toward diagnosing leishmania infantum infection in asymptomatic dogs in an area where leishmaniasis is endemic.the most frequently used diagnostic methods were compared in a longitudinal survey with leishmania infantum-infected asymptomatic dogs from an area of italy where leishmaniasis is endemic. in february and march 2005, 845 asymptomatic dogs were tested by an immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat), a dipstick assay (ds), and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for l. infantum and by ifat for ehrlichia canis. dogs seronegative for l. infantum were further parasitologically evaluated by mic ...200919129471
the parasite fauna of stray domestic cats (felis catus) in dubai, united arab emirates.two hundred forty feral domestic cats trapped between 2004 and 2008 in the city centre and the suburb districts of dubai, as well as in desert biotopes, were subjected to a complete parasitological dissection. the established parasite fauna consisted of cystoisospora felis (12.9%), cystoisospora rivolta (9.2%), toxoplasma/hammondia (0.8%), heterophyes heterophyes (2.5%), heterophyopsis continua (0.4%), joyeuxiella spp. (65.8%), diplopylidium noelleri (37.1%), hydatigera taeniaeformis (16.7%), ta ...200919238440
rocky mountain spotted fever in dogs, brazil.clinical illness caused by rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the united states. we report 2 natural clinical cases of rocky mountain spotted fever in dogs in brazil. each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.200919239764
infection and replication of bartonella species within a tick cell line.bartonella species are fastidious, gram negative bacteria, some of which are transmitted by arthropod vectors, including fleas, sandflies, and lice. there is very little information regarding the interaction and/or transmission capabilities of bartonella species by ticks. in the present study, we demonstrate successful infection of the amblyomma americanum cell line, aae12, by seven bartonella isolates and three candidatus bartonella species by electron or light microscopy. with the exception of ...200919242658
[mediterranean spotted fever due to contact with dog-tick].mediterranean spotted fever (msf) is one of the tick-borne rickettsial infections caused by rickettsia conorii. it is transmitted to humans by brown dog ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus). in this case report, a 16-years-old male patient who was diagnosed as msf after an exposure to dog-tick in bartin province (located at middle black sea region of turkey) has been presented. his history revealed that, five days before admission to the hospital (on june, 2007) he had cleaned dog-ticks from his dog ...200819149095
transmission of cytauxzoon felis to a domestic cat by amblyomma americanum.cytauxzoon felis was transmitted to a domestic cat by amblyomma americanum. the infection was produced by the bite of a. americanum adults that were acquisition fed as nymphs on a domestic cat that naturally survived infection of c. felis. fever, inappetence, depression, and lethargy were first noted 11 days post-infestation (dpi). pale mucus membranes, splenomegaly, icterus, and dyspnea were also observed during the course of the disease. the body temperature of the experimentally infected c. f ...200919168288
conservation and immunogenicity of the mosquito ortholog of the tick-protective antigen, subolesin.the control of arthropod vectors of pathogens that affect human and animal health is important for the eradication of vector-borne diseases. the ortholog of the tick-protective antigen, subolesin, was identified in aedes albopictus and found to have conserved epitopes in ticks and mosquitoes. rna interference with the tick and mosquito double-stranded rna in three tick species resulted in significant gene knockdown and decreased tick weight and/or survival. feeding anopheles atroparvus, aedes ca ...200919229557
allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus.the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. the morphological and genetic differences among r. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from america/africa and those from australia being different species. to test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we perfo ...200919243585
action of the chemical agent fipronil on the reproductive process of semi-engorged females of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae). ultrastructural evaluation of ovary cells.the ovary of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus consists of a wall of epithelial cells and a large number of oocytes in five different developmental stages (i-v), which are attached to the wall by a pedicel. the present study provides ultrastructural information on the effects (dose-response) of the acaricide fipronil (frontline) on ovaries of semi-engorged females of r. sanguineus, as well as it demonstrates some possible defense mechanisms used by oocytes to protect themselves against this chem ...200919250957
79-year-old man with fever, malaise, and jaundice. 200919252117
molecular documentation of bartonella infection in dogs in greece and italy.this study reports the occurrence of "bartonella rochalimae" in europe and the presence of bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes ii and iii in dogs in southern italy and provides dna sequencing evidence of a potentially new bartonella sp. infecting dogs in greece and italy.200919261798
[characterization of ectoparasites on dogs in the nucleus of urban expansion of juiz de fora, minas gerais, brazil].the present work studied the characterization of ectoparasites on dogs in the nucleus of urban expansion of juiz de fora, minas gerais, brazil. the collections were conducted from july to september 2003, examining 101 dogs of no defined breed. the ectoparasites were collected through visual and tactile inspection of the animals' bodies, and were then placed in bottles with 70 degrees gl ethanol and identified under a stereomicroscope. specimens were clarified and mounted on slides for analysis u ...200819265575
[drop off rhythm of rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) of artificially infested dogs].the present study evaluated the drop-off rhythm of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) ticks from two populations from brazil, one from monte negro, state of rondônia, and another from belo horizonte, state of minas gerais. artificial infestations with ticks were performed on dogs in the laboratory, held in a light: scotophase regimen of 12:12 h. larval drop-off rhythm was characterized by similar number of engorged larvae detaching during both periods of light and scotophase, or by a larger nu ...200819245759
