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alternative splicing produces two endoglucanases with one or two carbohydrate-binding modules in mucor circinelloides.we previously cloned three endoglucanase genes, rce1, rce2, and rce3, that were isolated from rhizopus oryzae as the first cellulase genes from a member of the subdivision zygomycota. in this study, two cdnas homologous to the rce1 gene, designated the mce1 and mce2 cdnas, were cloned from mucor circinelloides, a member of the subdivision zygomycota. the mce1 cdna encoded an endoglucanase (family 45 glycoside hydrolase) having one carbohydrate-binding module (cbm), designated mce1, and the mce2 ...200515838031
distinct white collar-1 genes control specific light responses in mucor circinelloides.light regulates many developmental and physiological processes in a large number of organisms. the best-known light response in the fungus mucor circinelloides is the biosynthesis of beta-carotene. here, we show that m. circinelloides sporangiophores also respond to light, exhibiting a positive phototropism. analysis of both responses to different light wavelengths within the visible spectrum demonstrated that phototropism is induced by green and blue light, whereas carotenogenesis is only induc ...200616879651
relationship between metabolism and biomass of medically important zygomycetes.little is known about the relationships between metabolic activity and fungal biomass or time of incubation for medically important fungal pathogens. understanding these relationships may be especially relevant for rapidly growing organisms, such as zygomycetes. a range of inocula of five clinical isolates of zygomycetes (one each of rhizopus oryzae,rhizopus microsporus, cunninghamella bertholletiae, mucor circinelloides and absidia corymbifera) were incubated for 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h, after wh ...200616882609
intracellular fate of hydrocarbons: possible existence of specific compartments for their biodegradation.in previous work, purification procedures and zymogram analysis conducted with supernatants of crude extracts from aerobic mycelium of the yr-1 strain of mucor circinelloides isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils indicated the existence of only one soluble alcohol oxidase (sao) activity. in the present work enzymatic activity of alcohol oxidase (ao) was also detected in the mixed membrane fraction (mmf) of a high-speed centrifugation procedure after drastic ballistic cellular homogenization ...200515917600
a novel activating effect of the regulatory subunit of protein kinase a on catalytic subunit activity.the strength of the interaction between the catalytic and regulatory subunits in protein kinase a differs among species. the linker region from regulatory subunits is non-conserved. to evaluate the participation of this region in the interaction with the catalytic subunit, we have assayed its effect on the enzymatic properties of the catalytic subunit. protein kinase a from three fungi, mucor rouxii, mucor circinelloides and saccharomyces cerevisiae have been chosen as models. the r-c interactio ...200818854166
detection of nad+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities in yr-1 strain of mucor circinelloides, a potential bioremediator of petroleum contaminated soils.different soluble nad+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) isozymes were detected in cell-free homogenates from aerobically grown mycelia of yr-1 strain of mucor circinelloides isolated from petroleum- contaminated soil samples. depending on the carbon source present in the growth media, multiple nad+-dependent adhs were detected when hexadecane or decane was used as the sole carbon source in the culture media. adh activities from aerobically or anaerobically grown mycelium or yeast cells, res ...200515917606
molecular characterization of a g protein alpha-subunit-encoding gene from mucor circinelloides.genes encoding the galpha subunit were cloned from mucor circinelloides, a zygomycete dimorphic fungus. there are at least four genes that encode for galpha subunits, gpa1, gpa2, gpa3, and gpa4. the genes gpa1 and gpa3 were isolated and characterized, and their predicted products showed 36%-67% identity with galpha subunits from diverse fungi. northern blot analysis of gpa3 showed that it is present in spores and constitutively expressed during mycelium development and during yeast-mycelium and ...200616917518
a ring-finger protein regulates carotenogenesis via proteolysis-independent ubiquitylation of a white collar-1-like activator.protein ubiquitylation plays a major role in the regulation of cellular processes mainly through proteasome-dependent degradation, although it has become increasingly clear that it is also involved in other processes. in the fungus mucor circinelloides, blue light regulates carotene biosynthesis, with this response controlled by crga and mcwc-1c genes. crga shows characteristics of ubiquitin ligases and represses carotenogenesis in the dark, whereas mcwc-1c is a white collar 1-like gene required ...200818976280
mucor circinelloides as a cause of invasive maxillofacial zygomycosis: an emerging dimorphic pathogen with reduced susceptibility to posaconazole.a case of maxillofacial zygomycosis caused by mucor circinelloides, identified by phenotypic and molecular methods and treated successfully with liposomal amphotericin b (ambisome) and surgical debridement, is described. the isolate was resistant to posaconazole. this report underscores the importance of prior susceptibility testing of zygomycetes to guide therapy with the most effective antifungal agent for an improved prognosis.200919171681
differential response to low temperature of two delta6 fatty acid desaturases from mucor circinelloides.a recently identified delta6 fatty acid desaturase in mucor rouxii shows a low sequence homology (approximately 24% at the amino acid level) to that isolated from mortierella alpina, but is phylogenetically closer to a plant enzyme, suggesting the occurrence of delta6 desaturase isozymes in mucorales molds. in the present study, two types of delta6 desaturases, mcd6-1 ( mo. alpina type) and mcd6-2 ( m. rouxii type), were cloned from mucor circinelloides. when the cloned genes were expressed in t ...200312728343
fungemia and cutaneous zygomycosis due to mucor circinelloides in an intensive care unit patient: case report and review of literature.mucor spp. are rarely pathogenic in healthy adults, but can cause fatal infections in patients with immuosuppression and diabetes mellitus. documented mucor fungemia is a very rare condition in the literature. we described a fungemia and cutaneous mucormycosis case due to mucor circinelloides in an 83-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus who developed acute left frontoparietal infarctus while hospitalized in a neurological intensive care unit. the diagnosis was made based on the growth of fungi ...200919305057
[moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. the contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. the methods of déak & beuchat and pitt & hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. the agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were debaryomyces hansenii, debaryomyces polymorphus, galactomyces geotrichum, metschnikowia pulcherrima, mucor circinelloides, ...200617037258
