur in ungulates and to grow manifest in stress situations.19989639953
variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen.prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen form a family of structurally related hormones, which may have evolved from a common ancestral peptide. prolactin and growth hormone are present in all mammals, but the biological activity associated with placental lactogen has been detected in only some groups. attempts to detect placental lactogen using bioassay and radioreceptor assay are reported and have been unsuccessful in an insectivore (the shrew), a bat, an edentate (the armadillo), a l ...19863519707
on contagious ecthyma and its treatment in muskoxen (ovibos moschatus). 19854041120
yersiniosis in free-ranging muskoxen on banks island, northwest territories, canada.sixty-seven muskox (ovibos moschatus) carcasses, 53 skeletal remains and two sick muskoxen were seen during an aerial survey of the thomsen river region, northern banks island, northwest territories, canada in late july 1986. complete necropsies were performed on 29 muskoxen estimated to have died within the previous 3 to 5 days. twenty were diagnosed with acute yersiniosis due to yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 1b and were in excellent body condition. a diagnosis could not be made on seven ...19911758017
oxygen transport in the blood of arctic mammals: adaptation to local heterothermia.the oxygen binding of whole blood from humans and two arctic mammals, reindeer and muskox, has been studied as a function of carbon dioxide and temperature. all bloods display a marked bohr effect with bohr coefficients in the range -0.44- -0.73. the bohr effect is more pronounced at 20 degrees c. the temperature sensitivity of reindeer and muskox blood expressed by the apparent heat of oxygenation, delta h, is almost three times lower than that of human hba under the same experimental condition ...19902335593
interaction of hemoglobin with chloride and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate. a comparative approach.the equilibrium oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobins from reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus), musk ox (ovibos muschatos) and a bat (rousettus aegyptiacus) have been investigated with special reference to the effect of heterotrophic ligands such as chloride and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate [gri(2,3)p2]. the results obtained with hemoglobins from reindeer and musk ox indicate that their low oxygen affinity and their insensitivity to gri(2,3)p2 are not only an intrinsic property of the molecule, ...19902253624
contagious ecthyma (orf) in the musk ox (ovibos moschatus). 1978569431
a perspective on forage production in canada.over the past decade, the cattle industry has experienced practically a full circle. with the promising beef prices in the early 1970s, with the glut of grain and a generous assist from government incentive programs, the forage acreage and cattle population have increased at a record rate. by 1974, the tide began to turn - grain prices went up sharply and beef prices became sluggish - and by 1976 a major crisis faced the producers. the cattle industry which had been developing on a cheap grain e ...19807363269
parapoxvirus papillomatosis in the muskoxen (ovibos moschatus): genetical differences between the virus causing new outbreak in a vaccinated herd, the vaccine virus and a local orf virus.since 1981 a domesticated muskoxen herd had been successfully vaccinated against papillomatosis with homogenated, glutaraldehyde inactivated papilloma tissue. in the fall of 1985 a new clinical outbreak of disease occurred, affecting previously infected as well as vaccinated animals. the purification of parapox virions directly from papilloma tissue and orf scabs collected in a local sheep farm was followed by restriction endonuclease analysis of viral dna. the morphological identity of purified ...19902169188
contagious ecthyma in alaskan musk-oxen and dall 1976 and 1977, a disease resembling contagious ecthyma was seen in captive musk-oxen (ovibos moschatus) in alaska. a similar disease occurred in 1977 in captive dall sheep (ovis dalli). paravaccinia viruses were detected by electron microscopy and isolated in cell cultures from both species. experimental inoculation in susceptible and immune domestic sheep (ovis aries) plus fluorescent antibody tests with ecthyma-immune conjugate indicated that the isolate was contagious ecthyma virus.19817327995
serologic and experimental investigations of contagious ecthyma in alaska.serologic evidence of contagious ecthyma (ce) was found in domestic sheep (ovis aries), domestic goats (capra hircus), dall sheep (ovis dalli), and musk-ox (ovibos moschatus) in alaska. a moose (alces alces) calf and a caribou (rangifer tarandus) fawn were susceptible to experimental infection and both developed antibody titers as a result. ce virus was isolated from lesions of dall sheep which were involved in a natural outbreak of the disease.19836644914
rumen ciliate fauna of alaskan moose (alces americana), musk-ox (ovibos moschatus) and dall moutain sheep (ovis dalli). 19744206407
spectroscopic properties of the nitric oxide derivative of ferrous man, horse, and ruminant hemoglobins: a comparative study.the spectroscopic (epr and absorbance) properties of the nitric oxide derivative of ferrous man, horse, buffalo, deer, mouflon, musk ox, ox, and reindeer hemoglobin (hbno) have been investigated in the absence of any allosteric effector at ph 6.5 (in 0.1 m 2-[n-morpholino]ethanesulphonic acid/naoh chloride-free buffer system), as well as at 100 k and/or 20 degrees c. man and horse hbno show spectroscopic properties that are generally taken as typical of the high affinity state of ferrous tetrame ...19921316949
copper deficiency in a herd of captive necropsy, a mature muskox cow was found to have exceedingly low serum and liver copper concentrations of 4.8 = mumol/l and 0.02 mmol/kg, respectively. serum copper levels were also low in remaining members of the herd but returned to normal after parenteral treatment with calcium copper edetate.19989592616
hair pulling and eating in captive rhesus monkey pulling and eating has not yet received attention in the nonhuman primate literature. hair pulling and eating was recorded 388 times in two heterogeneous troops of healthy rhesus monkeys that were kept according to modern management practices. the behavior in question consists of the following sequence: pulling with the fingers (1/3 of cases) or with the teeth (2/3 of cases) tufts of hair from one's own or from a partner's coat; chewing the hair and finally swallowing it; the undigested mat ...19863583152