molecular detection and identification of ehrlichia and anaplasma species in ixodid ticks.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16s ribosomal rna gene was performed for the presence of ehrlichia and/or anaplasma. a total of 242 ixodid ticks were collected from domestic ruminants and their shelters, as well as humans, and their individual salivary glands were dissected out for dna. from the 242 ticks analyzed, six (2.47%), comprising three hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, one rhipicephalus bursa, and two rhipicephalus sanguineus, were positive. o ...200919247690
effects of rickettsia conorii infection on the survival of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. 200919298397
rickettsia rickettsii, rickettsia felis and rickettsia sp. twkm03 infecting rhipicephalus sanguineus and ctenocephalides felis collected from dogs in a brazilian spotted fever focus in the state of rio de janeiro/brazil. 200919298400
antibody responses of domestic animals to salivary antigens of triatomainfestans as biomarkers for low-level infestation of triatomines.hematophagous arthropods such as triatoma infestans, the vector of trypanosoma cruzi, elicit host-immune responses during feeding. characterization of antibody responses to salivary antigens offers the potential to develop immunologically based monitoring techniques for exposure to re-emergent triatomine bug populations in peridomestic animals. igg-antibody responses to the salivary antigens of t.infestans have been detected in chickens as soon as 2 days after the first exposure to five adult bu ...200919248784
a novel sphingomyelinase-like enzyme in ixodes scapularis tick saliva drives host cd4 t cells to express il-4.tick feeding modulates host immune responses. tick-induced skewing of host cd4(+) t cells towards a th2 cytokine profile facilitates transmission of tick-borne pathogens that would otherwise be neutralized by th1 cytokines. tick-derived factors that drive this th2 response have not previously been characterized. in the current study, we examined an i. scapularis cdna library prepared at 18-24 h of feeding and identified and expressed a tick gene with homology to loxosceles spider venom proteins ...200919292772
effects of climate change on ticks and tick-borne diseases in europe.zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. data on the vector tick ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of dermacentor reticulatus. increased winter activity of i ...200919277106
population dynamics of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latrielle, 1806) in belo horizonte, minas gerais state, brazil.rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks are distributed throughout the world, especially in those areas in which dogs are in close contact with humans. r. sanguineus and fleas are regarded as the main ectoparasites infesting dogs in brazil. besides causing direct damage during the blood feeding process, this tick species can also transmit pathogens to dogs and humans. despite its importance in brazil, data regarding the seasonality of r. sanguineus are limited, especially with regard to natural infestati ...200919339119
analysis of the rickettsia africae genome reveals that virulence acquisition in rickettsia species may be explained by genome reduction.the rickettsia genus includes 25 validated species, 17 of which are proven human pathogens. among these, the pathogenicity varies greatly, from the highly virulent r. prowazekii, which causes epidemic typhus and kills its arthropod host, to the mild pathogen r. africae, the agent of african tick-bite fever, which does not affect the fitness of its tick vector.200919379498
attachment of nymphal rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) to a human in an urban area followed by severe adverse reaction shortly before drop-off.a case of attachment and complete engorgement of a rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) nymph on a woman with severe pain shortly before nymphal drop-off is described. the pain continued for about 2 weeks after tick removal. apparently, this is the first documented case of human adverse reaction developed at the very last stage of engorgement of nymphal r. sanguineus. the infestation most likely took place inside the enclosed household garden in the southern area of jerusalem where the wom ...200919391333
molecular investigations of rickettsia helvetica infection in dogs, foxes, humans, and ixodes ticks.rickettsia helvetica, a tick-borne member of the spotted-fever-group rickettsiae, is a suspected pathogen in humans; however, its role in animals is unknown. the aims of this study were to establish a r. helvetica-specific real-time taqman pcr assay and apply it to the analysis of tick vectors (to determine potential exposure risk) and blood samples from canidae and humans (to determine prevalence of infection). the newly designed 23s rrna gene assay for r. helvetica was more sensitive than a pu ...200919329665
evaluation of the acaricide activity of thymol on engorged and unengorged larvae of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1808) (acari: ixodidae).the present work was aimed at evaluating the in vitro efficacy of thymol on engorged and unengorged larvae of rhipicephalus sanguineus. in order to perform the study, unengorged larvae were interleaved on filter paper (2 x 2 cm) recently sprayed with thymol in the following concentrations: 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%. for each concentration, ten repetitions of 50 larvae each were performed. a control group was established (water + dmso) together with a positive control group (amitraz), wit ...200919330353
canine leishmaniosis in south america.abstract : canine leishmaniosis is widespread in south america, where a number of leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by leishmania infantum (syn. leishmania chagasi) and leishmania braziliensis. the only well-established vector of leishmania parasites to dogs in south america is lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of l. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. for quite som ...200919426440
canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control.abstract : canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. this review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of babesia and theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. the diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasm ...200919426443