spectrum of zygomycete species identified in clinically significant specimens in the united states.several members of the order mucorales (subphylum mucoromycotina) are important agents of severe human infections. the identification of these fungi by using standard mycologic methods is often difficult and time consuming. frequently, the etiological agent in clinical cases is reported either as a mucor sp., which is not the most frequent genus of zygomycetes, or only as a member of the mucorales. for this reason, the actual spectrum of species of zygomycetes and their incidences in the clinica ...200919386856
in vitro susceptibility of 15 strains of zygomycetes to nine antifungal agents as determined by the nccls m38-a microdilution method.the in vitro susceptibility of 15 strains of six genera of zygomycetes including rhizopus oryzae (rhizopus arrhizus), rhizopus stolonifer, mucor circinelloides (three), absidia corymbifera (three), rhizomucor pusillus (three), cunninghamella bertholletiae (two), and syncephalastrum racemosum (two) to nine antifungal agents were determined by the nccls m38-a broth microdilution method. geometric means of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) were: amphotericin b 0.07 mg l(-1) (range 0.03-0. ...200515982206
intracellular distribution of fatty alcohol oxidase activity in mucor circinelloides yr-1 isolated from petroleum contaminated soils.in previous studies, mucor circinelloides yr-1 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils grown in decane as sole carbon source, showed fatty alcohol oxidase (fao) activities in either particulate or soluble fractions from a cell-free extract. one is associated to internal membranes (mfao) and the other one is soluble (sfao). both activities appear to be located in the cells in specific compartments other than peroxisomes. results suggested that mfao could be located on the inner face of the mem ...200919642009
biological control of peach fungal pathogens by commercial products and indigenous yeasts.the potential use of the commercial biocontrol products serenade (bacillus subtilis qst-713) and trichodex (trichoderma harzianum rifai strain t39) to inhibit the postharvest pathogenic molds penicillium crustosum and mucor circinelloides was investigated. both products exhibited antagonistic activity in vitro against the pathogens, reducing their growth at different levels. in addition, epiphytic yeasts isolated from peaches were identified as candida maltosa, pichia fermentans, and pichia kluy ...200617066929
mutants defective in a mucor circinelloides dicer-like gene are not compromised in sirna silencing but display developmental defects.dicer proteins are ribonuclease iii enzymes that process double stranded rna precursors into small rnas categorized as small interfering rnas (sirnas) or micrornas (mirnas), which suppress gene expression through the rna silencing mechanism. we have isolated a dicer-like gene (dcl-1) of mucor circinelloides, the first gene of this family to be identified in zygomycetes. the dcl-1 mrna occurred in multiple forms, including the truncated molecules that result from premature polyadenylation. null d ...200717074518
non-aug translation initiation of a fungal ring finger repressor involved in photocarotenogenesis.the ring finger protein crga acts as a negative regulator of light-induced carotene biosynthesis in the fungus mucor circinelloides. sequence analysis of the crga coding region upstream of the first aug codon revealed the existence of an additional non-canonical ring finger domain at the most n-terminal end of the protein. the newly identified ring finger domain is required for crga to regulate photocarotenogenesis, as deduced from site-directed mutagenesis experiments. the role of both ring fin ...200717403679
differential expression of rho1gtpase and rho3gtpase during isotropic and polarized growth of mucor circinelloides.evidence has been obtained that indicates the presence of small 22 kda gtp-binding rho proteins through adp-ribosylation by clostridium botulinum c3 exotoxin in mucor circinelloides. rho protein was detected at all stages of growth studied. during polarized growth, both under aerobic conditions and during the yeast-mycelia transition, the radiolabeling of the [32p]adp-ribosylated protein increased when tube formation occurred and decreased as the hyphae branched. however, when mucor grew isotrop ...200717496964
malic enzyme: the controlling activity for lipid production? overexpression of malic enzyme in mucor circinelloides leads to a 2.5-fold increase in lipid accumulation.malic enzyme (me; nadp(+)-dependent; ec 1 . 1 . 1 . 40) has been postulated to be the rate-limiting step for fatty acid biosynthesis in oleaginous fungi in which the extent of lipid accumulation is below the maximum possible. the genes encoding the isoform of me involved in fatty acid synthesis were identified in mucor circinelloides and mortierella alpina, two commercially useful oil-producing fungi, using degenerate primers. both showed high similarity with me genes from other micro-organisms. ...200717600047
anti-inflammatory drugs selectively target sporangium development in mucor.it is known that acetylsalicylic acid, an anti-inflammatory and anti-mitochondrial drug, targets structure development and functions of yeasts depending on elevated levels of mitochondrial activity. using antibody probes, we previously reported that sporangia of mucor circinelloides also contain increased mitochondrial activity, yielding high levels of 3-hydroxyoxylipins. this was, however, not found in mortierella alpina (subgenus mortierella). in this study we report that acetylsalicylic acid ...200920029531
agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of the zygomycete fungus backusella lamprospora.the agrobacterium -mediated transformation was adapted to backusella lamprospora, a zygomycete fungus closely related to mucor. the transforming plasmid contained the hygromycin b resistance (hph) and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes under the control of the regulator regions of the mucor circinelloides gpd1 gene. the presence of the hph and gfp genes in the transformants was detected by pcr. the introduced genes could also be amplified directly from the spores of the transformants. the ...200818247397
spores of mucor ramosissimus, mucor plumbeus and mucor circinelloides and their ability to activate human complement system in vitro.complement activation by spores of mucor ramosissimus, mucor plumbeus and mucor circinelloides was studied using absorbed human serum in the presence or absence of chelators (egta or edta). we found that the spore caused full complement activation when incubated with egta-mg2+ or without chelators, indicating that the alternative pathway is mainly responsible for this response. in order to compare activation profiles from each species, elisas for c3 and c4 fragments, mannan binding lectin (mbl), ...201020141371
[diversity of facultatively anaerobic microscopic mycelial fungi in soils].the numbers of microscopic fungi isolated from soil samples after anaerobic incubation varied from tens to several hundreds of cfu per one gram of soil; a total of 30 species was found. this group is composed primarily of mitotic fungi of the ascomycete affinity belonging to the orders hypocreales (fusarium solani, f. oxysporum, fusarium sp., clonostachys grammicospora, c. rosea. acremonium sp., gliocladium penicilloides, trichoderma aureoviride, t. harzianum, t. polysporum, t. viride. t. koning ...200818365728
[five cases of zygomycosis.].combined histological and mycological study of tissue specimens established a proven diagnosis of cutaneous zygomycosis in four patients. all patients had been treated with wide spectrum antibiotics and one patient (liver transplantation) was in addition also treated with cyclosporine. all had acidosis and cutaneous breaks and four had also been treated with systemic corticosteroids. the infecting organisms were absidia corymbifera (n=2), rhizopus stolonifer (n=1) and mucor circinelloides (n=1). ...199918473594
