characteristics of a cetacean morbillivirus isolated from a porpoise (phocoena phocoena).a virus isolated from a porpoise during the 1988 seal epizootic was shown to be a morbillivirus. in order to determine the relationship of the virus to phocine distemper virus (pdv) a battery of monoclonal antibodies raised against canine distemper virus (cdv), pdv or the porpoise isolate were assessed for their ability to bind to cdv, pdv or porpoise virus epitopes in indirect immunofluorescence assays and elisas. the porpoise isolate contained several unique epitopes and several epitopes prese ...19921642556
molecular genetic evidence of a novel morbillivirus in a long-finned pilot whale (globicephalus melas).a long-finned pilot whale with morbilliviral disease was stranded in new jersey. an immunohistochemical stain demonstrated morbilliviral antigen. reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for morbillivirus p and n genes was positive. novel sequences most closely related to, but distinct from, those of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses suggest that this virus may represent a third member of the cetacean morbillivirus group.200010653568
cetacean morbilliviruses are phylogenetically divergent.we performed a phylogenetic comparison of porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) isolates from porpoises and dolphins respectively according to criteria adopted by the world health organization for the phylogenetic comparison of measles viruses. pmv and dmv were more divergent than the most distantly related measles virus strains, thus challenging the classification of pmv and dmv as two strains of a single species, cetacean morbillivirus.200415747165
herpes simplex-like infection in a bottlenose dolphin stranded in the canary islands.a bottlenose dolphin, stranded in the canary islands in 2001 exhibited non-suppurative encephalitis. no molecular detection of cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) was found, but a herpesviral-specific band of 250 bp was detected in the lung and brain. the sequenced herpesviral pcr product was compared with genbank sequences, obtaining 98% homology (p-distance of 0.02) with human herpesvirus 1 (herpes simplex virus 1 or hsv-1). this is the first report of a herpes simplex-like infection in a stranded d ...200818828564
presence of herpesvirus in striped dolphins stranded during the cetacean morbillivirus epizootic along the mediterranean spanish coast in 2007.a screening for herpesvirus (hv) was carried out using a tissue bank obtained from the cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) mortality episode that occurred along the mediterranean spanish coast in 2007. a total of 14 cetaceans, including six long-finned pilot whales and eight striped dolphins, were studied using histopathology and molecular analysis to detect hv and cemv. in five of the eight dolphins (62.5%) infected with cemv, eight novel hv sequences were also detected. no hv lesions were found in a ...201020495987
phylogenetic analysis of a new cetacean morbillivirus from a short-finned pilot whale stranded in the canary islands.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is considered the most pathogenic virus in cetaceans. three strains have been already described: the dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), the porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and the tentatively named pilot whale morbillivirus (pwmv). this study describes the molecular characterization of a strain of cemv detected in the brain of a short-finned pilot whale that had stranded in the eastern atlantic ocean around the canary islands and that showed lesions compatible with morbilliv ...201120576281
fatal cetacean morbillivirus infection in an australian offshore bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus).a juvenile offshore bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) was found stranded with neurological signs and unable to swim or float unassisted. it subsequently died, succumbing to a combination of severe pneumonia and encephalitis. morbillivirus serum neutralisation test serology was positive (titre 1:16) for cetacean morbillivirus and negative for both phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus. there was concurrent thymic and lymph node lymphoid depletion and necrosis, together with int ...201122008125
morbillivirus infection in live stranded, injured, trapped, and captive cetaceans in southeastern queensland and northern new south wales, australia.we report serologic evidence of cetacean morbillivirus (cmv) infection in five of eight cetacean species found live stranded, injured, or trapped along the coast of southeastern queensland and northern new south wales, australia between december 2005 and january 2011. antibody to cmv was detected in 13 of 27 (48%) wild cetaceans sampled. antibody prevalence was significantly higher in clinically diseased (69%) compared to nondiseased (18%) animals (p=0.018). there was high antibody prevalence (8 ...201222247373
