[acid-stable and acid-unstable alpha-amylases of the mold fungi aspergillus].acid-sable alpha-amylase of asp. niger and acid-unstable, alpha-amylase of asp. oryzae were studied. it was demonstrated, that beside being a more acid-stable properties, alpha-amylase asp. niger has increased thermal stability as compared to alpha-amylase asp. oryzae. the molecular weights of acid-stable alpha-amylase and acid-unstable alpha-amylase are 58 000 and 51 000, respectively. the amino acid composition, and the c- and n-terminal amino acids of both forms of alpha-amylases were determi ...197831203
serological evidence of bluetongue in game animals in botswana.using the agar gel precipitin technique the sera of 397 african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and 90 sera of other common game species were examined for bluetongue antibodies. of the adult buffalo 283 out of 325 (87 per cent) were positive. buffalo calves were positive in 25 out of 72 cases (35 per cent). positive reactions were also recorded in lechwe (kobus leche), tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus), red hartebeeste (alcelaphus buselaphus), gemsbok (oryx gazella), sable (hippotragus niger) and impala ( ...1978204086
application of ovine luteinizing hormone (lh) radioimmunoassay in the quantitation of lh in different mammalian species.a sensitive double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed for measuring luteinizing hormone (lh) in various african mammalian species, using rabbit anti-ovine lh serum (gdn 15) and radioiodinated rat lh or ovine lh. serum and pituitary homogenates from some african mammals (hyrax, reedbuck, sable, impala, tsessebe, thar, spring-hare, ground squirrel and cheetah, as well as the domestic sheep, cow and horse and laboratory rat and hamster) produced displacement curves parallel to that of the ...1977330153
present status of trichinellosis in japan.there have been three mass outbreaks of human trichinellosis in japan. the first was in 1974 in iwasaki, aomori prefecture, involving a group of hunters who ate raw meat of a black bear they had shot. of the 20 people who ate the bear meat raw, 15 showed clinical symptoms of trichinellosis. the second outbreak was experienced in sapporo, hokkaido, in 1980. the patients had eaten the raw meat of a brown bear served in a local restaurant. twelve people were diagnosed positive on the basis of clini ...19911822910
albino gene dosage and retinal decussation patterns in the pigmented ferret.we have examined the retinal decussation patterns in pigmented ferrets that were either wild-type sable or heterozygous with one albino gene. unilateral injections of horseradish peroxidase were made into the optic tract and labeled ganglion cells visualized in retinal wholemounts. in both wild-type and heterozygous ferrets, those ganglion cells in the temporal retina with the largest cell bodies projected only to the contralateral side of the brain. the total number of ipsilaterally projecting ...19912059573
effects of pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin on neutrophils from white-tailed deer and several exotic ruminant species.pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin is a pore-forming cytolysin which acts as a virulence factor in pasteurellosis of domestic ruminants. leukocytes from cattle, sheep and goats are susceptible to leukotoxin-induced lysis; however, leukocytes from non-ruminant species so far tested are resistant to leukotoxin-induced lysis. neutrophils obtained from three white-tailed deer, four saiga antelope, an addra gazelle, a grant's gazelle and a sable antelope were tested for susceptibility to the lytic ef ...19902382402
experimental infection of eland (taurotrages oryx), sable antelope (ozanna grandicomis) and buffalo (syncerus caffer) with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the course of experimental infection of a type sat 1 fmdv strain was studied in buffalo, sable antelope and eland following tongue inoculation and contact and has been compared with that in cattle. all species became infected, although disease was less severe in the game animals and larger amounts of virus were required to infect game animals than cattle. neutralizing antibody titres were high and were maintained for an extended period in buffalo, sable antelope and eland. the carrier state was ...19892584449
molecular cloning of suppressor of sable, a drosophila melanogaster transposon-mediated suppressor.a hybrid dysgenesis-induced allele [su(s)w20] associated with a p-element insertion was used to clone sequences from the su(s) region of drosophila melanogaster by means of the transposon-tagging technique. cloned sequences were used to probe restriction enzyme-digested dnas from 22 other su(s) mutations. none of three x-ray-induced or six ethyl methanesulfonate-induced su(s) mutations possessed detectable variation. seven spontaneous, four hybrid dysgenesis-induced, and two dna transformation-i ...19863023894
ascorbic acid concentrations in serum and urine of the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) on sable island. 19873654117
vitamin a status in the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) on sable island.vitamin a and beta-carotene concentrations in serum, liver and blubber fat were investigated in 65 grey seals of different age and sex in the pupping colony on sable island, canada to determine the vitamin a status. in none of the investigated samples could beta-carotene be detected. there were no differences in the concentration of vitamin a in serum, liver and blubber between male (213 micrograms/l, 376 micrograms/g, 22 micrograms/g respectively) and female (205 micrograms/l, 319 micrograms/g, ...19873679694
parelaphostrongylus tenuis in captive reindeer and sable antelope.parelaphostrongylus tenuis caused neurologic disease in 6 reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) and 2 sable antelope (hippotragus niger) that were housed at the national zoological park conservation and research center in front royal, va. progressive hindlimb ataxia and weakness were seen in all affected animals. the parasite was recovered from the subdural space of one reindeer and was seen histologically within the neuropil of another reindeer and a sable antelope. in the other reindeer and sa ...19863957771
cryptosporidiosis in young artiodactyls.cryptosporidium was found in the intestinal tract of 10 blackbuck, 2 scimitar-horned oryx, 2 fringe-eared oryx, 2 addax, and 1 sable antelope that had diarrhea. cryptosporidia were most numerous in the small intestine, but also were found in the cecum, spiral colon, and colon. the small intestine had minimal inflammation in association with the cryptosporidia. salmonella typhimurium was isolated from 10 of the 51 animals evaluated, with extensive inflammation of the cecum, spiral colon, and colo ...19854077628
basic haematological values in antelopes--ii. the hippotraginae and the tragelaphinae.basic haematological values in 49 animals of five species of the subfamily hippotraginae, namely the roan antelope hippotragus equinus, sable antelope hippotragus niger, adax antelope addax nasomaculatus, gemsbok oryx oryx gazella gazella and scimitar horned oryx oryx damah and in 51 individuals of five species in the subfamily tragelaphinae, including the bushbuck tragelaphus scriptus, nyala tragelaphus angasi, greater kudu tragelaphus strepsiceros, cape eland tautotragus oryx and bongo bocercu ...19846149054