fatty acid production characteristics of fungi with particular emphasis on gamma linolenic acid production.the fatty acid production characteristics of fungi are described. these characteristics are the relationship between the oil content of the cell and the fatty acid content of the oil. for example, for polyunsaturated fatty acid (pufa) production by mucor hiemalis ipd 51, the oil content of the cell and the gla content of the oil are coupled. for fungal production of some pufa, synthesized after the rate-limiting step in the fatty acid anabolic chain, a maximum fatty acid production model was dev ...199318613085
ddt degradation potential of cattle manure compost.the purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of cattle manure compost (cmc) to degrade 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (ddt). ddt was degraded during composting and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (ddd) was detected as a metabolic product. degradation of ddt at 60 degrees c was the most effective of all the stages of composting. fourteen strains of fungi were isolated and identified from cmc, and most of them were closely related to mucor circinelloides a ...201020494402
the diversity of eukaryotic microbiota in the traditional slovak sheep cheese--bryndza.we investigated the occurrence and diversity of yeasts and filamentous fungi in bryndza an artisanal slovak soft spreadable cheese prepared from raw sheep milk or from a mixture of sheep and cow milk. samples collected during four months of the summer production period from two locations (northern and southern parts of central slovakia) contained 10(5)-10(7) (cfu) yeasts and about 10(2) (cfu) of mold per gram of wet weight. further characterization by conventional taxonomy and sequence compariso ...200818639949
effect of myoinositol on sporangiospore-yeast transformation of mucor circinelloides tieghem cultivated in synthetic broth.mucor species exhibit fungal dimorphism in controlled environments. in this work, we examined the effect of myoinositol supplementation on the growth and morphology of mucor circinelloides. using sporangiospores as inoculums, diverse morphologies were induced in synthetic broth incubated at ph 4.5, temp. 20 degrees c, ambient. the morphologies included thallic suptypes (holoblastic-, holothallic-, enterothallic conidia as well as vesicular conidial headgroups), which were determinate in growth, ...200518697728
effect of dimorphic regulation on heterologous glucose oxidase production by mucor circinelloides.the production of aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (gox) and native amylase by the recombinant m. circinelloides kfa199 strain under conditions of dimorphic growth was investigated. the recombinant kfa199 strain was compared to its parental atcc 1216b strain and a wild-type cbs 232.29 strain under similar morphology-controlled conditions. cultivation in vogel's medium supplemented with ergosterol/tween-80 and sparged with nitrogen gas was most suitable for yeast-like biomass production under an ...201020568082
[activity of nad-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, isocitrate lyase, and malate dehydrogenase in mucor circinelloides var. lusitanicus inmi under different modes of nitrogen supply].the growth and morphology as well as lipogenesis and activity of the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate cycle were studied in the fungus mucor circinelloides var. lusitanicus inmi grown at various concentrations of urea (nitrogen source) added to the medium in different modes. it was shown that the maximum lipid content in the biomass was observed at a low (0.5 g/l) concentration of the nitrogen source, whereas the highest content of gamma-linolenic acid in the lipids was ...200818825970
[metabolic characteristics and lipid composition of yeastlike cells and mycelium of mucor circinelloides var. lusitanicus inmi grown at a high glucose content in the medium].it is shown that the fungus mucor circinelloides var. lusitanicus inmi grown under aerobic conditions in a medium with a high glucose concentration (20%) is capable of both yeastlike and mycelial growth. in the mycelium, the activity of nad-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase was more than twice as high as in yeastlike cells, whereas the isocitrate lyase activity was lower. a number of significant differences were found in the lipid composition of the cells of two different morphological variants ...200818825971
[effects of conditions for obtaining sporangiospores of the inoculum on the morphology and productivity of the fungus mucor circinelloides var. lusitanicus 12 m, a producer of gamma-linolenic acid].effects of lipid composition of sporangiospores of the fungus mucor circinelloides var. lusitanicus 12 m, obtained within diverse time frames using distinct nutritive media, on the morphology of the fungus in submerged cultures, the yield of the biomass, and its content of gamma-linolenic acid have been studied. the levels of base phospholipids and individual fractions of neutral lipids in sporangiospores were correlated with the character of their germination. the spores characterized by a high ...200818924414
transcriptional activation increases rna silencing efficiency and stability in the fungus mucor circinelloides.initiation and maintenance of the rna silencing mechanism was investigated after transcriptional activation of the transgene carb in mucor circinelloides. light induced transcription of the reporter gene carb specifically increased the 21-nt sirna compared with the 25-nt sirna and rose the silencing maintenance from 48% up to 93% of the descendent colonies. in accordance, induced transcription of the gene carb through disruption of the gene crga increased the initial silencing frequency up to 30 ...200919375461
a subunit of protein kinase a regulates growth and differentiation in the fungus mucor circinelloides.the cyclic amp (camp)-dependent protein kinase a (pka) signaling pathway plays a role in regulating development, growth, and virulence in a number of fungi. to determine whether pka plays a similar function in zygomycete fungi, a mutant of mucor circinelloides was generated that lacks pkar1, one of the regulatory subunits of pka. the mutant showed a reduction in growth and alterations in germination rates, cell volume, germ tube length, and asexual sporulation. the lack of pkar1 gene resulted in ...200919411621
pka from mucor circinelloides: model to study the role of linker i in the interaction between r and c subunits.protein kinase a from the fungus mucor circinelloides shows high affinity interaction between regulatory (r) and catalytic (c) subunits. its r subunit shows a differential presence of several acidic residues in linker i region, in the amino terminus. mutants r1, lacking the n-terminal region, and r2, lacking the acidic cluster, were used to analyze its effect on the interaction with the c subunit, assessed through inhibition of catalytic activity and camp activation of reconstituted holoenzyme. ...200717761146
lycopene over-accumulation by disruption of the negative regulator gene crga in mucor circinelloides.lycopene has become one of the most interesting antioxidant compounds, especially in relation to human health. this work describes a genetic strategy to modify the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway to develop a lycopene-overproducing strain. the crga gene, a negative regulator of carotenogenesis, was disrupted in the mucor circinelloides strain mu202, which lacks the lycopene cyclase activity and accumulates lycopene instead of beta-carotene. the resultant strain, mu224, demonstrated increased tra ...200818060399
