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anti-hepatozoon canis serum antibodies and gamonts in naturally-occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.the prevalence of igg antibodies to hepatozoon canis and the presence of gamonts in the blood and hemolymphatic tissues were studied in dogs with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (cme) caused by ehrlichia canis. both pathogens are transmitted by the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. forty-five out of 69 (65.2%) dogs with cme were seropositive to h. canis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). intra-neutrophilic gamonts of h. canis were found in 2 out of 69 dogs (2.9%) comprising 4.5% of the ...200515845277
biochemical fingerprints of salivary gland for some ticks species in egypt by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophresis.sds-page gel electrophoresis as a sensitive method is used for simultaneously comparing the total protein extracted from salivary glands in some ticks species (argas percsicus, hyalomm antolicum excavatum, h. an. antolicum, h. dromedarii, h. impeltatum and rhipicephalus sanguineus). results of a. persicus were characterized by 4 bands with molecular weights ranging from 82.76 to 16.076 kd. on the other hand, h. an. excavatum females were characterized by 6 bands with molecular weights ranging fr ...200515881001
morphological characterization of the ovary and oocytes vitellogenesis of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae).this study presents the morphology of the ovary, as well as the process of the vitellogenesis in oocytes of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. the ovary of these individuals is of the panoistic type; therefore, it lacks nurse cells. this organ consists of a single tubular structure, continuous, and composed of a wall formed by small epithelial cells with rounded nuclei which delimit the lumen. the oocytes in the different developmental stages in this tick species were classified into five stages ...200515888297
biological and dna evidence of two dissimilar populations of the rhipicephalus sanguineus tick group (acari: ixodidae) in south america.in this work, the biology, mitochondrial dna and fertility of hybrids from two strains of rhipicephalus sanguineus, from brazil and argentina, were compared. engorged larvae, nymphs and adults from argentina weighed more and the engorgement period of adult females was significantly longer than those of their brazilian counterparts, whereas adult female tick yield rate was higher for the brazilian strain. high intraspecific divergence of mitochondrial dna was detected between r. sanguineus from b ...200515893080
efficacy of a combination of imidacloprid 10%/permethrin 50% versus fipronil 10%/(s)-methoprene 12%, against ticks in naturally infected dogs.preventing tick bites is a fundamental step towards reducing the impact of tick-borne protozoal, bacterial and viral diseases (tbds) in humans and animals. the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination of imidacloprid 10%/permethrin 50% and of fipronil 10%/s-methoprene 12% against ticks in naturally infected dogs and to assess methodological parameters to calculate drug efficacy on tick immature stages. from july to august 2004, 45 privately owned dogs of various sexes, age ...200515893431
a cross-reactive tick cement antigen is a candidate broad-spectrum tick vaccine.truncated constructs of 64p (64trps), a secreted cement protein from salivary glands of the tick rhipicephalus appendiculatus, provided cross-protection against rhipicephalus sanguineus and ixodes ricinus, apparently by targeting antigens in the midgut and salivary glands of adults and nymphs, causing mortality. tick feeding on 64trp-immunised animals stimulated local inflammatory immune responses (involving basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, macrophages and dendritic-like cells) t ...200515913855
dogs with hepatozoon canis respond to the oxidative stress by increased production of glutathione and nitric oxide.canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan hepatozoon spp. it has been reported in the united states, southern europe, the middle east, africa and the far east. in turkey, canine hepatozoonosis was reported for the first time in 1933. in the present study, serum glutathione (gsh), malondialdehyde (mda), nitric oxide (no) and ceruloplasmin levels were analysed in 14 dogs infected with hepatozoon canis as well as in 10 healthy dogs. blood smears were prepared from periph ...200515936891
transstadial and intrastadial experimental transmission of ehrlichia canis by male rhipicephalus sanguineus.the acquisition and transmission of rickettsial pathogens by different tick developmental stages has important epidemiological implications. the purpose of this study was to determine if male rhipicephalus sanguineus can experimentally acquire and transmit ehrlichia canis in the absence of female ticks. two trials were performed where nymphal and male r. sanguineus were simultaneously acquisition fed on the same infected donor hosts, and transstadially or intrastadially exposed male ticks were f ...200515941624
transcription analysis of the major antigenic protein 1 multigene family of three in vitro-cultured ehrlichia ruminantium isolates.ehrlichia ruminantium, an obligate intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks of the genus amblyomma, causes heartwater disease in ruminants. the gene coding for the major antigenic protein map1 is part of a multigene family consisting of a cluster containing 16 paralogs. in the search for differentially regulated genes between e. ruminantium grown in endothelial and tick cell lines that could be used in vaccine development and to determine if differences in the map1 gene cluster exist between ...200515995193
[autochthonous cases of canine babesiosis in the canton solothurn].starting in november 2003 a series of five clinical cases of canine babesiosis was registered in the region of obergösgen (canton solothurn). all presented dogs showed increased body temperature, thrombocytopenia and hemoglobinuria, and none of the dogs had been abroad or visited endemic regions in the southern or western part of switzerland so far. babesia canis was detected in the blood smears of all five patients, but only three had detectable specific antibodies against this parasite. howeve ...200515999636
immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in a 4-month-old german shepherd dog.a 4-month-old, intact female, german shepherd dog exhibited a painful abdomen and lethargy. immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was diagnosed and initial remission attained using prednisone. upon relapse, prednisone and vincristine together were unsuccessful in achieving remission. this case is unique due to the young age of the dog.200516018567
interception of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus, infesting man. 198616031283