new developments in canine hepatozoonosis in north america: a review.abstract : canine hepatozoonosis is caused by hepatozoon canis and hepatozoon americanum, apicomplexan parasites transmitted to dogs by ingestion of infectious stages. although the two agents are phylogenetically related, specific aspects, including characteristics of clinical disease and the natural history of the parasites themselves, differ between the two species. until recently, h. canis infections had not been clearly documented in north america, and autochthonous infection with h. america ...200919426444
wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective.abstract : the extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. this has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health ...200919426446
emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in europe.vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). the past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). the frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in europe, i.e. canine babesiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis, canine monocytic ehr ...200919403239
the relationship between spotted fever group rickettsiae and ixodid ticks.spotted fever group rickettsiae are predominantly transmitted by ticks. rickettsiae have developed many strategies to adapt to different environmental conditions, including those within their arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. the tick-rickettsiae relationship has been a point of interest for many researchers, with most studies concentrating on the role of ticks as vectors. unfortunately, less attention has been directed towards the relationship of rickettsiae with tick cells, tissues, and ...200919358804
incongruent effects of two isolates of rickettsia conorii on the survival of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.rickettsia conorii, the etiologic agent of mediterranean spotted fever is widely distributed in southern europe, the middle east, africa, india and the caspian region. in the mediterranean region, the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus, is the recognized vector of r. conorii. to study tick-pathogen relationships and pathogenesis of infection caused in model animals by the bite of an infected tick, we attempted to establish a laboratory colony of rh. sanguineus persistently infected with r. ...200919421877
experimental infection of rhipicephalus sanguineus with rickettsia conorii conorii. 200919438618
rapid screening and cultivation of ehrlichia canis from refrigerated carrier blood. 200919438630
influence of temperature on the attachment of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on rabbits. 200919438617
transmission of rickettsia conorii conorii in naturally infected rhipicephalus sanguineus. 200919438619
high prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in dogs from an indian reservation in northeastern arizona.we evaluated the serological and molecular prevalence of selected organisms in 145 dogs during late spring (may/june) of 2005 and in 88 dogs during winter (february) of 2007 from the hopi indian reservation. additionally, in 2005, 442 ticks attached to dogs were collected and identified as rhipicephalus sanguineus. infection with or exposure to at least one organism was detected in 69% and 66% of the dogs in may/june 2005 and february 2007, respectively. exposure to spotted fever group (sfg) ric ...201019469667
pathogenicity of metarhizium anisopliae (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) to tick eggs and the effect of egg cuticular lipids on conidia development.the ovicidal efficacy of two entomopathogenic hyphomycetes fungi--metarhizium anisopliae variety acridum (m. an. ac.) driver and milner (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and metarhizium anisopliae variety anisopliae (m. an. an.) (metschn.) sorokin (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae)--was evaluated against eggs of three tick species (acari: ixodidae)--hyalomma excavatum (koch), rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus (say), and rhipicephalus sanguineus (latereille)--by placing eggs, laid by surface-sterilize ...200919496424
isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soils and ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) ticks: prevalence and methods.entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to ixodes scapularis say, the blacklegged tick. as a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an eastern deciduous forest where i. scapularis is common. several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter ...200919496427
microarray analysis of gene expression changes in feeding female and male lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l).a collection of est clones from female tick amblyomma americanum salivary glands was hybridized to rna from different feeding stages of female tick salivary glands and from unfed or feeding adult male ticks. in the female ticks, the expression patterns changed dramatically upon starting feeding, then changed again towards the end of feeding. on beginning feeding, genes possibly involved in survival on the host increased in expression as did many housekeeping genes. as feeding progressed, some of ...200919514082
external and intestinal parasites of pet dogs with reference to zoonotic toxocariasis.examination of 3000 pet dogs over two years at the veterinary teaching hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine revealed external and internal parasites. the external parasites were rhipicephalus sanguineus, ctenocephalus felis, sarcoptes canis, and sarcoptes scabiei. the internal parasites were echinococcus granulosus, dipylidium caninum, rare heterophyes heterophyes, and toxocara canis. toxocara eggs were detected in 9.83%. the results were discussed with reference to zoonotic toxocariasis.200919530631
closing the gaps between genotype and phenotype in rickettsia rickettsii.rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) caused by rickettsia rickettsii is a severe rickettsiosis that occurs in nearly every state of the continental usa. rmsf is endemic in central and southern america, with recent well-documented cases in mexico, costa rica, panama, colombia, brazil, and argentina. rmsf is the most malignant among known rickettsioses causing severe multiorgan dysfunction and high case fatality rates, which can reach 73% in untreated cases. variations in pathogenic biotypes of r. ...200919538260
deciphering the relationships between rickettsia conorii conorii and rhipicephalus sanguineus in the ecology and epidemiology of mediterranean spotted fever.mediterranean spotted fever is the most important tick-borne disease occurring in southern europe and north africa. the first case of this life-threatening zoonosis was reported in 1910. in the 1930s, the role of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus, and the causative agent, rickettsia conorii were described. however, basic questions regarding the relationships between the rickettsia and its tick vector are still unresolved, and the life cycle of r. conorii is incompletely known. there i ...200919538263