a ring-finger photocarotenogenic repressor involved in asexual sporulation in mucor circinelloides.mucor circinelloides responds to blue light by activating the biosynthesis of carotenoids and bending its sporangiophores towards the light source. the crga protein product acts as a repressor of carotene biosynthesis, as its inactivation leads to the overaccumulation of carotenoids in both the dark and the light. we show here that asexual sporulation in mucor is also stimulated by light and that the crga gene is involved in sporulation, given that lack of crga function affects both carotenogene ...200818194338
small gtp-binding proteins are associated with chitosomes and vesicles carrying glucose oxidase from mucor circinelloides.fractions enriched with chitosomes and vesicles carrying glucose oxidase (gox) activity from the dimorphic zygomycete mucor circinelloides were obtained using two successive sucrose gradients, the first a linear-log and the second an isopycnic gradient. using an [alpha-(32)p]gtp-binding assay, we detected the association of small gtp-binding proteins (21 and 17 kda) with both types of vesicles. in addition, by adp-ribosylation with c3 exotoxin, and western blot analysis with specific antibodies, ...200818310030
4-dihydrotrisporin-dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the sex hormone pathway of mucor mucedo: purification, cloning of the corresponding gene, and developmental expression.the nadp-dependent 4-dihydrotrisporin-dehydrogenase is a (-) mating-type-specific enzyme in the pathway from beta-carotene to trisporic acid. this substance and its isomers and derivatives represent the general system of sexual communication in zygomycetes. the (-) mating type of mucor mucedo was stimulated by trisporic acid and the enzyme was purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography. several peptides of the 26-kda protein, digested with trypsin, were sequenced by mass spectrometry. ...200918931040
activity of posaconazole and other antifungal agents against mucorales strains identified by sequencing of internal transcribed spacers.the antifungal susceptibility profiles of 77 clinical strains of mucorales species, identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing, were analyzed. mics obtained at 24 and 48 h were compared. amphotericin b was the most active agent against all isolates, except for cunninghamella and apophysomyces isolates. posaconazole also showed good activity for all species but cunninghamella bertholletiae. voriconazole had no activity against any of the fungi tested. terbinafine showed good activity, e ...200919171801
a single dicer gene is required for efficient gene silencing associated with two classes of small antisense rnas in mucor circinelloides.rna silencing in the zygomycete mucor circinelloides exhibits uncommon features, such as induction by self-replicative sense transgenes and the accumulation of two size classes of antisense small interfering rnas (sirnas). to investigate whether this silencing phenomenon follows the rules of a canonical rna-silencing mechanism, we used hairpin rna (hprna)-producing constructs as silencing triggers and analyzed the efficiency and stability of silencing in different genetic backgrounds. we show he ...200919666782
first report of mucor circinelloides occurring on yellow catfish (pelteobagrus fulvidraco) from china.infected yellow catfish (pelteobagrus fulvidraco) were sent from niushan lake fishery, hubei province, china, to our laboratory for diagnosis. macroscopic daffodil yellow mold was observed on the heads and fins of the fish and one mucor species was isolated. based on the morphological and molecular analysis, the species was identified as mucor circinelloides. its optimum growth temperature was 30 degrees c and it could not grow at 40 degrees c. the infectivity results showed wound infection coul ...201019930461
the effects of palm oil breakdown products on lipid turnover and morphology of fungi.the oleaginous fungi cryptococcus curvatus and mucor circinelloides were used to determine the effect of palm oil breakdown products, measured as polymerized triglycerides (ptgs), on lipid turnover and on fungal growth and morphology. in m. circinelloides, we found after 7 days of growth, a decrease in biomass and in lipid utilization and accumulation at increased ptg levels, both at low and neutral ph. in c. curvatus, there was also a decrease in lipid utilization and biomass production at incr ...201021076478
conversion of beta-carotene into astaxanthin: two separate enzymes or a bifunctional hydroxylase-ketolase protein?abstract: astaxanthin is a xanthophyll of great interest in animal nutrition and human health. the market prospect in the nutraceutics industries for this health-protective molecule is very promising. astaxanthin is synthesized by several bacteria, algae and plants from beta-carotene by the sequential action of two enzymes: a beta-carotene, 3,3'-hydroxylase that introduces an hydroxyl group at the 3 (and 3') positions of each of the two beta-ionone rings of beta-carotene, and a beta-carotene ket ...200818289382
A new antifungal coumarin from Clausena excavata.A new ?-lactone coumarin, named as excavarin-A, showing antifungal activity was isolated from the leaves of Clausena excavata by bioassay guided fractionation method. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and identified as 7((2E)-4(4,5-dihydro-3-methylene-2-oxo-5-furanyl)-3-methylbut-2-enyloxy) coumarin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against fifteen fungal strains pathogenic against plants and human. The least MIC was recorded against the human patho ...201222088496
Functional analysis of the Phycomyces carRA gene encoding the enzymes phytoene synthase and lycopene cyclase.Phycomyces carRA gene encodes a protein with two domains. Domain R is characterized by red carR mutants that accumulate lycopene. Domain A is characterized by white carA mutants that do not accumulate significant amounts of carotenoids. The carRA-encoded protein was identified as the lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase enzyme by sequence homology with other proteins. However, no direct data showing the function of this protein have been reported so far. Different Mucor circinelloides mutants ...201121858003
genotypic analysis of mucor from the platypus in australia.mucor amphibiorum is the only pathogen known to cause significant morbidity and mortality in the free-living platypus (ornithorhynchus anatinus) in tasmania. infection has also been reported in free-ranging cane toads (bufo marinus) and green tree frogs (litoria caerulea) from mainland australia but has not been confirmed in platypuses from the mainland. to date, there has been little genotyping specifically conducted on m. amphibiorum. a collection of 21 mucor isolates representing isolates fro ...201020090018
analysis of glycerol dehydrogenase activities present in mucor circinelloides yr-1.two inducible nadp(+)-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase (glcdh) activities were identified in mucor circinelloides strain yr-1. one of these, denoted iglcdh2, was specifically induced by n-decanol when it was used as sole carbon source in the culture medium, and the second, denoted iglcdh1, was induced by alcohols and aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons when glycerol was used as the only substrate. iglcdh2 was found to have a much broader substrate specificity than iglcdh1, with a low activity as ...201020512634
