transovarial passage of leishmania infantum kdna in artificially infected rhipicephalus sanguineus.phlebotomine sand flies are the only proven biological vectors of leishmania parasites. however, rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks have long been suspected to transmit leishmania infantum in studies carried out in laboratory and natural conditions. in the present study, 5 microl of l. infantum promastigotes (1x10(6) cells per ml) was injected into the hemocel through the coxa i of four engorged females (f1, f2, f3 and f4). control ticks (f5 and f6) were injected with sterile phosphate-buffered sali ...201020138871
canine and feline vector-borne diseases in italy: current situation and italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, dipylidium caninum, leishmania infantum, dirofilaria immitis, and dirofilaria repens) are of zoonotic concern. recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors ...201020145730
biogeography of tick-borne bhanja virus (bunyaviridae) in europe.bhanja virus (bhav) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. this generally neglected arbovirus of the family bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera haemaphysalis, dermacentor, hyalomma, rhipicephalus, boophilus, and amblyomma. geographic distribution of bhav covers southern and central asia, africa, and southern (partially also central) europe. comparative biogeographic study of eight know ...201020182535
efficacy of the fipronil 10%+(s)-methoprene 9% combination against rhipicephalus sanguineus in naturally infested dogs: speed of kill, persistent efficacy on immature and adult stages and effect of water.this field trial was designed to test the efficacy, in terms of treatment and prevention, of the fipronil 10%+(s)-methoprene 9% combination against immature and adult stages of rhipicephalus sanguineus in naturally infested dogs, and to assess the effect of a single plain water exposure. twenty-four dogs of various age, sex, weight and coat length were divided into two homogeneous groups, treated (t) and control (c), and housed into twin outdoor kennels. trial baseline was designed as day 0, whe ...201020185241
detection of "candidatus rickettsia sp. strain argentina"and rickettsia bellii in amblyomma ticks (acari: ixodidae) from northern argentina.ixodid ticks were collected from vegetation and from humans, wild and domestic mammals in a rural area in the semi-arid argentine chaco in late spring 2006 to evaluate their potential role as vectors of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae. a total of 233 adult ticks, identified as amblyomma parvum, amblyomma tigrinum and amblyomma pseudoconcolor, was examined for rickettsia spp. we identified an sfg rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, "candidatus rickettsia sp. strain argentina", in a. parvum ...201020186466
potential for tick-borne worldwide vectors of human infectious diseases, ticks are considered to be second only to mosquitoes. each tick species has preferred environmental conditions and biotopes that determine its geographic distribution, the pathogens it vectors, and the areas that pose risk for tick-borne diseases. researchers have identified an increasing number of bacterial pathogens that are transmitted by ticks, including anaplasma, borrelia, ehrlichia, and rickettsia spp. recent reports involving humans and ...201020202411
borrelia, ehrlichia, and rickettsia spp. in ticks removed from persons, texas, regarding the type, frequency, and distribution of tick-borne pathogens and bacterial agents are not widely available for many tick species that parasitize persons in the southern united states. we therefore analyzed the frequency and identity of pathogens and bacterial agents in ticks removed from humans and subsequently submitted to the texas department of state health services, zoonosis control program, from october 1, 2004, through september 30, 2008. the data showed associations of bac ...201020202419
the increasing recognition of rickettsial pathogens in dogs and people.dogs and people are exposed to and susceptible to infection by many of the same tick-borne bacterial pathogens in the order rickettsiales, including anaplasma phagocytophilum, ehrlichia canis, e. chaffeensis, e. ewingii, rickettsia rickettsii, r. conorii, and other spotted fever group rickettsiae. recent findings include descriptions of novel ehrlichia and rickettsia species, recognition of the occurrence and clinical significance of co-infection, and increasing awareness of rhipicephalus sangui ...201020207197
prevalence and seasonality of tick-borne pathogens in questing ixodes ricinus ticks from europe, ixodid ticks are important arthropod vectors of human and animal pathogens, but comprehensive studies of the prevalence of all relevant pathogens in central europe are scarce. as a result of ecological changes, the incidences of tick-borne infections are expected to increase. in this study, 1,394 nymphal and adult ixodes ricinus ticks sampled monthly during the active season from 33 ecologically distinct collection sites throughout luxembourg were screened for all human tick-borne pat ...201020228110
the white rat and guinea pig as hosts for the larvae of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. 194720271946
association of pathogen strain-specific gene transcription and transmission efficiency phenotype of anaplasma marginale.efficient transmission of pathogens by an arthropod vector is influenced by the ability of the pathogen to replicate and develop infectiousness within the arthropod host. while the basic life cycle of development within and transmission from the arthropod vector are known for many bacterial and protozoan pathogens, the determinants of transmission efficiency are largely unknown and represent a significant gap in our knowledge. the st. maries strain of anaplasma marginale is a high-transmission-e ...201020308303
molecular detection of rickettsia massiliae, rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae and rickettsia conorii israelensis in ticks from israel.rickettsioses are recognized as important emerging vector-borne infections of humans worldwide. previous reports documented the presence of two spotted fever group rickettsiae in israel, rickettsia conorii israelensis and rickettsia felis. the aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of rickettsiae in ticks collected from vegetation and the ground, from different parts of israel. non-engorged questing adult ticks were collected from 13 localities. a total of 131 tick pools, 83 of rhip ...201120331680