comparison of contagious ecthyma virus genomes by restriction endonucleases.restriction enzyme analysis with kpni revealed heterogeneity among 10 different strains of contagious ecthyma virus from sheep, musk ox, dall sheep and humans. hybridization of electroblots indicated deletion of dna segments and changes in nucleotide sequences.19852986582
the interplay of temperature and protons in the modulation of oxygen binding by squid extensive set of data relating to the binding of oxygen by haemocyanin from the squid todarodes sagittatus has been collected under various experimental conditions. the results obtained show that, within the range of physiological ph, the concentration of protons affects mainly the high-affinity state of the molecule without significantly affecting the low-affinity state. as far as the effect of temperature is concerned, the data show a characteristic feature which is very similar to that pre ...19921311173
anatomy of the reproductive tract of the female muskox (ovibos moschatus).reproductive tracts from 23 female muskoxen were collected from the canadian high arctic during annual native muskox hunts. twenty tracts were collected during the late breeding season and the last third of pregnancy or anoestrus, with 3 additional specimens taken just before the breeding season in august. the non-gravid muskox uterus was very similar to that of sheep and goats except for two features found in parous muskoxen. the first was endometrial pigmentation found only in the caruncles an ...19873656278
prevalence of antibody to malignant catarrhal fever virus in wild and domestic ruminants by competitive-inhibition elisa.a competitive-inhibition elisa (ci-elisa), based on a monoclonal antibody to an epitope conserved among malignant catarrhal fever virus (mcfv) strains of both wildebeest and sheep origin, was used to determine the prevalence of antibody to mcfv in selected domestic and wild ruminants, both free-ranging and captive, from the usa. we evaluated 2528 sera from 14 species between 1990 and 1995, including 80 pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), 339 bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), 103 biston (b ...19968827669
cytochrome b sequences suggest convergent evolution of the asian takin and arctic muskox.relationships of the takin (budorcas taxicolor) and muskox (ovibos moschatus) have been speculated upon for many years. morphological and behavioral similarities between these species have led to suggestions that they are closely related. to test the hypothesis that characteristics shared by the takin and muskox stem from a recent common ancestor, we compared sequences of their mitochondrial cytochrome b genes with those of three other species of caprinae. we present data that may support reject ...19979417894
yeasts in the rumen contents of musk oxen.the yeast flora of 16 samples of rumen contents of musk oxen (ovibos moschatus) from east greenland was examined. variable numbers of yeast colonies developed on agar plates incubated at 25 degrees c, the counts being up to 136000 per g (wet wt). of the 41 strains isolated, the majority belonged to candida and cryptococcus; others were species of trichosporon, rhodotorula, torulopsis and pichia. very few colonies appeared on plates incubated at 37 degrees c, and only one species of candida was i ...19807252482
arctic life adaptation--ii. the function of musk ox (ovibos muschatos) hemoglobin.1. the hemoglobin system from musk ox (ovibos muschatos) has been characterized from the functional point of view with special regard to the effect of organic phosphates and temperature. 2. the results are similar to those previously obtained in the case of reindeer and confirm that hemoglobins from arctic animals may display very low enthalpy change for the reaction with oxygen. 3. this finding is considered an example of molecular adaptation of respiratory pigments to extreme environmental con ...19892598629
the influence of fatness on the likelihood of early-winter pregnancy in muskoxen (ovibos moschatus).among wild ruminants, muskoxen have an exceptional ability to fatten, but their pregnancy rates are variable and often low. to test whether the likelihood of pregnancy in muskoxen is associated with exceptionally good body condition, we used logistic regression analysis with data from 32 pregnant and 18 nonpregnant muskoxen > or = 1.5 yr of age shot in november (1989 to 1992) on victoria island in arctic canada. we assayed their serum for insulin-like growth factor-1 (igf-1). all fatness and mas ...199810732151
ceruloplasmin as an indicator of copper reserves in wild ruminants at high latitudes.northern ungulates must establish trace mineral reserves when forage is available in spring and summer to sustain biochemical activities through the long winter. copper (cu), zinc (zn) and iron (fe) reserves were measured in the serum, digestive tract, liver, and kidney of six male caribou and reindeer (rangifer tarandus) fed a complete pelleted ration. dry matter content and absolute amounts of cu, zn and fe were highest in the liver. digesta contents of cu and zn were greatest in the rumen but ...200111310884
monomorphism and polymorphism at mhc drb loci in domestic and wild ruminants.genetic polymorphism at mhc class ii drb loci was investigated in samples of musk-ox from canada and greenland; moose from sweden, norway, canada, and alaska; roe deer from norway and sweden; reindeer from svalbard and norway; fallow deer from norway and sweden; and red deer from norway. the results were compared with published data on cattle, bison, goat, sheep, and red deer. cattle-specific primers amplified a single drb locus in all species except fallow deer and red deer, in which two loci w ...199910319259
a comparison of g-band patterns of the muskox and takin and their evolutionary relationship to sheep. 19948182282
a lung nematode in canadian arctic muskoxen. standard radiographic and computed tomographic imaging.medical imaging was used before death to follow the development of u. pallikuukensis infection in muskoxen and postmortem to investigate the distribution and characteristics of parasite-associated pulmonary cysts. in two experimentally infected animals, lesions were not visible radiographically until days 178 and 191 pi, 3 months after the parasites became patent. serial radiographs taken throughout the period of patency of one animal showed an initial increase in lesion size by day 415 pi, but ...199910442391
