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serologic study by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the igm antibody response in the patas monkey following experimental simian varicella virus infection.the time course of igm and igg antibody appearance in sera following experimental simian varicella virus infection in the patas monkey was studied. serum igm and igg antibody to delta herpes virus (dhv) were measured by a double indirect and indirect elisa test, respectively. igm antibody was detected 5-8 days postinfection (p.i.) and igg antibody was present 10-14 days p.i., which was 5-7 days after igm. viremia preceded detectable igm antibody by 2 days. sucrose gradient separation of serum ig ...19846094088
activity of 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil against simian varicella virus infections in african green monkeys.the fluorinated pyrimidines 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (fiau) and 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (fmau) are highly effective inhibitors of herpesvirus infections in vitro and in vivo. this report is concerned with an evaluation of their activities in african green monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops) infected with simian varicella virus, a herpesvirus closely related to human varicella-zoster virus. oral or intravenous administration of ...19863729332
acyclovir in the treatment of simian varicella virus infection of the african green monkey.acyclovir (9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine) administered as an intramuscular formulation twice daily at a dosage of 100 mg/kg per day prevented the development of disease in african green monkeys inoculated with simian varicella virus. viremia, appearance of a vesicular rash, and elevations of serum transaminases, each indicative of infection, were suppressed by acyclovir treatment. plasma concentrations of acyclovir were measured and showed rising levels after repeated intramuscular injection ...19826285700
ineffectiveness of adenine arabinoside and adenine arabinoside 5'-monophosphate in simian varicella infection.adenine arabinoside and adenine arabinoside 5'-monophosphate (ara-amp) have been evaluated for antiviral activity against simian varicella virus infection in monkeys. in a preliminary study for toxicity, intramuscular injection of ara-amp at 15 mg/kg per day as a single injection for 5 days to two normal patas monkeys caused no detectable local reaction, no weight loss or changes in serum transaminase levels, and no hematological abnormalities. when this dose was given in the treatment of four s ...19806158291
transmission and scanning electron microscopy of experimental pulmonary simian varicella (delta herpesvirus) infection in african green monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops).the lungs of african green monkeys infected with simian varicella virus (delta herpesvirus) were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. endothelial cell shrinkage, oedema formation and necrosis characterized the scanning electron microscopy of the affected vasculature. oedema of the interalveolar septa with swelling of the capillary endothelial cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy. numerous viral particles were associated with a generalized area of necrosis ...19846088596
enhancement of simian varicella virus infection in african green monkeys by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha. 19892536783
acute simian varicella infection. clinical, laboratory, pathologic, and virologic features.five african green monkeys inoculated intratracheally with 7.5 x 10(3) to 1.4 x 10(5) plaque-forming units of simian varicella virus (svv) were subjected to clinical, laboratory, pathologic, and virologic analyses to study the pathogenesis of acute varicella. all animals developed viremia and rash and were sacrificed 8 to 11 days post-infection. no serum was available for postmortem serologic studies. examination of multiple organs for pathologic changes and for svv-specific antigen and nucleic ...19921602744
the genomes of simian varicella virus and varicella zoster virus are colinear.simian varicella virus (svv) causes an exanthematous disease in non-human primates which is clinically similar to varicella zoster virus (vzv) infection of humans. in this study, the genetic relatedness of svv and vzv was confirmed and the location of svv dna sequences homologous to vzv restriction endonuclease (re) fragments and viral genes was determined. vzv dna re fragments representing 98.3% of the vzv genome were 32p-labeled and hybridized to re digested, immobilized svv dna. homologous se ...19921337232
simian varicella virus infection in african and asian monkeys. the potential for development of antivirals for animal diseases. 19921320844
prevalence and distribution of latent simian varicella virus dna in monkey ganglia.we used polymerase chain reaction to analyze the prevalence and distribution of latent simian varicella virus (svv) in ganglionic and nonganglionic tissues from nine african green monkeys experimentally infected with svv. primers specific for three different regions of the svv genome were used for amplification. svv dna sequences were detected in trigeminal ganglia from seven of nine monkeys and in thoracic ganglia from seven of nine monkeys. analysis of dna from nonneuronal tissues of three mon ...19921314451
simian varicella virus dna in dorsal root ganglia.clinical, pathological, immunological, and virological evidence suggests that simian varicella virus (svv) infection of primates is the counterpart of varicella-zoster virus infection of humans. to determine whether these two viruses share similarities in their properties during latency, we analyzed ganglia and brain of an african green monkey experimentally infected with svv for the presence of viral nucleic acid using the polymerase chain reaction technique. we detected svv dna in dorsal root ...19911849275
molecular analysis of simian varicella virus dna.clinical and pathological studies indicate that simian varicella virus (svv) infection in primates is the counterpart of human varicella zoster virus (vzv) infection. the svv and vzv genomes are also similar in size and structure. to extend studies of svv dna, we analyzed virus dna from african green monkey kidney cells infected with the delta-herpes-virus strain of svv. the infectivity of svv dna was 88 pfu/micrograms. the buoyant density of svv dna, determined by isopycnic banding in cscl grad ...19921519354
oral bioavailability and anti-simian varicella virus efficacy of 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-e-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil (bv-arau) in monkeys.bv-arau (1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-e-5-[2-bromovinyl]uracil) has potent antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus in cell culture and is undergoing clinical evaluation. in the present study, pharmacokinetic parameters and the efficacy of bv-arau against infection with simian varicella virus (svv) were evaluated in african green monkeys. pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by analysis of the bv-arau content of sera obtained after oral and intravenous administration to normal monkey ...19921313071