clinicoimmunopathologic findings in atlantic bottlenose dolphins tursiops truncatus with positive cetacean morbillivirus antibody titers.sera from free-ranging atlantic bottlenose dolphins tursiops truncatus inhabiting the indian river lagoon (irl), florida were tested for antibodies to cetacean morbilliviruses from 2003 to 2007 as part of a multidisciplinary study of individual and population health. a suite of clinicoimmunopathologic variables were evaluated in morbillivirus-seropositive dolphins (n = 14) and seronegative healthy dolphins (n = 49). several important differences were found. serum alkaline phosphatase, creatine p ...201122303627
coinfection by cetacean morbillivirus and aspergillus fumigatus in a juvenile bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) in the gulf of mexico.a recently deceased juvenile male bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) was found floating in the gulf of mexico, off sand key in clearwater, florida. at autopsy, we identified pneumonia and a focus of malacia in the right cerebrum. cytologic evaluation of tissue imprints from the right cerebrum revealed fungal hyphae. fungal cultures of the lung and brain yielded aspergillus fumigatus, which was confirmed by amplification of a portion of the fungal nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed space ...201627698174
commentary: slam- and nectin-4-independent noncytolytic spread of canine distemper virus in astrocytes. 201628018332
evolutionary characteristics of morbilliviruses during serial passages in vitro: gradual attenuation of virus virulence.the genus morbillivirus is classified into the family paramyxoviridae, and is composed of 6 members, namely measles virus (mv), rinderpest virus (rpv), peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv), canine distemper virus (cdv), phocine distemper virus (pdv) and cetacean morbillivirus (cemv). the mv, rpv, pprv and cdv have been successfully attenuated through their serial passages in vitro for the production of live vaccines. it has been demonstrated that the morbilliviral virulence in animals was pro ...201627477502
post-mortem findings in southern right whales eubalaena australis at península valdés, argentina, 2003-2012.between 2003 and 2012, 605 southern right whales (srw; eubalaena australis) were found dead along the shores of península valdés (pv), argentina. these deaths included alarmingly high annual losses between 2007 and 2012, a peak number of deaths (116) in 2012, and a significant number of deaths across years in calves-of-the-year (544 of 605 [89.9%]; average = 60.4 yr(-1)). post-mortem examination and pathogen testing were performed on 212 whales; 208 (98.1%) were calves-of-the-year and 48.0% of t ...201627068500
molecular analysis of dolphin morbillivirus: a new sensitive detection method based on nested rt-pcr.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) has been identified as the most pathogenic virus for cetaceans. over the past three decades, this rna virus has caused several outbreaks of lethal disease in odontocetes and mysticetes worldwide. isolation and identification of cemv rna is very challenging in whales because of the poor preservation status frequently shown by tissues from stranded animals. nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested rt-pcr) is used instead of conventional rt-pcr wh ...201627220282
morbillivirus and pilot whale deaths, canary islands, spain, 2015. 201626982571
cetacean morbillivirus-associated pathology: knowns and unknowns.the present minireview deals with the pathology of cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) infection in free-ranging cetaceans. in this respect, while "classical" cemv-associated lesions were observed in the lung, brain, and lymphoid tissues from striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) and pilot whales (globicephala melas) which were victims of the 1990-1992 and 2006-2008 epidemics in the western mediterranean, an apparent reduction in cemv neurovirulence, along with a different viral antigen's tissue an ...201626903991
cetacean morbillivirus: current knowledge and future directions.we review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. cemv has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in europe, the usa and australia. it represents a distinct species within the morbillivirus genus. although most cemv strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from indo-pa ...201425533660
cetacean morbillivirus in northern and southern hemispheres. 201424847322
cetacean morbillivirus in coastal indo-pacific bottlenose dolphins, western australia.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in australia. we detected cemv in 2 stranded coastal indo-pacific bottlenose dolphins (tursiops aduncus) in western australia. preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains.201424656203
novel cetacean morbillivirus in guiana dolphin, brazil. 201424565559