diagnosis of hepatozoon spp. in amblyomma ovale and its experimental transmission in domestic dogs in brazil.transmission of hepatozoon spp. to dogs was investigated using four species of ixodid ticks: rhipicephalus sanguineus, amblyomma aureolatum, amblyomma ovale and amblyomma cajennense. we collected completely or partially engorged adult ticks of these species from dogs that were naturally infested and positive for hepatozoon spp. we selected some of these ixodids and inoculated them orally in four negative dogs. the other ticks were dissected and examined for oocysts. of all dogs inoculated orally ...200516081219
rocky mountain spotted fever--changing ecology and persisting virulence. 200516093463
rocky mountain spotted fever from an unexpected tick vector in arizona.rocky mountain spotted fever is a life-threatening, tick-borne disease caused by rickettsia rickettsii. this disease is rarely reported in arizona, and the principal vectors, dermacentor species ticks, are uncommon in the state. from 2002 through 2004, a focus of rocky mountain spotted fever was investigated in rural eastern arizona.200516093467
anaplasma phagocytophilum, sardinia, italy. 200516110587
transmission of rickettsia massiliae in the tick, rhipicephalus turanicus.rickettsia massiliae, strain bar29, was detected in engorged female ticks of the rhiphicephalus sanguineus group collected in corsica, a french mediterranean island. ticks were identified by molecular analysis as rhipicephalus turanicus (pomerantsev) (acari: ixodidae). twenty larvae of the second generation obtained from a r. massiliae-infected, engorged female were tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and all were positive for r. massiliae. larvae of the same cohort were fed on rabbits and ...200516134974
hemorrhagic disease in dogs infected with an unclassified intraendothelial piroplasm in southern brazil.a hemorrhagic disease affecting dogs in brazil, referred to popularly as "nambiuvú" (bloody ears) and believed to be transmitted by ticks, has been observed in animals infected with an organism described originally in 1910 as a piroplasm, and known locally as rangelia vitalii. in this series of 10 cases, the disease was characterized by anaemia, jaundice, fever, spleno- and lymphadenomegaly, hemorrhage in the gastrointestinal tract, and persistent bleeding from the nose, oral cavity and tips, ma ...200516153781
ehrlichial infection in cameroonian canines by ehrlichia canis and ehrlichia ewingii.ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii are agents of emerging human ehrlichioses in north america and are transmitted primarily by amblyomma americanum ticks, while ehrlichia canis is the globally distributed cause of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (cme) and is transmitted by the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. although e. canis and ehrlichia ruminantium are endemic in africa, the presence of ehrlichial agents in dogs and ticks in cameroon has not been investigated. the objective o ...200516181750
assessment of fungal isolates for development of a myco-acaricide for cattle tick control.entomopathogenic fungal isolates of arachnid origin were assessed for their ability to produce mortality and inhibit egg hatching in boophilus microplus with the aim of selecting an isolate for development into a myco-acaricide for control of cattle ticks. the ability of the most promising isolate to target developmental stages of more than one tick species and the optimum concentration of fungal inoculum to be used for future studies were determined. metarhizium anisopliae was the most pathogen ...200516187897
[distribution and control of acari as vectors of human disease in urban population of moscow].human ectoparasites, such as itch mites and the follicular mites demodex brevis and d. folliculorum are notified on the territory of moscow. the bird and rodent mites ornythonyssus bacoti and the larvae of harvest mites may attack human beings indoors. the ticks ixodes ricinus and i. persulcatus begin to inhabit the tree belts and environs of moscow and other cities and towns. in the cities and towns of more southern regions of the russian federation, the red hen-mites dermanyssus gallinae are a ...200516212087
tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: emerging diseases challenging old concepts.during most of the 20th century, the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsioses could be summarized as the occurrence of a single pathogenic rickettsia on each continent. an element of this paradigm suggested that the many other characterized and noncharacterized rickettsiae isolated from ticks were not pathogenic to humans. in this context, it was considered that relatively few tick-borne rickettsiae caused human disease. this concept was modified extensively from 1984 through 2005 by the identif ...200516223955
[in vitro pathogenicity of fungic formulation on nymphs and adults of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreile, 1806) (acari:ixodidae)].rhipicephalus sanguineus is responsible for transmitting several pathogenic agents, such as: babesia sp. and ehrlichia sp.. this species is known as the brown dog tick and has wide geographical distribution. the purpose of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of biological formulations of beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae applied to the fed nymphs and adults of r. sanguineus under laboratory conditions. the following treatments were evaluated: control, distilled water with twe ...200516229753
cerebral infarction: an unusual complication of mediterranean spotted fever.mediterranean spotted fever is a rickettsiosis caused by rickettsia conorii and transmitted by the brown dog tick. it is considered as a benign disease but 5% to 10% of patients present with a malignant form which is the result of a diffuse vasculitis. we report here the first case of mediterranean spotted fever with cerebral vasculitis and thrombosis leading to a massive cerebral infarct and death.200516275553
detection of babesia canis rossi, b. canis vogeli, and hepatozoon canis in dogs in a village of eastern sudan by using a screening pcr and sequencing methodologies.babesia and hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern sudan were analyzed by using a single pcr and sequencing. among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with b. canis vogeli. thirty-three dogs were positive for hepatozoon. hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis.200516275954
some observations on ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting sheep in river nile province of northern sudan.five species of ixodid ticks were found in a cross-sectional survey in which 200 sheep were examined for ticks in river nile province, sudan. hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the predominant species (73.6%), whereas ticks belonging to the rhipicephalus sanguineus group (14.7%), rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (9.1%), rhipicephalus simus (2%) and hyalomma dromedarii (0.5%) were also found. the mean tick load was 11.2 per animal. in a subsequent longitudinal survey ticks were collected on a monthl ...200516300192