investigation of antiviral activity of 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylthymine (ara-t) and 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-e-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil (bv-ara-u) in monkeys infected with simian varicella virus.1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylthymine (ara-t) and 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-e-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil (bv-ara-u) were shown to have antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo against simian varicella virus. both compounds successfully prevented clinical disease caused by inoculation of african green monkeys with simian varicella virus, eliminating the development of rash and substantially suppressing viremia. ara-t treatment was effective by either intraperitoneal or oral routes of administration and bv- ...19846097178
simian varicella virus (delta herpesvirus) infection of patas monkeys leading to pneumonia and encephalitis. 19826278510
phosphonoacetic acid in the treatment of simian varicella.phosphonoacetic acid inhibited replication of simian varicella virus (delta herpesvirus) in tissue culture. the drug was tested in patas monkeys 40 h after infection with delta herpesvirus. a total of 200 mg/kg per day was given intramuscularly, divided into two doses every day for a total of 10 days. the treated monkeys were protected from clinical illness, and delta herpesvirus was not recovered from their lymphocytes. complement-fixing and neutralizing antibody titers were significantly lower ...1978213014
the simian varicella virus and varicella zoster virus genomes are similar in size and structure.simian varicella virus (svv) dna was purified from viral nucleocapsids and the molecular structure of the svv genome was determined. svv dna was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis of bamhi, bglii, ecori, and psti restriction endonuclease digests. svv and varicella zoster virus (vzv) dnas were demonstrated to have distinct restriction endonuclease profiles. summation of the sizes of individual restriction endonuclease fragments indicate the size of svv dna is congruent to 121 kilobase pairs ...19921310185
the antiviral spectrum of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine.the antiviral activity spectrum of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) is not restricted to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv) but also encompasses several other herpesviruses such as suid herpesvirus type 1 (shv-1), bovid herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), simian varicella virus (svv), herpesvirus saimiri, herpesvirus platyrrhinae, and the baculovirus trichoplusia ni multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus. other herpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus type 2, ...19846092320
immunization of monkeys with varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein antigens and their response to challenge with simian varicella virus.african green monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops) were immunized with three intramuscular injections of gpi, gpii, or gpiii glycoprotein antigens of varicella-zoster virus (vzv). antibody responses to vzv were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and to simian varicella virus (svv) by immunofluorescence and by serum neutralization assays. two weeks following the third immunization with vzv glycoproteins, the monkeys were challenged by inoculation of svv. antibodies to gpii or gpi ...19873040898
effect of 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine and recombinant human beta interferon alone and in combination on simian varicella virus infection in monkeys.treatment of viral infections with combinations of antiviral agents may permit administration of reduced doses of either or both drugs. lowered doses may reduce associated toxicity. intravenous administration of substantial doses of either human recombinant beta interferon (rhuifn-beta) or 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (dhpg) prevents development of simian varicella virus infection in african green monkeys. daily doses of 2 x 10(6) u of rhuifn-beta/kg inhibited clinical disease in mon ...19873040868
inhibition of simian varicella virus infection of monkeys by 1-(2-deoxy-2- fluoro-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-ethyluracil (feau) and synergistic effects of combination with human recombinant interferon-beta.1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-ethyluracil (feau) has been shown to be a highly effective inhibitor of simian varicella virus infection in african green monkeys. administration of feau by either intravenous injection or gavage at doses as low as 1 mg/kg/day prevented the development of rash and reduced viremia. the effective dose could be further reduced to 0.2 mg/kg/day when administered in combination with a sub-effective dose of human recombinant interferon-beta. no evidence ...19902166466
liposomal interferon-beta: sustained release treatment of simian varicella virus infection in monkeys.liposomal formulations (distearoylphosphatidylcholine:dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol, 9:1) of recombinant human interferon-beta ser17 (ifn-beta), administered im to african green monkeys at doses of 10(7) units/kg on days 1 and 6 after infection with simian varicella virus, resulted in partial protection of the monkeys from viral infection. aqueous interferon administered under the same dosing regimen was ineffective. when given at 10(6) units/kg per dose twice daily for 10 d, however, it was h ...19892538517
simian varicella virus: characterization of virion and infected cell polypeptides and the antigenic cross-reactivity with varicella-zoster virus.simian varicella virus (svv) causes a varicella-like disease in non-human primates. in this study, svv virions were purified from svv-infected bsc-1 cells by zonal and differential gradient centrifugation and the virion polypeptide composition was analysed by sds-page. svv virions had a buoyant density of 1.21 g/ml, identical to the value obtained for varicella-zoster virus (vzv) virions purified by the same method. electron microscopy of the concentrated svv virions revealed characteristic herp ...19921316940
the pathogenesis of simian varicella virus in cynomolgus monkeys.the mlm herpesvirus is infectious for cynomolgus monkeys. the disease in this species, possibly modulated by preinoculation antibody resembles human varicella. virus has been recovered from blood during the early incubation period, and from liver, lymph nodes, kidney, bladder and urine during the eruptive period of infection. the major target organs were skin and liver; specific pathological changes developed in both. appropriate antibody responses, including those to herpesvirus varicellae foll ...1975174129
pharmacokinetics and antiviral activity in simian varicella virus-infected monkeys of (r,s)-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl) butyl]guanine, an anti-varicella-zoster virus drug.the acyclic guanosine analog (r,s)-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine, (+/-)2hm-hbg, is an effective inhibitor of herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections in vitro. this report is concerned with the pharmacokinetic evaluation of the drug in rats and monkeys and its antiviral activity in african green monkeys infected with simian varicella virus (svv), a virus closely related to varicella-zoster virus that is also susceptible to inhibition by (+/-)2hm-hbg. elimination h ...19882854453
improved yields and assay of simian varicella virus, and a comparison of certain biological properties of simian and human varicella viruses.studies were performed to define conditions under which propagation, assay and stabilization of the delta herpesvirus (dhv) strain of simian varicella virus might be improved, and to compare biological properties of dhv with those of human varicella zoster virus (vzv). a mycoplasma contaminant was successfully eliminated from the dhv seed virus by treatment with a specific anti-serum. dhv was found to replicate more efficiently in the bs-c-1 line of african green monkey kidney cells than in vero ...19826296181