[resistance to antibiotics and heavy metal salts of coagulase-positive staphylococci belonging to different biological types (ecovars)].a total of 189 strains of s. aureus isolated from cows, sheep, swines, poultry, monkeys, rabbits, foxes, and humans and 23 strains of s. intermedius isolated from minks and sables were studied. the staphylococci belonged to different biological types (according to the hajek-marsalek's scheme) and ecovars (according to the meyer-witte's scheme). the strains were studied with respect to their resistance to 10 antibiotics (benzylpenicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, levomycetin, erythromycin, ole ...19826219614
detection and control of rotavirus infections in zoo animals.fecal specimens from 15 exotic animal species, with and without diarrhea, were examined for the presence of rotavirus, bacterial enteropathogens, and intestinal parasites. a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect antigens of rotavirus. rotavirus was detected in the feces of 20 (57%) of 35 of the animals, which included addax (addax nasomaculatus), nyala (tragelaphus angasi), saiga (saiga tatarica), white-tailed gnu (connochaetus gnou), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsice ...19836315660
[drug resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci of animal origin depending on the source of the isolation and species classification of the strains].drug resistance of 271 strains of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated mainly from the upper respiratory tract and skin of healthy animals (cows, sheep, swine, hen, monkey, mink, sable and fox) was studied. benzylpenicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, oleandomycin, neomycin, monomycin, kanamycin and novobiocin and heavy metal salts, such as mercurous chloride and cadmium sulfate were used in the study. unlike coagulase positive staphylococci isolated from the ...19846422841
[species characteristics of coagulase-negative staphylococci of animal origin].the specific identification of 271 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from different animals (cows, sheep, swine, hens, monkeys, minks, sables, foxes, etc.) was carried out according to the scheme of akatov--devriese. species could be determined in 77.5% of the strains. the representatives of s. sciuri (55.5%) and s. xylosus (11.4%), very seldom occurring in humans, prevailed among the identified cultures. in 31.4% of coagulase-negative strains of animal origin the presence of ...19836637274
babesia, theileria and anaplasma spp. infecting sable antelope, hippotragus niger (harris, 1838), in southern africa.some observations are recorded on blood parasites of sable antelopes. blood smears of 124 of these antelopes from south africa and zimbabwe were examined and 7 were found to be positive for a babesia sp., identified as babesia irvinesmithi martinaglia 1936. a total of 70 of the smears were positive for theilerial piroplasms, while 1 smear had macroschizonts (with cytomeres) and microschizonts of a theileria (= cytauxzoon) sp. one blood smear was positive for an anaplasma sp. attempts to isolate ...19826817250
relative immunocompetence of the newborn harbour seal, phoca vitulina.the immune system of many mammalian species is not fully developed at birth, with newborns obtaining temporary immunological protection from maternal antibodies. little is known of the immune system of the harbour seal, and developmental aspects of its immune system have not been systematically studied. we collected blood and milk samples from nine free-ranging mother-pup pairs throughout the lactation period on sable island, canada, in an effort to characterise developmental aspects of the immu ...19947810064
the anatomy of the omasum of some zambian game species.the gross anatomy of the omasum of 11 different zambian game species are described. these include roan antelope, sable antelope, wildebeest, kudu, kafue lechwe, puku, reedbuck, impala, bushbuck, oribi and duiker. lamellar area and papilla density and shape are reported.19938129169
inhibition of oral carcinogenesis by glutathione.forty young adult syrian hamsters (mesocricetus auratus) were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. in group 1 (tumor control), the right buccal pouches were painted three times per week with a 0.5% solution of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (dmba) in heavy mineral oil (usp) with a no. 4 sable brush. in group 2 (experimental group), the right buccal pouches were painted with dmba, as in group 1. in addition, group 2 received 1 mg of reduced glutathione in 0.5 ml of mineral oil three times ...19938233979
the role of wild animals, other than buffalo, in the current epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in zimbabwe.between 1989 and 1992, 7970 wild ungulates, comprising 14 different species, were tested for antibodies to types sat 1, sat 2 and sat 3 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. of these 1.2% were found to be positive and these included impala (aepyceros melampus), eland (taurotragus oryx), waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus) and sable (hippotragus niger). all the positive animals were either from the wildlife areas where buffalo (syncerus caffer) occur or from ranches where clinical fmd had occurred in ...19938270015
the r- and g-banded karyotypes of the sable antelope (hippotragus niger).the karyotype of the sable antelope has been investigated by rbg- and gtg-banding techniques. chromosome preparations were made from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and primary fibroblast cells were cultured from skin biopsies. the rbg-banded chromosomes were identified and classified according to the standard conventions used for cattle and goat. the diploid number of the sable antelope is 60. the autosomes are all acrocentric, the x is a large acrocentric, and the y is a minute acrocentric. comp ...19938270772
larval nematodes infecting amphiporeia virginiana (amphipoda: pontoporeioidea) on sable island, nova scotia.three species of larval nematodes were found infecting the nearshore subtidal amphipod amphiporeia virginiana collected from beaches on sable island, nova scotia. five and 2 sealworms, pseudoterranova decipiens s.l., were found in 2,020 and 2,044 amphipods, respectively, collected in 1991 and 1992, dissected, and examined microscopically. two sealworms, 1 paracuaria adunca and 1 ascarophis sp., were found in 5,157 amphipods collected in 1992 and enzymatically digested. infection with each specie ...19938277392
vitamin c enhances the development of carcinomas in the hamster buccal pouch experimental model.forty young adult male syrian hamsters (mesocricetus auratus) were divided into four groups of 10 animals. the animals in group 1 (tumor control) had the right buccal pouches painted three times a week with a 0.5% solution of 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in heavy mineral oil usp with the use of a number 4 sable brush. the animals in group 2 (experimental group) had the right buccal pouches painted with the same solution as group 1. in addition, they received 1 mg ascorbic acid in 0.5 ml minera ...19938284076