histopathology of tick-bite lesions in naturally infested capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in brazil.in the present work features of tick-bite lesions were evaluated in capybaras naturally infested with amblyomma cajennense and amblyomma dubitatum ticks. gross appearance of tick bite site was characterized by a mild swelling and erythema. microscopic examination revealed the cement cone, a tube-like homogenous eosinophilic mass penetrating deep into the dermis. this structure was surrounded in the dermis by a cellular infiltrate and free eosinophilic granules and was associated to edema of vari ...200516323054
presence of rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis, the causative agent of israeli spotted fever, in sicily, italy, ascertained in a retrospective study.a retrospective analysis by molecular-sequence-based techniques was performed to correctly identify the etiological agent of 24 mediterranean spotted fever cases occurring in western sicily, italy, from 1987 to 2001. restriction analysis of a 632-bp pcr-amplified portion of the ompa gene allowed presumptive identification of five clinical isolates as belonging to rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis, the etiological agent of israeli spotted fever (isf). the remaining 19 rickettsial isolates wer ...200516333093
an unexpected inhibitory activity of kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor derived from boophilus microplus trypsin inhibitor on cathepsin l.several bpti-kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitors were described in tick boophilus microplus and rhipicephalus sanguineus species. in this work, we present a synthetic gene based on two tick bpti-kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitors, the first domain of b. microplus trypsin inhibitor-a (bmti-a) and the carrapatin, the inhibitors were named bmtisint and bmtisint mut. our present results showed that bmtisint and bmtisint mut inhibited trypsin (k(i) 3.3 and 1.0 nm) and human plasma kallikre ...200616414023
experimental infection models of ticks of the rhipicephalus sanguineus group with rickettsia conorii.rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks collected on dogs in thailand were maintained in the laboratory over several generations to test methods to infect these ticks with rickettsia conorii, the agent of mediterranean spotted fever. three methods were tested: (1) infection of adults and nymphs through artificially induced bacteremic rabbit, (2) capillary feeding of solution containing 5 x 10(3) and 5 x 10(5)pfu/ml of r. conorii to adult female ticks, and (3) immersion of engorged nymphs which were ...200516417432
new diseases and increased risk of diseases in companion animals and horses due to transport.dogs and horses are transported within the european union for a number of reasons. the transport per se may cause physical problems, exemplified by hyperthermia in dogs and pleuropneumonia in horses, and the stress may reactivate latent infections such as canine herpesvirus-1 and equine herpesvirus-1. preventive treatments are vital to protect dogs from ticks and mosquitoes transmitting their potentially lethal infectious agents, such as leishmania donovani infantum, babesia canis, ehrlichia can ...200316429803
a study of ectoparasites of canis lupus familiaris in mueang district, khon kaen, thailand.we studied ectoparasites found on canis lupus familiaris sampled in five areas in mueang district, khon kaen province, thailand. the prevalence of fleas and ticks as well as their density were determined in 100 dogs that did not receive treatments. a total number of 458 ectoparasites was found corresponding to two species: 25.8% ctenocephalides canis and 74.2% rhipicephalus sanguineus. r. sanguineus was the most abundant species, and ct. canis was the only flea species found. the stages of r. sa ...200516438201
ticks, ivermectin, and experimental chagas disease.following an infestation of dogticks in kennels housing dogs used for long-term studies of the pathogenesis of chagas disease, we examined the effect of ivermectin treatment on the dogs, ticks, trypanosome parasites, and also on triatomine vectors of chagas disease. ivermectin treatment was highly effective in eliminating the ticks, but showed no apparent effect on the dogs nor on their trypanosome infection. triatominae fed on the dogs soon after ivermectin treatment showed high mortality, but ...200616444412
[ixodidae ticks in bishkek].the fauna of ixodidae ticks was studied in bishkek in 1998-2004. the city is situated in the center of the chuisk valley, at the foot of the kirghiz ridge, at the boundary of a submountain-plain-arid region and a plain-piedmont-semiarid one with steppe fragments. the ticks were gathered on a flag from small mammalians caught by gero traps, from birds, domestic and agricultural animals. a total of 648 animals of 13 species were examined. the bites of ticks were registered in 98 persons in the cit ...200516445237
influence of season and host age on wild boar parasites in corsica using indicator species analysis.the indicator value (ind val) method which combines measures of fidelity and specificity has been used in a study on wild boar parasites in corsica during 2001-2003. because of its resilience to changes in abundance, indval is a particularly effective tool for ecological bioindication. the ind val method showed how season can influence the occurrence of parasite species in the wild boar, and also identified parasites as bioindicators relative to host age. the randomization test identified five p ...200616469171
rickettsia africae in the west indies.rickettsia africae is the agent of african tick-bite fever, a mild but common disease of local persons and tourists in africa. the major vector of this spotted fever group rickettsia is most likely amblyomma variegatum, the tropical bont tick, which has become widely distributed through the west indies in the last 30 years. this report reviews all available information on r. africae in the west indies.200616494746
rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae), the brown dog tick, parasitizing humans in brazil.the objective of this paper is to describe four cases of human parasitism by rhipicephalus sanguineus (latrielle) in brazil. during an investigation regarding the species of ectoparasites of domestic dogs from the metropolitan region of recife, pernambuco state, four dog owners were found to be parasitized by ticks. the ticks were collected from these individuals and their dogs. all the ticks were identified as rhipicephalus sanguineus . these are, to our knowledge, the first four cases of human ...200616501769
canine babesiosis in france.canine babesiosis has a high prevalence in france and continues to constitute a diagnostic challenge. this paper presents essential data derived from epidemiological surveys in order to define the main features of this disease. atypical forms are frequent, the diagnosis must be confirmed by blood smears and treatment is based on the use of imidocarb. prophylaxis currently remains insufficient.200616507334
prevalence, risk factor analysis, and follow-up of infections caused by three feline hemoplasma species in cats in switzerland.recently, a third novel feline hemotropic mycoplasma sp. (aka hemoplasma), "candidatus mycoplasma turicensis," in a cat with hemolytic anemia has been described. this is the first study to investigate the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and risk factors for all three feline hemoplasma infections in a sample of 713 healthy and ill swiss cats using newly designed quantitative real-time pcr assays. "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum" infection was detected in 7.0% and 8.7% and mycoplasma haem ...200616517884
