a further insight into the sialome of the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum.ticks--vectors of medical and veterinary importance--are themselves also significant pests. tick salivary proteins are the result of adaptation to blood feeding and contain inhibitors of blood clotting, platelet aggregation, and angiogenesis, as well as vasodilators and immunomodulators. a previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome (from the greek sialo, saliva) of amblyomma variegatum is revisited in light of recent advances in tick sialomes and provides a database to perform a proteomic study ...201121362191
tick paralysis in australia caused by ixodes holocyclus neumann.ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of various animals, including humans, and are abundant in temperate and tropical zones around the world. they are the most important vectors for the pathogens causing disease in livestock and second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens causing human disease. ticks are formidable arachnids, capable of not only transmitting the pathogens involved in some infectious diseases but also of inducing allergies and causing toxicoses and paralysis, wit ...201121396246
experimental primary and secondary infections of domestic dogs with ehrlichia this study, the infection dynamics of ehrlichia ewingii, causative agent of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in dogs and humans, was examined in experimentally infected dogs by using a combination of physical examination, hematologic and biochemical analyses, and molecular and serologic assays. for the experimental trials, blood from an e. ewingii-infected dog was inoculated intravenously into two na+»ve dogs and two dogs with prior experimental exposure to e. ewingii (both were negative for e. ...201121397411
cold-stress response of engorged females of rhipicephalus sanguineus.we investigated the effect of prolonged exposure to low temperature on engorged females of rhipicephalus sanguineus. five groups of two females (f1-f5) were maintained at 8 ± 2°c, 70 ± 10% rh, and 24 h scotophase, for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days. one group was maintained in the incubator (26 ± 1°c, 70 ± 10% rh, and 24 h scotophase) as control. the results show that egg hatch rate, longevity and reproductive fitness of engorged females of r. sanguineus are negatively correlated with the duration o ...201121431929
tick-borne bacteria in mouflons and their ectoparasites in cyprus.the cypriot mouflon (ovis orientalis ophion), a once almost extirpated species of wild sheep, is under strict surveillance because it can be threatened by likely transmission of pathogenic bacteria, such as anaplasma spp., rickettsia spp., and coxiella burnetii, primarily from domestic ungulates. we collected 77 blood samples from cypriot mouflons and 663 of their ectoparasites (rhipicephalus turanicus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhipicephalus bursa, hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, hyalomma margin ...201121441182
aquaporin water channel agaqp1 in the malaria vector mosquito anopheles gambiae during blood feeding and humidity adaptation.altered patterns of malaria endemicity reflect, in part, changes in feeding behavior and climate adaptation of mosquito vectors. aquaporin (aqp) water channels are found throughout nature and confer high-capacity water flow through cell membranes. the genome of the major malaria vector mosquito anopheles gambiae contains at least seven putative aqp sequences. anticipating that transmembrane water movements are important during the life cycle of a. gambiae, we identified and characterized the a. ...201121444767
the hard-tick fauna of mainland portugal (acari: ixodidae): an update on geographical distribution and known associations with hosts and pathogens.this work is an updated revision of the available information on portuguese ixodid tick species. it includes data on tick biology, ecology, taxonomy and host/pathogen-associations. the current list of portuguese ixodid ticks comprises twenty species: dermacentor marginatus (sulzer, 1776), dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794), haemaphysalis hispanica gil collado, 1938, haemaphysalis inermis birula, 1895, haemaphysalis punctata canestrini & fanzago, 1878, hyalomma lusitanicum koch, 1844, hyal ...201121452063
risk factors for african tick-bite fever in rural central africa.african tick-bite fever is an emerging infectious disease caused by the spotted fever group rickettsia, rickettsia africae, and is transmitted by ticks of the genus amblyomma. to determine the seroprevalence of exposure to r. africae and risk factors associated with infection, we conducted a cross-sectional study of persons in seven rural villages in distinct ecological habitats of cameroon. we examined 903 plasma samples by using an indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibodies to r. africae ...201121460018
susceptibility of four tick species, amblyomma americanum, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes scapularis, and rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae), to nootkatone from essential oil of grapefruit.toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays against unfed nymphs of amblyomma americanum l., dermacentor variabilis (say), ixodes scapularis say, and rhipicephalus sanguineus latreille. we determined the 50% lethal concentration (lc50) and 90% lethal concentration (lc90) of nootkatone by recording tick mortality 24 h after exposure in treated glass vials. nymphs were susceptible to nootkatone with lc50 values of 0.352, 0.233, 0.169, and 0.197 microg/cm2, and lc90 values of 1.001, ...201121485368
rickettsia rickettsii in rhipicephalus ticks, mexicali, mexico.circulation of a unique genetic type of rickettsia rickettsii in ticks of the rhipicephalus sanguineus complex was detected in mexicali, baja california, mexico. the mexican r. rickettsii differed from all isolates previously characterized from the endemic regions of rocky mountain spotted fever in northern, central, and southern americas. rhipicephalus ticks in mexicali are genetically different from rh. sanguineus found in the united states.201121485383
the immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases.abstract: the canine vector-borne infectious diseases (cvbds) are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. the successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. although signific ...201121489234
one health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases.abstract: the international prominence accorded the 'one health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. modern one health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significan ...201121489237