stability, tissue metabolism, tissue distribution, and blood partition of da-1131, a new carbapenem.the stability of da-1131 after incubation in various ph solutions, human plasma, human urine, human gastric juice, rat liver homogenates and rat whole blood, the disappearance of da-1131 after incubation in the 9000g supernatant fraction of various rat tissue homogenates in the presence of nadph, the tissue distribution of da-1131 after intravenous (i.v.) administration of da-1131, 50 mg/kg, to rats, and the blood partition of da-1131 between plasma and blood cells from rabbit blood were studied ...19958746482
a comparative ultrastructural study of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminant species (mammalia, artiodactyla).the ultrastructural similarities and differences of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminants (roe deer, nyala, tahr, eld's deer, red deer, pere david's deer, european mouflon, african buffalo, sable antelope) representing three feeding types i.e. concentrate selectors (cs), grass and roughage eaters (gr) and intermediate feeders (im) were compared. the parotid acinar cells of the cs contained more granular endoplasmic reticulum, golgi-complexes and secretory granules than those of t ...19969090994
the drosophila suppressor of sable protein binds to rna and associates with a subset of polytene chromosome bands.mutations of the drosophila melanogaster suppressor of sable [su(s)] gene, which encodes a 150-kda nuclear protein [su(s)], increase the accumulation of specific transcripts in a manner that is not well understood but that appears to involve pre-mrna processing. here, we report biochemical analysis of purified, recombinant su(s) [rsu(s)] expressed in baculovirus and in escherichia coli as maltose binding protein (mbp) fusions and immunocytochemical analysis of endogenous su(s). this work has sho ...19979121479
growth of cowdria ruminantium in tissue culture endothelial cell lines from wild african mammals.endothelial cell cultures were established from several wild african mammalian species. long-term cultures were established from three ruminants, stable antelope (hippotragus niger), buffalo (syncerus caffer), and eland (tragelaphus oryx), and from an omnivore, the bushpig (potamochoerus porcus). cowdria ruminanntium was isolated from plasma of clinically affected animals in these four cell lines and in bovine endothelial cells used routinely for c. ruminantium propagation. nineteen different st ...19989577776
helminths and bot fly larvae of wild ungulates on a game ranch in central province, zambia.helminths and bot fly larvae were collected from 11 wild ungulate species on a game ranch in the central province of zambia. new host-parasite records are: calicophoron sp. from defassa waterbuck kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa and kafue lechwe kobus leche kafuensis; avitellina centripunctata, gaigeria pachyscelis and gedoelstia cristata from tsessebe damaliscus lunatus lunatus; cooperia rotundispiculum from common reedbuck redunca arundinum; dictyocaulus filaria from greater kudu tragelaphus strep ...19989741058
development and organization of ocular dominance bands in primary visual cortex of the sable ferret.thalamocortical afferents in the visual cortex of the adult sable ferret are segregated into eye-specific ocular dominance bands. the development of ocular dominance bands was studied by transneuronal labeling of the visual cortices of ferret kits between the ages of postnatal day 28 (p28) and p81 after intravitreous injections of either tritiated proline or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase. laminar specificity was evident in the youngest animals studied and was similar to that in th ...199910213088
susceptibility and carrier status of impala, sable, and tsessebe for cowdria ruminantium infection (heartwater).three species of wild african ruminants, impala (aepyceros melampus), sable (hippotragus equinus), and tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus), were experimentally inoculated with in vitro culture-derived cowdria ruminantium organisms, the tick-borne causative agent of heartwater in domestic ruminants, to determine their susceptibility to infection. no clinical disease was observed in any of the ruminants. however, c. ruminantium was detected in the sable by the transmission of heartwater to susceptible s ...199910386439
molecular phylogenetic studies on theileria parasites based on small subunit ribosomal rna gene sequences.classification of theileria parasites of south-east asian countries is still ambiguous due to the lack of basic studies, especially their molecular genetic information. in this study, we included 6 known species and 14 unclassified theileria parasite isolates: theileria annulata, theileria parva, theileria taurotragi, theileria sergenti, theileria buffeli, theileria types sable, theileria types a, b, b1, b2, c, d, e, f, g, g1, theileria type medan (indonesia), theileria type ipoh (malaysia) and ...199910392966
[genetic variation of the mitochondrial dna gene encoding cytochrome b in the magadan population of sable martes zibellina l].the population of sable martez zibellina consisting of two subspecies (m. z. kamtschadalica and m. z. jacutensis) on the territory of the magadan oblast was analyzed for the variation of the 1300-bp mtdna gene region encoding cytochrome b. three haplotypes were revealed among the animals studied (n = 52). six out of nine restriction endonucleases that had recognizable sites within the studied region of mtdna genome had polymorphic sites. an index of gene diversity h was 0.27. the high level of p ...199910576058
bilateral aural hyalohyphomycosis in sable antelope (hippotragus niger).three juvenile sable antelope (hippotragus niger) were diagnosed with bilateral aural hyalohyphomycosis based on histopathology. all three animals were suspected to be immunodeficient based on low igg levels determined using the zinc sulfate turbidity test. the serum and hepatic copper levels of one animal were below the bovine reference range. clinical signs in the three animals included bilateral ventral deviation of the pinnae with multifocal subcutaneous aural tumefaction and poor body condi ...200010982136
mycobacterium genavense infection in two aged ferrets with conjunctival lesions.mycobacterium genavense infection was diagnosed in two adult ferrets. disseminated mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in a castrated 5-year-old sable ferret with generalised peripheral lymph node enlargement and a proliferative lesion of the conjunctiva of the nictitating membrane. the diagnosis was based on characteristic cytology and sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene amplified using the polymerase chain reaction from fresh biopsy material. therapy with rifampicin, clofazimine and clarithromyci ...200011098383
use of electroejaculation to collect semen samples from wild seals.semen samples were obtained from 7 adult male gray seals (halichoerus grypus) at a colony on sable island, nova scotia, canada, using a portable electroejaculation system. males were anesthetized with tiletamine-zolazepam. a probe was inserted in the rectum, and a progressive series of 10 to 15 stimulations (1 to 9 v, 25 to 750 ma) was applied. males ejaculated after 15 to 29 minutes of stimulation and produced ejaculates with volumes of 4 to 17 ml that had vigorous, motile spermatozoa. although ...19968899030