synergistic effect of silencing the expression of tick protective antigens 4d8 and rs86 in rhipicephalus sanguineus by rna interference.tick proteins have been shown to be useful for the development of vaccines which reduce tick infestations. potential tick protective antigens have been identified and characterized, in part, by use of rna interference (rnai). rnai allows for analysis of gene function by characterizing the impact of loss of gene expression on tick physiology. herein, we used rnai in rhipicephalus sanguineus to evaluate gene functions of two tick protective antigens, 4d8 and rs86, the homologue of bm86, on tick in ...200616518610
genetic diversity of the q fever agent, coxiella burnetii, assessed by microarray-based whole-genome comparisons.coxiella burnetii, a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, causes human q fever and is considered a potential agent of bioterrorism. distinct genomic groups of c. burnetii are revealed by restriction fragment-length polymorphisms (rflp). here we comprehensively define the genetic diversity of c. burnetii by hybridizing the genomes of 20 rflp-grouped and four ungrouped isolates from disparate sources to a high-density custom affymetrix genechip containing all open reading frames (orfs) ...200616547017
ticks infesting livestock on farms in western sicily, italy.the results of a 2-year survey on ticks infesting livestock on farms in western sicily, italy, are reported. several dogs living in the same area were also examined for ticks. moreover, free-living ticks from one cattle farm were caught by co(2) traps and flagging. a total of 6208 specimens was collected belonging to 9 species: rhipicephalus bursa (32.4%), rhipicephalus turanicus (22.7%), rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.3%), hyalomma lusitanicum (12.0%), haemaphysalis punctata (7.8%), hyalomma marg ...200616550337
mediterranean spotted fever: clinical and laboratory characteristics of 415 sicilian children.mediterranean spotted fever (msf) is an acute febrile, zoonotic disease caused by rickettsia conorii and transmitted to humans by the brown dogtick rhipicephalus sanguineus. nearly four hundred cases are reported every year (mainly from june to september) on the italian island of sicily. the aim of the study was to analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with msf and the efficacy of the drugs administered.200616553943
[characterization of rickettsia spp. circulating in a silent peri-urban focus for brazilian spotted fever in caratinga, minas gerais, brazil].the present study was intended to characterize rickettsia spp. circulating in arthropod vectors in caratinga, minas gerais, brazil, by pcr and to investigate the presence of antibodies against the spotted fever rickettsiae group (sfrg) in dogs and horses. 2,610 arthropods were collected and taxonomically identified. dna samples obtained from these vectors were submitted to pcr and cycle-sequenced. ctenocephalides and amblyomma cajennense showed sequences presenting 100.0% homology with r. felis. ...200616583093
rickettsia massiliae human isolation. 200616634183
[evaluation of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in dogs kept in apartments and houses with yards in the city of juiz de fora, minas gerais, brazil].fleas and ticks transmit various pathogens while feeding on the blood of dogs. this study sought to verify the occurrence of ectoparasitism and hemoparasitism in dogs from two urban areas in the city of juiz de fora, minas gerais, brazil. between february and august 2003, 101 dogs were studied: 50 came from apartments in the downtown region and 51 from houses with grassy yards. the ectoparasites were collected and conserved in etanol 70%. the occurrence of hemoparasites was verified by examining ...200616646996
the genome of the obligately intracellular bacterium ehrlichia canis reveals themes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies.ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, alpha-proteobacterium, is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. complete genome sequencing revealed that the e. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable rna species, 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of noncoding sequence (27%). interesting genome features include a large set o ...200616707693
[ixodes ricinus. health risks and approaches in prevention].ticks belong to the parasitical mites. there are more than 1000 different species worldwide which do need blood of warm-blooded organisms for their own development. as ticks are well known to be vectors of several pathogens which could cause insidious infectious diseases, they are important in human and veterinarian medicine as well. it is not possible to control ticks in nature. therefore the first step should be an effective prevention. in case of a bite the tick must be removed as soon as pos ...200616719260
prevalence of theileria spp. infection in sheep in south khorasan province, iran.the prevalence of theileria spp. infection was studied in sheep in the south khorasan province in iran from 2003 to 2004. a total of 840 sheep from 34 flocks were clinically examined and investigated for the presence of theileria spp. in the appropriate blood smears and any tick species on the body of the animals. in this study, 11.9% of sheep were infected with theileria spp., with a parasitemia of 0.02-0.1%. differences in the infection rates were statistically significant among different area ...200616730905
[anaplasma phagocytophila and protozoans of babesia genus in dogs from endemic areas of lyme disease in north-western poland].infections caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato may be accompanied by other microorganisms, such as anaplasma, ehrlichia and babesia. these pathogens are transmitted by the ticks and are a risk to humans and animals. ixodes ricinus ticks collected from recreational areas of szczecin and northwestern poland contained dna of the pathogens mentioned above and cases of double and triple coinfection have been documented. the aim of this paper was to determine if dogs suspect to ti ...200416865968
molecular characterization of anaplasma platys strains from dogs in sicily, italy.the genetic diversity of anaplasma platys (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) strains is currently poorly defined. the present study was designed to characterize a. patys strains in dogs from palermo, sicily, italy, using a combination of pcr and sequence analysis of the 16s rdna, heat shock operon groesl and citrate synthase (glta) genes.200616872489
epidemiology and clinical features of mediterranean spotted fever in italy.mediterranean spotted fever is caused by rickettsia conorii and is transmitted to humans by rhipicephalus sanguineus, the common dog tick. it is characterized by the symptomatologic triad: fever, exanthema and "tache noire", the typical eschar at the site of the tick bite. in italy the most affected region is sicily. the seasonal peak of the disease (from june through september) occurs during maximal activity of immature stage ticks. severe forms of the disease have been reported in 6% of patien ...200616881414
