transmission of hepatozoon americanum (apicomplexa: adeleorina) by ixodids (acari: ixodidae).american canine hepatozoonosis (ach) caused by hepatozoon americanum vincent-johnson, macintire, lindsay, lenz, baneth, and shkap is an emerging, often fatal, tick-borne protozoal disease of dogs in the united states of america. dogs acquire infection by ingesting ticks that contain oocysts. to understand the invertebrate (definitive) host range of h. americanum, experiments were carried out using four ixodids, rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille), dermacentor variabilis say, amblyomma americanu ...200212144294
modification of the food and agriculture organization larval packet test to measure amitraz-susceptibility against ixodidae.modifications of exposure time, substrate, and formulation were made to the food and agriculture organization larval packet test (lpt) to determine a combination suitable for measuring the susceptibility of boophilus microplus (canestrini) to amitraz. exposure time influenced the slope of the dose-response when paper was used as a substrate for amitraz. however, time did not influence the dose-response slope when nylon fabric was used as an amitraz substrate. formulated amitraz produced results ...200212144297
evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of rio de janeiro, brazil.ticks were obtained from dogs from february to september of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the county of piraí, state of rio de janeiro. four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 amblyomma cajennense, seven amblyomma ovale, 209 rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 amblyomma sp. an hemolymph test associated with giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (r. sanguineus and amblyomma sp), containing rickettsia-like organisms. direct immunofluorescence verified ...200212163909
first detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodes ricinus from italy.ixodes ricinus from italy were examined for the first time to detect whether rickettsiae were present. using molecular methods, we detected three different spotted fever group rickettsiae, including rickettsia helvetica. our results raise the possibility that bacteria other than r. conorii are involved in rickettsial diseases in italy.200212194779
gynandromorphism in amblyomma cajennense and rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).during a survey of ticks on horses in november 2000, at the university of são paulo farm in pirassununga county, são paulo, brazil, 1 gynandromorph of amblyomma cajennense was collected from a naturally infested horse. in another survey on dogs in march 2001, in the urban area of monte negro, rondônia, brazil, a gynandromorph of rhipicephalus sanguineus was collected from a naturally infested dog. both specimens are described and classified as perfect bipartite protogynanders.200212197141
detection of rickettsia prowazekii in body lice and their feces by using monoclonal order to identify rickettsia prowazekii in lice, we developed a panel of 29 representative monoclonal antibodies selected from 187 positive hybridomas made by fusing splenocytes of immunized mice with sp2/0-ag14 myeloma cells. immunoblotting revealed that 15 monoclonal antibodies reacted with the lipopolysaccharide-like (lps-l) antigen and 14 reacted with the epitopes of a 120-kda protein. only typhus group rickettsiae reacted with the monoclonal antibodies against lps-l. r. felis, a recently ...200212202579
abnormal development of rhipicephalus sanguineus (ixodidae).three malformed rhipicephalus sanguineus specimens were noticed in a tick laboratory colony. these specimens had different degrees of twining, from an almost fused individual (with two anal pores) to a partially fused adult male, with four spiracular plates. one female was a heart-shaped specimen. with both body halves fused along a longitudinal axes, with four spiracular plates and two anal pores.200112206587
an epidemiological study on ovine babesiosis in the mashhad suburb area, province of khorasan, iran.the prevalence of babesia spp. infection was studied in sheep of the mashhad area in iran from 1998 to 2000. a total of 677 sheep originating from 115 flocks were clinically examined and investigated for the presence of babesia spp. in appropriate blood smears and any tick species on the body of the animals. the study revealed that the infection rate for babesia ovis and babesia motasi were 167 (24.6%) and 4 (0.5%), respectively. double (mixed) infections occurred in 21 (3%) sheep. differences i ...200212208039
attraction of the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum, to human breath and to the breath components acetone, no and co2.ticks are of medical and veterinary importance and employ several cues in search of a host. olfaction is one modality by which ticks locate a blood-meal and breath is the major vent of gaseous and volatile metabolites from the host that could contribute to this search. we studied the responses of a hunter tick, amblyomma variegatum, to diluted human breath and five of its components (acetone, co2, no, isoprene and nh3) while walking in an air stream on a locomotion compensator. diluted breath el ...200212216862