molecular detection and identification of zygomycetes species from paraffin-embedded tissues in a murine model of disseminated zygomycosis: a collaborative european society of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases (escmid) fungal infection study group (efisg) evaluation.the present study was performed to assess the interlaboratory reproducibility of the molecular detection and identification of species of zygomycetes from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kidney and brain tissues obtained from experimentally infected mice. animals were infected with one of five species (rhizopus oryzae, rhizopus microsporus, lichtheimia corymbifera, rhizomucor pusillus, and mucor circinelloides). samples with 1, 10, or 30 slide cuts of the tissues were prepared from each paraffi ...201020375233
cloning of the rhizomucor miehei 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase gene and its heterologous expression in mucor circinelloides.in this study, the gene hmgr encoding the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase (hmg-coa reductase) was cloned and characterized in the zygomycete fungus rhizomucor miehei. the hmgr gene comprises a total of 3,585 bp including the coding sequence of a 1,058 amino acids length putative protein and five introns (137, 83, 59, 60 and 69 bp in length) dispersed in the whole coding region. southern hybridization analysis revealed that the gene is present only in one copy in the r. miehei gen ...200918853273
molecular characterization of mucor circinelloides and rhizopus stolonifer strains isolated from some saudi fruits.thirteen strains of mucor circinelloides and nine strains of rhizopus stolonifer were collected from different saudi fruits. also, two strains of m. circinelloides and one strain of r. stolonifer isolated from soil were used in this study to analyze the genetic diversity among these 25 strains. the dendrogram constructed from random amplified polymorphic dna-polymerase chain reaction results using two primers (v6 and m13) showed no correlation between clustering system and sources of isolation f ...201019877768
[anaerobic growth ability and alcohol fermentation activity of microscopic fungi].the method proposed in this study was used to isolate fungi grown under anaerobic conditions and to reveal distinctions in their abundance and species composition in different habitats. the ability of micromycetes of different taxa to grow under anaerobic conditions and ensure alcohol fermentation was determined for a representative sample (344 strains belonging to more than 60 species). the group of fungi growing under anaerobic conditions included species with high, moderate, and low fermentat ...201122808743
transcription of the three hmg-coa reductase genes of mucor circinelloides.precursors of sterols, carotenoids, the prenyl groups of several proteins and other terpenoid compounds are synthesised via the acetate-mevalonate pathway. one of the key enzyme of this pathway is the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa (hmg-coa) reductase, which catalyses the conversion of hmg-coa to mevalonate. hmg-coa reductase therefore affects many biological processes, such as morphogenesis, synthesis of different metabolites or adaptation to environmental changes. in this study, transcription ...201424731286
a new beta-glucosidase gene from the zygomycete fungus rhizomucor miehei.in this study, a beta-glucosidase coding gene (bgl) of the zygomycete fungus rhizomucor miehei has been cloned and characterized. the gene comprises a total of 2,826 bp including the coding sequence of a 717 amino acids length putative protein and 10 introns dispersed in the whole coding region. the putative n-and c-terminal catalytic domains (aa 68 to aa 274 and aa 358-601, respectively) were identified; the two domains are connected with a 84-amino-acids linker. the catalytic region showed an ...201019813101
synthesis of 3beta, 7alpha, 11alpha-trihydroxy-pregn-21-benzylidene-5-en-20-one derivatives and their cytotoxic activities.a series of novel 3beta, 7alpha, 11alpha-trihydroxy-pregn-21-benzylidene-5-en-20-one derivatives were synthesized and characterized by nmr, hrms. the pregnenolone (1) was first biotransformed by mucor circinelloides var lusitanicus to 3beta, 7alpha, 11alpha-trihydroxy-pregn-5-en-20-one (3), then 3 was treated with various benzaldehydes to produce 3beta, 7alpha, 11alpha-trihydroxy-pregn-21-benzylidene-5-en-20-one derivatives. these derivatives showed remarkable activity against ec109 cells. the a ...200919864129
evaluation of aerial microbial pollutants in al-haram al-nabawi during pilgrimage of 2013.al-madinah al-munawwarah is the second holiest site in islam. the possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. the objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside al-haram al-nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive ...201528053593
new insight into microbial diversity and functions in traditional vietnamese alcoholic fermentation.the roles of microorganisms in traditional alcoholic fermentation are often assumed based on abundance in the starter and activity in pure culture. there is a serious lack of hard evidence on the behavior and activity of individual microbial species during the actual fermentation process. in this study, microbial succession and metabolite changes during 7days of traditional vietnamese alcoholic fermentation were monitored. special attention was devoted to starch degradation. in total, 22 microbi ...201627236224
coprophilous mucorales (ex zygomycota) from three areas in the semi-arid of pernambuco, brazil.mucorales comprises fungi commonly isolated as saprobes from soil, dung, stored grains and plants. although these fungi have been studied in several countries, there are relatively a few reports of them in semi-arid areas. therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess and compare the mucorales communities in dung from different species and breeds of herbivores in the semi-arid of pernambuco, based on the frequency of occurrence and species richness of these fungi. samples of dung colle ...201627769884
integration of a bacterial β-carotene ketolase gene into the mucor circinelloides genome by the agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method.plasmids introduced in mucor circinelloides (and most transformable mucorales) tend to replicate autonomously, and hardly ever integrate in the genome. this is critical if we want to express exogenous genes, because plasmids are easily lost during vegetative growth, and the ratio of plasmid molecules/nuclei is invariably low. linearized molecules of dna have been used to get their genomic integration but the transformation efficiency drops extremely. we have developed and highly optimized an eff ...201222711121
production, purification, and characterization of polygalacturonase from mucor circinelloides itcc 6025.mucor circinelloides produced an extracellular polygalacturonase enzyme, the production of which was enhanced when various production parameters were optimized. maximum polygalacturonase (pgase) activity was obtained in 48 h at 30°c and ph 4.0 with pectin methyl ester (1% w/v) as carbon source and a combination of casein hydrolysate (0.1% w/v) and yeast extract (0.1% w/v) as nitrogen source. the enzyme was purified to homogeneity (13.3-fold) by sephacryl s-100 gel-filtration chromatography. its ...201021048861