assessment of the efficacy of parasiticides for the control of tick infection in dogs under field conditions: what's new?for their biological and ecological characteristics, ticks are vectors of the widest variety of pathogens causing tick-borne diseases (tbds). little information is available about the ways in which time spent by ticks to feed on hosts, transmission times and tbd prevention are related and it is exclusively limited to laboratory reports on adult stages. in particular, the time required by immature stages to transmit pathogens has not been determined for most tbds. considering their importance for ...200616881418
dog tick-borne diseases in sicily.in sicily many tick borne diseases are endemic, in particular way those that see like main carrier ticks that prefer, for their vital cycle, climatic conditions characterized by high temperatures and a warmth-humid atmosphere. the more important pathologies transmitted by ticks causing diseases in dogs are babesiosis and ehrlichiosis. borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, rickettsia conorii, coxiella burnetii and tick transmitted encephalitis virus assume particular relevance because ...200616881419
isolation and identification of rickettsia massiliae from rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected in arizona.twenty rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected in eastern arizona were tested by pcr assay to establish their infection rate with spotted fever group rickettsiae. with a nested pcr assay which detects a fragment of the rickettsia genus-specific 17-kda antigen gene (htra), five ticks (25%) were found to contain rickettsial dna. one rickettsial isolate was obtained from these ticks by inoculating a suspension of a triturated tick into monolayers of vero e6 monkey kidney cells and xtc-2 clawed toa ...200616885311
infection of human endothelial cells with spotted fever group rickettsiae stimulates cyclooxygenase 2 expression and release of vasoactive prostaglandins.rickettsiae, a diverse group of obligately intracellular gram-negative bacteria, include etiologic agents of the spotted fever and typhus groups of diseases. rocky mountain spotted fever and boutonneuse fever, due to rickettsia rickettsii and r. conorii, respectively, are characterized by widespread infection of the vascular endothelium, microvascular injury, and vasculitis. cultured human endothelial cells (ec) are highly susceptible to infection and respond by altering the expression of adhesi ...200616926398
species diversity and seasonality of free-living ticks (acari: ixodidae) in the natural habitat of wild marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) in southeastern brazil.this study evaluated the presence and seasonal activity of free-living ticks in remaining marsh areas by the paraná river, in brazil. eight field trips (once per season) for collection of ticks were performed during 2 years. using co2 traps, dragging, and visual inspection of vegetation, five free-living tick species were collected, in the following order of abundance: amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma dubitatum, amblyomma triste, amblyomma coelebs, and amblyomma nodosum. the seasonal pattern of a ...200716962241
canine babesiosis: a brazilian perspective.canine babesiosis is highly endemic in brazil, caused by babesia canis and babesia gibsoni, both transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. the present review argues for a more adequate method of characterizing the babesia species infecting dogs and cats in different brazilian endemic zones. it advocates for a comprehensive understanding of the biology of r. sanguineus ticks under brazilian conditions in order to define the more effective preventive strategies against canine babesiosis and c ...200616962707
[study of foveae dorsales of nymphs and adults of four species of ticks (acari: ixodidae) by scanning electron microscopy].the foveae dorsalis, the external opening of the sex pheromone 2,6-dichlorophenol producer gland, of amblyomma cajennense, dermacentor nitens, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and rhipicephalus sanguineus was studied with scanning electron microscopy. at least three specimens from each stage: unfed larvae, nymphs, females and males, and females fed for 4 to 6 days were examined. the foveae dorsales were not observed in larvae and r. (b.) microplus males. the foveae dorsales were observed as p ...200616978471
rickettsial agents in egyptian ticks collected from domestic animals.to assess the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from egypt, we collected ticks from domestic and peridomestic animals between june 2002 and july 2003. dna extracts from 1019 ticks were tested, using pcr and sequencing, for anaplasma spp., bartonella spp., coxiella burnetii, ehrlichia spp., and rickettsia spp. ticks included: 29 argas persicus, 10 hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, 55 hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, 174 hyalomma dromedarii, 2 hyalomma impeltatum, 3 hyalomma marginatum rufipe ...200617004028
babesia spp. identified by pcr in ticks collected from domestic and wild ruminants in southern switzerland.concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens affected a cattle herd in switzerland, and one of the pathogens was identified as babesia bigemina, which had never been observed in this country before. therefore, a survey of the occurrence of ruminant babesia spp. and their tick vectors in switzerland was conducted. a total of 2,017 ticks were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and wild ruminants (deer, roe deer, and chamois) in southern parts of switzerland and identified morphologically. t ...200617021198
molecular method for identification of rickettsia species in clinical and environmental samples.we present a pcr method targeting the 23s-5s internal transcribed spacer coupled with reverse line blotting that allows rickettsia species detection and identification in a single step. the method is highly sensitive and specific in identifying rickettsia species from both patient and environmental samples. the generic approach used allowed us to identify new pathogens.200617035495
phylogenetic analysis of "candidatus mycoplasma turicensis" isolates from pet cats in the united kingdom, australia, and south africa, with analysis of risk factors for infection.two hemotropic mycoplasmas have been recognized in cats, mycoplasma haemofelis and "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum." we recently described a third feline hemoplasma species, designated "candidatus mycoplasma turicensis," in a swiss cat with hemolytic anemia. this isolate induced anemia after experimental transmission to two specific-pathogen-free cats and analysis of the 16s rrna gene revealed its close relationship to rodent hemotropic mycoplasmas. the agent was recently shown to be prevale ...200617035497