unusual striped dolphin mass mortality episode related to cetacean morbillivirus in the spanish mediterranean the last 20 years, cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) has been responsible for many die-offs in marine mammals worldwide, as clearly exemplified by the two dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) epizootics of 1990-1992 and 2006-2008, which affected mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba). between march and april 2011, the number of strandings on the valencian community coast (e spain) increased.201323702190
health and environmental risk assessment project for bottlenose dolphins tursiops truncatus from the southeastern usa. i. infectious diseases.from 2003 to 2015, 360 free-ranging atlantic bottlenose dolphins tursiops truncatus inhabiting the indian river lagoon (irl, n = 246), florida, and coastal waters of charleston (chs, n = 114), south carolina, usa, were captured, given comprehensive health examinations, and released as part of a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional study of individual and population health. the aim of this review is to summarize the substantial health data generated by this study and to examine morbidity bet ...201728737159
sequence of the nucleocapsid gene and genome and antigenome promoters for an isolate of porpoise morbillivirus.we have determined the first complete sequence of the nucleocapsid (n) gene of the porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) as well as the genome leader and trailer sequences which encode the genome and antigenome promoters, respectively. the pmv n gene is 1686 nucleotides long with a single open reading frame (orf) encoding a protein of 523 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 57.39kda. the nucleotide sequence of the n gene shows the closest identity (89%) to that of another cetacean morbillivi ...200818166241
changes in epizoic crustacean infestations during cetacean die-offs: the mass mortality of mediterranean striped dolphins stenella coeruleoalba the summer and autumn of 1990, a cetacean morbillivirus caused a massive epizootic mortality of striped dolphins stenella coeruleoalba in the western mediterranean. previous circumstantial evidence suggested that the disease could also have increased host susceptibility to infestations with epizoic crustaceans. in this study we provide strong evidence supporting this hypothesis. we examined striped dolphins stranded along the mediterranean central coast of spain from 1981 to 2004 (n = 136), a ...200516408840
completion of the sequence of a cetacean morbillivirus and comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences of four morbilliviruses.the gene encoding the large (l) protein and the genome termini of the dolphin strain of cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) were sequenced. the cemv genome is 15702 nucleotides long and has been compared with other available morbillivirus genome sequences in regards to the "rule of six" and the "phase" of any particular nucleotide, defined as its position within a given hexamer, which here is defined as a group of six nucleotides starting from the 3' end of the genomic rna. with exception of the posit ...200515744569
morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals: a brief overview.since 1987, at least eight morbillivirus infection (mi) epidemics have caused mass mortality of several free-living pinniped and cetacean populations around the world. the responsible agents, all belonging to the genus morbillivirus (family paramyxoviridae), have been characterized as either "canine distemper virus" strains, infecting pinnipeds, or as three new morbilliviruses, namely "phocid (phocine) distemper virus" , "porpoise morbillivirus" and "dolphin morbillivirus" . the last two agents ...200515737178
retrospective differentiation of canine distemper virus and phocine distemper virus in phocids.formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from one caspian seal (phoca caspica), one harp seal (phoca groenlandica), one hooded seal (cystophora cristata), and one harbor seal (phoca vitulina vitulina) were used to compare the utility of immunohistochemistry (ihc) versus that of a novel seminested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) to detect and differentiate canine distemper virus (cdv) and phocine distemper virus (pdv). four antibodies made against pdv were able to detect ...200415137488
emerging morbillivirus infections of marine mammals: development of two diagnostic the last 13 years, four viruses belonging in the morbillivirus genus of the paramyxoviridae family have emerged as significant causes of disease and mortality in marine mammals. the viruses involved are canine distemper virus (cdv) in seals and polar bears, dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) in cetaceans, and phocine distemper virus (pdv) in pinnipeds. the two cetacean morbilliviruses (dmv and pmv) are now considered to be the same viral species, named cetacean morbi ...200212381563