structure, function, and phylogeny of the mating locus in the rhizopus oryzae complex.the rhizopus oryzae species complex is a group of zygomycete fungi that are common, cosmopolitan saprotrophs. some strains are used beneficially for production of asian fermented foods but they can also act as opportunistic human pathogens. although r. oryzae reportedly has a heterothallic (+/-) mating system, most strains have not been observed to undergo sexual reproduction and the genetic structure of its mating locus has not been characterized. here we report on the mating behavior and genet ...201021151560
efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits.cherry tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill) fruits are susceptible to contamination by aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. this study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (chi) from mu ...201526257717
rapamycin exerts antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo against mucor circinelloides via fkbp12-dependent inhibition of tor.the zygomycete mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly infects patients with malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and solid organ transplants. despite the widespread use of antifungal therapy in the management of zygomycosis, the incidence of infections continues to rise among immunocompromised individuals. here, we establish that the targets and mechanism of antifungal action of the immunosuppressant rapamycin in m. circinelloides is mediated via conserved complexes w ...201122210828
Mould routine identification in the clinical laboratory by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.MALDI-TOF MS recently emerged as a valuable identification tool for bacteria and yeasts and revolutionized the daily clinical laboratory routine. But it has not been established for routine mould identification. This study aimed to validate a standardized procedure for MALDI-TOF MS-based mould identification in clinical laboratory.201122194834
photobiology in the zygomycota: multiple photoreceptor genes for complex responses to light.light is an environmental signal that modulates many aspects of the biology of zygomycete fungi. light regulation has been investigated in the zygomycetes phycomyces blakesleeanus, mucor circinelloides and pilobolus crystallinus. examples of light regulation include the phototropism of the fruiting bodies, the regulation of the development of reproductive structures, and the activation of the biosynthesis of β-carotene. in fungi blue light is perceived by proteins homologous to wc-1, a neurospor ...201020466063
effect of the sesterterpene-type metabolites, ophiobolins a and b, on zygomycetes fungi.ophiobolins are sesterterpene-type phytotoxins produced by fungi belonging mainly to the genus bipolaris. in this study, the antifungal effect of ophiobolins a and b on different zygomycetes has been examined. depending on the zygomycete tested, mic values of 3.175-50 μg ml(-1) were found for ophiobolin a and 25-50 μg ml(-1) for ophiobolin b. ophiobolin a inhibited sporangiospore germination of mucor circinelloides and caused morphological changes; the fungus formed degenerated, thick or swollen ...201021054501
occurrence of fungal species and mycotoxins from decayed sugarcane (saccharrum officinarum) in egypt.seventy-three fungal species belonging to forty-three genera were isolated from 40 samples of saccharrum officinarum (collected from naage-hamadi canal in qena governorate, egypt). aspergillus, trichoderma, mucor and pythium were the most common genera on the two isolation media. the dominant species of aspergillus were a. niger, a. flavus, a. ustus, a. terreus and a. wentii. some species were dominant on 40 g/l sucrose such as aspergillus niger, a. flavus, emericella nidulans, trichoderma virid ...200524049478
high reliability transformation of the basal fungus mucor circinelloides by electroporation.molecular approaches to study the biology of the zygomycete mucor circinelloides depend mainly on the existence of a polyethylene glycol-based transformation method, which is one of the most efficient in zygomycete fungi. however, the poor reliability and low transformation rates of this method are major obstacles in the molecular study of a number of biological processes. this paper describes an easy and reliable method to transform m. circinelloides protoplasts by electroporation. a high-volta ...201121256886
canthaxanthin production with modified mucor circinelloides strains.canthaxanthin is a natural diketo derivative of β-carotene primarily used by the food and feed industries. mucor circinelloides is a β-carotene-accumulating zygomycete fungus and one of the model organisms to study the carotenoid biosynthesis in fungi. in this study, the β-carotene ketolase gene (crtw) of the marine bacterium paracoccus sp. n81106 fused with fungal promoter and terminator regions was integrated into the m. circinelloides genome to construct stable canthaxanthin-producing strains ...201323224586
cloning and expression of an active aspartic proteinase from mucor circinelloides in pichia pastoris.extracellular aspartic proteinase (mcap) produced by mucor circinelloides in solid state fermentations has been shown to possess milk clotting activity and represents a potential replacement for bovine chymosin in cheese manufacturing. despite its prospects in the dairy industry, the molecular characteristics of this enzyme remain unknown. this work focuses on mcap cloning and optimization of heterologous expression in pichia pastoris, and characterization of the enzyme.201324206750
a new cultivation method for microbial oil production --- cell pelletization and lipid accumulation by mucor circinelloides.abstract: introduction: the recent energy crisis has triggered significant attention on the microbial synthesis of lipids, which comprise the raw material for biodiesel production. microbial oil accumulation with filamentous fungi has great potential because filamentous fungi can form pellets during cell growth, and these aggregated cell pellets are much easier to harvest from cell broth solution than suspended individual cells. methods: this paper focuses on the cell pelletization process of th ...201121635739
Rice straw-decomposing fungi and their cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes.Filamentous fungi colonizing rice straw were collected from 11 different sites in Korea and were identified based on characterization of their morphology and molecular properties. The fungi were divided into 25 species belonging to 16 genera, including 14 ascomycetes, one zygomycete, and one basidiomycete. Fungal cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes were assessed through a two-step process, wherein highly active cellulase- and/or hemicellulaseproducing fungi were selected in a first screening st ...201122210620
endogenous short rnas generated by dicer 2 and rna-dependent rna polymerase 1 regulate mrnas in the basal fungus mucor circinelloides.endogenous short rnas (esrnas) play diverse roles in eukaryotes and usually are produced from double-stranded rna (dsrna) by dicer. esrnas are grouped into different classes based on biogenesis and function but not all classes are present in all three eukaryotic kingdoms. the esrna register of fungi is poorly described compared to other eukaryotes and it is not clear what esrna classes are present in this kingdom and whether they regulate the expression of protein coding genes. however, evidence ...201020427422