evaluation of an imidacloprid (8.8% w/w)--permethrin (44.0% w/w) topical spot-on and a fipronil (9.8% w/w)--(s)-methoprene (8.8% w/w) topical spot-on to repel, prevent attachment, and kill adult rhipicephalus sanguineus and dermacentor variabilis ticks on dogs.this study evaluated the effectiveness of two topical spot-on formulations, imidacloprid (8.8% w/w)--permethrin (44.0% w/w) and fipronil (9.8% w/w)--(s)-methoprene (8.8% w/w), to repel, prevent the attachment of, and kill adult rhipicephalus sanguineus and dermacentor variabilis on dogs. twelve purpose-bred beagles were distributed into three groups of four dogs each; one group served as untreated controls and each of the other two groups received one of the test products. dogs were exposed to 2 ...200617039441
differential clearance and immune responses to tick cell-derived versus macrophage culture-derived ehrlichia chaffeensis in mice.human monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by a tick-transmitted rickettsia, ehrlichia chaffeensis. we recently reported that e. chaffeensis grown in tick cells expresses different proteins than bacteria grown in macrophages. therefore, we tested the hypothesis that immune responses against e. chaffeensis would be different if the mice are challenged with bacteria grown in macrophages or tick cells. we assessed the e. chaffeensis clearance from the peritoneum, spleen, and liver by c57bl/6j mice usin ...200717060466
rickettsia massiliae in ticks removed from humans in castilla y león, spain. 200617061097
highly prevalent coxiella sp. bacterium in the tick vector amblyomma americanum.laboratory-reared and field-collected amblyomma americanum ticks were hosts of a coxiella sp. and a rickettsia sp. while the coxiella sp. was detected in 50 of 50 field-collected ticks, the rickettsia sp. was absent from 32% of ticks. the coxiella sp. showed evidence of a reduced genome and may be an obligate endosymbiont.200717085709
epidemiology of rickettsioses in north africa.the first description of mediterranean spotted fever (msf) was made by conor and brush in 1910 in tunisia, where, at the same time, nicolle described the role of lice in transmission of epidemic typhus. however, along this century, there have been few and fragmentary reports about ecology and epidemiology of rickettsioses in north africa. this region was always considered, for these diseases, like other mediterranean regions. the most human tick-borne rickettsiosis known to occur in north africa ...200617114678
boutonneuse fever and climate variability.researchers have long appreciated the role of climate in vector-borne diseases, including the resurgence of boutonneuse fever (bf). portugal usually is classified as having temperate mediterranean climate. in this new century, in analyzing the data from the meteorology institute, this pattern has changed and an accentuated variability in climate is being observed. bf (febre escaro nodular) is endemic and high season is from late spring and summer. the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. is ...200617114701
prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsia species detected in ticks in la rioja, spain.our objective was to learn the prevalence of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia detected in ticks in la rioja, in the north of spain. from 2001 to 2005, 496 ticks representing 7 tick species were analysed at the hospital de la rioja. ticks were removed from humans with or without rickettsial syndrome (n = 59) or collected from mammals (n = 371) or from vegetation by dragging (n = 66). the presence of sfg rickettsia in these ticks was investigated by semi-nested pcr (ompa gene) and sequencing. ...200617114730
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks feeding on humans in northwestern spain: is rickettsia conorii vanishing?during a 7-year study, we identified and analyzed by pcr 4,049 ticks removed from 3,685 asymptomatic patients in castilla y león (northwestern spain). a total of 320 ticks (belonging to 10 species) were pcr-positive for rickettsiae. comparison of amplicon sequences in databases enabled us to identify eight different spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae: rickettsia slovaca, rickettsia sp. irs3/irs4, r. massiliae/bar29, r. aeschlimannii, rickettsia sp. rpa4/dns14, r. helvetica, rickettsia sp. dms ...200617114733
rocky mountain spotted fever in arizona: documentation of heavy environmental infestations of rhipicephalus sanguineus at an endemic site.a recent epidemiologic investigation identified 16 cases and 2 deaths from rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) in two eastern arizona communities. prevalence studies were conducted by collecting free-living ticks (acari: ixodidae) from the home sites of rmsf patients and from other home sites within the community. dry ice traps and flagging confirmed heavy infestations at many of the home sites. only rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were identified and all developmental stages were detected. it is ...200617114735
an outbreak of rocky mountain spotted fever associated with a novel tick vector, rhipicephalus sanguineus, in arizona, 2004: preliminary report.this study describes preliminary results of an investigation of rmsf in arizona associated with the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. high numbers of dogs and heavy infestations of ticks created a situation leading to human disease.200617114736
first molecular detection of r. conorii, r. aeschlimannii, and r. massiliae in ticks from algeria.ticks collected in northern algeria between may 2001 and november 2003 were tested by pcr for the presence of rickettsia spp. dna using primer amplifying glta and ompa genes. three different spotted fever group rickettsias were amplified from these ticks: r. conorii subsp. p. conorii strain malish in rhipicephalus sanguineus, r. aeschlimannii in hyalomma marginatum, and r. massiliae in rhipicephalus turanicus. our results confirm the presence of r. conorii in ticks in algeria and provide the fir ...200617114743
surveys on seroprevalence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis among dogs living in the ivory coast and gabon and evaluation of a quick commercial test kit dot-elisa.canine monocytic ehlichiosis (cme), an enzootic disease in africa, has been studied in canine blood samples (serum). these dogs, without any clinical sign of disease, were living in abidjan (ivory coast) and in several small villages located in northeasst gabon (ogooué ivindo). the results obtained by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test, used as a point of reference, and by a quick test dot-elisa were compared. blood samples taken from 390 asymptomatic dogs in 2003 (137 in ivory coast and 2 ...200617114755
spotted fever group rickettsial infection in dogs from eastern arizona: how long has it been there?a serosurvey of free-roaming dogs for antibodies to spotted fever group rickettsiae was conducted using archival samples that had been collected in the white mountain region of eastern arizona during a plague study in 1996. immunoglobulin g antibodies to rickettsia rickettsii (5.1%) and to r. rhipicephali (3.6%) were demonstrated, and no cross-reactive samples were identified. this study indicates that r. rickettsii was likely present in the dog populations in this area prior to the recognition ...200617114769