epidemiology of spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsial infection in the amazon basin of peru.a seroprevalence study for igg antibodies against spotted fever group (sfgr) and typhus group (tgr) rickettsia among humans and domestic pets was conducted in the city of iquitos, located in the amazon basin of peru. of 1,195 human sera analyzed, 521 (43.6%) and 123 (10.3%) were positive for sfgr and tgr antibodies, respectively. district of residence and participant age were associated with antibody positivity for both groups, whereas rodent sightings in the home were associated with tgr antibo ...201020348519
novel technique for quantifying adhesion of metarhizium anisopliae conidia to the tick cuticle.the present study describes an accurate quantitative method for quantifying the adherence of conidia to the arthropod cuticle and the dynamics of conidial germination on the host. the method was developed using conidia of metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (metschn.) sorokin (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and engorged rhipicephalus annulatus (say) (arachnida: ixodidae) females and was also verified for m. anisopliae var. acridum driver et milner (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and alphitobius ...201020363785
biology and ecology of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus.abstract: the brown dog tick (rhipicephalus sanguineus) is the most widespread tick in the world and a well-recognized vector of many pathogens affecting dogs and occasionally humans. this tick can be found on dogs living in both urban and rural areas, being highly adapted to live within human dwellings and being active throughout the year not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also in some temperate areas. depending on factors such as climate and host availability, rh. sanguineus can ...201020377860
canine babesiosis in northern portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections.abstract:201020377861
canine vector-borne diseases in india: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps.abstract: despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in india is limited. however, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. this review aims to provide an overview of the current state ...201020377862
experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with anaplasma platys and ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings.abstract:201020377870
effects of prolonged exposure to low temperature on eggs of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae).the widespread geographical distribution of the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) is related to the cosmopolitan distribution of its primary host and to its adaptability to different environments, under variable climate conditions. field studies have suggested that temperature is the most important factor driving the population dynamics of this tick species. in order to investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to low temperature on eggs of r. sanguineus, nine groups ...201020381253
use of a doxycycline-enrofloxacin-metronidazole combination with/without diminazene diaceturate to treat naturally occurring canine babesiosis caused by babesia gibsoni.canine babesiosis is an important worldwide, tick-borne disease caused by hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus babesia. babesia gibsoni is the predominant species that causes canine babesiosis in taipei, taiwan. it is a small pleomorphic intraerythrocytic parasite that can cause erythrocyte destruction and hemolytic anemia. efficacy of oral administration of a doxycycline-enrofloxacin-metronidazole combination with and without injections of diminazene diaceturate in the management of naturally o ...201020416095
the first report of hepatozoon canis identified in vulpes vulpes and ticks from italy.this is the first report on the presence of hepatozoon canis in vulpes vulpes in italy. during the years 2005 and 2006, a total of 119 foxes were collected and their spleen tissues were screened by microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. in the same area, 290 ticks were picked off from dogs or collected from the environment. microscopy detected inclusion bodies regarded as belonging to the genus hepatozoon in four samples, whereas molecular diagnostics evidenced 16 foxes (13.4%) a ...201020420538
rickettsia infection in dogs and rickettsia parkeri in amblyomma tigrinum ticks, cochabamba department, bolivia.only few published data are available on ticks and tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in bolivia. to evaluate rickettsial seroprevalence and infection in dogs and ticks, during february-april 2007, we collected whole blood, sera, and ticks from dogs living in the rural, peri-urban, and urban areas of cochabamba, bolivia. dog sera were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test to detect igg antibodies against rickettsia rickettsii and 68.2% of samples were found to be positive (n = 30; 95% c ...201020426684
[rocky mountain spotted fever, a forgotten epidemic]. 201020464246
the ticks of rodents and their nests, and the discovery that rhipicephalus sanguineus latr. is the vector of tropical typhus in kenya. 193520475254
evasin-3-like anti-chemokine activity in salivary gland extracts of ixodid ticks during blood-feeding: a new target for tick control.ticks exploit many evasion mechanisms to circumvent the immune control of their hosts including subversion of the communication language between cells of the immune system provided by chemokines and other cytokines. one subversive molecule secreted in the saliva of rhipicephalus sanguineus is evasin-3, a structurally unique 7 kda protein that selectively binds the neutrophil chemoattractants, cxcl8 and (with lower affinity) cxcl1. we compared anti-human cxcl8 and anti-mouse cxcl1/kc activities i ...201020500677
toxicity of neem seed oil against the larvae of boophilus decoloratus, a one-host tick in cattle.the in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (azadirachta indica a. juss, family: meliaceae, dogon yaro in hausa language in nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, boophilus decoloratus (family: ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial africa. the 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively ...200920502579
human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis.human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are acute febrile tick-borne diseases caused by various members of the genera ehrlichia and anaplasma (anaplasmataceae). human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis has become one of the most prevalent life-threatening tick-borne disease in the united states. ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are becoming more frequently diagnosed as the cause of human infections, as animal reservoirs and tick vectors have increased in number and humans have inhabited areas where reservoir ...201020513551