metagenomics analysis of microbial communities associated with a traditional rice wine starter culture (xaj-pitha) of assam, india.this is the first report on the microbial diversity of xaj-pitha, a rice wine fermentation starter culture through a metagenomics approach involving illumine-based whole genome shotgun (wgs) sequencing method. metagenomic dna was extracted from rice wine starter culture concocted by ahom community of assam and analyzed using a miseq(®) system. a total of 2,78,231 contigs, with an average read length of 640.13 bp, were obtained. data obtained from the use of several taxonomic profiling tools were ...201628330225
fungal outbreak in a show cave.castañar de ibor cave (spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a natural monument in 1997. in 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. despite of extensive control, on 26 august 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. this event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 august 2008. we report here a fungal outbreak initiated by mucor circinelloides and fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.201020553941
effects of post-harvest treatment using chitosan from mucor circinelloides on fungal pathogenicity and quality of table grapes during storage.the aim of this study was to extract chitosan (chi) from mucor circinelloides ucp 050 grown in a corn steep liquor (csl)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained chi to inhibit the post-harvest pathogenic fungi aspergillus niger urm 5162 and rhizopus stolonifer urm 3482 in laboratory media and as a coating on table grapes (vitis labrusca l.). the effect of chi coating on some physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during stor ...201425084665
disseminated fungal infection in two species of captive sharks.in this report, two cases of systemic mycosis in captive sharks are characterized. these cases were progressive and ultimately culminated in terminal disease. paecilomyces lilacinus, an uncommon pathogen in human and veterinary medicine, was associated with areas of necrosis in the liver, heart, and gill in a great hammerhead shark (sphyrna mokarran). fungal growth was observed from samples of kidney, spleen, spinal fluid, and coelomic cavity swabs. dual fungal infection by exophiala pisciphila ...201122204064
the mycobiota of air inside and outside the meju fermentation room and the origin of meju fungi.the fungi on meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. in order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional meju fermentation rooms was examined. from 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. in outside air of the fermentation room, cladosporium sp. and cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant ...201526539041
physico-chemical characteristics and functional properties of chitin and chitosan produced by mucor circinelloides using yam bean as substrate.microbiological processes were used for chitin and chitosan production by mucor circinelloides (ucp 050) grown in yam bean (pachyrhizus erosus l. urban) medium. the polysaccharides were extracted by alkali-acid treatment and structural investigations by x-ray diffraction, fourier transform ir analysis, viscosity and thermal analysis by tg, dtg, and dta were done. the highest biomass yield (20.7 g/l) was obtained at 96 hours. the highest levels of chitosan (64 mg/g) and chitin (500 mg/g) were pro ...201121862956
molecular and morphological identification of fungal species isolated from bealmijang meju.bealmijang is a short-term aged paste made from meju, which is a brick of fermented soybeans and other ingredients. different types of bealmijang are available depending on the geographic region or ingredients used. however, no study has clarified the microbial diversity of these types. we identified 17 and 14 fungal species from black soybean meju (bsm) and buckwheat meju (bwm), respectively, on the basis of morphology, culture characteristics, and internal transcribed spacer and beta-tubulin g ...201122210613
analysis of the effect of soil saprophytic fungi on the eggs of baylisascaris procyonis.baylisascaris procyonis is a soil-transmitted helminth mainly found in raccoons (procyon lotor) which can also affect other domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as humans, when the eggs released in the feces of parasitized raccoons are accidentally ingested. three assays have been conducted to assess the effect of three saprophytic fungi, mucor circinelloides, paecilomyces lilacinus, and verticillium sp., on the eggs of b. procyonis. firstly, their ovicidal effect was in vitro ascertained by p ...201525828813
Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order mucorales.The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear ribosomal large subunit to reveal taxon-specific susceptibility profiles. The impressive phylogenetic diversity of the Mucorales was reflected in susceptibilities differing at family, genus, and species l ...201222075600
value-added oil and animal feed production from corn-ethanol stillage using the oleaginous fungus mucor circinelloides.this study highlights the potential of oleaginous fungus, mucor circinelloides in adsorbing/assimilating oil and nutrients in thin stillage (ts), and producing lipid and protein-rich fungal biomass. fungal cultivation on ts for 2days in a 6-l airlift bioreactor, resulted in a 92% increase in oil yield from ts, and 20g/l of fungal biomass (dry) with a lipid content of 46% (g of oil per 100g dry biomass). reduction in suspended solids and soluble chemical oxygen demand (scod) in ts were 95% and 89 ...201122237170
effect of the filamentous fungus mucor circinelloides on the development of eggs of the rumen fluke calicophoron daubneyi (paramphistomidae).ruminants infected by paramphistomidae flukes shed eggs in the feces, which pass through different stages in the environment until the infective stages (metacercariae) are reached. the activity of the soil fungus mucor circinelloides on the development of eggs of the rumen fluke calicophoron daubneyi was presently tested with 3 probes, i.e., in petri plates, feces and an aqueous environment (tubes). the effect of the fungus was assessed by recording the numbers of undeveloped, non-viable and emb ...201728165868
identification of a critical determinant that enables efficient fatty acid synthesis in oleaginous fungi.microorganisms are valuable resources for lipid production. what makes one microbe but not the other able to efficiently synthesize and accumulate lipids is poorly understood. in the present study, global gene expression prior to and after the onset of lipogenesis was determined by transcriptomics using the oleaginous fungus mortierella alpina as a model system. a core of 23 lipogenesis associated genes was identified and their expression patterns shared a high similarity among oleaginous microb ...201526059272
two distinct rna-dependent rna polymerases are required for initiation and amplification of rna silencing in the basal fungus mucor circinelloides.rna-dependent rna polymerases (rdrps) play key roles in the rna silencing pathway in a number of organisms. they have been involved in the production of double-stranded rna (dsrna) molecules that initiate the silencing mechanism as well as in the amplification of the silencing signal. the roles of rdrps from fungi in these processes are poorly described compared with other eukaryotes. rna silencing in the zygomycete mucor circinelloides exhibits uncommon features, such as induction by self-repli ...201122141923
fungal photobiology: a synopsis.fungi respond and adapt to many environmental signals including light. the photobiology of fungi has been extensively investigated, but in recent years the identification of the first fungal photoreceptor, wc-1 in the ascomycete neurospora crassa, and the discovery that similar photoreceptors are required for photoreception in other ascomycete, basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi has allowed the molecular characterization of light reception and the early steps of signal transduction in a number o ...201122679584