babesiosis due to the canine babesia microti-like small piroplasm in dogs - first report from portugal and possible vertical transmission.abstract:201121489238
why is southern african canine babesiosis so virulent? an evolutionary perspective.abstract: canine babesiosis is a common, highly virulent disease in southern africa with even pups and juveniles being severely affected. this contrasts with bovine babesiosis, for example, where host, parasite and vector co-evolved and young animals develop immunity after infection without showing clinical signs. babesia rossi, the main causative organism of canine babesiosis in sub-saharan africa, was first described from a side-striped jackal (canis adustus) in kenya. although data are meagre ...201121489239
diagnosis of hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and pcr.abstract:201121489247
quantification of leishmania infantum dna in females, eggs and larvae of rhipicephalus sanguineus.:201121489252
tick-borne encephalitis virus in dogs - is this an issue?abstract: the last review on tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) in dogs was published almost ten years ago. since then, this zoonotic tick-borne arbovirus has been geographically spreading and emerging in many regions in eurasia and continues to do so. dogs become readily infected with tbe virus but they are accidental hosts not capable to further spread the virus. they seroconvert upon infection but they seem to be much more resistant to the clinical disease than humans. apart from their use as sent ...201121489255
cloning of the major outer membrane protein expression locus in anaplasma platys and seroreactivity of a species-specific antigen.anaplasma platys infects peripheral blood platelets and causes infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia in canines. the genes, proteins, and antigens of a. platys are largely unknown, and an antigen for serodiagnosis of a. platys has not yet been identified. in this study, we cloned the a. platys major outer membrane protein cluster, including the p44/msp2 expression locus (p44es/msp2es) and outer membrane protein (omp), using dna isolated from the blood of four naturally infected dogs from venezuela ...201121498646
temporal characterisation of the organ-specific rhipicephalusmicroplus transcriptional response to anaplasma marginale infection.arthropods transmit important infectious diseases of humans and animals. importantly, replication and the development of pathogen infectivity are tightly linked to vector feeding on the mammalian host; thus analysis of the transcriptomes of both vector and pathogen during feeding is fundamental to understanding transmission. using anaplasma marginale infection of rhipicephalusmicroplus as the experimental model, we tested three hypotheses exploring the temporal and organ-specific nature of the t ...201121514300
evidence of new pathogenic theileria species in dogs.babesiosis, caused by tick-borne haematozoan organisms of the genus babesia, is a parasitic disease of domestic and wild mammals. canine babesidae have historically been classified as "large babesia" (babesia canis) and "small babesia" (babesia gibsoni) based on the size of their intraerythrocytic forms. recent publications, however, suggest that the diversity of piroplasm species infecting dogs might be greater than previously appreciated. sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ssrrna gene ...201021526030
experimental infection of amblyomma aureolatum ticks with rickettsia rickettsii.we experimentally infected amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf). these ticks are a vector for rmsf in brazil. r. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. however, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to r. rickettsii infection. therefore, bec ...201121529391
rickettsia rickettsii transmission by a lone star tick, north carolina.only indirect or circumstantial evidence has been published to support transmission of rickettsia rickettsii by amblyomma americanum (lone star) ticks in north america. this study provides molecular evidence that a. americanum ticks can function, although most likely infrequently, as vectors of rocky mountain spotted fever for humans.201121529399
effect of water flooding on the oviposition capacity of engorged adult females and hatchability of eggs of dog ticks: rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi leachi.effects of water flooding on the oviposition capacity of engorged adult females and hatchability of eggs of rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi leachi under laboratory conditions were investigated. the durations of time of water flooding were 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. engorged females of r. sanguineus and h. leachi leachi did not oviposit after being flooded for more than 48 and 6 hours, respectively. the preoviposition periods of both species were longer than ...201121584237
mathematical modelling of the impact of climatic conditions in france on rhipicephalus sanguineus tick activity and density since 1960.rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, has a worldwide distribution in areas with a relatively warm climate, including mild winters. this tick plays an important role as vector for various animal and human pathogens, including bacteria and protozoa. based on precise daily meteorological data from the past 40 years, combined with mathematical modelling designed to predict tick activity, two modelling approaches were developed. the first examined the evolution of the number of weeks with fa ...201121590676
[tick-borne diseases in the republic of croatia].this study analyses occurence, trendline, occurence by months and geographical distribution of tick-transmitted diseases: lyme borreliosis, tick-borne meningoencephalitis (tbm) and mediterranean spotted fever in the republic of croatia in the period between 1999 and 2008. the vector for lyme borreliosis and tick-borne meningoencephalitis is ixodes ricinus, while mediterranean spotted fever is transmitted by the rhipicephalus sanguineus. lyme disease is endemic in entire continental croatia and c ...201121612103
rickettsia, ehrlichia, anaplasma, and bartonella in ticks and fleas from dogs and cats in bangkok.abstract flea and tick specimens (5-10 fleas or ticks) on dogs and cats from various sites in bangkok were tested by polymerase chain reaction and dna sequencing to detect dna of bacteria rickettsia (glta and 17 kda genes), anaplasmataceae (16s rrna gene), and bartonella (pap31 and its genes). we confirmed that rickettsia sp. related to rickettsia felis was detected in 66 of 98 (67.4%) flea specimens from dogs, whereas 8 bartonella henselae and 2 bartonella clarridgeiae were detected in 10 of 54 ...201121612535