molecular typing of novel rickettsia rickettsii isolates from arizona.seven isolates of rickettsia rickettsii were obtained from a skin biopsy, two whole-blood specimens, and from rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from eastern arizona. molecular typing of seven isolates of r. rickettsii and dna samples from two other rh. sanguineus ticks infected with r. rickettsii was conducted by pcr and dna sequencing of rompa and 12 variable-number tandem repeat regions (vntrs). all dna specimens from arizona were identical to each other and to reference human and dermacentor and ...200617114781
infection of ixodes scapularis ticks with rickettsia monacensis expressing green fluorescent protein: a model system.ticks (acari: ixodidae) are ubiquitous hosts of rickettsiae (rickettsiaceae: rickettsia), obligate intracellular bacteria that occur as a continuum from nonpathogenic arthropod endosymbionts to virulent pathogens of both arthropod vectors and vertebrates. visualization of rickettsiae in hosts has traditionally been limited to techniques utilizing fixed tissues. we report epifluorescence microscopy observations of unfixed tick tissues infected with a spotted fever group endosymbiont, rickettsia m ...200717125789
isolation of rickettsia rhipicephali and rickettsia bellii from haemaphysalis juxtakochi ticks in the state of são paulo, brazil.in the present study, attempts to isolate rickettsia in cell culture were performed individually in seven specimens of haemaphysalis juxtakochi ticks collected in the state of são paulo (southeastern brazil). rickettsia was successfully isolated by the shell vial technique and established in vero cell culture from six ticks (six isolates). dna extracted from infected cells of these isolates was tested by pcr and dna sequencing, using genus-specific rickettsia primers targeting the genes glta, ht ...200717142361
novel acetylcholinesterase target site for malaria mosquito control.current anticholinesterase pesticides were developed during world war ii and are toxic to mammals because they target a catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterases (aches) in insects and in mammals. a sequence analysis of aches from 73 species and a three-dimensional model of a malaria-carrying mosquito (anopheles gambiae) ache (agache) reported here show that c286 and r339 of agache are conserved at the opening of the active site of aches in 17 invertebrate and four insect species, respec ...200617183688
national assessment of human health effects of climate change in portugal: approach and key findings.in this study we investigated the potential impact of climate change in portugal on heat-related mortality, air pollution-related health effects, and selected vectorborne diseases. the assessment used climate scenarios from two regional climate models for a range of future time periods. the annual heat-related death rates in lisbon may increase from between 5.4 and 6 per 100,000 in 1980-1998 to between 8.5 and 12.1 by the 2020s and to a maximum of 29.5 by the 2050s, if no adaptations occur. the ...200617185290
serologic evidence for exposure to rickettsia rickettsii in eastern arizona and recent emergence of rocky mountain spotted fever in this region.during 2002 through 2004, 15 patients with rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) were identified in a rural community in arizona where the disease had not been previously reported. the outbreak was associated with rickettsia rickettsii in an unexpected tick vector, the brown dog tick (rhipicephalus sanguineus), which had not been previously associated with rmsf transmission in the united states. we investigated the extent of exposure to r. rickettsii in the local area through serologic evaluations ...200617187578
gene silencing of the tick protective antigens, bm86, bm91 and subolesin, in the one-host tick boophilus microplus by rna interference.the use of rna interference (rnai) to assess gene function has been demonstrated in several three-host tick species but adaptation of rnai to the one-host tick, boophilus microplus, has not been reported. we evaluated the application of rnai in b. microplus and the effect of gene silencing on three tick-protective antigens: bm86, bm91 and subolesin. gene-specific double-stranded (dsrna) was injected into two tick stages, freshly molted unfed and engorged females, and specific gene silencing was ...200717196597
developmental profiles in tick water balance with a focus on the new rocky mountain spotted fever vector, rhipicephalus sanguineus.recent reports indicate that the common brown dog tick, or kennel tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (acari: ixodidae) is a competent vector of rocky mountain spotted fever in the u.s.a. this tick is of concern to public health because of its high frequency of contact, as it has a unique ability to thrive within human homes. to assess the moisture requirements necessary for survival, water balance characteristics were determined for each developmental stage, from egg to adult. this is th ...200617199747
sero-prevalence and risk indicators for canine ehrlichiosis in three rural areas of brazil.ehrlichia canis has a worldwide geographic distribution, occurring particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. in brazil, the main vector in urban areas is believed to be the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, but little is known about the occurrence, transmission and other epidemiological aspects of canine ehrlichiosis in rural areas, where amblyomma ticks are found more frequently than r. sanguineus. a sero-prevalence study of canine ehrlichiosis was carried out in three distinct rur ...200717204439
the low seroprevalence of tick-transmitted agents of disease in dogs from southern ontario and quebec.infectious diseases caused by pathogens transmitted by ticks and other insect vectors are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both dogs and humans throughout north america. the purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of selected vector-transmitted pathogens in southern ontario and quebec. samples submitted to the vector borne disease diagnostic laboratory (vbddl) at the north carolina state university college of veterinary medicine were evaluated for antibodies to ...200617217089
hyalomma aegyptium as dominant tick in tortoises of the genus testudo in balkan countries, with notes on its host preferences.collection of 1327 ticks sampled throughout greece, bulgaria, romania and croatia, from 211 tortoises belonging to three species, testudo marginata schoepff, t. graeca linnaeus, and t. hermanni gmelin, revealed the presence of four species of ixodid ticks, namely hyalomma aegyptium (linnaeus), haemaphysalis sulcata canestrini and fanzago, h. inermis birula and rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille). study confirmed the strong dominance of all life stages of h. aegyptium among ticks parasitizing we ...200717237970