a second acromelanistic allelomorph at the albino locus of the mongolian gerbil (meriones unguiculatus).a new autosomal recessive coat color mutant in the mongolian gerbil (meriones unguiculatus) is described: chinchilla medium (symbol c(chm)). the mutant has typical acromelanistic features similar to those of several acromelanistic c locus mutants of other species of mammals. previously a more severe form of acromelanism (c(h)c(h)) has been described in the mongolian gerbil. the new allele shows to be allelic with this form. on a nonagouti background compound heterozygotes (aac(chm)c(h)) show an ...200111336233
molecular insights into the evolution of the family bovidae: a nuclear dna perspective.the evolutionary history of the family bovidae remains controversial despite past comprehensive morphological and genetic investigations. in an effort to resolve some of the systematic uncertainties within the group, a combined molecular phylogeny was constructed based on four independent nuclear dna markers (2,573 characters) and three mitochondrial dna genes (1,690 characters) for 34 bovid taxa representing all seven of the currently recognized bovid subfamilies. the nuclear dna fragments were ...200111420362
conservation of regulated alternative splicing and identification of functional domains in vertebrate homologs to the drosophila splicing regulator, suppressor-of-white-apricot.although several splicing regulatory proteins have been identified in drosophila through characterization of various genetic mutations, including sex-lethal, transformer, transformer-2, suppressor-of-white-apricot (su(wa)), and possibly suppressor-of-sable, none of these have been identified in vertebrates. we describe the cloning and characterization of human (hsswap) and mouse (mmswap) homologs of the su(wa) gene. comparison of the drosophila and mammalian proteins reveals five highly homologo ...19948206918
effects of energy mobilization during fasting and lactation on plasma metabolites in the grey seal (halichoerus grypus).1. the effects of fasting and lactation on plasma metabolites and insulin as well as morphometric parameters related to the mobilization of energy reserves were investigated in grey seals (halichoerus grypus) of different ages and sex during the 4 week terrestrial breeding period on sable island, ns, canada. 2. clear differences in body length and girth between the sexes were already recognizable in juveniles. fasting and lactation caused a marked decrease in adipose tissue thickness and girth i ...19938101163
x-chromosome monosomy (37,xo) in a burmese cat with gonadal dysgenesis.a 37,xo-chromosome complement was detected in a 21/2-year-old sable burmese cat examined because of primary anestrus. the cat was smaller than its littermates; other somatic abnormalities associated with the xo karyotype in other species were not present. the ovaries, which did not respond to gonadotropin stimulation, contained inactive germinal epithelium (lacking follicles and primordial germ cells), which was similar to that of adult human patients with xo-gonadal dysgenesis.19836853322
anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. it is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana americana), rocky ...19846716555
reinforcers in infancy: classical conditioning using stroking or intra-oral infusions of milk as ucs.six-day-old rats received 20 forward pairings of an odor-conditioned stimulus (cs) with one of two unconditioned stimuli (ucs); 1) intra-oral milk infusions or 2) stroking with a sable-hair brush. these ucs's produce a common general response of increased behavioral activity, but different specific behaviors. for each ucs, additional pups received backward pairings of the cs and ucs, random pairings of the cs and ucs, cs only, ucs only, or no stimuli. four hours later, pups received a two-odor c ...19883371554
comparative molecular cytogenetic studies in the order carnivora: mapping chromosomal rearrangements onto the phylogenetic tree.we have made a set of chromosome-specific painting probes for the american mink by degenerate oligonucleotide primed-pcr (dop-pcr) amplification of flow-sorted chromosomes. the painting probes were used to delimit homologous chromosomal segments among human, red fox, dog, cat and eight species of the family mustelidae, including the european mink, steppe and forest polecats, least weasel, mountain weasel, japanese sable, striped polecat, and badger. based on the results of chromosome painting an ...200212438790
biosynthesis and biosynthetic pathways of pentoses in escherichia coli.sable, henry z. (western reserve university, cleveland, ohio) and elayne e. cassisi. biosynthesis and biosynthetic pathways of pentoses in escherichia coli. j. bacteriol. 84:1169-1172. 1962.-resting glucose-adapted escherichia coli supplied with glucose continues to synthesize pentose by the oxidative pathway characteristic of logarithmically growing glucose-adapted cells. this behavior is unlike that of acetate-adapted resting e. coli supplied with glucose, which continues to synthesize most of ...196213975889
purkinje cell simple spike activity during grasping and lifting objects of different textures and weights.1. three monkeys (2.5-3.5 kg) were trained to pinch an object between the thumb and forefinger and to lift it a vertical distance of 1.0-2.0 cm. either the object weight (15, 65, or 115 g) or the surface texture (sand paper or polished metal) contacting the fingers could be varied. the object was equipped with a vertical position transducer, an accelerometer, and strain gauges that measured the grip force and the vertical load force. 2. in accordance with similar previously published studies on ...19902230918
mitochondrial dna variation in the japanese marten martes melampus and japanese sable, martes zibellina.genetic relationship among japanese sables, martes zibellina and the introduced japanese martens, martes melampus in northern japan was revealed by analyzing a 521-524bp dna sequence from the cytochrome b (112bp)/transfer rna-threonine (67bp)/trna-proline (65bp) and control region (277-280bp) of the mitochondrial genome. intraspecific differences in sequences of m. zibellina and m. melampus (3.8-15.0% and 1.9-16.4%, respectively) were similar to interspecific differences between these two specie ...200415070038
suppressor of sable, a putative rna-processing protein, functions at the level of transcription.the drosophila melanogaster su(s) gene product negatively regulates the expression of mutant alleles with transposon insertions in the 5'-transcribed region by an unknown mechanism. we have investigated here su(s) function through in vivo structure-function analysis, heterologous reporter gene assays, and in vivo transcriptional induction experiments. we have shown that mutations of two arginine-rich motifs (arms), an acidic region, or two ccch zinc fingers affect the ability of su(s) to downreg ...200415082769
relation of cortical cell orientation selectivity to alignment of receptive fields of the geniculocortical afferents that arborize within a single orientation column in ferret visual cortex.neurons in the primary visual cortex of higher mammals are arranged in columns, and the neurons in each column respond best to light-dark borders of particular orientations. the basis of cortical cell orientation selectivity is not known. one possible mechanism would be for cortical cells to receive input from several lateral geniculate nucleus (lgn) neurons with receptive fields that are aligned in the visual field (hubel and wiesel, 1962). we have investigated the relationship between the arra ...19912027051