perspectives on canine and feline hepatozoonosis.two species of hepatozoon are currently known to infect dogs and cause distinct diseases. hepatozoon canis prevalent in africa, asia, southern europe, south america and recently shown to be present also in the usa causes infection mainly of hemolymphoid organs, whereas hepatozoon americanum prevalent in the southeastern usa causes myositis and severe lameness. h. americanum is transmitted by ingestion of the gulf coast tick amblyomma maculatum and also by predation on infected prey. h. canis is ...201121620568
babesiosis in an egyptian boy aquired from pet dog, and a general review.human babesiosis has been documented in many countries. it is a zoonotic protozoan disease of medical, veterinary and economic importance. in this study, a twelve years old boy was referred to the hospital with intermittent fever of unknown origin. on clinical, parasitological and serological bases the case proved to be babesiosis. the boy acquired the infection from his pet dog which was heavily infested with rhipicephalus sanguineus and suffered a mild feature of animal babesiosis. the patient ...201121634246
species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (acari: ixodoidea: ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in qazvin province, iran.this report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in qazvin province of iran. the primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. a total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. total direct body collections of ticks were ...201121805220
efficacy of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene for treatment and control of tick species infesting dogs in europe.four studies were conducted to show the effectiveness of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene in a spot-on formulation (certifect™, merial limited, ga, usa) for the therapeutic and preventive control of ixodid tick species affecting dogs in europe: ixodes ricinus, dermacentor reticulatus and rhipicephalus sanguineus. in each, untreated control dogs were compared to others treated with the novel combination. all dogs were infested with 50 adult, unfed ticks prior to treatme ...201121777735
efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene for treatment and control of induced infestations of brown dog ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs.four laboratory studies were conducted to demonstrate that a single topical dose of a novel spot-on combination containing fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene (certifect™, merial limited, ga, usa) is efficacious against the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. in each study, 6-8 male and 6-8 female purpose-bred, laboratory mongrels, terrier cross or beagles were randomly assigned to one of two study groups (treated and untreated), based on pre-treatment parasite counts. starting on the day ...201121777733
the prevention of attachment and the detachment effects of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene for rhipicephalus sanguineus and dermacentor variabilis on dogs.a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene (certifect™, merial limited, ga, usa) was evaluated for the prevention of attachment of ticks and its ability to cause detachment of ticks. for the two prevention of attachment studies, 20 purpose-bred beagles were allocated each to two equal groups based on pretreatment tick counts (treated and untreated). each dog was exposed to 50 adult rhipicephalus sanguineus and dermacentor variabilis weekly starting 24h after treatment. in study ...201121777732
the combined mode of action of fipronil and amitraz on the motility of rhipicephalus sanguineus.the motility of adult rhipicephalus sanguineus was evaluated subsequent to treatments of amitraz, fipronil and the combination of fipronil plus amitraz against a vehicle control in a petri dish assay using the lemnatec scanalyzer imaging system. the assay was run using a fixed dilution of amitraz (0.32µg/cm(2)); serial dilutions of fipronil (1.3, 0.33, 0.08, 0.02, or 0.005µg/cm(2)); and the same serial dilutions of fipronil in combination with the fixed dilution of amitraz. measurement of motili ...201121777731
acariasis on pet burmese python, python molurus bivittatus in identify the acari present on pet burmese pythons in malaysia and to determine whether there is any potential public health risk related to handling of the snakes.201121771459
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever: a molecular survey on hard ticks (ixodidae) in yazd province, determine the rate of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) infection in hard ticks (ixodidae) in yazd province of iran.201121771418
a survey of canine tick-borne diseases in india.abstract: background: there are few published reports on canine babesia, ehrlichia, anaplasma, hepatozoon and haemotropic mycoplasma infections in india and most describe clinical disease in individual dogs, diagnosed by morphological observation of the microorganisms in stained blood smears. this study investigated the occurrence and distribution of canine tick-borne disease (tbd) pathogens using a combination of conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in four cities in india. results: ...201121771313
hepatozoon canis infection in ticks during spring and summer in italy.hepatozoon canis is a common protozoan of dogs, being among the most prevalent tick-borne pathogens infecting dogs around the world. it is primarily transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick. in this study we tested ticks collected from dogs and from the environment in order to track the origin of an outbreak of h. canis infection detected in october 2009 in a private dog shelter in southern italy. ticks from dogs (n?=?267) were collected during the spring of 2009, whereas tick ...201121769649
israeli spotted fever, the editor: mediterranean spotted fever (msf) caused by rickettsia conorii was the first rickettsiosis described in tunisia. r. conorii was thought to be the only species existing in this country. however, authors reported other rickettsioses either from spotted fever group or typhus group (1,2). in sfax, a town in southern tunisia, physicians noted patients with severe forms of msf and suspected the presence of other species or a virulent r. conorii strain. we report 2 cases of israeli spott ...201121762610
diagnosis of imported canine filarial infections in germany 2008 - 2010.filarial infections of dogs are attracting attention across europe because of the risk of spread into previously non-endemic areas (e.g. dirofilaria repens with culicidae as vectors) and as emerging zoonotic agents. the occurrence of filarial infections in german dogs has been analysed based on 8,545 samples collected either from imported animals or following travel into endemic regions. all samples were tested by means of modified knott's test and heartworm antigen assay within the period 2008 ...201121739376