babesia lengau sp. nov., a novel babesia species in cheetah (acinonyx jubatus, schreber, 1775) populations in south a previous paper, we reported on a large number of cheetah blood specimens that gave positive signals only for babesia and/or theileria genus-specific probes on the reverse line blot (rlb) assay, indicating the presence of a novel species or variant of an existing species. some of these specimens were investigated further by microscopic, serological, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. the near-full-length 18s rrna genes of 13 samples, as well as the second internal transcribed spacer (its ...201020519464
the expression of genes coding for distinct types of glycine-rich proteins varies according to the biology of three metastriate ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, rhipicephalus sanguineus and amblyomma cajennense.ticks secrete a cement cone composed of many salivary proteins, some of which are rich in the amino acid glycine in order to attach to their hosts' skin. glycine-rich proteins (grps) are a large family of heterogeneous proteins that have different functions and features; noteworthy are their adhesive and tensile characteristics. these properties may be essential for successful attachment of the metastriate ticks to the host and the prolonged feeding necessary for engorgement. in this work, we an ...201020529354
gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in fortaleza (brazil): high infection risk for humans?dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. however, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in brazil are available. we performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a brazilian metropolitan area. we included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of fortaleza (northeast brazil). after euthanization, dogs were autopsied. ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of ...201020532563
development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for rapid diagnosis of babesia canis infections.vector-borne diseases are rising in interest due to global warming, which is believed to impact on the distribution of vectors into new areas thus influencing the occurrence and epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens. babesia canis belongs to the piroplasmidae and there are three described subspecies, namely b. canis canis, b. canis rossi and b. canis vogeli. they are each transmitted by a different tick-species, dermacentor reticulatus, haemaphysalis leachi and rhipicephalus sanguineus, respect ...201020537107
ticks (acari: ixodidae) on dogs from uberlândia, minas gerais, brazil.uberlândia in minas gerais state, southeastern brazil, has 622 000 inhabitants and is located in the cerrado biome, the south american savannah. the city dog population is estimated at 82 000 and identification of tick species and infestation prevalence on this host has not been determined. a major infectious disease of dogs in the city, canine ehrlichiosis, is transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. at the same time, autochthonous leishmaniosis has been recently described in the city and ...201020537111
seasonal dynamics of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus, on a confined dog population in italy.this study evaluated the seasonal dynamics of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (acari: ixodidae) on naturally infested dogs in a private shelter in southern italy. from march to may 2008, 39 autochthonous mixed-breed young dogs and 10 beagles were enrolled in the study. from march 2008 until march 2009, every 21 +/- 2 days, 11 body sites of each dog were checked for ticks. at each follow-up, the number of ticks, their developmental stage, sex and location on the dog's body were recorded. adu ...201020557458
experimental infection of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks with the bacterium rickettsia rickettsii, using experimentally infected dogs.we evaluated if rickettsia rickettsii-experimentally infected dogs could serve as amplifier hosts for hipicephalus sanguineus ticks. in addition, we checked if rh. sanguineus ticks that acquired ri. rickettsii from dogs could transmit the bacterium to susceptible hosts (vector competence), and if these ticks could maintain the bacterium by transstadial and transovarial transmissions. uninfected larvae, nymphs, and adults of rh. sanguineus were allowed to feed upon three groups of dogs: groups 1 ...201120569011
rickettsia spp. infection in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in a brazilian spotted fever endemic rural area in rio de janeiro state, brazil. 200920584167
ticks species (ixodida) in the summit municipal park and adjacent areas, panama city, panama.from september 2007 to september 2009, we studied the species of ticks present in the summit municipal park. ticks were extracted from zoo animals, free-living wild mammals and reptiles trapped, dead mammals on the roads and environment (ground and zoo burrows). a total of 2,649 ticks were collected: 2,167 immature stages (1,345 larvae and 822 nymphs) and 482 adults. seventeen species were identified: ornithodoros puertorricensis (argasidae), amblyomma auricularium, a. cajennense, a. calcaratum, ...201020585838
co-feeding as a route for transmission of rickettsia conorii israelensis between rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.rickettsia conorii is widely distributed in europe, asia, and africa. the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus, is the recognized vector of r. conorii. in this study, we assessed the efficiency of r. conorii israelensis transmission between co-feeding rh. sanguineus ticks. infected rh. sanguineus adults and uninfected nymphs were fed simultaneously upon either naïve dogs or a dog previously exposed to this agent. when ticks were placed upon naïve dogs, 92-100% of nymphs acquired the infectio ...201020589416
rocky mountain spotted fever in the united states, 2000-2007: interpreting contemporary increases in incidence.rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf), a potentially fatal tick-borne infection caused by rickettsia rickettsii, is considered a notifiable condition in the united states. during 2000 to 2007, the annual reported incidence of rmsf increased from 1.7 to 7 cases per million persons from 2000 to 2007, the highest rate ever recorded. american indians had a significantly higher incidence than other race groups. children 5-9 years of age appeared at highest risk for fatal outcome. enzyme-linked immunoso ...201020595498
the dynamics of rna participation in the vitellogenesis of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks latreille 1806 (acari:ixodidae). i. nucleoli or cajal bodies?to understand the morphological and histological aspects of internal systems of ticks has become important matter since these arthropods have an impact in the areas of the economy and public health. in this context, this study has provided morphological data on female germinative cells of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, ectoparasites of dogs that maintain a close relationship with human on a daily basis. oocytes of engorged females were analyzed, through the pas reaction (detection of polysaccha ...201020605721