characterization of rickettsial diseases in a hospital-based population in central tunisia, 2 rickettsial groups, spotted fever group and typhus group, have been described since the beginning of the 20th century. mediterranean spotted fever (msf), also known as boutonneuse fever, caused by rickettsia conorii and transmitted by the dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, is the most frequent rickettsial infection observed. its seroprevalence in our region is 9% among blood donors and 23% in hospitalized febrile patients. typhus group rickettsioses, caused by r. typhi and r. prowa ...200919538277
the immunomodulatory action of sialostatin l on dendritic cells reveals its potential to interfere with autoimmunity.sialostatin l (sialol) is a secreted cysteine protease inhibitor identified in the salivary glands of the lyme disease vector ixodes scapularis. in this study, we reveal the mechanisms of sialol immunomodulatory actions on the vertebrate host. lps-induced maturation of dendritic cells from c57bl/6 mice was significantly reduced in the presence of sialol. although ova degradation was not affected by the presence of sialol in dendritic cell cultures, cathepsin s activity was partially inhibited, l ...200919494265
epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in xinjiang, 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) was conducted in xinjiang, china. a total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the cchfv antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of cchfv antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. a relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19 ...200919553586
hepatozoon canis infecting dogs in the state of espírito santo, southeastern brazil.from may 2007 to march 2008, blood samples were collected from 92 healthy dogs living in 21 households (17 farms in rural area, and 4 homes in urban area) in 6 counties of the state of espírito santo, southeastern brazil. in addition, ticks were collected from these dogs. a mean of 4.4+/-3.0 dogs (range: 1-12) were sampled per household; 78 and 14 dogs were from rural and urban areas, respectively. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) designed to amplify fragments of the 18s rdna gene of babesia spp ...200919482427
acaricidal efficacy of thymol on engorged nymphs and females of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1808) (acari: ixodidae).the present work was aimed at evaluating the "in vitro" efficacy of different concentrations of thymol on engorged nymphs and females of rhipicephalus sanguineus. the nymphs were separated in seven groups and immersed in different concentrations of thymol (0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%) for 5 min. a control group was established (water + dimethylsulfoxide) together with a positive control group (amitraz*), and mortality was evaluated after 15 days. in order to perform the experiment with fem ...200919562380
a dog naturally infected with rickettsia akari in yucatan, méxico.rickettsia akari is the causative agent of rickettsialpox, a primarily urban mite-borne rickettsiosis that is encountered in the united states and in a few countries around the world. its vector is the mite liponyssoides sanguineus, which is found on rats and mice, which serve as reservoirs for the disease. in this work we report a severe animal case of r. akari infection with two unusual features: r. akari was found in a dog, and its potential vector was a tick.200919492943
babesia spp. infection in dogs from rural areas of são paulo state, brazil.the status of babesia spp. infection in dogs from rural areas of são paulo state, brazil was studied. for this, 150 animals were examined by blood smears and by pcr; the presence of tick infestation was also investigated. by the blood smear examination, 3 animals (2%) were detected positive and by pcr for babesia spp. 12 (8%) were positive, with bands visualized in 450 bp. rhipicephalus sanguineus or amblyomma spp. were found on 36 (24%) of the 150 dogs. amblyomma species found were a. cajennens ...200919602312
[occurrence of ticks (acari: ixodidae) in the municipality of goiatins, tocantins].due to a suspected human case of brazilian lyme-like disease in the city of goiatins, tocantins state, an epidemiological survey was carried out in eight counties in this region during september 2007 and february 2008, where 1,890 ticks were collected from domestic animals and from the environment. a total of eight tick species were identified: rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, dermacentor nitens, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma oblongoguttatum, amblyomma ovale, ambl ...200919602318
[mutagenic occurrence in teleoginae of rhipicephalus sanguineus from intradomiciliary environment at rio de janeiro city].from material collected by into a residence house at rio de janeiro city, using an aspirator machine during four continues hours in all house, it was captured 1,284 rhipicephalus sanguineus including 289 females; one of them showed a mutagenic alteration like an asymmetry of opistosome, and monstrosity like a two anus. the first register of this phenomenon in r. sanguineus is reported.200919602319
tick-borne zoonotic bacteria in ticks collected from central spain.the prevalence of tick-borne and related bacteria infecting adult ticks in central spain was assessed by molecular methods. six areas were sampled monthly during a 2-year longitudinal study. a total of 1,038 questing and 442 feeding ticks, belonging to eight different species, were tested. the most abundant species were hyalomma lusitanicum (54% of captures), followed by dermacentor marginatus (23%) and rhipicephalus sanguineus (10%). four human pathogens, including seven rickettsia species, ana ...200919556569
histopathology of rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) ticks fed on resistant hosts.histological features of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks fed on dog, a non resistant host, and on guinea pig, a resistant host, were compared. unfed ticks and ticks from each host species were collected during first and third infestation and processed for histology. many ticks from guinea pigs, especially during third infestation, were unattached, dehydrated and small. only the midgut of ticks fed on guinea pigs had host leukocytes. vacuolization of midgut cells was observed in all ticks, with ex ...201019554460