tick infestation and spotted-fever group rickettsia in shelter dogs, california, response to an outbreak of rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) in baja california in early 2009, dogs at two shelters in neighbouring imperial county, california, were evaluated for ectoparasites. brown dog ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus), a recognized vector for rmsf, were found on 35 (30%) of 116 dogs but all ticks tested negative for rickettsia rickettsii by pcr.201121824367
infection by spotted fever rickettsiae in people, dogs, horses and ticks in londrina, parana state, brazil.spotted fever is a disease caused by bacteria from the genus rickettsia of the spotted fever group (sfg). rickettsia rickettsii is likely the main agent of brazilian spotted fever (bsf). with the objective of gathering information on the circulation of sfg rickettsiae in londrina, parana state, ticks from dogs and horses and also blood from dogs, horses and humans were collected in a neighbourhood of the city which presented potential for circulation of rickettsiae between hosts and vectors. amb ...201121824336
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks in two surveys conducted from march 1999 to march 2001 and from january 2004 to december 2006, a total of 3,950 ticks (belonging to ten different species) were collected from seven domestic and wild animals (goat, sheep, cattle, dog, fox, hare, and mouflon) from different localities throughout cyprus. in order to establish their infection rate with spotted fever rickettsiae (sfg), ticks were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting glta and ompa genes, followed by sequencing anal ...201121833539
rhipicephalus sanguineus (ixodida, ixodidae) as intermediate host of a canine neglected filarial species with dermal microfilariae.the life cycles of filarioids of dogs presenting dermal microfilariae have been little studied. following the recent retrieval of dermal microfilariae identified as cercopithifilaria sp. in a dog from sicily (italy), this study was designed to assess the role of the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus as an intermediate host of this filarial species. an experimental tick infestation was performed on an infected dog using 300 nymphs of r. sanguineus. engorged nymphs were collected and examine ...201121831524
detection of new francisella-like tick endosymbionts in hyalomma spp. and rhipicephalus spp. (acari: ixodidae) from bulgaria.we report on the identification of two new francisella-like endosymbionts (fles) found in three different tick species from bulgaria. the fles were characterized by 16s rrna and tul4 gene sequencing and seem to lack the molecular marker rd1. these two new taxa seem to be facultative secondary endosymbionts of ticks.201121705542
mechanisms of obligatory intracellular infection with anaplasma phagocytophilum.anaplasma phagocytophilum persists in nature by cycling between mammals and ticks. human infection by the bite of an infected tick leads to a potentially fatal emerging disease called human granulocytic anaplasmosis. a. phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that replicates inside mammalian granulocytes and the salivary gland and midgut cells of ticks. a. phagocytophilum evolved the remarkable ability to hijack the regulatory system of host cells. a. phagocytophilum alters vesi ...201121734244
permethrin-induced ultrastructural changes in oocytes of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged females.currently, the most effective method for tick control is by the use of chemical acaricides such as permethrin (active ingredient of the advantage(-«) max3 acaricide, bayer), a pyrethroid with neurotoxic action. however, data about its effect on other tick systems, such as glandular and reproductive, are still scarce. this study provides ultrastructural details of the toxic effects induced in oocytes of semi-engorged rhipicephalus sanguineus females exposed to 206, 1031, and 2062 ppm of permethri ...201021771518
coinfections of rickettsia slovaca and rickettsia helvetica with borrelia lusitaniae in ticks collected in a safari park, portugal.borrelia and rickettsia bacteria are the most important tick-borne agents causing disease in portugal. identification and characterization of these circulating agents, mainly in recreational areas, is crucial for the development of preventive measures in response to the gradually increasing exposure of humans to tick vectors. a total of 677 questing ticks including dermacentor marginatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, ixodes ricinus, hyalomma lusitanicum, h. marginatum, and haemaphysalis punctata we ...201021771525
bartonella and rickettsia in arthropods from the lao pdr and from borneo, malaysia.rickettsioses and bartonelloses are arthropod-borne diseases of mammals with widespread geographical distributions. yet their occurrence in specific regions, their association with different vectors and hosts and the infection rate of arthropod-vectors with these agents remain poorly studied in south-east asia. we conducted entomological field surveys in the lao pdr (laos) and borneo, malaysia by surveying fleas, ticks, and lice from domestic dogs and collected additional samples from domestic c ...201122153360
Mediterranean spotted fever and encephalitis: a case report and review of the literature.Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is a disease caused by Rickettsia conorii and transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It is widely distributed through southern Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. It is an emerging or a reemerging disease in some regions. Countries of the Mediterranean basin, such as Portugal, have noticed an increased incidence of MSF over the past 10 years. It was believed that MSF was a benign disease associated with a mortality rate of 1-3% before the a ...201121879306
Ultrastructural changes in the ovary cells of engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks treated with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis).Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a widely distributed tick species that has adapted to the urban environment, and the dog is its main host. This species is also known as a vector and reservoir of diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Currently, acaricides of synthetic chemical origin have been widely and indiscriminately used, leading to the development of resistance to these products by ticks and causing damage to the environment. Thus, these issues have made it necessary to seek other ...201122131265