development of resistance to nymphs of amblyomma cajennense ticks (acari:ixodidae) in dogs.ticks have long been regarded as constraints to humans and domestic animals, but hosts often develop resistance to ticks after repeated infestations. the purpose of this investigation was to study the possible acquisition of immunity in domestic dogs to nymphs of a. cajennense by determining the tick alimentary performance after successive controlled infestations. mean engorged weight of nymphs was not significantly different among the three infestations; molting rate from nymph to adult ticks, ...200212381587
prevalence of ectoparasites in a population of feral cats from north central florida during the summer.ectoparasites are a common and important cause of skin disorders in cats. ectoparasites are capable of disease transmission and can cause life-threatening anemia in young or debilitated animals. the objective of this study was to determine the potential feline ectoparasites in domestic cats by using a cohort of feral cats from north central florida that have not received veterinary care and have no known exposure to insecticide application. a total of 200 feral cats were randomly selected for th ...200212383632
efficacy of two 65 % permethrin spot-on formulations against canine infestations of ctenocephalides felis and rhipicephalus sanguineus.the efficacy of two formulations of a topically applied 65% permethrin spot-on for dogs (defend exspot treatment for dogs, schering-plough animal health corp.) was evaluated against experimental infestations of the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis, and the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. thirty dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with 65 % permethrin in diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (original formulation), 65 % permethrin in propylene glycol monomethyl ether (test formulation ...200212447841
ticks (acari: ixodidae) associated with domestic dogs in franca region, são paulo, brazil.ticks on 140 domestic dogs from both urban and rural areas of franca region in são paulo state were identified with 102 dogs from urban areas and 38 from rural areas. of urban dogs, 27.5% were infested exclusively by rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. of the rural dogs, 36.8% were infested with the following tick species: r. sanguineus, boophilus microplus, amblyomma ovale and a. cajennense. mixed infestations included a dog hosting a. cajennense and a. ovale and another with b. microplus and r. sa ...200112455880
naturally occurring ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in two prosimian primate species: ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) and ruffed lemurs (varecia variegata).a naturally occurring infection of ehrlichia chaffeensis in lemurs is described. dna of ehrlichia chaffeensis was identified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood from six of eight clinically ill lemurs. organisms were cultured from the blood of one lemur exhibiting clinical and hematologic abnormalities similar to those of humans infected with e. chaffeensis.200212498671
genetic variability within borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies established by pcr-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the rrfa-rrlb intergenic spacer in ixodes ricinus ticks from the czech europe the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is represented by five distinct genospecies: borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia afzelii, borrelia garinii, borrelia valaisiana, and borrelia lusitaniae. these taxonomic entities are known to differ in their specific associations with vertebrate hosts and to provoke distinct clinical manifestations in human patients. however, exceptions to these rules have often been observed, indicating that strains belonging to a single genospecies ...200312514035
ehrlichia chaffeensis: a prototypical emerging pathogen.ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted bacterium that is maintained in nature in a cycle involving at least one and perhaps several vertebrate reservoir hosts. the moderate to severe disease caused by e. chaffeensis in humans, first identified in 1986 and reported for more than 1,000 patients through 2000, represents a prototypical "emerging infection." knowledge of the biology and natural history of e. chaffeensis, and of the epidemiology, clinical features, and ...200312525424