non-invasive assessment of the incidences of pregnancy and pregnancy loss in the feral horses of sable island.field observations of 400 totally unmanaged feral horses on sable island, nova scotia, were complemented by oestrogen determinations in faecal samples from 154 identified females over a 4-year period (454 mare-years). of mares that were sampled throughout the year and subsequently produced foals, 92.1% exhibited elevated faecal oestrogens between 15 october and 30 march. the results confirm that faecal oestrogens are a useful indicator of pregnancy after approximately 120 days gestation. distrib ...19911795292
[natural and induced ovulation in sables (martes zibellina l)]. 19761034552
in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of t-1220, a new semisynthetic penicillin.t-1220, sodium 6-[d-(-)-alpha-(4-ethyl-2,3-dioxo-1-piperazinylcarbonyl-amino)- alpha-phenylacetamido] penicillanate, is a new semisynthetic penicillin derivative that possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. t-1220 is more effective than carbenicillin (cb-pc) against pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus species, and serratia marcescens. addition of human serum to culture media did not significantly alter the ...1977921239
blood parasites of some wild bovidae in botswana.blood smears from a total of 282 wild bovidae from ngamiland, botswana were examined for the presence of blood parasites. the following species were sampled: 190 african buffalo, 23 impala, 10 blue wildebeest, 18 tsessebe, 1 eland, 13 lechwe, 16 kudu and 11 sable antelope. in addition, blood from 36 of the above antelope and from a further 48 buffalo was inoculated into rodents to test for the presence of trypanosomes. an anaplasm morphologically indistinguishable from anaplasma marginale theile ...1975813170
molecular characterization of theileria species associated with mortality in four species of african antelopes.pathogen dna was isolated from roan antelope (hippotragus equinus), sable antelope (hippotragus niger), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), and common gray duiker (sylvicapra grimmia) in south africa whose deaths were attributed to either theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis. we developed theileria species-specific probes used in combination with reverse line blot hybridization assays and identified three different species of theileria in four african antelope species. the close phylogenetic rela ...200516333074
comparative histology of antelope placentomes.the histological structure of ruminant (family: bovidae) placentomes in eight antelope species was compared to that of domestic cattle and sheep. the chorioallantoic villi differed in degree of branching, surface corrugation, and complexity of utero-placental junction. all species had the epitheliochorial type of placenta, with the epithelial lining of maternal caruncular crypts varying between cellular and syncytial types. uganda kob (kobus kob, reduncinae) and common duiker (sylvicapra grimmia ...198816726390
investigations on the prevalence of trypanosome carriers and the antibody response in wildlife in northern botswana.605 buffalo, 60 lechwe, 23 kudu, 23 impala, 15 tsessebe, 22 sable and two reedbuck from northern botswana were examined for trypanosome infections by serological and/or parasitological means. the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), the haematocrit centrifugation technique (hct) and rodent subinoculation were used. the overall prevalence of patent infection with trypanosomes in buffalo, lechwe and reedbuck was 15,7%. in the case of buffalo and lechwe it was possible to classify their origi ...1978675844
trends in organochlorine residue concentrations and burdens in grey seals (halichoerus grypus) from sable is., ns, canada, between 1974 and blubber from maternal grey seals (halichoerus grypus) from sable is., ns, sigma ddt (p,p'-dde and p,p'-ddt) concentrations declined from 12 micrograms/g lipid in 1974 to 0.5 microgram/g in 1994. pup blubber sigma ddt concentrations were about 60% of those of their mothers, and declined at similar rates. in maternal seals, p,p'-dde increased from 56% sigma ddt in 1974 to 89% in 1994. polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations did not change between 1976 and 1988, but then declined; the relative p ...200111291457
expression and inducibility of members in the cytochrome p4501 (cyp1) family in ringed and grey seals from polluted and less polluted waters.the expression and inducibility of cytochrome p4501a (cyp1a) were investigated in hepatic microsomes of ringed seals (phoca hispida) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) from polluted (baltic sea) and less polluted (svalbard and sable island) areas. liver cyp1a protein levels and activities were assessed by immunoblot analysis and determining catalytic activities towards ethoxyresorufin (erod) and pentoxyresorufin (prod). the amount of cyp1a apoprotein and its catalytic activity were increased up ...200010996541
[flavonoids of artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from artemisia campestris l. ssp. glutinosa gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. artemisia campestris l. sous-espèce glutinosa gay est une composée anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'espagne et d'italie. dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du ge ...198217396957
identification of a tyrosinase (tyr) exon 4 deletion in albino ferrets (mustela putorius furo).albinism is due to a lack of pigmentation in hair, skin and eye, and has been shown to occur in several animal species. mutations of the tyrosinase (tyr) gene account for albinism in domestic cats, rabbits, cattle, mice and rats. in this study, we demonstrate that a tyr mutation accounts for albinism in the ferret (mustela putorius furo). the coding sequence of the five exons of tyr was determined in genomic dna from wild-type pigmented 'sable' coloured and albino ferrets. it was not possible to ...200717655555
akt/protein kinase b up-regulates bcl-2 expression through camp-response element-binding our previous study we showed that insulin-like growth factor-i induces a camp-response element (cre) site-containing bcl-2 promoter through a novel signaling pathway involving mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6/p38beta mitogen-activated protein kinase/map kinase-activated protein kinase-3/camp-response element-binding protein (creb) (pugazhenthi, s., miller, e., sable, c., young, p., heidenreich, k. a., boxer, l. m., and reusch, j. e.-b. (1999) j. biol. chem. 274, 27529-27535). in the ...200010753867
synchronization of oestrous cycles in sable antelope.techniques for manipulating the oestrous cycle of sable antelope, hippotragus niger, were evaluated in a captive population of 24 females maintained at the smithsonian institution's conservation and research center in front royal, va, usa. a secondary objective was to demonstrate the effectiveness of fecal steroid monitoring techniques as a non-invasive method of tracking experimental manipulations. controlled internal drug releasing (cidr) devices designed for cattle (type b, reduced in length ...199910610038