The effects of flumethrin (Bayticol® pour-on) on European ticks exposed to treated hairs of cattle and sheep.Tick infestations in cattle and sheep pose serious health problems when agents of diseases are transmitted. In addition, blood feeding of ticks induces enormous economic losses due to reduced weight gain of infested animals. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to hairs clipped from cattle and sheep treated with flumethrin (Bayticol®) on European ticks. The dose used was 10 ml/100 kg body weight for both animal species. At intervals of 7 days (days 7, 14, 21, 28 ...201122205348
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in israel.we report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in israel. rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in hyalomma marginatum and hyalomma detritum while rickettsia massiliae was present in rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. furthermore, a novel uncultured sfgr was detected in haemaphysalis adleri and haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. the pathogenicity of the novel sfgr for humans is unk ...201122049050
Molecular detection of rickettsial agents in ticks and fleas collected from a European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in Marseilles, France.The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is a synanthropic nocturnal insectivore commonly found in the countryside and in the parks and gardens. Because hedgehogs are already involved in the transmission of a number of zoonoses, including salmonellosis and ringworm, we decided to study their possible role in the epidemiology of the spotted fever group of Rickettsia. We collected ticks and fleas from a hedgehog that was captured in the city of Marseilles in France. Using a genus-specific quant ...201122169021
ticks collected from selected mammalian hosts surveyed in the republic of korea during 2008-2009.a tick survey was conducted to determine the relative abundance and distribution of ticks associated with selected mammals in the republic of korea (rok) during 2008-2009. a total of 918 ticks were collected from 76 mammals (6 families, 9 species) captured at 6 provinces and 3 metropolitan cities in rok. haemaphysalis longicornis (54.4%) was the most frequently collected tick, followed by haemaphysalis flava (28.5%), ixodes nipponensis (7.6%), ixodes pomerantzevi (4.8%), ixodes persulcatus (4.6% ...201122072840
An unusual case of fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in pregnancy.Rickettsial diseases are common in Srilanka. The spotted fever group of rickettsiae presents in many ways, including very severe disease causing significant morbidity and mortality. A regional variation of the Rickettsia conorii subspecies and differences in clinical presentations are reported. This case describes disseminated Rickettsia conorii infection in a pregnant woman presenting with endocarditis.201121886958
expression of heat shock and other stress response proteins in ticks and cultured tick cells in response to anaplasma spp. infection and heat shock.ticks are ectoparasites of animals and humans that serve as vectors of anaplasma and other pathogens that affect humans and animals worldwide. ticks and the pathogens that they transmit have coevolved molecular interactions involving genetic traits of both the tick and the pathogen that mediate their development and survival. in this paper, the expression of heat shock proteins (hsps) and other stress response proteins (srps) was characterized in ticks and cultured tick cells by proteomics and t ...201022084679
q fever: current state of knowledge and perspectives of research of a neglected zoonosis.q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, coxiella burnetii. in certain areas, q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. nevertheless, knowledge of coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. its resistant (intracellular and environmental) and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. ...201122194752
ultrastructural analysis of the oocytes of female rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) ticks subjected to the action of azadirachta indica a. juss (neem).the present study provides ultrastructural information about the acaricidal effects of neem (azadirachta indica a. juss) on the ovaries of r. sanguineus engorged females. in general, the main damage caused in the oocytes was alteration in the shape of the cell and of the germinal vesicle, ring-shaped nucleolus, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and disorganization of the organelles and of the cell membranes (including the chorion), all of which indicate that these cells could be in the process of death. ...201121981820
distribution of rickettsia rickettsii in ovary cells of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille1806) (acari: ixodidae).abstract:201122117572
rnai screen reveals host cell kinases specifically involved in listeria monocytogenes spread from cell to cell.intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as listeria monocytogenes and rickettsia conorii display actin-based motility in the cytosol of infected cells and spread from cell to cell through the formation of membrane protrusions at the cell cortex. whereas the mechanisms supporting cytosolic actin-based motility are fairly well understood, it is unclear whether specific host factors may be required for supporting the formation and resolution of membrane protrusions. to address this gap in knowledge ...201121853127
effects of aggregation on the reproductive biology of rhipicephalus sanguineus females.the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus is one of the most important tick species in both veterinary and human medicine. studies on the biology of this tick are pivotal in order to develop improved control strategies. the brown dog tick is a gregarious species, tending to form large clusters in highly infested environments. this is the case of engorged females of r. sanguineus that often tend to aggregate in the environment. in the present study, we assessed whether aggregation affects r. sa ...201121909821
molecular and serological detection of ehrlichia canis and babesia vogeli in dogs in colombia.ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases, caused mainly by ehrlichia canis and babesia canis, respectively, with a worldwide occurrence in dogs, whose main vector is the brown-dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. the present work aimed to detect the presence of e. canis and babesia sp. in 91 dog blood samples in colombia, by molecular and serological techniques. we also performed sequence alignment to indicate the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. the present wo ...201122130333