fine structure of the synganglion of unfed female rhipicephalus (rhipicephalus) sanguineus (latreille) (ixodoidea: ixodidae).the synganglion of unfed female rhipicephalus (rhipicephalus) sanguineus (latreille) is enclosed within a well defined neural lamella underlined by the perineurium. no organelles were observed in the neural lamella, whereas axons containing neurosecretory vesicles, tracheal elements and glycogen deposits are visible in the perineurium. below the perineurium, a cortical layer of nervous and non-nervous elements surrounds an inner neuropile, the latter is enclosed by a thin subperineurial layer. t ...200112557924
genital system structure of unfed female rhipicephalus (rhipicephalus) sanguineus (latreille) (ixodoidea: ixodidae).the reproductive system of female rhipicephalus sanguineus consists of a single ovary, paired oviducts fusing into a single common oviduct, connecting tube, the vagina that in turn divides into cervical and vestibular regions, a wide receptaculum seminis and tubular accessory glands that open into the vagina between the cervical and vestibular regions. the histological structure of each part of the female reproductive system is described. the fine structure of the ovary, connecting tube and acce ...200112557929
transcriptional analysis of p30 major outer membrane protein genes of ehrlichia canis in naturally infected ticks and sequence analysis of p30-10 of e canis from diverse geographic regions.rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks transmit ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis. in experimentally infected ticks, only p30-10 transcript was detected among 22 p30 paralogs encoding immunodominant major outer membrane p30 proteins of e. canis. the present study revealed transcription of p30-10 by e. canis in naturally infected ticks and sequence conservation of p30-10 genes for e. canis from diverse geographic regions.200312574308
effects of salivary gland extract from rhipicephalus sanguineus on igg subclass production and cytokine mrna expression in mononuclear cells of canine peripheral blood.the effects of salivary gland extract (sge) from r. sanguineus were examined on the production of igg1 and igg2 and the mrna expression of ifn-gamma, il-2, il-4, il-5 and il-10 in the mononuclear cells from canine peripheral blood, treated with concanavalin a (cona) in vitro. sge suppressed the cona-induced production of igg2. it also inhibited the expression of ifn-gamma, il-2 and il-5 mrna in a dose-dependent manner. no dose-dependent suppression was observed of il-10 mrna expression although ...200312576721
assay of fipronil efficacy to prevent canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in endemic areas.our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil for the prevention of ehrlichia canis transmission to dogs by rhipicephalus sanguineus in two endemic areas situated in africa (dakar and djibouti). we carried out controlled trials in kennels for 1 year on 248 dogs, mainly police dogs and military working dogs. eight groups were studied in a multi-centre study. fifty five fipronil treated dogs were located in two separated kennels (g3, 37 dogs in djibouti and g8, 18 dogs in dakar). g1 (66 d ...200312581587
efficacy of three dose volumes of topically applied 65% permethrin against ctenocephalides felis and rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs weighing 30 kg or more.twenty-five dogs were evenly and randomly allocated by weight to five treatment groups: untreated control, 2 ml 65% permethrin (dogs weighing 15 to 29 kg, "average dogs"), and 2, 3, or 4 ml 65% permethrin (dogs weighing > or = 30 kg, "big dogs"). each dog was infested with 125 unfed, adult cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis, and 50 unfed, adult brown dog ticks, rhipicephalus sanguineus, on days -3 (ticks only), -2 (fleas only), 3, 7, 14, 17, 21, 24, and 28. fleas and ticks were counted 1 and 3 or ...200212584681
antigenic classification of rickettsia felis by using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.rickettsia felis is a flea-transmitted rickettsia. there is a discrepancy between its reported phylogenic and phenotypic identifications. following the first report of r. felis, it was considered by tests with serologic reagents to be closely related to another recognized flea-transmitted rickettia, r. typhi. subsequently, it appeared to be more closely related to spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae by genetic analysis. in the present work, r. felis was studied by microimmunofluorescence (mif) ...200312626446
bartonella henselae in ixodes ricinus ticks (acari: ixodida) removed from humans, belluno province, italy.the potential role of ticks as vectors of bartonella species has recently been suggested. in this study, we investigated the presence of bartonella species in 271 ticks removed from humans in belluno province, italy. by using primers derived from the 60-kda heat shock protein gene sequences, bartonella dna was amplified and sequenced from four ixodes ricinus ticks (1.48%). to confirm this finding, we performed amplification and partial sequencing of the pap31 protein and the cell division protei ...200312643827