prevalence of ehrlichial infection among dogs and ticks in northeastern brazil.this study investigated the epidemiology of canine ehrlichiosis in northeastern brazil, focusing the identification of the ehrlichia species and vectors involved. samples were collected from 472 domestic dogs residing in the health districts of cajazeiras and itapuã of salvador city. the average prevalence of antibodies reactive to e. canis by immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) (titer ≥ 1:80) was 35.6% (168/472). blood samples from the e. canis-seropositive animals were tested by nested pcr ...201020624344
[seroprevalence anti-ehrlichia canis antibodies in dogs of cuiabá, mato grosso].canine ehrlichiosis is a disease transmitted by ticks rhipicephalus sanguineus and caused by ehrlichia canis, obligatory intracellular bacteria. the present study examined the prevalence of anti-e. canis in 254 dogs from four administrative regions of cuiabá, mato grosso, by indirect immunofluorescence assay. there was a prevalence of 42.5% (108/254) without significant difference between the studied regions. the variables age, breed, sex, habitat, access to rural and ticks were analyzed. the an ...201020624348
molecular detection of ehrlichia canis, anaplasma bovis, anaplasma platys, candidatus midichloria mitochondrii and babesia canis vogeli in ticks from israel.: ticks are vectors of important pathogens of human and animals. therefore, their microbial carriage capacity is constantly being investigated. the aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of domestic animal pathogens in ticks collected from vegetation and the ground, from different parts of israel. non-engorged questing adult ticks were collected from 13 localities. a total of 1196 ticks in 131 pools-83 pools of rhipicephalus turanicus and 48 of rhipicephalus sanguineus (with two to ...201120636417
bm86 homologues and novel ataq proteins with multiple epidermal growth factor (egf)-like domains from hard and soft ticks.tick control on livestock relies principally on the use of acaricides but the development of acaricide resistance and concerns for environmental pollution underscore the need for alternative control methods, for instance through the use of anti-tick vaccines. two commercial vaccines based on the recombinant bm86 protein from rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus ticks were developed. partial protection of the bm86 vaccine against other rhipicephalus (boophilus) and hyalomma tick species suggests t ...201020647015
an insight into the sialotranscriptome of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus.rhipicephalus sanguineus, known as the brown dog tick, is a common ectoparasite of domestic dogs and can be found worldwide. r.sanguineus is recognized as the primary vector of the etiological agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine babesiosis. here we present the first description of a r. sanguineus salivary gland transcriptome by the production and analysis of 2,034 expressed sequence tags (est) from two cdna libraries, one consctructed using mrna from dissected salivary glands from ...201020650005
multiplex real-time qpcr for the detection of ehrlichia canis and babesia canis vogeli.ehrlichia canis and babesia canis vogeli are two tick-borne canine pathogens with a worldwide importance. both pathogens are transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, which has an increasing global distribution. a multiplex quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) assay for the simultaneous detection of the tick-borne pathogens e. canis and b. canis vogeli was developed using dual-labeled probes. the target genes were the 16s rrna of e. canis and the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) of ...201020674177
amblyomma imitator ticks as vectors of rickettsia rickettsii, mexico.real-time pcr of amblyomma imitator tick egg masses obtained in nuevo leon state, mexico, identified a rickettsia species. sequence analyses of 17-kd common antigen and outer membrane protein a and b gene fragments showed to it to be r. rickettsii, which suggested a potential new vector for this bacterium.201020678325
azadirachta indica a. juss (neem) induced morphological changes on oocytes of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) tick females.many studies have been conducted with plants whose extracts have the potential to be used for pest control. one of these plants is azadirachta indica (neem), whose main active ingredient is azadirachtin, a compound shown to have acaricide and insecticide activity. rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick) is currently considered to be an "urban pest," because of its high levels of infestation and its ability to attack humans. in the present study partially and fully engorged r. sanguineus female ...201020685201
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting camels (camelus dromedarius) in northern sudan.monthly total body tick collections from 13-20 camels were conducted for 2 consecutive years (2000-2001) in northern sudan. tick populations were correlated with locality, season, predeliction site, sex and coat colour. hyalomma dromedarii was found to be the predominant (89%) tick species infesting the camels. other tick species found in very low numbers were hyalomma impeltatum (7.7%), hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (3.3%), hyalomma truncatum (0.29%), hyalomma marginatum rufipes (0.25%), rhipi ...200920698438
application of highly sensitive saturation labeling to the analysis of differential protein expression in infected ticks from limited samples.abstract:201020704695
rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in traveler from egypt. 201020735946
occurrence of hepatozoon sp. in dogs in the urban area originating from a municipality in southeastern brazil.the occurrence of hepatozoon sp. infection in dogs was evaluated in the urban area of uberlândia, minas gerais, brazil. the study involved 300 animals, 120 from the veterinary hospital of the federal university of uberlândia's faculty of veterinary medicine, 80 from private clinics, and 100 from the animal protective association (apa). among these animals, 7.66% presented hepatozoon sp. gamonts inside neutrophils. no statistically significant difference was found among the diagnoses based on cap ...201020810218