bone-related effects of contaminants in seals may be associated with vitamin d and thyroid hormones.the high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and ddt in gray seal (halichoerus grypus) and ringed seal (phoca hispida botnica) in the baltic sea have been associated with pathological disruptions, including bone lesions and reproductive failures. the underlying environmental and toxicological mechanisms leading to these pathological changes are not yet fully understood. the present study investigated the relationship between the individual contaminant load and bone- and thyroid-related ef ...200818333671
proximate factors associated with high levels of extraconsort fertilization in polygynous grey seals.behavioural estimates of male mating success in polygynous grey seals, halichoerus grypus, may be misleading as females are known to be promiscuous. at sable island, nova scotia, we collected behavioural observations and skin samples for paternity analysis from 56 females and their attending males. twenty-four of these females were found in the following year and their offspring were sampled. using seven hypervariable microsatellite loci, we excluded the consort male as the father in 43% of the ...199910479368
identification of a novel babesia sp. from a sable antelope (hippotragus niger harris, 1838).babesiosis in a sable antelope (hippotragus niger harris, 1838) was first reported in 1930; the parasite was named babesia irvinesmithi. recently, specimens from an adult sable that presented with a sudden onset of disease and that subsequently died during immobilization were submitted for molecular characterization. microscopic examination of thin blood smears revealed the presence of small piroplasms. dna was extracted from blood samples; the v4 variable region of the 18s rrna gene was amplifi ...200818508943
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of domestic pigs and some wild game species from zimbabwe.serum samples of domestic pigs (sus scrofa), elands (taurotragus oryx), sable antelopes (hippotragus niger), warthogs (phacochoerus aethiopicus), bushpigs (koiropotamus [potamochoerus] koiropotamus), white rhinos (ceratotherium simus), african buffalos (syncerus caffer), wildebeest (connochaetas taurinus), and african elephants (loxodonta africana) from zimbabwe were tested for toxoplasma gondii igg antibodies by the modified agglutination test (mat) with whole formalized tachyzoites and mercapt ...199910219323
genetic identification of mammalian carnivore species in the kushiro wetland, eastern hokkaido, japan, by analysis of fecal identify mammalian carnivore species distributed in the kushiro wetland, eastern hokkaido, japan, we developed molecular-genetic methods for identification of the species from fecal samples collected from the field. species-specific primers and pcr programs were established for five native and six alien species of carnivores: martes zibellina, mustela nivalis, mustela erminea, vulpes vulpes, and nyctereutes procyonoides as native species, and neovison vison, martes melampus, mustela itatsi, c ...200818828658
isolation and characterization of a babesia species from rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi ticks picked off a sable antelope (hippotragus niger) which died of acute babesiosis.transmission of a babesia species to susceptible cattle by rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi ticks picked off a sable which died of acute babesiosis is described. the parasite was initially isolated by feeding r. e. evertsi ticks on a susceptible, splenectomised bovine which developed parasitaemia. blood stabilate from the parasitaemic bovine produced a fatal babesiosis in a spleen--intact bovine. clinical signs shown by the affected animals corresponded with those of acute babesiosis. parasitologic ...19989741050
critical role of arg433 in rat transketolase activity as probed by site-directed has been shown that one arginine per monomer at an unknown position is essential for enzyme activity of the homodimeric transketolase (tk) [kremer, egan and sable (1980) j. biol. chem. 255, 2405-2410]. to identify the critical arginine, four highly conserved arginine residues of rat tk (arg102, arg350, arg433 and arg506) were replaced with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis. wild-type and mutant tk proteins were produced in escherichia coli and characterized. the arg102-->ala mutant exhibit ...19989657977
structure and amount of genetic variation at minisatellite loci within the subspecies complex of phoca vitulina (the harbour seal).the structure and amount of genetic variation within and between three subspecies of the harbour seal phoca vitulina was assessed by multilocus dna fingerprinting. bandsharing similarity indicates that the subspecies phoca vitulina richardsi (alaska, east pacific) is clearly separated from the other two subspecies, phoca vitulina concolor (sable island, west atlantic) and phoca vitulina vitulina (north sea, east atlantic). the subspecies also differ significantly in the estimated amount of heter ...19979172395
are human p[14] rotavirus strains the result of interspecies transmissions from sheep or other ungulates that belong to the mammalian order artiodactyla?a limited number of human g6p[14] rotavirus strains that cause gastroenteritis in humans have been isolated in europe and australia. the complete genome sequences were determined for five of these human strains--b10925-97 (isolated in belgium in 1997), 111/05-27 (italy, 2005), pa169 (italy, 1987), mg6 (australia, 1993), and hun5 (hungary, 1997)--and their genetic relatedness to animal rotavirus strains was evaluated by sequencing the complete genome of the sheep rotavirus ovr762 (g8p[14]; spain, ...200919153225
[the structure of the skin of the external auditory canal and the antiviral activity of the cerumen in carnivorous mammals].the structure of the meatus acusticus externus skin was studied in the sable, mink, and european polecat with a parallel estimation of antiherpetic activity of the cerumen. morphologically, these species differ in the degree of fat cellulose development, vascularization, and association with the lymphoid tissue. lymphocytes are present both in the tissue and along the skin gland ducts and hair follicles up to the external surface only in the sable. the cerumen samples have antiviral activity als ...19968991526
[fenetic analysis of aboriginal and introduced sable (martes zibellina) populations in russia].using standard and mulivariate statistic methods, an epigenetic character--foramina in fossa condyloidei inferior, ffci--was studied in sable populations. this character was shown to be most frequent in southeastern populations of the species (primorye and the baikal region) while its distribution in the remaining part of the range was polyclinal. the expression of ffci was directly associated with coat color and longitude, and inversely associated with skull size. this trend was broken by some ...200111642132
multiple copies of mate elements support autonomous plasmid replication in aspergillus nidulans.the ama1 sequence is an efficient plasmid replicator and transformation enhancer in aspergillus nidulans. it comprises two long perfect inverted repeats (mate elements) flanking a short, unique, central spacer. subclone analysis indicates that the complete inverted duplication, but not the unique central spacer, is necessary for efficient plasmid replication. the smallest fragments able to affect transformation efficiency lie within the at-rich portions of the inverted repeats. we demonstrate th ...19968733240