identification of ctenocephalides felis fleas as a host of rickettsia felis, the agent of a spotted fever rickettsiosis in yucataƄ, search for the vector of the recently recognized spotted fever rickettsiosis of the yucatán, ticks, fleas, and lice were collected from vegetation and dogs in localities where seropositive persons had been found. the arthropods were examined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using primers for the genus-specific 17-kda protein gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) and dna sequencing. eleven (20%) of 54 pools of ctenocephalides felis fleas contained dna of rickettsia ...200212653300
cloning and characterization of an ehrlichia canis gene encoding a protein localized to the morula membrane.a gene encoding a 23.5-kda ehrlichial morula membrane protein designated mmpa was cloned by screening an ehrlichia canis expression library with convalescent dog sera, which resulted in three positive clones. sequence analysis of the insert dnas from all three clones indicated an open reading frame with a size of 666 bp that encodes mmpa. the structural analysis of mmpa indicated that it is a transmembrane protein with extreme hydrophobicity. southern blot analysis of the hindiii-digested chromo ...200312654844
ixodid tick species recovered from domestic dogs in japan.the species of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) recovered from domestic dogs in japan between september to november 2000 and april to june 2001 were identified. a total of 4122 ticks, including 1624 larvae, 1200 nymphs, 1016 females and 282 males were removed from 1221 dogs during these periods. haemaphysalis longicornis (neumann) was the most frequently found (40.3% of dogs), followed by h. flava (neumann) (16.1% of dogs), rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (4.8% of dogs) and ixodes ovatus (neu ...200312680923
tick infestation of dogs in thessaloniki, northern greece.ticks were collected from 249 dogs, admitted over a one-year period (1996-1997) to a veterinary teaching hospital and four private veterinary practices located in the county of thessaloniki, greece. a total of 2812 ticks (acari: ixodidae) were collected, of which 2511 (89.3%) were rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) adults (1070 males, 1441 females), 156 (5.5%) r. turanicus pomerantsev adults (35 males, 121 females), 100 (3.6%) rhipicephalus spp. nymphs and 45 (1.6%) rhipicephalus spp. larvae. ...200312680933
detection of ehrlichia spp., anaplasma spp., rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the thai-myanmar border and vietnam.a total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the thai-myanmar border and in vietnam. they were tested by pcr to detect dna of bacteria of the order rickettsiales: three anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in thailand, including (i) anaplasma sp. strain anda465, which was considered a genotype of anaplasma platys (formerly ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from dermacentor aur ...200312682151
ultrastructural study of the infection process of rickettsia conorii in the salivary glands of the vector tick rhipicephalus sanguineus.this work was designed to study the infection process of rickettsia conorii in the salivary glands of experimentally infected rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. one hundred six uninfected engorged nymphs were intracelomically inoculated with approximately 2 x 10(3) plaque-forming units of a rickettsial suspension. after the molt, unfed and fed adults were dissected, and the salivary glands were extracted and processed for transmission electron microscopy observation. three different uninfected cont ...200212737546
emerging rickettsioses of the thai-myanmar investigate the presence of rickettsioses in rural residents of the central thai-myanmar border, we tested the blood of 46 patients with fever. four patients had murine typhus, three patients had scrub typhus, and eight patients had spotted fever group rickettsioses, including the first case of rickettsia felis infection reported in asia.200312737744
two species of canine babesia in australia: detection and characterization by pcr.the haemoprotozoan babesia canis has been recognized in australia for many years, and a second, smaller species has recently been discovered. amplification and sequencing of a partial region of the 18s small subunit ribosomal rna (rrna) gene enabled detection and characterization of the large and small canine babesiae of australia for the first time. isolates from northern australia were genetically characterized to be 99% homologous to babesia canis vogeli, confirming previous speculation about ...200312760669
rhipicephalus ticks infected with rickettsia and coxiella in southern switzerland (canton ticino).ticks of the rhipicephalus sanguineus species complex may be vector of various pathogens including rickettsia conorii (the etiological agent of the mediterranean spotted fever) and coxiella burnetii (cause of the query (q) fever). r. sanguineus ticks have been imported in several parts of central and northern europe, especially in environments such as kennels and houses providing the appropriate microclimatic conditions and the blood source necessary for their survival. since 1940 these ticks ha ...200212797987