absence of rickettsia rickettsii and occurrence of other spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from tennessee.rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) is the most common tick-borne illness in tennessee. little is known about the occurrence of r. rickettsii, the causative agent, in ticks in tennessee. to better understand the prevalence and distribution of rickettsial agents in ticks, we tested 1,265 amblyomma, dermacentor, and ixodes adult and nymphal ticks. additionally, we tested 231 amblyomma americanum larvae. ticks were collected from 49 counties from humans, wild animals, domestic canines, and flannel ...201020810834
progress and obstacles in vaccine development for the ehrlichioses.ehrlichia are tick-borne obligately intracellular bacteria that cause significant diseases in veterinary natural hosts, including livestock and companion animals, and are now considered important zoonotic pathogens in humans. vaccines are needed for these veterinary and zoonotic human pathogens, but many obstacles exist that have impeded their development. these obstacles include understanding genetic and antigenic variability, influence of the host on the pathogen phenotype and immunogenicity, ...201020822349
therapeutic effects of evasin-1, a chemokine binding protein, in bleomycin-induced pulmonary chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (ipf). few studies have evaluated the efficacy of therapeutically targeting cc chemokines and their receptors during interstitial lung diseases. in the present study, the therapeutic effects of evasin-1, a tick-derived chemokine-binding protein that has high affinity for ccl3/mip-1α, was investigated in a murine model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. ccl3/mip-1α concentrations in lung homogenates increas ...201020833968
tick-borne rickettsioses, neglected emerging diseases in rural senegal.rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in west africa.201020856858
genetic analysis of ticks belonging to the rhipicephalus sanguineus group in latin america.phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial 16s rdna sequences were generated from rhipicephalus sanguineus group specimens collected in 29 localities among 9 latin-american countries, plus ticks collected in south africa, spain, and italy. sequences from latin america generated six different haplotypes (a, b, c, d, e, and f). phylogenetic analyses generated trees that segregated our tick sequences into two distinct clades: one is represented by haplotypes a-c, and south african r. sanguineus a ...201120858451
association between the prevalence of infestation by rhipicephalus sanguineus and ctenocephalides felis felis and the presence of anti-leishmania antibodies: a case-control study in dogs from a brazilian endemic area.the association between the prevalence of infestation by rhipicephalus sanguineus and ctenocephalides felis felis and the presence of anti-leishmania antibodies has been evaluated in dogs located in a city of brazil endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis. blood samples from 5556 domestic dogs domiciliated in the urban area of belo horizonte (minas gerais state) were submitted to enzyme linked immunosorbent (elisa) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody (ifat) assays, and 432 (7.8%) animals t ...201020869131
pathogens and symbionts in ticks: a survey on tick species distribution and presence of tick-transmitted micro-organisms in sardinia, italy.a total of 1485 adult ticks were collected from mammalian hosts in south-eastern sardinia, italy, during the years 2007-2008. ticks were identified and tested by pcr analysis for presence of rickettsia species of the spotted fever group, ehrlichia canis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, coxiella burnetii, bartonella species and leishmania species. among all tick species examined (rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhipicephalus turanicus, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus pusillus, hyalomma marginatum margina ...201020884769
efficacy of a doxycycline treatment regimen initiated during three different phases of experimental ehrlichiosis.doxycycline is the treatment of choice for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (cme), a well-characterized disease and valuable model for tick-borne zoonoses. conflicting reports of clearance of ehrlichia canis after treatment with doxycycline suggested that the disease phase during which treatment is initiated influences outcomes of these treatments. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 28-day doxycycline regimen for clearance of experimental e. canis infections from dogs treat ...201020921310
prevalence, associated determinants, and in vivo chemotherapeutic control of hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting domestic goats (capra hircus) of lower punjab, pakistan.a total of 800 goats of various breeds, age, and sex were randomly selected from muzaffargarh (m. garh) and layyah districts of lower punjab, pakistan. the selected goats were visited twice a month to collect information about determinants influencing goat tick infestation prevalence. for acaricidal efficacy, 360 tick-infested adult goats were subjected to an acaricidal treatment and post-treatment quantitative assessment of tick burden. quantification of adult tick detachment 24 h post-treatmen ...201020924608
ticks parasitizing humans in greece.abstract in summer 2008, two fatal cases were observed in northeastern greece: a crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) case (first report in greece) and a mediterranean spotted fever case. in total, 537 ticks removed from humans who referred for this reason to the two hospitals of the region during june-september 2008 were identified. the vast majority of them (81.5%) were rhipicephalus sanguineus, which is the main vector of rickettsia conorii, while hyalomma marginatum, the main vector of cch ...201020925519
toxicity effect of the acaricide fipronil in semi-engorged females of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae): preliminary determination of the minimum lethal concentration and lc(50).chemical acaricides, especially fipronil (active ingredient of frontline®), are still the most effective method to control tick populations. in this study, the effectiveness of fipronil was assessed in semi-engorged females of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. a protocol for an in vitro bioassay (ait) was developed, and the lc(50) (lethal concentration 50%) and 95% confidence interval were determined. ticks were immersed in petri dishes with different concentrations of fipronil or distilled wat ...201020932830
survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) and their rickettsia in an atlantic rain forest reserve in the state of são paulo, brazil.the current study investigated the occurrence of ticks and their rickettsiae in the serra do mar state park, which encompasses one of the largest atlantic rain forest reserves of brazil. from july 2008 to june 2009, a total of 2439 ticks (2,196 free living and 243 collected on hosts) was collected, encompassing the following 13 species: amblyomma aureolatum (pallas), amblyomma brasiliense aragao, amblyomma dubitatum neumann, amblyomma fuscum neumann, amblyomma incisum neumann, amblyomma longiros ...201020939390