an investigation into the distribution, host-preference and population density of ixodid ticks affecting domestic animals in bangladesh.to study the distribution, host-preference and population density of ixodid ticks in bangladesh, an attempt was made to collect adult ticks from various host animals in three distinct topographic zones, viz. flood plains, hills and steppe 'barind'. five species of ixodid ticks were recorded, namely, boophilus microplus (56.3%), haemaphysalis bispinosa (11.3%), rhipicephalus sanguineus (14.7%), hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (15.0%) and amblyomma testudinarium (2.8%). the data showed that b. micr ...200617243476
prevalence of ehrlichia canis (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) in dogs and rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) ticks from brazil.the current study evaluated the prevalence of ehrlichia canis donatien and lestoquard in domestic dogs, canis familiaris l., and rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (acari: ixodidae) ticks from different areas of brazil. in monte negro county (state of rondônia, brazilian western amazon), the indirect immunofluorescence assay detected e. canis-reactive antibodies (titer > or = 40) in 58/153 (37.9%) and 40/161 (24.8%) dogs from the urban and rural areas, respectively. these values were significa ...200717294930
detection of rickettsia rickettsii and bartonella henselae in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from california.sixty-two questing adult rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) ticks were collected by direct removal from blades of turfgrass and adjacent concrete walkways at a suburban home in riverside county, ca, and tested for the presence of rickettsia, bartonella, and ehrlichia dna. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amplify fragments of the 17-kda antigen gene and the rompa gene of the spotted fever group rickettsiae. one male tick contained r. rickettsii dna; its genotype differed from r. rick ...200717294935
uninfected mosquito bites confer protection against infection with malaria parasites.despite decades of research and multiple initiatives, malaria continues to be one of the world's most debilitating infectious diseases. new insights for malaria control and vaccine development will be essential to thwart the staggering worldwide impact of this disease (a. bjorkman and a. bhattarai, acta trop. 94:163-169, 2005); ultimately successful vaccine strategies will undoubtedly be multifactorial, incorporating multiple antigens and targeting diverse aspects of the malaria parasites' biolo ...200717339356
differential interaction of dendritic cells with rickettsia conorii: impact on host susceptibility to murine spotted fever rickettsiosis.spotted fever group rickettsioses are emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, some of which are life-threatening. in order to understand how dendritic cells (dcs) contribute to the host resistance or susceptibility to rickettsial diseases, we first characterized the in vitro interaction of rickettsiae with bone marrow-derived dcs (bmdcs) from resistant c57bl/6 (b6) and susceptible c3h/hen (c3h) mice. in contrast to the exclusively cytosolic localization within endothelial cells, rickettsiae ...200717403875
real-time pcr investigation of potential vectors, reservoirs, and shedding patterns of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas.three hemotropic mycoplasmas have been identified in pet cats: mycoplasma haemofelis, "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum," and "candidatus mycoplasma turicensis." the way in which these agents are transmitted is largely unknown. thus, this study aimed to investigate fleas, ticks, and rodents as well as saliva and feces from infected cats for the presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas, to gain insight into potential transmission routes for these agents. dna was extracted from arthropods and from rod ...200717468284
life cycle of hepatozoon canis (apicomplexa: adeleorina: hepatozoidae) in the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus and domestic dog (canis familiaris).the life cycle of the apicomplexan protozoon hepatozoon canis in its natural hosts rhipicephalus sanguineus (tick) and canis familiaris (domestic dog) was studied in an experimental infection. tick nymphs were fed on a naturally infected dog, or they were infected by percutaneous injection of blood. dogs were inoculated by ingestion of adult ticks containing mature oocysts. gamonts were in syzygy 24 hr after percutaneous injection of ticks. early oocysts were detected 96 hr after nymph repletion ...200717539411
molecular typing of isolates of rickettsia rickettsii by use of dna sequencing of variable intergenic regions.rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of rocky mountain spotted fever, is found throughout the americas, where it is associated with different animal reservoirs and tick vectors. no molecular typing system currently exists to allow for the robust differentiation of isolates of r. rickettsii. analysis of eight completed genome sequences of rickettsial species revealed a high degree of sequence conservation within the coding regions of chromosomes in the genus. intergenic regions between codi ...200717553977
francisella tularensis, portugal. 200717561575
q fever (coxiella burnetii) among man and farm animals in north sinai, egypt.antibodies against coxiella burnetii were estimated among sheep, goats and camels (190), their owners (150 patients with pyrexia of unknown origin) and 30 normal individuals in north sinai over the 2006 by indirect immounofluorescence assay. nested polymerase chain reaction was used to detect com-1 gene (genetic target of c. burnetii) encoding a 27-kda outer membrane protein in the samples. c. burnetii ifa antibodies (igm & igg) in patients were 8 (5.3%) and a healthy control (3.3%). the overall ...200717580573
tick acquisition of ehrlichia canis from dogs treated with doxycycline hyclate.doxycycline generally alleviates clinical monocytic ehrlichiosis, but its efficacy in the control of monocytotropic ehrlichial pathogens requires further investigation. in this study, ehrlichia canis was detected in dogs treated with doxycycline for 14 days and in ticks fed on these dogs, suggesting that treated dogs can remain reservoirs for e. canis.200717606682
coinfection with multiple tick-borne and intestinal parasites in a 6-week-old dog.coinfection with ehrlichia canis, babesia canis, hepatozoon canis, isospora spp., giardia spp., and dipylidium caninum were detected in a 6-week-old dog. the effect of multi-pathogen infection was a fatal combination of gastrointestinal and hematologic abnormalities, including diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, distended painful abdomen, intussusception, severe thrombocytopenia, anemia, and hypoproteinemia.200717616060
hepatozoon canis infection in slovakia: imported or autochthonous?tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the michalovce district (slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by pcr method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18s rrna spanning the v4 region of babesia and theileria. an unexpected determination of 450 bp dna fragment of hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. partial sequences of the 18s rrna gene from the h. can ...200717627439
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