parapoxvirus infections of reindeer and musk ox associated with unusual human infections.this report concerns five cases of human infection resulting in lesions morphologically similar to human orf. parapoxvirus infection in reindeer was the probable source of infection in four cases. the fifth case involved musk ox. two of the cases involving reindeer are particularly interesting as transmission of infection occurred indirectly. viral particles were not seen by electron microscopy of human tissues, due probably to the late stage of the illness at the time of examination. however, e ...1978216383
is the decline of desert bighorn sheep from infectious disease the result of low mhc variation?bighorn sheep populations have greatly declined in numbers and distribution since european settlement, primarily because of high susceptibility to infectious diseases transmitted to them from domestic livestock. it has been suggested that low variation at major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genes, the most important genetic aspect of the vertebrate immune system, may result in high susceptibility to infectious disease. therefore, we examined genetic polymorphism at a mhc gene (ovca-drb) in a ...200111520344
serum antibody prevalence of malignant catarrhal fever viruses in seven wildlife species from alaska.blood samples were collected from seven species of free-ranging ungulates in alaska. sera were tested for evidence of exposure to malignant catarrhal fever viruses (mcfv) by means of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. antibody prevalences were as follows: muskox (ovibos moschatus) 100 positive samples of 104 tested (96%); dall sheep (ovis dalli) 212 of 222 (95%); elk (cervus elaphus) 14 of 51 (27%); bison (bison bison) 34 of 197 (17%); caribou (rangifer tarandus) nine of 232 (4%); ...200212238366
rangiferine brucellosis in a muskox, ovibos moschatus moschatus (zimmermann). 19846492325
the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (mc1-r) gene as a tool in evolutionary studies of artiodactyles.the complete coding region of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (mc1-r) gene was characterized in species belonging to the two families bovidae and cervidae; cattle (bos taurus), sheep (ovis aries), goat (capra hircus), muskox (ovibos moschatus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), reindeer (rangifer tarandus), moose (alces alces), red deer (cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (dama dama). this well conserved gene is a central regulator of mammalian coat colour. examination of the interspecies ...199910628296
immobilization and tagging of muskoxen (ovibos moschatus) in jameson land, northeastern july 1982 and 1983, 491 muskoxen were handled in a tagging project in jameson land, northeastern greenland. groups of muskoxen as well as single individuals were rounded up effectively by greenland huskies and kept in an accessible position suitable for injection of immobilizing drugs. standard doses of drugs were developed for each age class. for adults the dose used was 2 mg etorphine, 30 mg xylazine and 200 iu hyaluronidase. for yearlings the xylazine was reduced to 20 mg while the etorphi ...19846737609
low genetic variation in muskoxen (ovibos moschatus) from western greenland using microsatellites.muskoxen are large herbivores living in arctic environments. lack of genetic variation in allozymes has made it difficult to study the social and genetic structure of this species. in this study, we have tried to find polymorphic microsatellite loci using both cattle-derived microsatellite primers and primers developed from a genomic plasmid library of muskoxen. only limited variation was found for both sets of microsatellite loci. we conclude that this consistent low genetic variation is probab ...199910327661
fiber characteristics of qiviut and guard hair from wild muskoxen (ovibos moschatus).in response to increasing commercial interest and the high market value of qiviut (the downy underwool of the muskox), we have employed standards and measurements used in the wool and cashmere industries to describe qiviut fiber characteristics. fleece samples (qiviut with guard hair) were shaved from the midshoulder of 299 wild muskox hides of known sex and age (1, 2, 3, and 4+ yr) during the banks island, canada, muskox harvest in november 1997. samples were analyzed for fiber diameter distrib ...200111465352
toxoplasmosis as a suspected cause of abortion in a greenland muskox (ovibos moshatus wardi).toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were seen in the placenta of a late-term aborted greenland muskox (ovibos moschatus wardi) fetus in a captive herd at the san francisco zoo. the organism stained with anti-t. gondii polyclonal rabbit serum but not with anti-neospora caninum serum. the dam had a toxoplasma titer of > or =1:3,200 at the time of abortion and in each of the previous 3 yr (modified agglutination test). the muskox is a new host record for t. gondii.200010982143
structure, biodiversity, and historical biogeography of nematode faunas in holarctic ruminants: morphological and molecular diagnoses for teladorsagia boreoarcticus n. sp. (nematoda: ostertagiinae), a dimorphic cryptic species in muskoxen (ovibos moschatus).discovery of the ostertagiine nematode teladorsagia boreoarcticus n. sp. in muskoxen, ovibos moschatus, from the central canadian arctic highlights the paucity of knowledge about the genealogical and numerical diversity of nematode faunas characteristic of artiodactyls at high latitudes across the holarctic. teladorsagia boreoarcticus is a dimorphic cryptic species distinguished from teladorsagia circumcincta/teladorsagia trifurcata in domestic sheep by a 13% divergence in the nd4 region of mito ...199910577730
differentiation of dorsal-spined elaphostrongyline larvae by polymerase chain reaction amplification of its-2 of rdna.molecular genetics was used to devise the first reliable diagnostic tool for differentiating morphologically indistinguishable dorsal-spined, first-stage larvae (l1's) and other stages of the nematode protostrongylid subfamily elaphostrongylinae. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay employing specifically designed primers was developed to selectively amplify dna of the its-2 region of the ribosomal gene. amplification of the entire its-2 region differentiated between larvae of the genera elap ...200011085433
a review of mutual transmission of important infectious diseases between livestock and wildlife in europe.oral vaccination of red foxes against rabies has been practiced in europe since 1978 and has succeeded in greatly reducing the occurrence of this disease in foxes: this is an example of coordinated activity against a disease that affects both wild and domestic animals as well as humans. some examples of diseases that affect both domestic and wild animals in europe are: classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild boars and domestic swine; myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease in domestic and ...200212381556
evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in muskox (ovibos moschatus), nubian ibex (capra nubiana), and gemsbok (oryx gazella).six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (alhv-1) carried by wildebeest (connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (cphv-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic mcf in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus; mcfv-wtd). ...200314733283
genes for the trophoblast interferons in sheep, goat, and musk ox and distribution of related genes among mammals.the trophoblast interferons (ifns) are a family of type 1 ifn found in domestic ruminants that are most closely related to the little-studied 172-amino-acid ifn-omega. they are produced in massive amounts by the preimplantation conceptus at a time coincident with maternal recognition of pregnancy, and are implicated in playing an important role in this process. here we report the characterization of four distinct members of the ovine trophoblast ifn (otp-1) gene family, and demonstrate that they ...19921374107
iodine content of traditional greenlandic food items and tap water in east and west greenland.the iodine intake level is important for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in a population. the iodine intake in greenland has been proposed to be more than ten times the recommended level. however, no measurements have been performed to determine the iodine content of greenlandic food items, drinking water, and beverages available in east and west greenland.200212546191
muskox lungworm (umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis) does not establish in experimentally exposed thinhorn sheep (ovis dalli).muskoxen (ovibos moschlatus moschatus) on the northwestern mainland of nunavut and northwest territories, canada, are infected with the protostrongylid lungworm, umingmaksrongylus pallikuuhkensis. the geographic range of this muskox population is expanding to the south and west, and it is anticipated that these animals will eventually become sympatric with dall's sheep (ovis dalli dalli) in the mackenzie and richardson mountains. to address the concern of wildlife managers that u. pallikulkensis ...200415362818
parasites, biodiversity, and population dynamics in an ecosystem in the high arctic.the abomasa of 163 svalbard reindeers (rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) from nordenskiöld land, spitsbergen (78 degrees n, 15 degrees e) were examined for adult and juvenile nematodes. spitsbergen has midnight sun from late april to late august, arctic night from late october to mid-february, permafrost, and snow cover from october to june. plant growth is restricted to 6-8 weeks, usually starting mid-june. in the reindeer calves, which are born in june prevalence and intensity of infection incr ...199910456416
a comparative study of the temperature dependence of the oxygen-binding properties of mammalian hemoglobins.the effect of temperature on the oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin (hb) from ruminants, such as ox, reindeer, musk ox, mouflon and egyptian water buffalo is compared to that of human adult hb (hba). a striking difference emerges where in the presence of chloride ions and in the absence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate [gri(2,3)p2] a strongly reduced exothermic oxygenation process is observed for all ruminant hb investigated with respect to hba. next, in the presence of physiological concentration ...19921551393
molecular insights into the evolution of the family bovidae: a nuclear dna perspective.the evolutionary history of the family bovidae remains controversial despite past comprehensive morphological and genetic investigations. in an effort to resolve some of the systematic uncertainties within the group, a combined molecular phylogeny was constructed based on four independent nuclear dna markers (2,573 characters) and three mitochondrial dna genes (1,690 characters) for 34 bovid taxa representing all seven of the currently recognized bovid subfamilies. the nuclear dna fragments were ...200111420362
phylogeny of dictyocaulus (lungworms) from eight species of ruminants based on analyses of ribosomal rna this study, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of nematode parasites within the genus dictyocaulus (superfamily trichostrongyloidea). lungworms from cattle (bos taurus), domestic sheep (ovis aries), european fallow deer (dama dama), moose (alces alces), musk ox (ovibos moschatus), red deer (cervus elaphus), reindeer (rangifer tarandus) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus) were obtained and their small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) sequences analysed. in th ...200312954019
nutritional development of feeding strategies in arctic ruminants: digestive morphometry of reindeer, rangifer tarandus, and muskoxen, ovibos moschatus.reindeer have been classified as intermediate feeders and muskoxen as grazers based on differences in digestive morphology and consumption of fibrous plants. we hypothesized that the digestive morphology of young (< 2 months) reindeer and muskoxen anticipates transitions in diet and determines the feeding strategy of each species at adulthood. we compared structural morphology and rates of cell division in the rumen, abomasum, duodenum and liver of reindeer and muskoxen as neonates (1 day old), ...200416351947
gamma herpesvirus carrier status of captive artiodactyls.between 1998 and 2000, 103 individuals of 19 species of the order artiodactyla at whipsnade wild animal park were tested for evidence of infection with gamma herpesviruses in order to distinguish between species which are susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) of wildebeest (connochaetes sp.) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) of domestic sheep, and species which carry related viruses sub-clinically. gamma herpesvirus dna was detected in the kno ...200212208112
identification of animal species by protein radioimmunoassay of bone fragments and bloodstained stone forensics and archaeology, it is important to distinguish human from animal remains and to identify animal species from fragmentary bones and bloodstains. we report blind tests in which a protein radioimmunoassay (pria) was used to identify the species of six bone fragments lacking morphological specificity and 43 bloodstained lithic tools, knapped experimentally and soaked in blood of known animal and human origin. the submitters of the bone fragments and the bloodstained tools each listed a ...200616191470