serosurvey among mediterranean spotted fever patients of a new spotted fever group rickettsial strain (bar29).mediterranean spotted fever is an endemic disease in catalonia, spain. a new spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsial strain (bar29) of unknown pathogenicity for humans was isolated by our group, in 1996, from the dog brown tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. interestingly, rickettsia conorii was not isolated in this study. the aim of the present study was to assess the possible pathogenic role of the bar29 strain. to this purpose, serum samples from 15 patients with mediterranean spotted fever were ob ...200312803376
differentiation of rickettsiae by groel gene analysis.the nucleotide sequences (534 to 546 bp) of the groel gene, which encodes the 60-kda heat shock protein groel, from 15 rickettsial strains were determined and compared. in the phylogenetic tree created by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages and the neighbor-joining method, rickettsial strains could be distinguished from ehrlichia strains. five spotted fever group strains, four typhus group strains, and six scrub typhus group (stg) strains were differentiated as distinct ent ...200312843026
first isolation and identification of rickettsia conorii from ticks collected in the region of fokida in central greece.three different spotted-fever group rickettsiae-rickettsia conorii, r. massiliae, and r. rhipicephali-were detected and identified by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in rhipicephalus ticks collected from domestic animals in the fokida region of greece, where a high seroprevalence of antibodies to r. conorii was previously demonstrated. the infection rate of ticks was 1.6%. moreover, r. conorii was isolated from one rhipicephalus sanguineus tick.200312843081
antigens from rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks elicit potent cell-mediated immune responses in resistant but not in susceptible the present study we compared the immunological reactions between rhipicephalus sanguineus tick-infested susceptible (dogs and mice) and tick-resistant hosts (guinea pigs), elucidating some of the components of efficient protective responses against ticks. we found that t-cells from guinea pigs infested with adult ticks proliferate vigorously in the presence of concanavalin a (cona), whereas cona-induced cell proliferation of tick-infested mice and dogs was significantly decreased at 43.1 and ...200312860066
antibody and blood leukocyte response in rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) tick-infested dogs and guinea pigs.the dog is considered to be the natural host of rhipicephalus sanguineus and is unable to develop appreciable resistance even after repeated feedings. the guinea pig develops strong resistance after one infestation with adult ticks. antibody (igg) titres against tick salivary gland antigens (sgas) and blood leukocyte numbers in dogs and guinea pigs undergoing experimental r. sanguineus tick infestations were measured to detect a possible correlation with susceptibility or resistance of hosts. si ...200312860067
ehrlichiae and ehrlichial diseases in china.the various ticks collected from different areas of china were examined for the existence of ehrlichial agents by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with genus- or species-specific primers designed on the basis of ehrlichial 16s rrna genes and sequence analyses. in southern china, e. chaffeensis was detected in amblyomma testudinarium ticks from infested cattle, haemaphysalis yeni ticks from hare, and ixodes ovatus ticks from muntiacus reevesi. e. canis was identified in rhipicephalus sanguineus ti ...200312860598
detection of astrakhan fever rickettsia from ticks in kosovo.astrakhan fever is a summer spotted fever resembling mediterranean spotted fever, endemic in astrakhan, a region of russia located by the caspian sea. its agent is a spotted fever group rickettsia, member of the rickettsia conorii complex, transmitted to humans by rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus pumilio ticks. in summer 2001, french united nations troops in kosovo collected 2 ticks on asymptomatic soldiers (1 r. sanguineus and 1 hyalomma marginatum) and 10 ticks on dogs (7 r. sanguine ...200312860620
genetic diversity of bacterial agents detected in ticks removed from asymptomatic patients in northeastern italy.a total of 360 ticks were removed from 353 asymptomatic subjects in belluno province, italy and surrounding areas, from 1998 to 2001. ticks were identified as ixodes ricinus (357), ixodes hexagonus (1), rhipicephalus sanguineus (1), and ixodes ventalloi (1). tick dna was investigated by pcr and subsequent sequencing of amplified products to identity associated bacterial agents. primers targeting different genes of rickettsia (glta and ompa), borrelia (16s rdna, rpob), francisella (16s rdna), and ...200312860623