serological investigation of an outbreak of simian varicella in erythrocebus patas monkeys.an epizootic of simian varicella occurring in a colony of erythrocebus patas monkeys was studied serologically by using radioimmunoassay and neutralization tests against (i) a virus strain isolated from an animal that died during the epizootic, (ii) a simian varicella virus strain from an earlier outbreak of simian varicella-like disease at another facility, and (iii) human varicella-zoster virus. serological tests detected more cases of infection among the animals exposed to virus during the ep ...19836313751
simian varicella virus dna shares homology with human varicella-zoster virus dna.delta herpesvirus (dhv) and medical lake macaque (mlm) virus are cell-associated simian herpesviruses that cause varicella-like disease in nonhuman primates, and are antigenically related to human varicella-zoster virus (vzv). the results of studies designed to determine if homology exists between the dna of dhv and mlm and the dna of vzv are reported here. southern blot hybridizations conducted at tm-20 degrees did not detect dna homology between the vzv and simian varicella virus genomes. howe ...19846330994
class-specific antibody responses to early and late antigens of varicella and herpes simplex viruses.antibody responses to early antigens of varicella-zoster virus (vzv), simian varicella virus, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) were studied in primary, secondary, and latent infections. igg antibody responses to the early antigens occurred in primary and secondary vzv and hsv infections, and antibodies to early antigens were also demonstrable in healthy individuals with latent vzv and hsv infections, indicating that the presence of antibodies to early antigens cannot be t ...19846319583
acyclovir treatment of experimental simian varicella infection of monkeys.replication of simian varicella virus (svv) in vero cell cultures was inhibited by acyclovir, 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine (acv), at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml in culture medium. intravenous administration of acv at 10 mg/kg twice a day for 10 days or 15 mg/kg three times a day for 5 days to patas monkeys (erythrocebus patas) beginning 48 h after svv inoculation blocked the appearance of rash and other clinical symptoms but did not affect viremia. acv treatment of african green monk ...19817305319
configuration and terminal sequences of the simian varicella virus genome.the simian varicella virus (svv) genome is a linear dna molecule consisting of a unique short (us) and a unique long (ul) region. the us is bounded by internal (ir) and terminal inverted repeats and inverts such that virion dna contains equimolar amounts of two genome isomers. we have sequenced the right and leftward termini and the ul-ir junction region of the svv genome. a sequence motif common to other herpesviruses, consisting of a and t residues surrounded by g+c-rich regions, was found nea ...19957871724
in vivo antiviral activity of recombinant type alpha interferon a in monkeys with infections due to simian varicella virus.recombinant type alpha interferon a (rifn-alpha-a) administered to african green monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops) intramuscularly in a dose of 3 x 10(6) units/kg of body weight resulted in substantial blood levels of interferon. peak levels of greater than 1,000 units/ml of serum appeared at 1 and 2 hr after inoculation and interferon was detectable for as long as 12 hr after inoculation. injection of rifn-alpha-a at a dose of 10(6) units/kg twice daily for eight days effectively inhibited simia ...19836842026
ocular inoculation of monkeys with simian varicella virus: clinical and histopathologic observations.to explore the possibility that inoculation of the eyes of african green monkeys with simian varicella virus (svv) induces the symptoms of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (hzo), as seen in humans, and to develop a realistic and reproducible animal model of herpes zoster ophthalmicus for experimental studies.19957822158
pharmacokinetics and antiviral activity of a novel isonucleoside, bms-181165, against simian varicella virus infection in african green monkeys.a novel nucleoside analog bms-181165 with potent activity against varicella-zoster virus was tested for efficacy in a simian varicella virus infection in african green monkeys. bms-181165 was effective in preventing the development of a rash, decreasing the development of viremia and preventing death in infected monkeys when administered orally at 4, 16 or 64 mg/kg/day. the compound is well orally absorbed in monkeys, between 44 to 50% oral bioavailability, and may prove of value in therapy of v ...19948042861
transcriptional analysis of two simian varicella virus glycoprotein genes which are homologous to varicella-zoster virus gpi (ge) and gpiv (gi).simian varicella virus (svv) causes a natural, varicella-like disease in nonhuman primates. the unique short region of the svv genome contains four open reading frames (orfs), two of which encode glycoproteins that exhibit extensive homology with varicella-zoster virus (vzv) gpiv (gi) and gpi (ge). northern hybridization, primer extension, and rnase protection analyses were employed to define precisely the transcripts mapping to the svv gpiv and gpi genes. a total of five transcripts composing t ...19947975231
dna sequence and transcriptional analysis of the simian varicella virus glycoprotein b gene.the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) glycoprotein b (gb) is a major viral antigen which elicits immunity and neutralizing antibodies. in this study, the genomic map position and dna sequence of a simian varicella virus (svv) homologue of the vzv gb gene was identified and the transcript analysed. a 32p-labelled vzv gb dna probe hybridized to a subclone of the svv bamhi b restriction endonuclease fragment indicating the fine map position of svv dna sequences homologous to the vzv gb gene. the svv gb ...19947964632
synthesis and antiviral activity of novel isonucleoside analogs.a series of branched-chain sugar isonucleosides was synthesized and evaluated for antiviral activity against herpesviruses. the preparation of homochiral [3s-(3 alpha, 4 beta, 5 alpha)]-2-amino-1, 9-dihydro-9-[tetrahydro-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-3-furanyl]-6h-purin-6-one (7, bms-181,164) and related compounds was stereospecifically achieved starting from 1,2-isopropylidene-d-xylofuranose (10). an efficient two-step reduction of the anomeric center of bis-acetate 18 involved formation of the chlori ...19938387600
6-dimethylamino-9-(beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-9h-purine: pharmacokinetics and antiviral activity in simian varicella virus-infected monkeys.6-dimethylamino-9-(beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-9h-purine (ara-dmap) effectively prevented the development of rash and appreciably reduced viremia in simian varicella virus-infected monkeys. doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg/day, administered orally, were highly effective. the lowest dose of 20 mg/kg/day was much less effective in preventing moderate viremia. however, the 20 mg/kg/day did prevent the development of rash in two of three monkeys. all three doses of ara-dmap reduced liver infection as reflecte ...19938457145