hair pulling: a pulling has been reported in humans, six different non-human primate species, mice, guineapigs, rabbits, sheep and muskox, dogs and cats. this behaviour seems to occur only in subjects who are confined in an artificial environment. it has been classified as a mental disorder in humans, as a behavioural pathology in animals. the hair is not only pulled but also, in most species, ingested. hair pulling can be both self-directed and partner-directed, contains elements of aggression, manifests ...200516197702
molecular evolution of coding and non-coding sequences of the growth hormone receptor (ghr) gene in the family bovidae.the ghr gene exon 1a and exon 4 with fragments of its flanking introns were sequenced in twelve bovidae species and the obtained sequences were aligned and analysed by the clustalw method. in coding exon 4 only three interspecies differences were found, one of which had an effect on the amino-acid sequence--leucine 152 proline. the average mutation frequency in non-coding exon 1a was 10.5 per 100 bp, and was 4.6-fold higher than that in coding exon 4 (2.3 per 100 bp). the mutation frequency in i ...200617044257
can methane suppression during digestion of woody and leafy browse compensate for energy costs of detoxification of plant secondary compounds? a test with muskoxen fed willows and birch.digestion and metabolism of woody and leafy browse requires detoxification of plant secondary compounds that can incur an energy cost. browse, however, inhibits methane (ch(4)) production and therefore could offset some costs of detoxification. we measured an index of heat increment of feeding (hifi) and ch(4) production in muskoxen (ovibos moschatus) given a single test meal (at 10 g/kg bm(0.75)) composed of hay mixed with one of three browse species (willow: salix alaxensis, s. pulchra; birch: ...200212443941
comparing subcutaneous adipose tissue in beef and muskox with emphasis on trans 18:1 and conjugated linoleic acids.muskox (ovibos moschatus) are ruminant animals native to the far north and little is known about their fatty acid composition. subcutaneous adipose tissue (backfat) from 16 wild muskox was analyzed and compared to backfat from 16 barley fed beef cattle. muskox backfat composition differed substantially from beef and the most striking difference was a high content of 18:0 (26.8 vs. 9.77%). this was accompanied by higher levels of most other saturated fatty acids except beef had more 16:0. muskox ...200717492324
genetic characterization of orf viruses isolated from various ruminant species of a the present study, an outbreak of proliferative dermatitis in musk ox (ovibos moschatus), sichuan takin (budorcas taxicolor tibetana) and domestic shetland sheep (ovis aries) in a zoo is described. skin lesions consisted of severe, persistent, multifocal, proliferative dermatitis in musk ox, and mild, transient, focal, dermatitis in the sichuan takin and shetland sheep. parapoxviruses were isolated from skin lesions, and characterized by restriction enzyme analysis and partial gene sequencing ...200415019099
prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in wild animals.antibodies to neospora caninum were determined in several species of wild animals in the united states by the neospora agglutination test (nat). antibodies (nat 1:40 or higher) were found in 5 of 249 bison (bison bison), 5 of 160 caribou (rangifer tarandus), 4 of 162 moose (alces alces), 4 of 122 wolves (canis lupus), and 1 of 224 musk ox (ovibos moschatus) but not in 197 black bears (ursus americanus). to our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to n. caninum in bison and caribou. ...200516419771
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in muskox (ovibos moschatus) sera from northern canada.prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii was determined in 203 muskoxen (ovibos moschatus) from 3 geographically distinct areas of northern canada (near the hamlets of kugluktuk and cambridge bay, nunavut and holman, northwest territories) by the modified agglutination test (mat). antibodies were found in 13 (6.4%) of 203 animals with mat titers of 1:25 in 2, 1:50 in 7, 1:200 in 2, 1:400 in 1, and 1:800 in 1. the 4 muskoxen with mat titers > or =1:200 were adult females and were among 10 an ...200010958480
a severe outbreak of contagious ecthyma (orf) in a free-ranging musk ox (ovibos moschatus) population in norway.during july-october 2004, 19 (18 calves, 1 yearling) free-ranging musk oxen (ovibos moschatus) at dovre, norway, were observed with contagious echtyma-like lesions, and 16 of them were euthanized. six musk oxen were subjected to necropsy, histopathological and microbiological examinations. all euthanized animals had lesions consistent with contagious ecthyma presenting as wart-like, scabby lesions on the muzzle, lips, oral mucosa and limbs to a variable extent. the histopathological examination ...200817768017
survey for antibodies against various infectious disease agents in muskoxen (ovibos moschatus) from jamesonland, northeast greenland. 19863712652
mitochondrial dna from myotragus balearicus, an extinct bovid from the balearic islands.dna was extracted from teeth and bones of myotragus balearicus, a bovid that evolved in isolation on the balearic islands (western mediterranean) from the end of the miocene, becoming extinct 4,000 years bp, after the arrival of humans in the islands. the numerous morphological apomorphies of myotragus, most strikingly its dwarfism, frontal eyes, and ever-growing incisors, obscure its phylogenetic relationships with extant bovids. therefore, the recovery of genetic information from myotragus is ...200010750053
[microsatellite dna variability in the populations of muskoxen ovibos moschatus acclimated to the russian north].the muskoxen populations introduced to the taimyr peninsula and wrangel island in 1974 to 1975 were examined for sequence variation at seven microsatellite loci. donor material originated from the populations of banks island (canada) and eastern greenland. relative to the allele frequencies, both introduced populations demonstrated rather strong deviation from the populations of the native range. at the same time, population allelic structures evidenced that they were closer to the greenland pop ...200919705745
molecular characterization of novel variants of interferon-tau (ifnt) gene in garole breed of sheep (ovis aries).the survivability of embryo, especially during the early embryonic life is dependent on the effective maternal recognition of pregnancy. interferon-tau (ifnt), secreted from the elongating blastocyst, acts as the primary signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminant ungulates. ifnt has been studied extensively in many domesticated and wild ruminant species. in the present study, we have cloned and characterized the ifnt gene of garole sheep, a popular indian micro-sheep breed, which i ...200817448613