occurrence of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on human hosts, in three municipalities in the state of pará, brazil.assuming the existence of tick parasitism in humans in the state of pará, an aggregate observational study was developed along a transversal line in three cities of the state, during two years. interviews and examinations of 2,160 townspeople and tourists were carried out, without discrimination of ethnic, sex, age, or social status, and classified for effects analyzed for four bands of age, six types of activities in the society, and two sexes. larvae, nymphs, and adults of ticks had been ident ...201020943016
rickettsial infections of dogs, horses and ticks in juiz de fora, southeastern brazil, and isolation of rickettsia rickettsii from rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.the present study was performed in an area endemic for brazilian spotted fever (bsf) in juiz de fora, state of minas gerais, brazil, during the years 2007 and 2008, when fatal cases of bsf (caused by rickettsia rickettsii) were reported. adult ticks (acari: ixodidae) identified as rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) and amblyomma cajennense (fabricius) were collected from dogs and horses, respectively, and tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). overall, 13.1% of the rh. sanguineus ticks and ...201020950356
rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs: relationships between attachment sites and tick developmental stages.the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus, is the most widespread tick in the world and infests primarily domestic dogs. studies on the bio-ecology of r. sanguineus have been carried out worldwide, but little is known of the on-dog relationships of tick developmental stages and their possible role on tick feeding performance, reproduction and pathogen transmission. we studied the relationships between different developmental stages of r. sanguineus on particular body areas of naturally infest ...201020957414
cytotoxic effects of permethrin in oocytes of rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) fully engorged females: i. direct or indirect action of the acaricide in germ cells?given the wide use of synthetic chemicals to control ticks, this study evaluated the effects of the permethrin pyrethroid on oocytes of rhipicephalus sanguineus fully engorged females in order to examine whether this compound, in addition to the proven neurotoxic effect, also acts directly on germ cells. the results revealed that permethrin effectively inhibits and/or interrupts the reproductive process of r. sanguineus. exposed oocytes exhibited prominent structural changes such as altered shap ...201020960224
ixodid ticks in bosnia and herzegovina.ticks of the ixodidae family represent an enormous threat to human and animal health. from january to december 2004, a total of 10,050 ixodid ticks were collected from 26 areas in bosnia and herzegovina and determined to the species level. ticks were collected from dogs, sheep, cows, goats, rodents, humans and plants. ixodes ricinus was the most prevalent species, followed by dermacentor marginatus marginatus, rhipicephalus bursa, hyalomma marginatum marginatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus, haemaph ...201020967487
the complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite panonychus citri (acari: tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated trnas.the family tetranychidae (chelicerata: acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. to date, mitochondrial genomes of only two tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. the scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in acari (mites and ticks). informat ...201020969792
fipronil-induced cell death in salivary glands of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged females.the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus is currently considered an urban plague. for this reason many studies are intended to find methods to control these ectoparasites. thus, the present study analyzed the ultrastructural modifications of the salivary glands cells of semi-engorged females of r. sanguineus resulting from their exposition to fipronil (active ingredient of frontline®). the studied individuals were divided into four groups. group 1 was exposed to distilled water (control) and groups 2, ...201020974132
the brown dog tick, with special reference to its control and eradication. 194521009482
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in european part of turkey: genetic analysis of the virus strains from ticks and a seroepidemiological study in humans.abstract a survey of ticks from domestic ruminants, together with a serosurvey in humans was conducted in thrace (northwestern turkey) to evaluate the prevalence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) in ticks and humans. more prevalent ticks were hyalomma marginatum, hyalomma aegyptium, rhipicephalus bursa, and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, with low numbers of dermacentor marginatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus group, and ixodes ricinus. no differences in the tick faunal compositi ...201021028961
rhipicephalus microplus salivary gland molecules induce differential cd86 expression in murine macrophages.abstract:201021054882
effects of ricinus communis oil esters on salivary glands of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae).this study showed the interference of esters extracted from ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of r. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerati ...201021070769
effects of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil of ricinus communis on the vitellogenesis of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) ticks.this study examines the effects of ricinoleic acid esters from ricinus communis castor oil on the vitellogenesis of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to hosts that were fed with commercial rabbit food containing these esters. the oocytes of ticks from the treatment group (tg) showed cytoplasmic changes that inhibited the development of oocytes i and ii to the advanced stages (iv and v) in addition to preventing the maturation of oocytes v, resulting in small ones. in addition, sperm was no ...201021070770
seasonal variation in the effect of climate on the biology of rhipicephalus sanguineus in southern europe.rhipicephalus sanguineus is the most widespread tick in the world and a vector of many pathogens infecting dogs and humans. to date, there have been no investigations on the biology of r. sanguineus under natural mediterranean climatic conditions.201021078221
sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the gp200 protein of ehrlichia canis from dogs in taiwan.ehrlichia (e.) canis is a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. currently, the genetic diversity of e. canis strains worldwide is poorly defined. in the present study, sequence analysis of the nearly full-length 16s rdna (1,620 bp) and the complete coding region (4,269 bp) of the gp200 gene, which encodes the largest major immunoreactive protein in e. canis, from 17 taiwanese samples was conducted. the resultant 16s rdna sequences were foun ...201021113103
prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep southeast of iran.a survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (acari: ixodidae) on cattle and sheep southeast of iran. a total of 972 ticks were collected from 280 infested cattle and 1,207 ticks were collected from 632 infested sheep during activating seasons of ticks in 2008-2009. the species collected from cattle were hyalomma marginatum marginatum (50.92%), hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (25.61%), hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (8.12%), hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum (1.85%), and ...201021113660
efficacy of deltamethrin (butox® 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (ixodes ricinus, rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep.ticks are known to be able to transmit a broad spectrum of agents of diseases in cattle or sheep. therefore, measurements are needed to keep ticks away from the body of any ruminant belonging to the agricultural life stock. the present study dealt with investigations to measure the efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin (butox® 7.5 pour on) against specimens of two important species (ixodes ricinus and rhipicephalus sanguineus). four sheep and four young cattle were treated lege arte along the ...201021113726
rickettsia in synanthropic and domestic animals and their hosts from two areas of low endemicity for brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of minas gerais, brazil.the aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in brazil. in the municipalities of pingo d'agua and santa cruz do escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. in some serum samples from opossums (didelphis aurita) captured in santa cruz do escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. polym ...201021118939
infrequency of rickettsia rickettsii in dermacentor variabilis removed from humans, with comments on the role of other human-biting ticks associated with spotted fever group rickettsiae in the united states.abstract from 1997 to 2009, the tick-borne disease laboratory of the u.s. army public health command (usaphc) (formerly the u.s. army center for health promotion and preventive medicine) screened 5286 dermacentor variabilis ticks removed from department of defense (dod) personnel, their dependents, and dod civilian personnel for spotted fever group rickettsiae using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. rickettsia montanensis (171/5286 = 3.2%) and ricke ...201021142953
bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites.abstract mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. this study investigated the relationship of prevalences of bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). moreover, relationships between bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. blood samples were collected from 1 ...201021142966
rickettsial infection in domestic mammals and their ectoparasites in el valle de antón, coclé, panamá.the present research evaluated the presence of rickettsia spp. on ectoparasites of horses and dogs (using pcr techniques), and their sera (using immunofluorescence assay) in el valle de antón town in panama. a total of 20 horses and 20 dogs were sampled, finding four species of ectoparasites on dogs (the ticks rhipicephalus sanguineus, amblyomma ovale, amblyomma oblongoguttatum, and the flea ctenocephalides felis), and two tick species on horses (amblyomma cajennense and dermacentor nitens). dna ...201021144663
ticks infesting wildlife species in northeastern brazil with new host and locality records.from september 2008 to march 2010, 397 ticks (315 larvae, 33 nymphs, 23 females, and 26 males) were collected from captive and free-living wildlife species in northeastern brazil. six tick species were identified, including amblyomma auricularium (conil) on tamandua tetradactyla (l.), amblyomma dubitatum neumann on hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (l.), nectomys rattus (pelzen) and t. tetradactyla, amblyomma parvum aragão on t. tetradactyla, amblyomma rotundatum koch on boa constrictor l., chelonoidis ...201021175080
molecular epidemiology of crimean- congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome isolated from ticks of hamadan province of iran.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus is a tick-borne member of the genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae. cchfv has been isolated from at least 31 different tick species. the virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, or by direct contact with cchfv-infected patients or the products of infected livestock. this study was undertaken to study the genetic relationship and distribution of cchfv in the tick population of hamadan province of iran.201021178213
characterization of ectoparasites in an urban cat (felis catus linnaeus, 1758) population of rio de janeiro, brazil.ectoparasites are capable of transmitting infectious diseases and, therefore, are of zoonotic concern. cats submitted to a spay/neuter program in the city of rio de janeiro were examined to determine the distribution of ectoparasites in cats from a city with a tropical climate. independent of gender, breed, or age, 292 cats were combed and subjected to otoscopic examination. ectoparasites were collected, and blood samples were taken to determine packed cell volume. the majority of the 292 cats w ...201021181196
ticks on birds in a forest fragment of brazilian cerrado (savanna) in the municipality of uberlândia, state of minas gerais, brazil.this is a report of tick species, parasite prevalence and infestation intensity of birds in a forest fragment (18° 56' 57'' s and 48° 12' 14'' w) within the brazilian cerrado (savanna), in the municipality of uberlândia, state of minas gerais, brazil. a total of 162 birds from 26 species were captured. one adult tick, 296 larvae and 67 nymphs were found on passerine birds. of these, it was identified 31 larvae and 27 nymphs of amblyomma longirostre, 17 nymphs of a. nodosum, one a. cajennense lar ...201021184702
emergence of rickettsia africae, oceania.we detected rickettsia africae, the agent of african tick-bite fever (atbf), by amplification of fragments of glta, ompa, and ompb genes from 3 specimens of amblyomma loculosum ticks collected from humans and birds in new caledonia. clinicians who treat persons in this region should be on alert for atbf.201121192865