dna sequence and genetic organization of the unique short (us) region of the simian varicella virus genome.simian varicella virus (svv) infection of nonhuman primates is a model for the study of human varicella zoster virus (vzv) infections. the dna sequence of the entire svv unique short (us) region and adjacent flanking sequences of the inverted repeats were determined. the us region is 4904 bp in size and has a 60.9% a + t base composition. four potential open reading frames (orfs), designated svus 1, svus 2, svus 3, and svus 4, were identified and found to be remarkably similar in size, genetic c ...19938384754
dna sequence of a simian varicella virus gene that encodes a homologue of varicella zoster virus ie62 and herpes simplex virus icp4.clinical and biological studies indicate that simian varicella virus (svv) infection of primates is the counterpart of human varicella zoster virus (vzv) infection. we have identified an svv open reading frame (orf) that is homologous to the vzv protein ie62 and herpes simplex virus (hsv) icp4. like the genes encoding the vzv and hsv proteins, the svv gene is located in the repeat region of the virus genome. its expression in svv-infected cells yields a 4.2-kb transcript. dna sequencing of the s ...19938212583
pharmacokinetics and antiviral activity of recombinant human interferon-beta ser17 in african green monkeys.the pharmacokinetics and antiviral activity of recombinant human interferon-beta ser17 (betaseron) were evaluated in african green monkeys. in one study, animals infected with simian varicella virus were administered betaseron intravenously (i.v.), intramuscularly (i.m.), or subcutaneously (s.c.) at doses of 1 x 10(6) or 1 x 10(7) iu/kg twice daily for 10 days. in another study, infected animals received betaseron s.c. at doses of 1 x 10(6) iu/kg twice daily, 2 x 10(6) iu/kg once daily, 4 x 10(6 ...19938509658
identification and analysis of the simian varicella virus thymidine kinase gene.the thymidine kinase (tk) of herpesviruses, in contrast to cellular tks, phosphorylates a variety of substrates including antiherpetic nucleoside analogues. this study reports the identification and dna sequence of the simian varicella virus (svv) tk gene. a 32p-labeled varicella zoster virus (vzv) tk dna probe hybridized to the hindiii b subclone of the svv bamhi b restriction endonuclease (re) fragment, indicating the presence of a svv dna sequence homologous to the vzv tk gene. dna sequence a ...19968629950
dna sequence of the simian varicella virus (svv) gh gene and analysis of the svv and varicella zoster virus gh transcripts.the varicella zoster virus (vzv) glycoprotein h (gh) stimulates vzv-specific immune responses and may be involved in virus penetration. this study reports the genomic map position and the dna sequence of a simian varicella virus (svv) homologue of the vzv gh gene. a 32p-labeled vzv gh-specific dna probe hybridized to the hindiii b subclone of the svv bamhi b restriction endonuclease (re) fragment. the dna sequence of the svv hindiii b subclone was determined and analysis indicated a svv open rea ...19958546010
efficacy of (-)-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine in african green monkeys infected with simian varicella virus.(-)-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine was evaluated for its efficacy in african green monkeys infected with simian varicella virus. treatment by intramuscular injection was initiated 48 h after virus inoculation and was continued for 10 days; the treatment showed therapeutic effects on rash and viremia at dosages down to 1 mg/kg of body weight per day.19938392312
characterization and mapping of simian varicella virus transcripts.the size and genomic location of viral transcripts expressed in simian varicella virus (svv)-infected vero cells were determined. total cellular rna and polyadenylated rna were isolated from svv-infected and mock-infected vero cells. viral transcripts were detected by northern blot hybridization analysis using overlapping svv dna probes representative of the entire svv genome. the results indicated that all regions of the svv genome are transcribed during svv infection in vitro. at least 53 dist ...19938393915
a simian varicella virus (svv) homolog to varicella-zoster virus gene 21 is expressed in monkey ganglia latently infected with svv.we have sequenced a simian varicella virus (svv) open reading frame (orf), 3,123 bp in length, whose product has 51% amino acid homology with the sequence encoded by the orf of varicella-zoster virus gene 21. several regions are highly conserved between the two orfs, with homologies of approximately 80%. the svv gene is transcribed in tissue culture cells productively infected with svv and in monkey ganglia latently infected with svv.19968764094
rapid diagnosis of simian varicella using the polymerase chain reaction.simian varicella virus (svv) causes sporadic epizootics of a varicella-like disease in nonhuman primates. rapid diagnosis of simian varicella is critical in controlling epizootics. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based diagnostic assay for detection of svv dna in cell culture and clinical samples from svv-infected monkeys was developed. the assay is rapid, specific, and highly sensitive. the svv dna is readily detected in skin rash specimens and in peripheral blood lymphocytes of infected monk ...19989517889
infectious simian varicella virus expressing the green fluorescent protein.clinical, pathologic, immunologic and virologic features of simian varicella virus (svv) infection in primates closely resemble varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infection in humans. such similarities provide a rationale to analyze svv infection in primates as a model of varicella pathogenesis and latency. thus, we constructed an svv-expressing green fluorescent protein (svv-gfp) by inserting the gfp gene into the unique short segment of the virus genome by homologous recombination. analysis of recom ...19989718136
identification of simian varicella virus homologues of varicella zoster virus genes.clinical, pathologic, immunologic and virologic features of simian varicella virus (svv) infection in primates resemble human varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infection. further, the svv and vzv genomes are similar in size and structure, show striking homology in their configuration and dna sequences, and encode antigenically related polypeptides. although the entire vzv genome is present during latency in human ganglia, transcription is limited. vzv genes 21, 29, 62 and 63 are transcribed during la ...19979482592
experimental simian varicella virus infection of st. kitts vervet monkeys.experimental simian varicella virus (svv) infection of st. kitts vervet monkeys was evaluated as an animal model to investigate human varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infections. during the incubation period, viremia disseminated infectious virus throughout the body via infected peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbls). a vesicular skin rash in the inguinal area, and on the abdomen, extremities, and face appeared on day 7-10 postinfection. necrosis and hemorrhage in lung and liver tissues from acutely in ...19989879858