detection and identification of rickettsial agents in ticks from domestic mammals in eastern panama.several outbreaks of rocky mountain spotted fever have occurred in recent years in colombian communities close to the border with panama. however, little is known about rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases in eastern panamanian provinces, the darien province and the kuna yala, located north of the endemic area in colombia. in 2007, 289 ticks were collected in several towns from dogs, horses, mules, cows, and pigs. dna was extracted from 124 dermacentor nitens, 64 rhipicephalus sanguineus, 43 amb ...200919645289
determination of lc(50) of permethrin acaricide in semi-engorged females of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae).currently, the most efficient and widely used method of tick control still is the treatment with acaricides, especially permethrin (active ingredient of the advantage, max3, bayer), a pyrethroid with neurotoxic action. due to the wide use of this acaricide in the control of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, this study carried out laboratorial procedures to determine the lc(50) (lethal concentration fifty) of permethrin in semi-engorged females of r. sanguineus. based on the result of 14 dilutio ...200919679129
canine piroplasmosis in italy: epidemiological aspects in vertebrate and invertebrate italy, canine piroplasmosis is believed to be widespread, but few data are available on its presence in most areas. in 2005 and 2006, vertebrate and invertebrate hosts were investigated in central and northern regions of the country. microscopy on blood smears, molecular tools and serological tests were applied to 420 blood samples collected from dogs, in order to evaluate the presence of these protozoa and to identify possible risk factors. moreover, ticks were analyzed by molecular techniqu ...200919632786
ectoparasites of dogs and cats in hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around tirana, albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. the dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (december-february), spring (march-may), and summer (june-august); the cats were examined in late autumn (november). in addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. the arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick spe ...200919690887
ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern brazil.from 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (parque zoobotânico arruda câmara and parque estadual dois irmãos) located in northeastern brazil were identified. ticks found on two veterinarians working in one of the parks (i.e., parque estadual dois irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park's territory, were also identified. the following tick-host associations were recorded: amblyomma fuscum neumann on boa constrictor l.; amblyo ...201019693679
ticks (acari: ixodidae) within various phytophysiognomies of a cerrado reserve in uberlândia, minas gerais, brazil.cerrado biome, the south american savannah, covers about 2 million km(2) and is very rich in endemic species but threatened by agriculture. in this report free-living tick species are presented, and their seasonal and relative distribution within the various phytophysiognomies in a small cerrado reserve in minas gerais state, brazil. overall 2,694 free-living ticks were found during a 2 years sampling period with co(2) traps and cloth dragging. of these, 73.5% were amblyomma cajennense and 0.6% ...201019693680
predominance of ehrlichia chaffeensis in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from kennel-confined dogs in limbe, cameroon.rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (n = 63) collected from five dogs (two adults and three puppies) housed in a kennel were screened for ehrlichial agents (ehrlichia canis, e. chaffeensis, and e. ewingii) using a species-specific multicolor real-time taqman pcr amplification of the disulphide bond formation protein (dsb) gene. ehrlichia chaffeensis dna was detected in 33 (56%) ticks, e. canis dna was detected in four (6%) ticks, and one tick was coinfected. the e. chaffeensis and e. canis nucleotide ...201019693681
development and use of real-time pcr to detect and quantify mycoplasma haemocanis and "candidatus mycoplasma haematoparvum" in dogs.two canine haemoplasma species have been recognised to date; mycoplasma haemocanis (mhc), which has been associated with anaemia in splenectomised or immunocompromised dogs, and "candidatus mycoplasma haematoparvum" (cmhp), recently described in an anaemic splenectomised dog undergoing chemotherapy. the study aim was to develop quantitative real-time pcr assays (qpcrs) incorporating an endogenous internal control to detect mhc and cmhp and to apply these assays to dna samples extracted from cani ...201019646827
ehrlichia chaffeensis infections in drosophila melanogaster.ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligate, intracellular bacterium, transmitted by the tick amblyomma americanum, and is the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis infections. we previously demonstrated that e. chaffeensis is capable of growing in drosophila s2 cells. therefore, we tested the hypothesis that e. chaffeensis can infect adult drosophila melanogaster. adult drosophila organisms were experimentally challenged with intra-abdominal injections of bacteria. ehrlichia-infected flies s ...200919687202
ticks and haemoparasites of dogs from praia, cape february 2008 an epidemiological field study on arthropod-borne infections in dogs was carried out in praia, the capital city of cape verde. for this purpose 130 dogs were included in the study. of these, 94.6% were infested with ticks. altogether, 1293 ticks of the genus rhipicephalus (in all evaluated cases r. sanguineus) were collected. examination for haemotropic parasites was performed via polymerase chain reaction (pcr). lymph node fine-needle aspirates were screened by pcr for leishman ...200919729247
morpho-histochemical characterization of salivary gland cells of males of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) at different feeding stages: description of new cell types.this study describes the changes undergone by cells of the salivary glands of unfed and feeding (at day two and four post-attachment) rhipicephalus sanguineus males, as well as new cell types. in unfed males, types i and ii acini are observed with cells "undifferentiated", undefined 1 and 2 (the latter, with atypical granules), a, c1 and c3; type iii is composed of cells d and e; and type iv present cells g. in males at day two post-attachment, type i acini exhibit the same morphology of unfed i ...201019582584
tick-borne rickettsiosis in traveler returning from honduras. 200919751607
directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance.filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. for example, metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. however, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this spec ...200919709419
preliminary study on the acaricidal efficacy of spinosad administered orally to dogs infested with the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae).spinosad is a novel mode of action insecticide and acaricide derived from a family of natural compounds produced from fermentation of the actinomycete, saccharopolyspora spinosa. although spinosad has been shown to have rapid knockdown and 1 month of residual efficacy against fleas (ctenocephalides spp.) following oral administration in dogs, potential activity against ticks infesting dogs has not been determined. to address this possibility, a proof-of-concept laboratory efficacy study was cond ...200919713042
effects of fipronil (active ingredient of frontline) on salivary gland cells of rhipicephalus sanguineus females (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae).the present study analyzed the effects of the chemical compound fipronil, active ingredient of frontline (acaricide and insecticide), on the salivary glands of unfed and semi-engorged female rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. unfed females were only exposed to the concentration of 1 ppm of fipronil, while semi-engorged females were treated with fipronil in three concentrations: 1 ppm, 5 ppm, and 10 ppm (distilled water was used as control). the histological and histochemical results revealed signifi ...200919748741
molecular dissimilarities of rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) in brazil and its relation with samples throughout the world: is there a geographical pattern?in this study the genetic variability of rhipicephalus sanguineus within brazil and its relation with ticks of the same group from different continents was evaluated. mitochondrial 12s and 16s rdna fragments of r. sanguineus from seven brazilian states were sequenced and compared to genbank sequences of r. sanguineus and r. turanicus ticks from africa, asia, europe, south america and usa. results indicate a relatively high intra-specific variability between brazilian samples but also a global la ...201019774468
prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower punjab, pakistan.bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of pakistan. the current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts layyah and muzaffargarh of lower punjab, pakistan. a questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determ ...200919782414
seasonal variation of infestation rate with lice, tick and mite among rodents in certain egyptian regions.four species of mites (ornithonyssus bacoti, haemolaelaps glusgowi, echinolaelaps echinolelaps & dermanyssus gallinae), two species of ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus & hyalomma dromedarrii) and one species of lice (polyplax spinulose) were identified on rodents during 4 successive seasons (2005) trapped in five governorates (suez, menoufia, giza, damietta and beni-sewaf). the rodents were rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus alexandrinus, rattus rattus frugivourus, acomys cahirinus and mus musculus ...200919795768
tick saliva induces regulatory dendritic cells: map-kinases and toll-like receptor-2 expression as potential targets.ticks (acari: ixodidae) are bloodsucking ectoparasitic arthropods of human and veterinary medical importance. tick saliva has been shown to contain a wide range of bioactive molecules with vasodilatory, antihemostatic, and immunomodulatory activities. we have previously demonstrated that saliva from rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks inhibits the maturation of dendritic cells (dcs) stimulated with lps. here we examined the mechanism of this immune subversion, evaluating the effect of tick saliva on ...201019836139
evaluation of the speed of kill of fleas and ticks with frontline top spot in dogs.the speed of kill of a spot-on formulation of fipronil (frontline top spot, merial limited, duluth, ga) against adult cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) and brown dog ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus) was evaluated in dogs in a commercial laboratory setting. forty dogs were allocated to 20 replicates of two based on sex and pretreatment flea counts. within each replicate, dogs were randomly allocated to an untreated control group or to treatment with fipronil, administered topically as a spot-on p ...200119753710
ticks on domestic animals in pernambuco, northeastern brazil.the objective of this article was to discuss some aspects of ticks associated with domestic animals in the state of pernambuco, northeastern brazil, based on a literature review and present new data obtained from recent tick collections carried out in this northeastern brazilian state. from august 2007 to june 2008, 1,405 ticks were collected and five species were identified: amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787), amblyomma ovale koch, 1844, dermacentor nitens neumann, 1897, rhipicephalus (boop ...200919772771
a survey of ectoparasitic arthropods on domestic animals in tak province, july 2008 a survey of ectoparasites on domestic animals was conducted in the royal thai army areas of operation along the thai-myanmar border, tak province, thailand. eleven different ectoparasites were collected: two species of hard ticks (ixodidae), three species of fleas (siphonaptera) and 6 species of sucking or chewing lice (2 species each in the suborders anoplura, ischnocera and amblycera) were collected. domestic dogs (canis lupusfamiliaris) (n = 94) were found infested with 2 species ...200919842427
ectoparasite infestation on rural dogs in the municipality of são vicente férrer, pernambuco, northeastern brazil.this article presents the results of a study on ectoparasites infesting rural dogs in pernambuco, northeastern brazil. forty-one dogs from a rural community of pernambuco were examined and 70.7% were infested by ectoparasites. the prevalence rates of infestation by ticks, fleas, and lice were 58.5, 43.9 and 22%, respectively. of 24 dogs parasitized by ticks, 15 were exclusively infested by rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (32 females, 66 males, 9 nymphs; prevalence, 48.8%; mean intensity, 5. ...200919772781
[pediatric mediterranean spotted fever].in france, mediterranean spotted fever due to rickettsia conorii is mainly observed in the south-east. rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, is the vector and the reservoir of the disease. clinical diagnosis relies on the association of fever, rash and inoculation's scar during summertime. pathological lesion is a diffuse vasculitis. severity is often explained by a delay in diagnosis, but prognosis is good in pediatrics. treatment relies on doxycycline and on macrolids in children under ...200919836684