a review of virus infections of cataceans and the potential impact of morbilliviruses, poxviruses and papillomaviruses on host population dynamics.viruses belonging to 9 families have been detected in cetaceans. we critically review the clinical features, pathology and epidemiology of the diseases they cause. cetacean morbillivirus (family paramyxoviridae) induces a serious disease with a high mortality rate and persists in several populations. it may have long-term effects on the dynamics of cetacean populations either as enzootic infection or recurrent epizootics. the latter presumably have the more profound impact due to removal of sexu ...199910590929
morbillivirus infections, with special emphasis on morbilliviruses of carnivores.morbilliviruses infections cause significant mortality in human beings and animals. measles virus is responsible for up to two million childhood deaths annually in the developing world, while rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants cause severe epizootics in domestic and wild ruminants in areas of the world where they remain endemic. canine distemper virus (cdv) is a cause of fatal disease in many species of carnivores. distemper is controlled by vaccination in domestic dogs and farmed mink, b ...199910515262
morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.morbillivirus infections which were not documented in aquatic mammals until 1988, have caused at least five epizootics in these species during the last 10 years. affected populations include european harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in 1998, baikal seals (phoca siberica) in siberia from 1987-1988, striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) in the mediterranean sea from 1990-1992 and bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) along the eastern coast of the united sta ...19989807724
serological evidence of morbillivirus infection in small cetaceans from the southeast pacific.the presence of morbillivirus-specific serum antibodies was examined by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) and virus neutralization tests in serum samples from 30 dusky dolphins (lagenorhynchus obscurus), 8 long-snouted common dolphins (delphinus capensis), 2 inshore and 6 offshore bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and 20 burmeister's porpoises (phocoena spinipinnis) taken in fisheries off central peru in 1993-1995. the sera from six dusky dolphins, one common dolphin ...19989549850
nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the matrix (m) and fusion (f) protein genes of cetacean morbilliviruses isolated from a porpoise and a dolphin.morbilliviruses have been isolated from stranded dolphins and porpoises. the present paper describes the cloning and sequencing of the porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) f gene and of the dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) m and f genes and their flanking regions. the gene order of the dmv genome appeared to be identical to that of other morbilliviruses. a genomic untranslated region of 837 nucleotides was found between the translated dmv m and f gene regions. the predicted dmv m protein were highly conserve ...19947531923
detection of morbillivirus infection by rt-pcr rflp analysis in cetaceans and carnivores.morbillivirus genus comprises several members related to specific hosts, such as canine distemper virus (cdv) and cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) in which the dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) is included. both cdv and dmv are able to cause serious outbreak associated with high morbidity and mortality representing an important conservation threat for terrestrial and aquatic mammalian species. this paper describes a new rt-pcr rflp technique based on a rt-pcr with degenerate primers targeting a 287 bp fr ...201728528278
coinfection by streptococcus phocae and cetacean morbillivirus in a short-beaked common dolphin delphinus delphis.we describe gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of streptococcus phocae and cetacean morbillivirus coinfection in a short-beaked common dolphin delphinus delphis. major gross findings were cutaneous purulent nodules in the tail fluke, vegetative mitral valve endocarditis, and presumed postpartum pyometra. histologic examination revealed bacterial septicemia characterized by widespread intravascular coccoid bacterial emboli. these were associated with fibrinonecrotizing to ...201728492181
simultaneous diagnosis of cetacean morbillivirus infection in dolphins stranded in the spanish mediterranean sea in 2011 using a novel universal probe library (upl) rt-pcr assay.a highly sensitive and specific real-time (rt) rt-pcr assay has been developed for rapid, simultaneous detection of three strains of cetacean morbillivirus (cemv). in this assay, two pcr primers and a hydrolysis probe from a commercially available universal probe library (upl) are used to amplify a highly conserved region within the fusion protein gene. rt-pcr is carried out on the same sample using two primer sets in parallel: one set detects the more virulent strains, dolphin morbillivirus (dm ...201323380457