tick cell lines for study of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.abstract continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. a preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cc ...201121955214
acaricidal activity of hydroethanolic formulations of thymol against rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) and dermacentor nitens (acari: ixodidae) larvae.the aim of this study was to assess the acaricidal activity of hydroethanolic formulations of thymol at varying concentrations on rhipicephalus sanguineus and dermacentor nitens larvae. the larval packet test was used and the thymol concentrations tested were 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg/ml. the control group was exposed only to water and ethanol (50/50%) and there were 10 repetitions for each treatment. the mortality was evaluated after 24h. for the r. sanguineus larvae, the mortality rates ...201122137349
experimental infection by capillary tube feeding of rhipicephalus sanguineus with bartonella vinsonii subspecies has been speculated that ticks may serve as vectors of bartonella species. circumstantial, clinical, epidemiological and serological evidence suggest that b. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii (b. v. berkhoffii) might be transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus. the purpose of the present study was to determine whether adult r. sanguineus ticks can be infected with a b. v. berkhoffii genotype ii isolate via capillary tube feeding and whether the infection can then be transmitted from adult females ...201122062313
bartonellae in animals and vectors in new caledonia.bartonellae are gram-negative facultative intracellular alpha-proteobacteria from the family bartonellaceae. the natural history of bartonellae consists of a reservoir/host, which is a vertebrate with chronic intravascular infection with sustained bacteremia, and a vector (usually an arthropod) that transfers the bacteria from the reservoir to a susceptible yet uninfected host. in order to reveal the sources and reservoirs of bartonella infection in animals and vectors in new caledonia, we colle ...201122018646
first molecular detection of theileria ovis in rhipicephalus sanguineus tick in determine tick infestation of domestic ruminants and their infection to ovine theileriosis in northern iran.201222182639
Hard ticks (Ixodidae) in Romania: surveillance, host associations, and possible risks for tick-borne diseases.Ticks and tick-borne diseases represent a great concern worldwide. Despite this, in Romania the studies regarding this subject has just started, and the interest of medical personnel, researchers, and citizens is increasing. Because the geographical range of many tick-borne diseases started to extend as consequences of different biological and environmental factors, it is important to study the diversity of ticks species, especially correlated with host associations. A total number of 840 ticks ...201122033737
identification of rickettsia felis in fleas but not ticks on stray cats and dogs and the evidence of rickettsia rhipicephali only in adult stage of rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides.rickettsia spp. are zoonotic pathogens and mainly transmitted by various arthropod vectors, such as fleas, ticks, and lice. previous epidemiological studies indicated that ectoparasites infested on dogs or cats may be infected by rickettsia spp., and transmit them to human beings accidentally. in this study, the prevalence of rickettsia infection was evaluated using fleas and ticks from stray dogs and cats in taiwan. a total of 158 pools made by 451 cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) from 37 dogs ...201122000945
starvation and overwinter do not affect the reproductive fitness of rhipicephalus sanguineus.rhipicephalus sanguineus is the most widespread tick in the world, being able to survive under different climate conditions. in this study, the longevity of r. sanguineus was investigated under laboratory and natural climate conditions in southern italy. moreover, the reproductive fitness of females after overwintering was assessed. in the environment, unfed larvae, nymphs and adults were able to survive for up to 34, 40 and 385 days, respectively. however, the longevity of larvae (44 days), nym ...201122075042
evaluation of glycoproteins purified from adult and larval camel ticks (hyalomma dromedarii) as a candidate order to identify antigens that can help prevent camel tick infestations, three major glycoproteins (glps) about 97, 66 and 40 kda in size were purified from adult and larval egyptian ticks, hyalomma (h.) dromedarii, using a single-step purification method with con-a sepharose. the purified glps were evaluated as vaccines against camel tick infestation in rabbits. the rabbits received three intramuscular inoculations of glps (20 µg/animal) on days 0, 14, and 28. in the immunoblot analysis, se ...201121897098
Seroprevalence and risk factors to Ehrlichia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil.Sera of 320 dogs from urban and rural areas of a Pantanal region of Brazil were evaluated for rickettsial (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. rhipicephali, R. felis, and R. bellii) and ehrlichial (Ehrlichia canis) infection by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Risk factors for ehrlichiosis or rickettsiosis were also evaluated. Positive reaction against Ehrlichia spp. was detected in 227 (70.9%) dogs, 119 (74.3%) from an urban area and 108 (67.5%) from rural areas (P>0.05). Fo ...201122108015
Inhibitory action of neem aqueous extract (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.The present study revealed unheard of data about the action of aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, proving that these extracts in 10 and 20% concentrations do not have the potential to kill the females; however, in lower concentrations (10%) provokes great morphological alterations in germinative cells such as the emergence of extended cytoplasmic vacuolization areas as well as the fragmentation of the germinal vesicle, ev ...201121936022
domestic dogs (canis familiaris) as reservoir hosts for rickettsia conorii.abstract rickettsia conorii is the causative agent of mediterranean spotted fever (msf) and israeli spotted fever (isf) transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. in areas where msf or isf are prevalent, dogs have high prevalence of r. conorii -neutralizing antibodies. however, the true role of dogs in the persistence of the r. conorii transmission cycle is unknown, and their reservoir competence for this pathogen has remained untested. we assessed the ability of dogs infected ...201121923270
First transcriptome of the testis-vas deferens-male accessory gland and proteome of the spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a ne ...201121949745