longistrongylus curvispiculum (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) in free-ranging exotic antelope in texas.longistrongylus curvispiculum was recovered from free ranging sable (hippotragus niger), addax (addax nasomaculatus) and biesa oryx (oryx beisa) on two ranches in central texas (usa). these nematodes represented a small portion of the total abomasal worm burden dominated by haemonchus contortus. female l. curvispiculum easily could be confused with other ostertaginae, but the spicules of the males were diagnostic.19938355363
effects of sonic booms on breeding gray seals and harbor seals on sable island, canada.the concorde produces audible sonic booms as it passes 15 km north of sable island, nova scotia, where gray and harbor seals occur year round. the purpose of this research was to assess how sonic booms affect these seals. the intensity of the booms was measured and three types of data (beach counts, frequency of behavior, and heart rate) were collected before and after booms during the breeding seasons of the two species. in addition to the data taken during breeding, beach counts were made befo ...200211837965
[genetic analysis of sympatric sable (martes zibellina) and marten (m. martes) populations in the northern urals].analysis of nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region (495 bp) of sables (martes zibellina) and martens (m. martes) from allopatric parts of the species ranges has shown a considerable interspecific genetic distance (3%). in sympatric populations of these species in the northern urals, differences between two species-specific mtdna lineages are still large; however, classification of each individual nucleotide sequence with one of the two lineages is not correlated wit ...201020536027
occurrence of theileria parva and other haemoprotozoa in cattle at the edge of hluhluwe-imfolozi park, kwazulu-natal, south africa.theileria parva, the most important bovine theilerial species in sub-saharan africa, causes widespread mortality and morbidity in endemic areas. a survey was conducted using buffy-coat specimens from 60 apparently healthy adult communally herded nguni-type cattle at the northeastern edge of the hluhluwe-imfolozi park to determine, by means of pcr and reverse line blot (rlb) hybridisation, the occurrence of theileria and babesia species. the presence of trypanosoma species was determined using pc ...201020649154
a contribution to the knowledge of the biological cycle of capillaria mucronata (molin, 1858), a nematode of the bladder of sable, marten and mink. 194521026767
species identification of mustelids by comparing partial sequences on mitochondrial dna from fecal samples.nucleotide sequences of cytochrome b/trna/d-loop region on mitochondrial dna of mustelids feces were compared to identify species. pcr amplification of target sequence for 47 (24.9%) feces and species identification of five feces (2.6%) out of 189 feces, collected at several study sites in hokkaido, were successful. species of three feces were martes zibellina and those of other two feces were martes melampus and mustela itatsi. the low success rate of identification appeared to be due to failur ...200212014576
molecular diagnosis of theileriosis and heartwater in bovines in africa.the advent of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) coupled with the specificity of deoxyribocucleic acid (dna)-dna hybridization has led to the development of specific and sensitive molecular diagnostic tests to detect and characterize the organisms that cause theileriosis and heartwater. theileriosis is a widespread disease of wild and domestic ruminants caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus theileria. species-specific variations in small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid genes (ssurrna ...200212055842
diversity in the 18s ssu rrna v4 hyper-variable region of theileria spp. in cape buffalo ( syncerus caffer) and cattle from southern africa.summarysequence variation within the 18s ssu rrna v4 hyper-variable region can affect the accuracy of real-time hybridization probe-based diagnostics for the detection of theileria spp. infections. this is relevant for assays that use non-specific primers, such as the real-time hybridization assay for t. parva (sibeko et al. 2008). to assess the effect of sequence variation on this test, the theileria 18s gene from 62 buffalo and 49 cattle samples was cloned and ~1000 clones sequenced. twenty-si ...201121349232
perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates and precursors in relation to dietary source tracers in the eggs of four species of gulls (larids) from breeding sites spanning atlantic to pacific the present study, we identified and examined the spatial trends, sources and dietary relationships of bioaccumulative perfluorinated sulfonate (pfsa; c(6), c(8), and c(10) chain lengths) and carboxylate (pfca; c(6) to c(15) chain lengths) contaminants, as well as precursor compounds including several perfluorinated sulfonamides, and fluorotelomer acids and alcohols, in individual eggs (collected in 2008) from four gull species [glaucous-winged (larus glaucescens), california (larus californi ...201121529948
optical imaging of temporal integration in human auditory cortex.behavioral and physiological studies have indicated the existence of a temporal window of auditory integration (twi), within which similar sounds are perceptually grouped. the current study exploits the combined temporal and spatial resolution of fast optical imaging (the event-related optical signal, eros) to show that brain activity elicited by sounds within and outside the twi differs in location and latency. in a previous event-related brain potential (erp) study [sable, gratton, and fabiani ...200717241291
current levels of ddt, pcb and trace elements in the baltic ringed seals (phoca hispida baltica) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus).residue levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethane (ddt) were determined from liver samples of ringed seals (phoca lispida) from the baltic sea and svalbard, and of grey seals (halichoerus grypus) from the baltic sea and sable island in canada. both baltic seal populations showed clearly higher average sum pcb (spcb) and sum ddt (sddt) levels than the reference seal populations. among the baltic seals, spcb levels were twice as high as sddt level ...200212166673
[properties comparing and evolutionary analysis of mef2 of homo sapiens based on bioinformatic methods].as one of the members of mads family, mef2 group is important in regulating development. analytical tools of ncbi, expasy, cbs, cdd, and sable were adopted to analyze the properties of human mef2 proteins, and evolutionary tree was built according to the result of correlative sequence alignments. the results showed that there are various forms of mef2 in human body, and there are some differences in the physicochemical characteristics. relatively more phosphorylation sites are found and the main ...201121951798