Alternative routes of acetyl-CoA synthesis identified by comparative genomic analysis: involvement in the lipid production of oleaginous yeast and fungi.For a bio-based economy, microbial lipids offer a potential solution as alternative feedstocks in the oleochemical industry. The existing genome data for the promising strains, oleaginous yeasts and fungi, allowed us to investigate candidate orthologous sequences that participate in their oleaginicity. Comparative genome analysis of the non-oleaginous (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans and Ashbya gossypii) and oleaginous strains (Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus oryzae ...201222016567
in vitro antioxidant and antifungal properties of essential oils obtained from aromatic herbs endemic to the southeast of spain.the aim of this work was to determine (i) the antioxidant capacity of thymus moroderi, thymus piperella, santolina chamaecyparissus, and sideritis angustifolia essential oils (eos) by means of four different antioxidant tests (the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method, the ferrous ion-chelating ability assay, the ferric reducing antioxidant power test, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive species test) and (ii) the antifungal activity against molds and yeast of these eos by th ...201323834797
a case of rhinoorbital mucormycosis in a leukemic patient with a literature review from turkey.mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is a rare, invasive, opportunistic fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses, caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. we report a case of rhinoorbital mucormycosis caused by rhizopus oryzae in an acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient and review the 79 mucormycosis cases reported in the last decade from turkey. in our case, the diagnosis was made with endoscopic appearance, computerized tomography of the paranasal sinuses, and culture of the surgical materials. follow ...201121761152
sporangiospore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of mucor circinelloides.mucor circinelloides is a zygomycete fungus and an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients and in some cases otherwise healthy individuals. we have discovered a novel example of size dimorphism linked to virulence. m. circinelloides is a heterothallic fungus: (+) sex allele encodes sexp and (-) sex allele sexm, both of which are hmg domain protein sex determinants. m. circinelloides f. lusitanicus (mcl) (-) mating type isolates produce larg ...201121698218
antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 7-hydroxy-calamenene-rich essential oils from croton cajucara benth.croton cajucara is a shrub native to the amazon region locally known as "sacaca". two morphotypes are known: white and red "sacaca". the essential oils (eo) obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%-37.5%). the effectiveness of these eo regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. among the microorganisms te ...201323325101
effects of 7-hydroxycalamenene isolated from croton cajucara essential oil on growth, lipid content and ultrastructural aspects of rhizopus oryzae.the leaves and bark of croton cajucara, a shrub from the amazon region, have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, malaria, and gastrointestinal and liver disorders. the essential oil from the leaves, rich in linalool, presented antileishmanial and antimicrobial activities. a chemotype of this species was found with an essential oil rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene. during our studies of the c. cajucara essential oil, we isolated 7-hydroxycalamenene at > 98 % purity. the minimum inhibitory co ...201424841967
rapid screening for human-pathogenic mucorales using rolling circle amplification.mucormycosis has emerged as a relatively common severe mycosis in patients with haematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. source of transmission is from unidentified sources in the environment. early diagnosis of infection and its source of contamination are paramount for rapid and appropriate therapy. in this study, rolling circle amplification (rca) is introduced as a sensitive, specific and reproducible isothermal dna amplification technique for rapid molecular identification o ...201425187214
antifungal and cytotoxic assessment of lapachol derivatives produced by fungal biotransformation.in the screening for biological active compounds, the biotransformation processes catalyzed by filamentous fungi are useful because they can provide information about the possible appearance of toxic metabolites after oral administration and also generate new leads. in this paper, biotransformation of lapachol (1) by three fungal strains, mucor circinelloides nrrl3631, botrytis cinerea uca992 and botrytis cinerea 2100, has been investigated for the first time. lapachol (1) was biotransformed int ...201626996030
the effect of chitin size, shape, source and purification method on immune recognition.the animal immune response to chitin is not well understood and needs to be investigated further. however, this is a challenging topic to study because of the technical difficulties in purifying chitin, and because this material usually comes associated with contaminating components that can activate the immune system. in this study, improvements to previously described purification protocols were investigated for chitin obtained from different sources, including commercial shellfish, candida al ...201424727416
a white collar 1-like protein mediates opposite regulatory functions in mucor circinelloides.protein ubiquitylation plays a major role in the regulation of many cellular processes by altering the stability, localization or function of target proteins. crga is a protein of mucor circinelloides that shows the characteristics of ubiquitin ligases and is involved in the regulation of carotenogenesis and asexual sporulation in this fungus. crga, which belongs to a poorly characterized group of proteins present in almost all eukaryotes, represses carotenogenesis through the proteolysis-indepe ...201323357353
the interaction of fungi with the environment orchestrated by rnai.the fungal kingdom has been key in the investigation of the biogenesis and function of small rnas (srnas). the discovery of phenomena such as quelling in neurospora crassa represents pioneering work in the identification of the main elements of the rna interference (rnai) machinery. recent discoveries in the regulatory mechanisms in some yeast and filamentous fungi are helping us reach a deeper understanding of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanisms involved in ge ...201626932186
identification and characterization of d-xylulokinase from the d-xylose-fermenting fungus, mucor circinelloides.d-xylulokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of d-xylulose in the final step of the pentose catabolic pathway to form d-xylulose-5-phosphate. the d-xylulokinase activity was found to be induced by both d-xylose and l-arabinose, as well as some of the other enzymes involved in the pentose catabolism, in the d-xylose-fermenting zygomycetous fungus, mucor circinelloides nbrc 4572. the putative gene, xyl3, which may encode d-xylulokinase, was detected in the genome sequence of this strain. the amino ...201425163569
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