the distribution of rickettsia in the tissues of insects and the absence of a satisfactory definition of rickettsia the observations herein recorded were arbitrarily limited to bacterium-like organisms which are intracellular and gram-negative. rickettsia of this type were found in the following species: amblyomma americana, amblyomma hebraeum, boophilus decoloratus, atomus sp., casinaria infesta, chrysopa oculata, ctenocephalus canis, dermacentor variabilis, lepisma saccharina, lucoppia curviseta, margaropus annulatus, margaropus annulatus australis, ...192319868737
treatment with a novel chemokine-binding protein or eosinophil lineage-ablation protects mice from experimental colitis.eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in numerous inflammatory diseases. the present study was conducted to clarify the precise role of eosinophils in the development of colitis by using eosinophil-depleted mice and a novel chemokine-binding protein that neutralizes ccl11 action. colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (dss) to wild-type and eosinophil-deficient deltadblgata-1 mice. accumulation of eosinophils in the gut of mice given dss paralleled worsen ...200919893035
efficacy of the bm86 antigen against immature instars and adults of the dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae).the bm86 antigen has been used to control ticks of the boophilus genera in integrated programs that also include the use of acaricides. because of recent phylogenetic studies have lead to the inclusion of all boophilus species within the rhipicephalus genera, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of the bm86 antigen on the biotic potential of rhipicephalus sanguineus. domestic dogs were vaccinated with bm86 and challenged with the three instars of r. sanguineus. male and female mongrel dogs were ...201019836894
prevalence and geographical distribution of canine hemotropic mycoplasma infections in mediterranean countries and analysis of risk factors for infection.two hemoplasma species are known in dogs: mycoplasma haemocanis (mhc) and 'candidatus mycoplasma haematoparvum' (cmhp). although their transmission routes are poorly understood, rhipicephalus sanguineus has been suggested as a potential tick vector. the aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical importance of canine hemoplasmas in countries with a mediterranean climate where r. sanguineus is highly prevalent using taqman real-time pcr, and to molecularly ch ...201019931320
feeding-associated gene expression in sheep scab mites (psoroptes ovis).the mite psoroptes ovis is the causative agent of sheep scab. although not usually fatal, the disease can spread rapidly and is a serious animal welfare concern. vaccine development against ectoparasites has primarily focussed on two sources of candidate vaccine antigens - "exposed" antigens that are secreted in saliva during feeding on a host and "concealed" antigens that are usually expressed in the parasite gut and may be involved in digestion. here, we sought to identify genes encoding prote ...201019852923
when yellow jackets attack: recurrent and severe anaphylactic reactions to insect bites and stings. 200919862831
fleatickrisk: a meteorological model developed to monitor and predict the activity and density of three tick species and the cat flea in europe.mathematical modelling is quite a recent tool in epidemiology. geographical information system (gis) combined with remote sensing (data collection and analysis) provide valuable models, but the integration of climatologic models in parasitology and epidemiology is less common. the aim of our model, called "fleatickrisk", was to use meteorological data and forecasts to monitor the activity and density of some arthropods. our parasitological model uses the weather research and forecasting (wrf) me ...200919908193
evaluation of the vectorial capacity of rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) in the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis.the vectorial capacity of rhipicephalus sanguineus in the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis has been evaluated through a laboratory-controlled experiment. one healthy leishmania-free dog and two dogs naturally infected with leishmania were infested with r. sanguineus in various stages of development. engorged larvae, unfed nymphs, engorged nymphs, unfed adults, engorged female adults and fed male adults were collected from the experimental animals and examined for leishmania infectio ...201020012095
burden of tick-borne infections on american companion animals.this review examines the biology of ticks and tick-borne infections in the united states. the most common tick-borne diseases in dogs and cats are discussed. we demonstrate that there is much interest in tick-borne infections at the level of the lay public (pet owners), describe trends in the distribution and prevalence of tick-borne infections in the united states, summarize some issues in understanding the degree of ill health due to tick-borne infections, and suggest some avenues for research ...200919945085
discovery of ectoparasiticidal hydrazonotrifluoromethanesulfonanilides.a series of hydrazonotrifluorosulfonanilide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro activity against the ectoparasites ctenocephalides felis and rhipicephalus sanguineus. some compounds with excellent activity against tick were identified.201019962303
structural basis of chemokine sequestration by a tick chemokine binding protein: the crystal structure of the complex between evasin-1 and ccl3.chemokines are a subset of cytokines responsible for controlling the cellular migration of inflammatory cells through interaction with seven transmembrane g protein-coupled receptors. the blocking of a chemokine-receptor interaction results in a reduced inflammatory response, and represents a possible anti-inflammatory strategy, a strategy that is already employed by some virus and parasites. anti-chemokine activity has been described in the extracts of tick salivary glands, and we have recently ...200920041127
evidence of exposure to spotted fever group rickettsiae among arizona dogs outside a previously documented outbreak area.since 2003, two communities in eastern arizona have experienced a sustained outbreak of rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf), caused by rickettsia rickettsii, associated with transmission by rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick; 70 human cases, including eight deaths, were reported from these communities during 2003 through 2008. in both of the affected communities, antibodies to spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) were present in dogs before the notice of the first human cases, sugges ...201120042069