first gammaherpesvirus detection in a free-living mediterranean bottlenose dolphin.recently, herpes viruses have been detected in different cetacean species from the atlantic and in mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba). while pathogens such as cetacean morbillivirus have been widely studied following recent epizootics, herpesvirus (hv) distribution and pathogenic effects in cetaceans are still understudied. this study reports the first molecular identification of a gammaherpesvirus in the genital mucosa of a free-living mediterranean bottlenose dolphin (tursi ...201425632684
diagnosis of cetacean morbillivirus: a sensitive one step real time rt fast-pcr method based on sybr(®) green.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) (family paramyxoviridae, genus morbillivirus) is considered the most pathogenic virus of cetaceans. it was first implicated in the bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) mass stranding episode along the northwestern atlantic coast in the late 1980s, and in several more recent worldwide epizootics in different odontoceti species. this study describes a new one step real-time reverse transcription fast polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-fast pcr) method based on ...201526454114
initial characterization of novel beaked whale morbillivirus in hawaiian cetaceans.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is a causative factor in epizootics that have resulted in thousands of deaths throughout the atlantic and mediterranean since 1987, but less is known of its presence and significance in the pacific. the first case of cemv reported in hawai'i was in a longman's beaked whale that stranded in 2010. the initial cemv sequence from this individual indicated the possibility of a novel strain. to address this, archived samples from cetaceans that stranded in hawai'i between ...201626758655
a simultaneous diagnosis and genotyping method for global surveillance of cetacean morbillivirus.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is considered one of the most important viral pathogens in cetaceans. cemv outbreaks of lethal disease have repeatedly been observed in europe, the americas, and australia, while large herds of gregarious species were found to be the likely reservoirs and sources of cemv infection to susceptible species in the atlantic and pacific oceans. furthermore, three new strains were detected recently in hawaii, brazil and australia. to clarify the real global distribution of ...201627484954
commentary: initial characterization of novel beaked whale morbillivirus in hawaiian cetaceans. 201627538363
new insight into dolphin morbillivirus phylogeny and epidemiology in the northeast atlantic: opportunistic study in cetaceans stranded along the portuguese and galician coasts.screening atlantic cetacean populations for cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is essential to understand the epidemiology of the disease. in europe, portugal and spain have the highest cetacean stranding rates, mostly due to the vast extension of coastline. morbillivirus infection has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in cetaceans, especially in outbreaks reported in the mediterranean sea. however, scarce information is available regarding this disease in cetaceans from the north-eas ...201627566667
morbillivirus-associated unusual mortality event in south australian bottlenose dolphins is largest reported for the southern hemisphere.cases of morbillivirus have been recorded in the southern hemisphere but have not been linked to significant marine mammal mortality. post-mortems were conducted on 58 carcasses (44 indo-pacific bottlenose dolphins, two common bottlenose dolphins, 12 short-beaked common dolphins) from south australia during 2005-2013, including an unusual mortality event (ume) in st vincent gulf bioregion (svg) during 2013. diagnostic pathology, circumstance of death, body condition, age and stomach contents wer ...201628083115
cetacean morbillivirus in odontocetes stranded along the central california coast, usa, 2000-15.effects of cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) on dolphins vary from causing epidemics to subclinical infections. the former have been documented in the north atlantic ocean and mediterranean sea but not in the north pacific ocean, and the reasons for this are unknown. to explore the distribution of this virus in areas that have not experienced epidemics, we reviewed evidence for morbilliviral infection in odontocetes stranded along the california coast, us from 2000-15. nine of 212 animals examined h ...201728122193
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