exploring passive transfer in muskoxen (ovibos moschatus).poor calf production and ill thrift in 3-4 mo olds are common limiting problems in raising and maintaining captive muskoxen (ovibos moschatus). acute onset of a rapidly progressing enteritis and septicemia in neonatal calves (2-7 days of age) caused by escherichia coli not normally considered pathogenic in domestic animals is a serious problem in many captive muskoxen facilities. serum immunoglobulin g (igg) levels, total protein, albumin, and globulin levels in captive periparturient muskox fem ...200717469276
parasitosis in a musk ox. 195713448987
new ruminant hosts and wider geographic range identified for babesia odocoilei (emerson and wright 1970).babesia odocoilei was found to infect two previously unknown host species, desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni) and musk oxen (ovibos moschatus), both of which are members of the family bovidae. previously, b. odocoilei has been reported in only cervidae hosts. new geographic regions where b. odocoilei infections have not been reported previously include pennsylvania and new york, where fatal babesiosis has occurred in reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus); new hampshire, where elk (ce ...200516456156
differential passage of fluids and different-sized particles in fistulated oxen (bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (ovibos moschatus), reindeer (rangifer tarandus) and moose (alces alces): rumen particle size discrimination is independent from contents stratification.ruminant species differ in the degree that their rumen contents are stratified but are similar insofar that only very fine particles are passed from the forestomach to the lower digestive tract. we investigated the passage kinetics of fluid and particle markers (2, 10 and 20 mm) in fistulated cattle (bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (ovibos moschatus), reindeer (rangifer tarandus) and moose (alces alces) on different diets. the distribution of dry matter in the rumen and the viscosity of rum ...201019896552
placing the mountain goat: a total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses.the interpretation of a group's evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. mountain goats (oreamnos americanus) epitomize a 'rogue taxon' as many placements within the caprini tribe have been suggested. using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and bayesian methods. bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as an independent lineage sister to all caprini except muskox and gora ...201020097296
"emerging" parasitic infections in arctic ungulates.important drivers for emergence of infectious disease in wildlife include changes in the environment, shrinking habitats or concentration of wildlife, and movement of people, animals, pathogens, or vectors. in this paper we present three case-studies of emerging parasitic infections and diseases in ungulates in the canadian north. first we discuss climate warming as an important driver for the emergence of disease associated with umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, a nematode lungworm of muskoxen ...200421680491
ancient dna analyses exclude humans as the driving force behind late pleistocene musk ox (ovibos moschatus) population dynamics.the causes of the late pleistocene megafaunal extinctions are poorly understood. different lines of evidence point to climate change, the arrival of humans, or a combination of these events as the trigger. although many species went extinct, others, such as caribou and bison, survived to the present. the musk ox has an intermediate story: relatively abundant during the pleistocene, it is now restricted to greenland and the arctic archipelago. in this study, we use ancient dna sequences, temporal ...201020212118
Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans.Despite decades of research, the roles of climate and humans in driving the dramatic extinctions of large-bodied mammals during the Late Quaternary period remain contentious. Here we use ancient DNA, species distribution models and the human fossil record to elucidate how climate and humans shaped the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, wild horse, reindeer, bison and musk ox. We show that climate has been a major driver of population change over the past 50,000 years. Howe ...201122048313
Common functional correlates of head-strike behavior in the pachycephalosaur Stegoceras validum (Ornithischia, Dinosauria) and combative artiodactyls.Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics.201121738658
Composition of milk from minor dairy animals and buffalo breeds: a biodiversity perspective.A comprehensive review is presented of the nutrient composition for buffalo, mare, and dromedary camel milks at the level of breed, and species-level data for yak, mithun, musk ox, donkey, Bactrian camel, llama, alpaca, reindeer and moose milks. Average values of nutrients were calculated and compared. Interspecies values (g 100 g(-1) ) were 0.7-16.1 for total fat, 1.6-10.5 for protein, 2.6-6.6 for lactose, and 67.9-90.8 for water. Reindeer and moose milks had the highest fat and protein concent ...201122083874
snapshot of the eukaryotic gene expression in muskoxen rumen--a metatranscriptomic approach.herbivores rely on digestive tract lignocellulolytic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to derive energy and carbon from plant cell wall polysaccharides. culture independent metagenomic studies have been used to reveal the genetic content of the bacterial species within gut microbiomes. however, the nature of the genes encoded by eukaryotic protozoa and fungi within these environments has not been explored using metagenomic or metatranscriptomic approaches.201121655220
the male effect, mounting behavior, and the onset of estrus in farmed muskoxen.muskox farming is an emerging industry in alaska. for such an endeavor to succeed, it is necessary to develop fundamental husbandry tools specifically for this species. this study examined the role of the bull in the onset of seasonal ovarian activity and the synchrony of estrus and tested the efficacy of a radiotelemetric estrus detection system. twenty parous female muskoxen, ranging in age from 4 to 15 yr, were divided into three groups (balanced by age and body weight). groups received early ...200314601869