the inverted repeat regions of the simian varicella virus and varicella-zoster virus genomes have a similar genetic organization.simian varicella virus (svv) causes a varicella-like disease in nonhuman primates. the dna sequence and genetic organization of the inverted repeat region (rs) of the svv genome was determined. the svv rs is 7559 bp in size with 56% guanine+cytosine (g+c) content and includes 3 open reading frames (orfs). the svv rs1 orf encodes a 1279 amino acid (aa) protein with 58 and 39% identity to the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) gene 62 and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) icp4 homologs, respectively. ...19958837883
simian varicella virus antibody response in experimental infection of african green monkeys.the humoral immune response to simian varicella virus (svv) was investigated following primary and secondary experimental infection of african green monkeys. neutralization and immunoprecipitation assays were used to determine antibody titers to svv throughout the course of infection. the immune response to specific viral polypeptides was analyzed by immunoprecipitation analysis. the results demonstrate that the simian varicella model offers a useful approach to investigate immune mechanisms in ...19958750501
identification and characterization of the simian varicella virus uracil dna glycosylase.simian varicella virus (svv) infection of non-human primates is used as a model to study the pathogenesis and latency of varicella-zoster virus (vzv), the etiological agent of chickenpox and shingles. uracil dna glycosylase (udg) is a dna repair enzyme responsible for excision of uracil residues misincorporated into dna. udg is conserved throughout the herpesvirus family and may play an important role in viral pathogenesis. this study identified a 300 amino acid svv udg that shares 53.9% amino a ...199910603170
sequence analysis of the leftward end of simian varicella virus (ecori-i fragment) reveals the presence of an 8-bp repeat flanking the unique long segment and an 881-bp open-reading frame that is absent in the varicella zoster virus genome.simian varicella virus (svv) causes varicella (chickenpox) in nonhuman primates, becomes latent in cranial and dorsal root ganglia, and reactivates to produce zoster (shingles). because the clinical and molecular features of svv closely resemble those of varicella zoster virus (vzv) infection of humans, svv infection of primates has served as an experimental model of vzv pathogenesis and latency. the svv genome has been completely mapped, but attempts to clone the 3600-bp ecori fragment located ...200010964784
viral isolates derived from simian varicella epizootics are genetically related but are distinct from other primate herpesviruses.epizootics of a natural varicella-like disease occur in populations of nonhuman primates. several primate herpesviruses have been isolated from these epizootics, but the relatedness of these isolates to each other is not well-defined. in this study, we demonstrated that the restriction endonuclease (ren) profiles of four epidemiologically distinct isolates were similar, although not identical, indicating that simian varicella epizootics are caused by various strains of simian varicella virus (sv ...19968862410
identification of simian varicella virus gene 21 promoter region using green fluorescent protein.clinical, pathological, immunological and virological features of simian varicella virus (svv) infection in primates closely resemble those of varicella zoster virus (vzv) infection in humans. in ganglia infected latently of humans and monkeys, gene 21 of vzv and svv is transcribed, respectively. we determined the nucleotide sequence of the intragenic region between svv genes 20 and 21 to identify the putative promoter region for svv gene 21. a recombinant clone was prepared in which the gene en ...200010713380
simian varicella virus infects ganglia before rash in experimentally infected monkeys.monkeys experimentally infected with simian varicella virus (svv) develop rash 10-14 days later. however, the route and the time of ganglionic infection are unknown. using pcr, we analyzed dna extracted from tissues of 13 monkeys 5 to 60 days after either intratracheal or intravenous inoculation with svv. svv dna was detected in ganglia from four of five monkeys sacrificed 6 to 7 days after intratracheal inoculation. further, analysis of ganglia from monkeys sacrificed at 10 days revealed that i ...200111145914
novel mouse models for the investigation of experimental drugs with activity against human varicella-zoster virus.suitable small animal models for the testing of antiviral agents with activity against human varicella-zoster virus (vzv) have so far been lacking. mice and other animals have been found to not be susceptible to vzv infection. the model of choice for drug development has been the infection of monkeys using simian varicella virus (svv). however, while primates offer potential as models of human varicella disease, their use is limited as experimental models in antiviral research. we have developed ...200010950390
latency and reactivation of varicella zoster virus infections.varicella zoster virus (vzv) is the causative agent of chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (zoster). the study of latency and reactivation has been hampered by the fact that the virus is strictly human and grows to low titres in tissue culture. molecular biology techniques have opened a new era of vzv research. the site of vzv latency was determined to be sensory ganglia by southern blotting and later by pcr technology. it was also demonstrated that the entire virus genome is present in the late ...19969163025
an animal model of varicella virus infection.varicella-zoster virus (vzv) causes chickenpox in children; establishes latency in cranial nerve, dorsal root, and autonomic ganglia; and reactivates decades later to produce zoster. vzv produces disease only in humans. although attempts to produce disease and study vzv latency in experimentally infected animals have resulted in virus in trigeminal or dorsal root ganglia, no clinical signs of infection or reactivation developed. in contrast, simian varicella virus (svv) produces a naturally occu ...200111556693
the dna sequence of the simian varicella virus genome.in nonhuman primates, simian varicella virus (svv) causes a natural disease which is clinically similar to human varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infections. the svv and vzv genomes are similar in size and structure and share extensive dna homology. this report presents the complete dna sequence of the svv genome. svv dna is 124,138 bp in size, 746 bp shorter than vzv dna, and 40.4% g + c. the viral genome includes a 104,104-bp unique long component bracketed by 8-bp inverted repeat sequences and a ...200111352673
expression of the simian varicella virus glycoprotein e.simian varicella virus (svv) is closely related to human varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and induces a varicella-like disease in nonhuman primates. the svv genome encodes a glycoprotein e (ge) which is homologous to the ge of vzv and other alphaherpesviruses. the svv ge was expressed in escherichia coli and rabbits were immunized with the recombinant ge fusion proteins to generate polyclonal ge antiserum. immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that the svv ge is expressed ...200111551643
viral gene expression during acute simian varicella virus infection.simian varicella virus (svv) causes a natural varicella-like disease in nonhuman primates. outbreaks of simian varicella occur sporadically in primate facilities. simian varicella is used as a model for investigation of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) pathogenesis and latency. in this study, svv gene expression and histopathology were analysed in tissues of acutely infected vervet monkeys. rt-pcr analysis demonstrated expression of specific svv immediate early, early and late genes in the skin, lun ...200211907334