molecular evidence of coxiella-like microorganism harbored by haemaphysalis concinnae ticks in the russian far east.twenty female imago of haemaphysalis concinnae ticks collected from wild vegetation in may of 2001 in the obor region near khabarovsk in the russian far east were studied. dna was extracted with commercially available kits following manufacturer's instructions. we used broad range primers sfg3 and sfg6 proposed for amplification of 16s ribosomal rna gene's portion of spotted fever group rickettsia. initial amplification resulted in positive results in all 20 ticks. direct sequencing of five rand ...200312860630
israeli spotted fever rickettsia in sicilian rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. 200312899144
epidemiological survey of babesia species in japan performed with specimens from ticks collected from dogs and detection of new babesia dna closely related to babesia odocoilei and babesia divergens dna.detection and analysis of babesia species from ticks recovered from dogs in japan were attempted by pcr and nucleotide sequence analysis based on the 18s rrna gene, respectively. a total of 1136 ticks were examined for babesia dna by 18s rrna-based pcr and nucleotide sequencing. partial sequences of babesia canis vogeli dna were detected from six ticks in aomori, nara, hiroshima, oita, and okinawa prefectures; and babesia gibsoni asia-1 dna was also detected in four ticks in osaka, hiroshima, mi ...200312904344
evaluation of k9 advantix vs. frontline plus topical treatments to repel brown dog ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs. 200312928873
rhipicephalus sanguineus trypsin inhibitors present in the tick larvae: isolation, characterization, and partial primary structure determination.blood sucking animals are a rich source of proteinase inhibitors mainly those that interfere in their host hemostatic systems. the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus is an ectoparasite of dogs and other animals. the aims of this work were the purification and characterization of serine proteinase inhibitors present in r. sanguineus larvae (rsti). the inhibitors (rsti) were isolated by affinity chromatography on trypsin-sepharose and ion exchange chromatographies in resource q and mono s columns. thes ...200312941299
ixodid ticks on domestic animals in samut prakan province, thailand.the prevalence of tick-harboring domestic animals, tick density, and the species of ticks were studied throughout the year 2000, in muang samut prakan, bang phli and phra pradaeng districts of samut prakan province. the animals examined were canis lupus familiaris (450), bos indicus (cross-bred) (189), bos taurus (30), bubalus bubalis (171) and sus scrofa domestica (450). the total number of collected ticks was 1,491. the pigs did not harbor ticks. the stages of ticks collected were larvae, nymp ...200212971472
the isolation of coxiella burnetii from rhipicephalus sanguineus on naturally infected dogs. 195313022569
[various biological data on rhipicephalus sanguineus latreille, 1806, transmitter of spotted fever in north & northeast mexico]. 195613453996
brown dog tick. 195813522465
the insecticide-resistance problem: a review of developments in 1956 and 1957.the author reviews the growth of the insecticide-resistance problem throughout the world during the period between july 1956 and november 1957, and the developments in research on the subject during the same period.three new resistant species have been discovered-anopheles subpictus, chrysomyia putoria and rhipicephalus sanguineus-and eight new types of resistance in already resistant species have been observed. moreover, the geographical area covered by certain resistant insect populations has ...195813536795
[some experiments onthepossible role as virus transmittor and reservoir of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus latreille in myxomatosis]. 196113869785
sequence and expression analysis of virb9 of the type iv secretion system of ehrlichia canis strains in ticks, dogs, and cultured cells.ehrlichia canis virb9 was cloned and expressed. the sequences of virb9 from six geographic locations were identical. virb9 was transcribed by e. canis in dogs, ticks, and cell culture. infected dogs had antibodies to recombinant virb9, indicating that virb9 was produced by e. canis in dogs and was antigenic.200314500531
identification of tick vectors of ovine theileriosis in an endemic region of iran.this study was made to determine the population of ticks in infected sheep and attempting to identify the tick vectors of ovine theileriosis in an endemic area of iran from 2000 to 2001. a total of 188 suspected cases of ovine theileriosis from 28 flocks were clinically examined and investigated for the presence of theileria lestoquardi in appropriate blood smears and any tick species on body of sheep. in this study, 36.17% of sheep were infected to t. lestoquardi with a parasitemia of 0.01-15%. ...200314519321