sensible heat loss from muskoxen (ovibos moschatus) feeding in winter: small calves are not at a thermal disadvantage compared with adult cows.muskoxen (ovibos moschatus) are large (>200 kg adult body mass) mammalian herbivores that overwinter in the polar regions. calves are around one-third the body mass of mature females and may be expected to suffer greater thermal stresses in winter compared with adults because the ratio of surface area to volume (sa:vol) is much greater for calves than for adults. we found that during feeding bouts, when animals are fully exposed to environmental conditions, calves did lose sensible (dry) heat mo ...200919569931
serological evidence of besnoitia spp. infection in canadian wild ruminants and strong cross-reaction between besnoitia besnoiti and besnoitia tarandi.bovine besnoitiosis, caused by besnoitia besnoiti, is considered to be emergent in europe and responsible for severe economic losses due to the chronic and debilitating course of the disease but has not been reported in north america. besnoitia tarandi is a related species and it has been reported in reindeer and caribou from different locations of the arctic pole, including north america. diagnosis of clinical besnoitiosis is largely based on the recognition of dermal grossly visible tissue cys ...201222795672
disease complexity in a declining alaskan muskox (ovibos moschatus) population.the muskox ( ovibos moschatus ) population inhabiting the eastern north slope (ens) of alaska, us declined dramatically during 1999-2006, whereas populations in western alaska (wa) were stable or increasing. to understand morbidity and mortality factors contributing to the decline, alaska department of fish and game conducted pathologic investigations of carcasses from 2005 until 2008. additionally, archived sera from both ens and wa muskoxen collected during 1984-92, before the documented begin ...201728099077
sentinels in a climatic outpost: endoparasites in the introduced muskox (ovibos moschatus wardi) population of dovrefjell, norway.we assessed the occurrence of endoparasite eggs, cysts, oocysts and larvae in the muskox population of dovrefjell, norway, during june and august 2012. this population originates from 13 calves translocated from eastern greenland during the 1950s. a total of 167 faecal samples were collected, of which 49% came from identified individuals: 165 were examined by the baermann and 95 by mcmaster techniques and 167 by immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat). lungworm larvae recovered in the baermanns ...201425161914
identification of acute phase proteins and assays applicable in nondomesticated mammals.the serum concentration of acute phase proteins (apps) increases dramatically in response to inflammation and tissue injury. apps are clinically useful in a range of domesticated mammals; however, knowledge is limited in nondomesticated mammals. the detective ability of two assays for each of three potential apps--serum amyloid a (saa), c-reactive protein (crp), and haptoglobin (hp)--was evaluated in eight species. for saa, a turbidimetric immunoassay (tia) demonstrated significant detective abi ...200919368263
the effect of size and density on the mean retention time of particles in the reticulorumen of cattle ( bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen ( ovibos moschatus) and moose ( alces alces).particle passage from the reticulorumen (rr) depends on particle density and size. forage particle density and size are related and change over time in the rr. particle density mainly influences sorting in the reticulum, whereas particle size influences particle retention in the fibre mat of stratified rumen contents ('filter-bed' effect). we investigated these effects independently, by inserting plastic particles of different sizes (1, 10 and 20 mm) and densities (1·03, 1·20 and 1·44 mg/ml) in ...201021144130
enhancement of local species richness in tundra by seed dispersal through guts of muskox and barnacle goose.the potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a high arctic ecosystem was investigated. we analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in northeast greenland - muskox (ovibos moschatus), barnacle goose (branta leucopsis), arctic fox (alopex lagopus) and arctic hare (lepus arcticus). high numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose. seeds of m ...200817990003
surveillance for echinococcus canadensis genotypes in canadian ungulates.the geographic and host distribution, prevalence and genotypes of echinococcus canadensis in wild ungulates in canada are described to better understand the significance for wildlife and public health. we observed e. canadensis in 10.5% (11/105) of wild elk (wapiti; cervus canadensis) in riding mountain national park, manitoba, examined at necropsy, over two consecutive years (2010-2011). molecular characterization of hydatid cyst material from these elk, as well as three other intermediate wild ...201324533321
morphological and morphometric differentiation of dorsal-spined first stage larvae of lungworms (nematoda: protostrongylidae) infecting muskoxen (ovibos moschatus) in the central canadian arctic.umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis and varestrongylus eleguneniensis are the two most common protostrongylid nematodes infecting muskoxen in the north american arctic and subarctic. first stage larvae (l1) of these lungworms have considerable morphological similarity that makes their differential diagnosis very difficult. using light microscopy, we studied in detail the l1 of these two species and identified the key differences in morphological and morphometric attributes. thirty l1 of each speci ...201526155463
erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae associated with recent widespread muskox mortalities in the canadian arctic. 201526028673
discovery and description of the "davtiani" morphotype for teladorsagia boreoarcticus (trichostrongyloidea: ostertagiinae) abomasal parasites in muskoxen, ovibos moschatus and caribou, rangifer tarandus from the north american arctic: implications for parasite faunal diversity.abstract collections to explore helminth diversity among free-ranging ungulates in the north american arctic revealed the occurrence of a third male, or "davtiani," morphotype for teladorsagia boreoarcticus. designated as t. boreoarcticus forma (f.) minor b, the males occurred with t. boreoarcticus f. major and t. borearcticus f. minor a in endemic populations of muskoxen (o. m. wardi) and barrenground caribou (r. tarandus groenlandicus) on victoria island, nunavut, canada and in muskoxen an ...201121942428
sequence analysis of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires in different ruminant species.bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. at the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (t2r) present at the surface of taste receptor cells in the gustatory papillae. our work aims at exploring the phylogenetic relationships of t2r gene sequences within different ruminant species. to accomplish this goal, we gathered a colle ...201526061084