Infection prevalences of common tick-borne pathogens in adult lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky.Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007-2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Ricke ...201121976578
exotic diseases of dogs and cats at risk of importation to ireland.: changes in legislation that facilitate movement of companion animals within the european union will expose those animals to microbial and parasitic organisms currently exotic to ireland. this paper reviewed information on the exotic diseases most likely to be introduced to ireland by travelling dogs and cats: rabies, leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and dirofilariosis.200521851670
monocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs.ehrlichiosis is the multiorgan infectious disease caused by small, intracellular rickettsias from the genus ehrlichia. these microorganisms are known as an etiologic factor of infections world wide in humans and in different species of animals. dog ehrlichiosis can be caused by several species of ehrlichia attacking different groups of blood cells, but most often an infection by ehrlichia canis is diagnosed with special relation to monocytes. a vector for e. canis are rhipicephalus sanguineus an ...201121957751
rickettsiae in arthropods collected from the north african hedgehog (atelerix algirus) and the desert hedgehog (paraechinus aethiopicus) in algeria.hedgehogs have become a popular pet despite their potential role in zoonotic disease transmission. we conducted an entomological study in a mountainous region of northeast algeria in which we collected 387 fleas (archeopsylla erinacei) and 342 ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis erinacei) from paraechinus aethiopicus and atelerix algirus hedgehogs. of the hedgehogs sampled, 77.7% and 91% were infested with fleas and ticks, respectively. significantly more ticks and fleas were colle ...201222222114
molecular detection of bartonella species in ticks from peru.a total of 103 ticks, collected from canines, horses, donkeys, and snakes from peru, were screened for the presence of bartonella dna by polymerase chain reaction analysis. bartonella dna was detected in two ticks using bartonella 16s-23s intergenic spacer region primers and in an additional two ticks using bartonella nadh dehydrogenase gamma subunit gene (nuog) primers. bartonella rochalimae eremeeva et al., b. quintana schmincke, and b. elizabethae daly et al. dna was detected in a rhipicephal ...201122238888
evolution, expansion and expression of the kunitz/bpti gene family associated with long-term blood feeding in ixodes scapularis.abstract: background: recent studies of the tick saliva transcriptome have revealed the profound role of salivary proteins in blood feeding. kunitz/bpti proteins are abundant in the salivary glands of ticks and perform multiple functions in blood feeding, such as inhibiting blood coagulation, regulating host blood supply and disrupting host angiogenesis. however, kunitz/bpti proteins in soft and hard ticks have different functions and molecular mechanisms. how these differences emerged and whet ...201222244187
a novel tick antigen shows high vaccine efficacy against the dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus.ticks are acaridae ectoparasites that, while taking a blood meal, can transmit viruses, bacteria, protozoa and filarial nematodes, which cause a variety of human and animal illnesses. the use of chemical pesticides constitutes the primary measure for control of these ectoparasites. however, the intensive use of these chemicals has drawbacks such as the contamination of food, environmental pollution and development of resistance by ectoparasites. vaccination is considered a promising alternative ...201222245603
on a cercopithifilaria sp. transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus: a neglected, but widespread filarioid of dogs.abstract:201222212459
spotted fever group rickettsia infecting ticks (acari: ixodidae) in the state of santa catarina, brazil.during 2006-2008, a total of 260 adult ticks were collected from domestic and wild animals in different regions of the state of santa catarina (sc), brazil, including areas where human cases of brazilian spotted fever have been reported. collected ticks belonging to nine species (amblyomma aureolatum, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma dubitatum, amblyomma longirostre, amblyomma ovale, amblyomma tigrinum, dermacentor nitens, rhipicephalus microplus and rhipicephalus sanguineus) were tested by polym ...201122241112
an assessment of genetic variability in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of cercopithifilaria sp. (spirurida, onchocercidae) from dog and rhipicephalus sanguineus populations.this study investigates sequence variation in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene within cercopithifilaria sp. recorded recently in italy. fourteen sequence types (haplotypes) were characterized for 163 (7.7%) amplicons from 2111 genomic dna samples prepared from skin samples from dogs and from rhipicephalus sanguineus (ticks) from different geographical areas of the mediterranean basin (i.e., italy, spain and greece). the most prevalent sequence types represented haplotypes i (70. ...201122227114
a survey on endoparasites and ectoparasites of stray cats from mashhad (iran) and association with risk there appeared to be no data available on parasite infection of stray cats in the region and considering the potential threat of stray cats for animal and public health, the present study was carried out using biological samples and necropsy finding collected from cats captured in mashhad city in the northeast of iran. from a total 52 stray cats examined, 18 (34.6%) were male and 34 (65.4%) were female. ten species of endoparasites including helminthes and protozoa and two species of ectopara ...201123024505
pcr-detection of coxiella burnetii in ticks collected from sheep and goats in southeast iran.there is a little data on coxiella burnetii (q fever agent) in iran. ticks may play a significant role in the transmission of c. burnetii among animals. the aim of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction for the detection of c. burnetii in ticks collected in southeast iran.201122808404
para-clinico-pathological observations of insidious incidence of canine hepatozoonosis from a mongrel dog: a case report.a rare case of canine hepatozoonosis in a mongrel dog with para-clinico-pathological observations has been reported. the study included detailed haemato-biochemical changes at two stages, i.e. before treatment and after treatment with adopted therapy. before therapy, blood picture revealed normocytic hypochromic anaemia and neutrophilic leucocytosis with variable counts of platelets. thirty-seven percent of neutrophils were found infected with gametocytes of hepatozoon canis. following treatment ...201223543040