inhibitory action of neem aqueous extract (azadirachta indica a. juss) on the vitellogenesis of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) ticks.the present study revealed unheard of data about the action of aqueous extracts of neem leaves (azadirachta indica) on the vitellogenesis of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, proving that these extracts in 10 and 20% concentrations do not have the potential to kill the females; however, in lower concentrations (10%) provokes great morphological alterations in germinative cells such as the emergence of extended cytoplasmic vacuolization areas as well as the fragmentation of the germinal vesicle, ev ...201021194110
short report: new spotted fever group rickettsia in a rhipicephalus turanicus tick removed from a child in eastern sicily, italy.a new genotype of spotted fever group rickettsia (sfgr) was identified in rhipicephalus turanicus from eastern sicily. on the basis of current molecular criteria, the genetic characteristics obtained from multiple locus sequence typing satisfy the requirements for candidatus status of this sfgr. further detection and identification of this sfgr during entomological and clinical surveys will be required to establish the prevalence of this rickettsia and its potential pathogenicity for humans.201121212209
what's eating you? rhipicephalus ticks. 201021214121
ticks' response to feeding on host immunized with glandular extracts of rhipicephalus sanguineus females fed for 2, 4, and 6 days. i. inactivity or early degeneration of salivary glands?the present study histologically analyzed the salivary glands of rhipicephalus sanguineus females fed for 2, 4, and 6 days in hosts which had been previously immunized with glandular extracts obtained from females from this same species in different periods of feeding, having as main objective verify the action of these extracts in the secretor cycle of these glands. for this, glandular extract of females fed for 2 days (sge2), glandular extract of females fed for 4 days (sge4), and glandular ex ...201121221641
ticks as vectors of leishmania parasites.sand flies are the only accepted biological vectors of leishmania parasites. however, secondary modes of transmission have been extensively discussed and speculated about in recent years. in particular, the hypothesis of ticks as vectors of leishmania infantum was studied in the 20th century and today is being revisited using modern molecular biology techniques. recent studies have shed new light on the discussion, but have also led to misleading conclusions on the role of ticks as leishmania ve ...201121227752
synergy between fipronil and amitraz in a rhipicephalus sanguineus tick residual contact test.amitraz, a formamidine acaricide, has been reported to act as a synergist of contact insecticides and acaricides in both agriculture and animal health. a laboratory contact test was therefore conducted to determine whether amitraz at 12.5 ppm could improve the contact potency of fipronil on ticks. a controlled glass vial bioassay was used to assess the efficacy of fipronil alone, amitraz alone, and fipronil plus amitraz on unfed adult rhipicephalus sanguineus. assessments of lethality were made ...201121243407
deconstructing tick saliva: non-protein molecules with potent immunomodulatory properties.dendritic cells (dcs) are powerful initiators of innate and adaptive immune responses. ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasite arthropods that suppress host immunity by secreting immunomodulatory molecules in their saliva. here, compounds present in rhipicephalus sanguineus tick saliva with immunomodulatory effects on dc differentiation, cytokine production, and costimulatory molecule expression were identified. r. sanguineus tick saliva inhibited il-12p40 and tnf-a while potentiating il-10 cytokin ...201121270122
eschar-associated spotted fever rickettsiosis, bahia, brazil, brazilian spotted fever was once considered the only tick-borne rickettsial disease. we report eschar-associated rickettsial disease that occurred after a tick bite. the etiologic agent is most related to rickettsia parkeri, r. africae, and r. sibirica and probably widely distributed from sao paulo to bahia in the atlantic forest.201121291605
a focus of dogs and rickettsia massiliae-infected rhipicephalus sanguineus in california.a recurrent focus of rhipicephalus sanguineus infestation was investigated in a suburban area of southern california after reports of suspected rocky mountain spotted fever in two dogs on the same property. abundant quantities of rh. sanguineus were collected on the property and repeatedly from each dog, and rickettsia massiliae dna was detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). whole blood and serum samples from four dogs were tested by using pcr and microimmunofluorescent assay for antibodie ...201121292893
rna interference in ticks.ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals and humans, and are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases(1) and the most important vectors affecting cattle industry worldwide(2). ticks are classified in the subclass acari, order parasitiformes, suborder ixodida and are distributed worldwide from arctic to tropical regions(3). despite efforts to control tick infestations, these ectoparasites remain a serious problem for human and ...201121304465
species diversity of ixodid ticks feeding on humans in amasya, turkey: seasonal abundance and presence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus.ticks (acari:ixodidae) are important pests transmitting tick-borne diseases such as crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) to humans. between 2002 and 2009, numerous cchf cases were reported in turkey, including amasya province. in the current study, species diversity, seasonal abundance of ticks, and presence of cchf virus (cchfv) in ticks infesting humans in several districts of amasya province were determined. in the survey, a total of 2,528 ixodid ticks were collected from humans with tick b ...201121337953
cytotoxic effects of permethrin in salivary glands of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged females.because of the medical and veterinary importance of ticks and the wide use of synthetic chemical substances such as permethrin (active ingredient of advantage® max3 - bayer)for their control, this study evaluated the effects of different concentrations (206, 1031 and 2062 ppm) of the acaricide on the salivary glands of rhipicephalus sanguineus semi-engorged females. results showed that permethrin is a potent substance that acts morpho-physiologically in the tick glandular tissue, causing changes ...201121352824
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