bicyclic pyrimidine nucleoside analogues (bcnas) as highly selective and potent inhibitors of varicella-zoster virus replication.bicyclic pyrimidine nucleoside analogues (bcnas) represent highly potent and selective inhibitors of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) replication in cell culture. the compounds inhibit a variety of clinical vzv strains, in the higher picomolar range, whilst being non-toxic at micromolar concentrations. the compounds do not inhibit the closely related simian varicella virus or any other viruses, including herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), hsv-2 and cytomegalovirus. the bcnas owe at least part of t ...200212096000
expression of the simian varicella virus glycoprotein l and h.simian varicella is used as a model to investigate varicella-zoster virus pathogenesis and to evaluate antiviral therapies. in this study, the simian varicella virus (svv) glycoprotein l (gl) was characterized along with its association with glycoprotein h (gh). the svv gl gene encodes a predicted 175 amino acid polypeptide that shares 43.5% and 27.9% amino acid identity with the vzv gl and hsv-1 gl, respectively. the svv gl polypeptide sequence lacks a consensus glycosylation site and a typical ...200211890527
broad-spectrum antiviral activity of pnu-183792, a 4-oxo-dihydroquinoline, against human and animal herpesviruses.we identified a novel class of 4-oxo-dihydroquinolines represented by pnu-183792 which specifically inhibit herpesvirus polymerases. pnu-183792 was highly active against human cytomegalovirus (hcmv, ic(50) value 0.69 microm), varicella zoster virus (vzv, ic(50) value 0.37 microm) and herpes simplex virus (hsv, ic(50) value 0.58 microm) polymerases but was inactive (ic(50) value >40 microm) against human alpha (alpha), gamma (gamma), or delta (delta) polymerases. in vitro antiviral activity again ...200211888654
simian varicella virus dna is present and transcribed months after experimental infection of adult african green monkeys.to study the pathogenesis of simian varicella virus (svv) infection in its natural primate host, we inoculated adult svv-seronegative african green monkeys intratracheally with 10(3)-10(4) pfu of svv, sacrificed them 11 days, 2, 5, 10, and 12 months postinfection (p.i.), and examined lung, liver, and ganglia for svv dna and rna. pcr analysis revealed svv dna in ganglia and viscera at 11 days and 2, 5, and 10 months p.i. similarly, svv transcripts corresponding to immediate early (ie), putative e ...200212053274
construction of infectious simian varicella virus expressing green fluorescent protein. 200212136770
persistence of simian varicella virus dna in cd4(+) and cd8(+) blood mononuclear cells for years after intratracheal inoculation of african green monkeys.simian varicella virus (svv) dna was detected in blood mononuclear cells (mncs) of adult african green monkeys 7 days to 23 months after intratracheal inoculation with 10(3) plaque forming units. infectious virus was not detected in mncs at 14 months postinfection (p.i.), and electron microscopic (em) analysis of mncs from two monkeys 21 months p.i. did not reveal virus particles. real-time quantitative pcr analysis of dna from blood mncs taken at multiple intervals from svv-infected monkeys m7 ...200212482671
a functional ynki motif in the short cytoplasmic tail of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gh mediates clathrin-dependent and antibody-independent endocytosis.the trafficking of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) gh was investigated under both infection and transfection conditions. in initial endocytosis assays performed in infected cells, the three glycoproteins ge, gi, and gb served as positive controls for internalization from the plasma membrane. subsequently, we discovered that gh in vzv-infected cells was also internalized and followed a similar trafficking pattern. this observation was unexpected because all herpesvirus gh homologues have short endod ...200312634377
naturally acquired simian varicella virus infection in african green monkeys.simian varicella virus (svv) infection of primates shares clinical, pathological, immunological, and virological features with varicella-zoster virus infection of humans. natural varicella infection was simulated by exposing four svv-seronegative monkeys to monkeys inoculated intratracheally with svv, in which viral dna and rna persist in multiple tissues for more than 1 year (t. m. white, r. mahalingam, v. traina-dorge, and d. h. gilden, j. neurovirol. 8:191-205, 2002). the four naturally expos ...200212163574
clinical and molecular pathogenesis of varicella virus infection.varicella zoster virus (vzv) is a neurotropic human herpesvirus that infects nearly all humans and causes chickenpox (varicella). after chickenpox, vzv becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root, and autonomic nervous system ganglia along the entire neuraxis. virus reactivation produces shingles (zoster), characterized by pain and rash usually restricted to 1-3 dermatomes. zoster is often complicated by postherpetic neuralgia (phn), pain that persists for months to years after rash resolves. v ...200314583142
inactivity of the bicyclic pyrimidine nucleoside analogues against simian varicella virus (svv) does not correlate with their substrate activity for svv-encoded thymidine kinase.simian varicella virus (svv) and human varicella-zoster virus (vzv) are closely related viruses that share many structural and functional properties. 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine derivatives (e.g., bvdu, bvarau) and acyclic guanine nucleoside derivatives (i.e., acv and gcv) show comparable antiviral efficacy against vzv and svv in cell culture. in contrast, the novel bicyclic nucleoside analogues (bcnas) are exquisitely inhibitory to vzv (ec50 in the lower nanomolar range) but completely inacti ...200414985094
pathogenesis of simian varicella virus.simian varicella virus (svv) is closely related to varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and induces a natural varicella-like disease in nonhuman primates. therefore, simian varicella is a useful model to investigate varicella pathogenesis and to evaluate antiviral therapies. in this report, we review recent studies on svv pathogenesis and latency. experimental infection of african green monkeys is followed by a 7-10 day incubation period during which a viremia disseminates the virus throughout the body. ...200312627479
varicella virus-mononuclear cell interaction.varicella zoster virus (vzv) causes varicella (chickenpox), becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root, and autonomic ganglia; and reactivates decades later to produce zoster (shingles). the main complication of zoster is postherpetic neuralgia (phn), pain that persists for months and often years after zoster. vzv also causes chronic radicular pain without rash (zoster sine herpete). viremia is associated with each stage of vzv infection. viral dna has been found in peripheral blood mononuclea ...200314719363
neuronal localization of simian varicella virus dna in ganglia of naturally infected african green monkeys.in situ hybridization analysis of monkey ganglia 2 months after natural infection with simian varicella virus (svv) revealed svv dna only in neurons. these findings parallel the detection of varicella zoster virus in neurons of latently infected human ganglia. natural exposure to svv provides a model system to study varicella latency.200415266108