detection and characterisation of papillomavirus in skin lesions of giraffe and sable antelope in south africa.papillomavirus was detected electron microscopically in cutaneous fibropapillomas of a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) and a sable antelope (hippotragus niger). the virus particles measured 45 nm in diameter. histopathologically, the lesions showed histopathological features similar to those of equine sarcoid as well as positive immunoperoxidase-staining of tissue sections for papillomavirus antigen. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detected bovine papillomavirus (bpv) dna. bovine papillomavirus ...201122135920
pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and african buffalo in south lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. bovine papillomavirus (bvp) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with bvp types 1 and 2. this publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of bpv-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in cape mountain zebra (equus zebra ...201122135923
a sine insertion causes the black-and-tan and saddle tan phenotypes in domestic dogs.agouti signaling protein (asip) controls the localized expression of red and black pigment in the domestic dog through interaction with other genes, such as melanocortin 1 receptor and beta-defensin 103. specific asip alleles are necessary for many of the coat color patterns, such as black-and-tan and saddle tan. mutations in 2 asip alleles, a(y) and a, have previously been identified. here, we characterize a mutation consisting of a short interspersed nuclear element (sine) insertion in intron ...201121846741
integrated biological and electro-chemical treatment of swine manure.a full-scale biogas plant was applied to the processing of 10 m3/d of swine manure. the plant consisted of an anaerobic digester and an engine-generator. the digester operation resulted in an 81% of cod removal, a 55% of vs reduction, and methane-rich biogas production that is used to generate electrical and thermal energies. to further treat the digested manure, for compliance with discharge limits, an electro-chemical oxidation with a dimensionally sable anode was investigated for the simultan ...200415137454
studies on the genus setaria viborg, 1795 in south africa. iii. setaria thwaitei mönnig, 1933.mönnig (1933) described setaria thwaitei from a sable antelope, hippotragus niger, the type host, as well as from roan antelope, hippotragus equinus, and waterbuck, kobus ellipsiprymnus. yeh (1959) considered setaria thwaitei to be synonym of setaria hornbyi. material collected from roan antelopes, sable antelopes and gemsbuck, oryx gazella, from several localities in the north and south of south africa, together with mönnig's (1933) material, were re-examined. measurements of the adult worms ob ...200415373332
an unusual case of extensive self-inflicted cement burn.cement is a fine powder used to bind sand and stones into a matrix of concrete, making up the world's most frequently used building material in the construction industry. first described by ramazzini in his book "de morbis artificia diatriba" in 1700, the effect of cement on the skin was presumed to be due to contact dermatitis. the first cement burns case was published by rowe and williams in 1963. cement handling has been found to be responsible for many cases of occupational burns (generally ...201323966898
occurrence of tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in jos, plateau state, nigeria.canine babesiosis caused by babesia rossi, transmitted by haemaphysalis elliptica in south africa, has also been reported from nigeria. although h. leachi (sensu lato) is widespread in sub-saharan africa, published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis is meagre. it has been postulated that the genotype of babesia rossi erythrocyte membrane antigen 1 (brema1) may be linked to virulence of the specific isolate. the primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise tick-bo ...201424661795
the epidemiology of tick-borne haemoparasites as determined by the reverse line blot hybridization assay in an intensively studied cohort of calves in western kenya.the development of sensitive surveillance technologies using pcr-based detection of microbial dna, such as the reverse line blot assay, can facilitate the gathering of epidemiological information on tick-borne diseases, which continue to hamper the productivity of livestock in many parts of africa and elsewhere. we have employed a reverse line blot assay to detect the prevalence of tick-borne parasites in an intensively studied cohort of indigenous calves in western kenya. the calves were recrui ...201525858115
offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals.offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. however, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. we used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (halichoerus grypus; fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspr ...201525897381
the rate of fertilization in male mating tactics of the polygynous grey seal.studies using molecular markers have shown that some grey seal males may be gaining success through exhibiting alternative mating tactics. we estimated the probability of fertilization success of grey seal males exhibiting the primary tactic of female defence and one alternative tactic of mating with departing females on sable island, nova scotia, canada, during the breeding seasons of 1997-2002. although the fertilization rate of the primary tactic (27-43%) was greater than that of the alternat ...200415488010
pcr-rflp analysis: a promising technique for host species identification of blood meals from tsetse flies (diptera: glossinidae).a polymerase chain reaction with the restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) method using universal primers complementary to the conserved region of the cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of the mitochondrion dna (mtdna) of vertebrates was applied to the identification of the origin of blood meals in tsetse flies. blood samples from ten potential tsetse hosts of the family bovidae (cattle, water buffalo, red buffalo, waterbuck, springbok, goat, sheep, sable antelope, oryx and dik-dik) were in ...200515999278
sexual segregation of seasonal foraging habitats in a non-migratory marine mammal.many animal species segregate by sex. such segregation may be social in nature, or ecological, or both. grey seals (halichoerus grypus), like many large mammals, are sexually size dimorphic. in size dimorphic species, allometric differences in morphology, metabolic rate and reproductive costs are likely. such differences may require the sexes to use different foraging strategies or different habitats. to investigate sexual segregation of habitat in grey seals, we used satellite tracks from 95 (m ...200616928634
protozoan and bacterial pathogens in tick salivary glands in wild and domestic animal environments in south africa.a total of 7364 ticks belonging to 13 species was collected from 64 game animals (belonging to 11 species) and from 64 livestock animals (cattle and sheep) living in close vicinity at 6 localities in 3 south african provinces (free state, mpumalanga, and limpopo). the geographic distribution of all tick species was congruent with the literature except for haemaphysalis silacea. from each infested host, a maximum of 10 males and 10 females of each tick species were dissected to isolate the saliva ...201424378080
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