transcriptome analysis of the synganglion from the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus.tick control strategies rely heavily on chemicals (acaricides), most of which target the central nervous system. with increasing resistance, new acaricides are urgently needed but knowledge of tick neurobiology is surprisingly limited, notably the number of neural-specific gene sequences. one thousand and eight expressed sequence tags (ests) were obtained from a normalized cdna library from rhipicephalus sanguineus synganglia. putative functional identities were assigned to 44% whereas 34% were ...201020002796
molecular and clinical evidence of ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in cameroonian patients with undifferentiated febrile the u.s.a., human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (hme) caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis. in cameroon, where e. canis, e. chaffeensis and e. ewingii have recently been detected in dogs and/or ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus), the potential exists for human infections. patients from the coastal region of cameroon who had acute fevers of unknown aetiology were therefore checked for ehrlichial infection, using a real-time pcr that amplifies part of a genus-spe ...200920030996
differences in the behavior of rhipicephalus sanguineus tested against resistant and susceptible ascertain whether brown dog tick rhipicephalus sp. infests resistant (beagle) and susceptible (english cocker spaniel) dogs differently, five animals of each breed were maintained in a kennel whose walls were infested with 7,000 larvae, 320 nymphs, 80 males and 80 females, in 3 infestations, at 10-day intervals. five times more ticks were found on cocker spaniels (498) than on beagles (96). substances were collected by rubbing pieces of clean flannel on the dogs for 15 min and these were test ...201020091335
the ccl3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha-binding protein evasin-1 protects from graft-versus-host disease but does not modify graft-versus-leukemia in mice.ccl3 is a protein of the cc chemokine family known to be important for t cell recruitment in inflammatory diseases. the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects and putative mechanism of action of evasin-1, a novel ccl3-binding protein, in the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease (gvhd). gvhd was induced by the transplantation of splenocytes from c57bl/6j to b6d2f1 mice. treatment of recipient mice with evasin-1 prevented mortality associated with gvhd. this was correlated ...201020100934
ticks (acari: ixodoidea: argasidae, ixodidae) of china.this paper presents results of an investigation and listing of tick species found in china during a survey in all 28 provinces. this will be a step towards a definitive list of tick species and their distribution. to date, the tick fauna of this area consists of 117 species in the following families: argasidae-argas (7 species), carios (4 species) and ornithodoros (2 species); ixodidae-amblyomma (8 species), anomalohimalaya (2 species), dermacentor (12 species), haemaphysalis (44 species), hyalo ...201020101443
mediterranean spotted fever, a diagnostic challenge in travellers.mediterranean spotted fever or boutonneuse fever is caused by rickettsia conorii and transmitted by the brown dog tick. the commonest symptoms are pyrexia, a maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathies and an inoculation eschar. increasingly, it is recognised as a cause of serious illness in southern europe. rickettsial infections of the spotted fever group are rarely reported in belgium. we report the case of a 20-year-old traveller returning from morocco who presented with fever and a markedly swoll ...200920101874
detection of leishmania infantum in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from brazil and italy.canine leishmaniosis is a widespread disease caused by leishmania parasites, which are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. however, in some areas where canine leishmaniosis is endemic, but the primary vectors have not been found, ticks have been suspected to play a role in transmitting the infection. herewith, we report the detection of leishmania infantum kinetoplast minicircle dna (kdna) in ticks collected from naturally infected dogs living in rural areas of southern italy (site a) and no ...201020127362
seroprevalence of equine piroplasms and host-related factors associated with infection in greece.serum samples were collected from a total of 544 equids that included 524 horses, 13 mules, and 7 ponies from various regions of mainland greece and were examined by competitive-inhibition elisa (celisa) to evaluate the level of exposure of greek equids to theileria (babesia) equi and/or babesia caballi, the causative agents of piroplasmosis. association between seropositivity and host-related factors of species, gender, age, origin, activity and location were investigated. the overall seropreva ...201020138434
transovarial passage of leishmania infantum kdna in artificially infected rhipicephalus sanguineus.phlebotomine sand flies are the only proven biological vectors of leishmania parasites. however, rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks have long been suspected to transmit leishmania infantum in studies carried out in laboratory and natural conditions. in the present study, 5 microl of l. infantum promastigotes (1x10(6) cells per ml) was injected into the hemocel through the coxa i of four engorged females (f1, f2, f3 and f4). control ticks (f5 and f6) were injected with sterile phosphate-buffered sali ...201020138871
canine and feline vector-borne diseases in italy: current situation and italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, dipylidium caninum, leishmania infantum, dirofilaria immitis, and dirofilaria repens) are of zoonotic concern. recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors ...201020145730
biogeography of tick-borne bhanja virus (bunyaviridae) in europe.bhanja virus (bhav) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. this generally neglected arbovirus of the family bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera haemaphysalis, dermacentor, hyalomma, rhipicephalus, boophilus, and amblyomma. geographic distribution of bhav covers southern and central asia, africa, and southern (partially also central) europe. comparative biogeographic study of eight know ...201020182535
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