transactivation of the simian varicella virus (svv) open reading frame (orf) 21 promoter by svv orf 62 is upregulated in neuronal cells but downregulated in non-neuronal cells by svv orf 63 protein.simian varicella virus (svv) infection in primates closely resembles varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infection in humans. svv orf 63 has 51.6% homology at the amino acid level to vzv orf 63. we cloned svv orfs 63 and 62, transcribed and translated in vitro, and immunoprecipitated the expected proteins with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that svv orf 63 is expressed as a 43-kda phosphorylated protein in virus-infected cells. in both neuronal and non-neuronal cell ...200616242745
comparative transmission of multiple herpesviruses and simian virus 40 in a baboon breeding colony.little is known about the natural history of herpesviruses indigenous in baboons. here, we describe the development of elisas for five herpesviruses. these assays were used to test more than 950 serum samples collected from approximately 210 infant/juvenile and 130 adult baboons in a captive breeding colony over a period of seven years. results indicated that baboon cytomegalovirus, lymphocryptovirus, and rhadinovirus are transmitted efficiently within the colony and are acquired at an early age ...200415679269
simian varicella: a model for human varicella-zoster virus infections.simian varicella virus (svv) causes a natural varicella-like disease in nonhuman primates. epizootics of simian varicella occur sporadically in facilities housing old world monkeys. svv is antigenically and genetically related to varicella-zoster virus (vzv), the etiologic agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in humans. the svv and vzv genomes are similar in size and structure, share 70%-75% dna homology and are co-linear with respect to gene organisation. simian varicell ...200415386593
a cosmid-based system for inserting mutations and foreign genes into the simian varicella virus genome.simian varicella is a natural varicella-like disease of nonhuman primates. the etiologic agent, simian varicella virus (svv), is genetically related to varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and svv infection of nonhuman primates is a useful model to investigate vzv pathogenesis and latency. in this study, we report development of a cosmid-based genetic system to generate svv mutant viruses. svv subgenomic dna fragments (32-38kb) that span the viral genome were cloned into cosmid vectors. co-transfection ...200516043236
array analysis of simian varicella virus gene transcription in productively infected cells in tissue culture.simian varicella virus (svv) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus of monkeys that is a model for varicella pathogenesis and latency. like human varicella-zoster virus (vzv), svv causes chicken pox (varicella), becomes latent in ganglia along the entire neuraxis, and reactivates to produce shingles (zoster). we developed macroarrays to determine the extent of viral transcription from all 70 predicted svv open reading frames (orfs) in infected cells in tissue culture. cloned fragments (200 to 400 bp) ...200515827146
simian varicella virus gene 28 and 29 promoters share a common upstream stimulatory factor-binding site and are induced by ie62 transactivation.simian varicella virus (svv) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes a natural, varicella-like disease in non-human primates. after resolution of the primary disease, svv, like its human counterpart, varicella-zoster virus (vzv), establishes latent infection in the neural ganglia of the host. in this study, gene expression of svv open reading frames (orfs) 28 and 29, which encode the viral dna polymerase and dna-binding protein, respectively, was characterized during lytic infection of ver ...200616690914
the simian varicella virus genome contains an invertible 665 base pair terminal element that is absent in the varicella zoster virus genome.simian varicella virus (svv) causes chickenpox in monkeys, establishes latency and reactivates to produce zoster thus providing a model to study human varicella zoster virus (vzv) infection. sequence analysis of a recombinant cosmid clone containing the left end of the svv genome revealed a 665 base pair (bp) segment that is absent in vzv dna. this segment inverts and contains 507 bp of unique sequences flanked on either side by 79 bp inverted repeats, making the svv genome to be 124,785 bp in s ...200717555785
characterization of the simian varicella virus glycoprotein c, which is nonessential for in vitro replication.the simian varicella virus (svv) glycoprotein c (gc), which may play an important role in viral pathogenesis, shares extensive homology to the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) gc. the svv gc gene includes two identical 83 base pair repeat elements which are conserved within the gc genes of epidemiologically distinct svv isolates. expression of the gc gene was confirmed by detection of viral gene products. deletion of the gc gene and replacement with the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene yields a ...200312607104
simian varicella virus gene 61 encodes a viral transactivator but is non-essential for in vitro replication.simian varicella virus (svv) is closely related to varicella-zoster virus (vzv), the causative agent of chickenpox and shingles. the svv and vzv gene 61 polypeptides are homologs of the hsv-1 icp0, a viral transactivator which appears to play a role in viral latency and reactivation. in this study, the molecular properties of the svv 61 were characterized. the svv open reading frame (orf) 61 encodes a 54.1-kda polypeptide with 37% amino acid identity to the vzv 61. homology to the hsv-1 icp-0 is ...200717115302
diagnostic exercise: papulovesicular dermatitis in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).eleven rhesus monkeys developed multifocal erythematous and a vesicular rash. most recovered spontaneously, but a 21-year-old female became moribund and was euthanized. findings were of vesicular dermatitis and widespread multifocal hemorrhagic necrosis of the lungs and other viscera, with intralesional intranuclear inclusions. simian varicella virus was identified as the cause by polymerase chain reaction analysis and serologic testing.200818587109
disseminated simian varicella virus infection in an irradiated rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta).we describe correlative clinicopathological/virological findings from a simian varicella virus (svv)-seronegative monkey that developed disseminated varicella 105 days after gamma-irradiation. twelve other monkeys in the colony were also irradiated, none of which developed varicella. before irradiation, sera from the monkey that developed disseminated infection and one asymptomatic monkey were available. analysis indicated that subclinical reactivation of latent svv from an asymptomatic irradiat ...200717079326
simian varicella virus reactivation in cynomolgus monkeys.svv infection of primates closely resembles vzv infection of humans. like vzv, svv becomes latent in ganglionic neurons. we used this model to study the effect of immunosuppression on varicella reactivation. cynomolgus monkeys latently infected with svv were irradiated and treated with tacrolimus and prednisone. of four latently infected monkeys that were immunosuppressed and subjected to the stress of transportation and isolation, one developed zoster, and three others developed features of sub ...200717651776