fatal pneumonia epizootic in musk ox (ovibos moschatus) in a period of extraordinary weather conditions.the musk ox is adapted to extreme cold and regarded as vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. population decline is proposed to occur due to changes in forage availability, insect harassment, parasite load, and habitat availability, while the possible role of infectious diseases has not been emphasized. the goal of the present article is to describe an outbreak of fatal pasteurellosis that occurred in the introduced musk ox population of dovrefjell, norway in 2006, causing the death of a l ...200818787923
mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--a primary cause of severe pneumonia epizootics in the norwegian muskox (ovibos moschatus) population.the norwegian muskox (ovibos moschatus) population lives on the high mountain plateau of dovre and originates from animals introduced from greenland. in the late summers of 2006 and 2012, severe outbreaks of pneumonia with mortality rates of 25-30% occurred. during the 2012 epidemic high quality samples from culled sick animals were obtained for microbiological and pathological examinations. high throughput sequencing (pyrosequencing) of pneumonic lung tissue revealed high concentrations of myco ...201425198695
first serosurvey of besnoitia spp. infection in wild european ruminants in spain.besnoitia besnoiti has been reported to affect cattle, wildebeest, kudu and impala, and b. tarandi other wild ruminants (caribou, reindeer, mule deer and musk ox), causing similar characteristic clinical signs and lesions. however, both besnoitia species have been reported in different geographical areas and the link between the sylvatic and domestic life cycles of besnoita spp. in wild ruminants and cattle remains unknown. the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of specific antibodie ...201323790546
first record of taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from greenland.a first record of taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (ovibos moschatus) from the kangerlussuaq population in west greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (rangifer tarandus). muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in greenland.201121955737
late quaternary loss of genetic diversity in muskox (ovibos).the modern wildherd of the tundra muskox (ovibos moschatus) is native only to the new world (northern north america and greenland), and its genetic diversity is notably low. however, like several other megafaunal mammals, muskoxen enjoyed a holarctic distribution during the late pleistocene. to investigate whether collapse in range and loss of diversity might be correlated, we collected mitochondrial sequence data (hypervariable region and cytochrome b) from muskox fossil material recovered from ...200516209705
anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the western alaskan arctic and marine fish in the aleutian islands in the first half of 2000s.a number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western alaskan arctic and fish samples from the aleutian islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ((90)sr and (137)cs) and natural radionculides ((40)k, (210)pb and (226)ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. we examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. in caribou samples, concen ...201121774963
contagious ecthyma, rangiferine brucellosis, and lungworm infection in a muskox ( ovibos moschatus ) from the canadian arctic, adult male muskox ( ovibos moschatus ), harvested on 26 august 2014 on victoria island, nunavut, in the canadian arctic, had proliferative dermatitis on the muzzle and fetlocks suggestive of contagious ecthyma or orf (parapoxvirus). histopathologic features of the lesions were consistent with this diagnosis. orf virus dna, phylogenetically similar to an isolate from a captive muskox of the minnesota zoo, us, was detected in the lesions by pcr using parapoxvirus primers. additionally, there wa ...201627285415
anti-brucella antibodies in moose (alces alces gigas), muskoxen (ovibos moschatus), and plains bison (bison bison bison) in alaska, usa.we used an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) and the rose bengal test (rbt) to test for anti-brucella antibodies in moose (alces alces gigas), muskoxen (ovibos moschatus), and plains bison (bison bison bison) from various game management units (gmus) in alaska, us, sampled from 1982 to 2010. a portion of the sera had previously been tested with the standard plate test (spt), the buffered brucella antigen (bba) card test, and the card test (card). no antibody-positive plains bis ...201626540335
therio-ontology: a personal view of 40 years of farm animal embryo form and function.the main purpose of this autobiographical reminiscence of 40 years of embryo research is to provide young theriogenologists with a firsthand account of how career development can depend strongly on early influences that become modified by changing circumstances. with no intention of being didactic, i hope that my experience of coping with enormous changes in techniques and attitudes may be of use to some of those embarking on a further 40 years of change of at least equal enormity.201424274413
malignant catarrhal fever virus identified in free-ranging musk ox (ovibos moschatus) in study the epizootiology of malignant catarrhal fever viruses (mcfv), serum and spleen samples collected in 2004-2011 from a free-ranging musk ox (ovibos moschatus) population in dovrefjell, norway, were examined. sera were tested for antibodies against mcfv by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and spleen samples were examined by a consensus polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for herpesviral dna and sequencing identification. the study included 101 musk oxen, of which 61 were examined ...201323568926
divergent parasite faunas in adjacent populations of west greenland caribou: natural and anthropogenic influences on diversity.gastrointestinal parasite diversity was characterised for two adjacent populations of west greenland caribou (rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) through examinations of abomasa and small intestines collected from adult and subadult females during late winter. three trichostrongyline (trichostrongylina: nematoda) species were identified from the abomasa, although none were recovered from the small intestines, with faunal composition differing between the caribou populations. in caribou from kangerl ...201324533335
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