ticks of poland. review of contemporary issues and latest research.the paper presents current knowledge of ticks occurring in poland, their medical importance, and a review of recent studies implemented in the polish research centres on ticks and their significance in the epidemiology of transmissible diseases. in the polish fauna there are 19 species of ticks (ixodida) recognized as existing permanently in our country: argas reflexus, argas polonicus, carios vespertilionis, ixodes trianguliceps, ixodes arboricola, ixodes crenulatus, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes li ...201223444797
ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central oromia, ethiopia.a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central oromia, ethiopia, from october 2009 to april 2010. the study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. the ectoparasites identified were bovicola ovis (27.2%), melophagus ovinus (16.4%), ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), linognathus africanus (1.2%), linognathus ovillus (0.3%), sarcop ...201223327319
a preliminary parasitological survey of hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in mashhad, iran.we attempted to determine the prevalence of hepatozoon spp. infection in mashhad, northeast of iran, via blood smear parasitology.201223323098
confirmation of the efficacy of a novel fipronil spot-on for the treatment and control of fleas, ticks and chewing lice on dogs.a novel spot-on formulation containing fipronil (eliminall(®)/exproline vet™) spot-on solution for dogs, pfizer animal health, registered and manufactured by krka, d.d, novo mesto) was evaluated in three laboratory studies to confirm efficacy against fleas, ticks and chewing lice on dogs for at least one month. control of two laboratory strains of cat flea (ctenocephalides felis), two tick species (rhipicephalus sanguineus and dermacentor reticulatus) and the chewing louse (trichodectes canis) w ...201223290278
zoonotic pathogens associated with hyalomma aegyptium in endangered tortoises: evidence for host-switching behaviour in ticks?hyalomma aegyptium is a hard-tick with a typical three-host life cycle. the main hosts are palearctic tortoises of genus testudo. however, other hosts can be used by immature ticks for feeding in natural conditions. given this complex ecology and multiple host use, the circulation of pathogens by h. aegyptium between various hosts can be important from epidemiological point of view. the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of h. aegyptium as natural carrier of four important zoonotic patho ...201223273169
sizes and developmental viability of sequentially oviposited eggs of dog ticks: rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi leachi.sizes and developmental viability of sequentially oviposited eggs of up to 12th day oviposition by dog ticks rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi leachi were studied. the mean length and breadth of eggs oviposited on days 1 and 2 were greater (0.45 +/- 0.111 and 0.44 +/- 0.042) than those of subsequent ovipositions. the eclosion periods of eggs laid from 7th to 12th day of oviposition were progressively shorter (17, 16, 14 and 19, 17, 0 days) than those of eggs laid on days 1 and 2 ...201223678637
first survey of hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle, sheep and goats in boeen zahra and takistan counties, carry out the distribution survey of hard ticks of livestock in boeen zahra and takistan counties of qazvin province from april 2010 to september 2010.201223569956
feeding effects of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae), on protein consumption and blood loss of their blood loss by rhipicephalus sanguineus feedings (weight/tick) ranged from 0.0179 to 0.2469 mg (0.21686 +/- 0.26785) and from 0.00103 to 0.00159 gm (0.001274 +/- 0.000204) respectively for each female and male if fed once. results obtained herein indicated that if each sheep and or goat in production in egypt is infested with only one pair of r. sanguines, the blood loss would reach 1084.3 kg and 867.4 kg, respectively for the population of sheep and goats. accordingly, there was a great los ...201223469645
serodetection of ehrlichia canis infection in dogs from ludhiana district of punjab, (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) immunocomb(®) assay was conducted to detect the presence of antibodies against ehrlichia canis in blood samples of 60 privately owned dogs suspected to be infected with e. canis from the small animal clinics, college of veterinary science, guru angad dev veterinary and animal sciences university, ludhiana, punjab (india). antibodies reactive to e. canis were detected in plasma in 48 samples out of 60 samples by immunocomb(®) dot-elisa. out of these 3 ...201123024503
a case of histologically diagnosed tick infestation on the scalp of a korean child.a scalp mass surgically excised from a 4-year-old korean boy was identified as a tick through histological observations. in sections of the mass, characteristic features of a tick, including its gross contour, cuticular structures, well developed musculature and salivary glands, and the capitulum, were discovered. in particular, the capitulum is anteriorly protruded, which strongly suggests that the specimen be a hard tick of family ixodidae. however, the present histological features were not e ...200616809965
larval keys to the genera of ixodidae (acari) and species of ixodes (latreille) ticks established in california, hard (ixodidae) ticks transmit at least 8 zoonotic disease agents (1 virus, 6 bacteria, 1 protozoan) to humans or other animals. the correct taxonomic identification of all 3 parasitic stages (larvae, nymphs, adults) of ticks is integral to understanding host-tick associations and disease dynamics, but immature ticks, especially the larvae, can be difficult to identify. here, we present larval keys to the 4 genera of ixodidae (dermacentorkoch, 1844; haemaphysaliskoch, 1844; ixodes ...200820027236
babesia and its hosts: adaptation to long-lasting interactions as a way to achieve efficient transmission.babesia, the causal agent of babesiosis, are tick-borne apicomplexan protozoa. true babesiae (babesia genus sensu stricto) are biologically characterized by direct development in erythrocytes and by transovarial transmission in the tick. a large number of true babesia species have been described in various vertebrate and tick hosts. this review presents the genus then discusses specific adaptations of babesia spp. to their hosts to achieve efficient transmission. the main adaptations lead to lon ...200919379662
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