the pattern of viral persistence in monkeys intra-tracheally infected with simian varicella virus.in situ pcr (ispcr) and in situ hybridisation (ish) was performed on 32 tissues from 10 monkeys, intra-tracheally (it) infected with simian varicella virus (svv) and 5 tissues from 3 uninfected control animals. the results showed persistence of svv dna up to 2 years post-infection (pi) and the localisation of svv to be confined to neurons except at time points 9 and 10 months pi where svv positive satellite cells were also detected. there was no evidence for transcription of svv orfs 63 and 21 i ...200717253123
simian varicella virus expresses a latency-associated transcript that is antisense to open reading frame 61 (icp0) mrna in neural ganglia of latently infected monkeys.simian varicella virus (svv) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv) are closely related alphaherpesviruses that cause varicella (chickenpox) in nonhuman primates and humans, respectively. after resolution of the primary disease, svv and vzv establish latent infection of neural ganglia and may later reactivate to cause a secondary disease (herpes zoster). this study investigated svv gene expression in neural ganglia derived from latently infected vervet monkeys. svv transcripts were detected in neural ...200717507490
simian varicella in old world monkeys.simian varicella virus (svv) causes a natural erythematous disease in old world monkeys and is responsible for simian varicella epizootics that occur sporadically in facilities housing nonhuman primates. this review summarizes the biology of svv and simian varicella as a veterinary disease of nonhuman primates. svv is closely related to varicella-zoster virus, the causative agent of human varicella and herpes zoster. clinical signs of simian varicella include fever, vesicular skin rash, and hepa ...200819793453
simian varicella virus infection of rhesus macaques recapitulates essential features of varicella zoster virus infection in humans.simian varicella virus (svv), the etiologic agent of naturally occurring varicella in primates, is genetically and antigenically closely related to human varicella zoster virus (vzv). early attempts to develop a model of vzv pathogenesis and latency in nonhuman primates (nhp) resulted in persistent infection. more recent models successfully produced latency; however, only a minority of monkeys became viremic and seroconverted. thus, previous nhp models were not ideally suited to analyze the immu ...200919911054
establishment of specific pathogen-free macaque colonies in tsukuba primate research center of japan for aids research.cynomolgus monkeys have been maintained in indoor facilities as closed colony monkeys in tsukuba primate research center in japan since 1978. several microorganisms, including bacteria, parasites and viruses, were eliminated from the cynomolgus monkeys in this colony of tprc. various kinds of viruses (b virus, measles virus, simian varicella virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, simian t cell leukemia virus, simian d type retrovirus, simian cytomegalovirus, simian epstein-barr virus, and simian ...201020510748
simian varicella virus pathogenesis.because varicella zoster virus (vzv) is an exclusively human pathogen, the development of an animal model is necessary to study pathogenesis, latency, and reactivation. the pathological, virological, and immunological features of simian varicella virus (svv) infection in nonhuman primates are similar to those of vzv infection in humans. both natural infection of cynomolgus and african green monkeys as well as intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with svv provide the most useful models t ...201020186611
simian varicella virus: molecular virology.simian varicella virus (svv) is a primate herpesvirus that is closely related to varicella-zoster virus (vzv), the causative agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). epizootics of simian varicella occur sporadically in facilities housing old world monkeys. this review summarizes the molecular properties of svv. the svv and vzv genomes are similar in size, structure, and gene arrangement. the 124.5 kilobase pair (kbp) svv genome includes a 104.7 kbp long component covalently ...201020369316
the simian varicella virus uracil dna glycosylase and dutpase genes are expressed in vivo, but are non-essential for replication in cell culture.neurotropic herpesviruses express viral deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dutpase) and uracil dna glycosylase (udg) enzymes which may reduce uracil misincorporation into viral dna, particularly in neurons of infected ganglia. the simian varicella virus (svv) dutpase (orf 8) and udg (orf 59) share 37.7% and 53.9% amino acid identity, respectively, with varicella-zoster virus (vzv) homologs. infectious svv mutants defective in either dutpase (svv-dutpase(-)) or udg (svv-udg(-)) activi ...200919200445
recombinant varicella vaccines induce neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses to siv and reduce viral loads in immunized rhesus macaques.the development of an effective aids vaccine remains one of the highest priorities in hiv research. the live, attenuated varicella-zoster virus (vzv) oka vaccine, safe and effective for prevention of chickenpox and zoster, also has potential as a recombinant vaccine against other pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). the simian varicella model, utilizing simian varicella virus (svv), offers an approach to evaluate recombinant varicella vaccine candidates. recombinant svv (rsvv ...201020654666
myelodysplasia in 2 pig-tailed macaques (macaca nemestrina) associated with retroviral vector-mediated insertional mutagenesis and overexpression of hoxb4.gammaretroviral vectors are an efficient means to effect gene therapy. however, genotoxicity from insertion at nonrandom sites can confer a competitive advantage to transduced cells, resulting in clonal proliferation or neoplasia. six pig-tailed macaques (macaca nemestrina) underwent total body irradiation and reconstitution with autologous stem cells genetically modified by a gammaretroviral vector overexpressing hoxb4. two animals were euthanized owing to irradiation- or transplantation-associ ...201020870955
gexps multiplex pcr analysis of the simian varicella virus transcriptome in productively infected cells in culture and acutely infected ganglia.simian varicella zoster virus (svv) infection of non-human primates serves as a model to study varicella zoster virus (vzv) infection and pathogenesis in humans. while macroarray analysis detected all 69 predicted unique open reading frames (orfs) in svv-infected cells in culture, it lacked the sensitivity to detect the low-abundance transcripts expressed in latently infected monkey ganglia. recently, a multiplex rt-pcr assay using the genomelab genetic analysis system (gexps) identified 10 vzv ...201323769859
latent simian varicella virus reactivates in monkeys treated with tacrolimus with or without exposure to irradiation.simian varicella virus (svv) infection of primates resembles human varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infection. after primary infection, svv becomes latent in ganglia and reactivates after immunosuppression or social and environmental stress. herein, natural svv infection was established in 5 cynomolgus macaques (cynos) and 10 african green (ag) monkeys. four cynos were treated with the immunosuppressant tacrolimus (80 to 300 μg/kg/day) for 4 months and 1 was untreated (group 1). four ag monke ...201020822371
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