american canine hepatozoonosis.american canine hepatozoonosis (ach) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central united states. characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ach is very debilitating and often fatal. dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult gulf coast ticks (amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ach is caused by the apicomplexan hepatozoon a ...200314557294
the susceptibility of different species and stages of ticks to entomopathogenic fungi.boophilus annulatus, hyalomma excavatum and rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were shown to be susceptible to different entomopathogenic fungi under laboratory conditions. comparative results of bioassays using five different fungal species showed that some strains of metarhizium anisopliae are highly pathogenic against various tick stages tested. in contrast to to their activity against insects, fungi also affected tick eggs. all tested tick stages including those feeding on a host were found to b ...200214570142
the use of a 4% (w/w) deltamethrin collar (scalibor protectorband) in the extended control of ticks on dogs.deltamethrin (4%, w/w) formulated in a polymer matrix system (scalibor protectorband, intervet international bv) was evaluated for the prevention of ticks on dogs. controlled laboratory trials were conducted, wherein dogs wearing anti-tick collars were compared with control dogs and artificially infested by adult ixodes ricinus and/or rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. the activity of the collars increased from 24 to 48 h post-treatment (pt) wherein tick numbers were reduced to 78.7% for i. ricinus ...200214570144
ticks (ixodida: ixodidae) parasitising humans in uruguay.during routine collections between november 1999 and november 2002, three species of tick (amblyomma tigrinum, amblyomma triste and rhipicephalus sanguineus) were found on humans in southern uruguay. the finding of r. sanguineus and a. triste on humans is of particular concern because these tick species may be involved in the transmission of the pathogens causing human rickettsioses, a type of disease already known to occur in uruguay.200314613636
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xliii. ixodid ticks of domestic dogs and cats in the western cape province.ticks were collected at monthly intervals for 16 consecutive months from individual dogs by their owners in or close to the town of stellenbosch, western cape province. they were also collected for 27 consecutive months from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at three veterinary clinics in stellenbosch, and from dogs upon admission to an animal welfare shelter. at one of the veterinary clinics ticks were also collected from cats. dog owners collected six ixodid species from their pets and t ...200314621314
first evidence of anaplasma platys in rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodida) collected from dogs in africa.a total of 27 ticks, comprising rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (n = 21), haemaphysalis leachi (andouin) (n = 4) and haemaphysalis paraleachi (camicas, hoogstraal & el kammah) (n = 2) were recovered from two clinically healthy female dogs in the democratic republic of the congo. dna of anaplasma platys was detected in a female r. sanguineus, using primers derived from the 16s rrna gene, which amplify members of the family anaplasmataceae . anaplasma platys dna was also detected in the blood ...200314621316
a study about tick vectors of bovine theileriosis in an endemic region of iran.the aim of this study was to determine the population of ticks in infected cattle and to identify the tick vectors of bovine theileriosis in an endemic area of iran from 1998 to 1999. a total of 120 suspected cattle suffering from theileriosis were clinically examined and investigated for the presence of theileria annulata in blood smears and the presence of any tick species on the body of cattle. in this study, 680 ticks were collected from 107 cattle infected with t. annulata. the prevalence o ...200314629004
ehrlichiosis in anemic, thrombocytopenic, or tick-infested dogs from a hospital population in south brazil.ehrlichia canis has a worldwide distribution, but clinical manifestations may vary geographically. we selected 129 dogs to determine prevalence of ehrlichiosis in dogs with anemia, thrombocytopenia, or ticks presented to a veterinary teaching hospital in south brazil. of the 129 dogs, 68 carried the brown dog tick (rhipicephalus sanguineus), 61 had thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/microl), and 19 had anemia (pcv < 22%). twenty dogs fulfilled more than one inclusion criteria. ehrlichiosi ...200314637030
molecular detection of anaplasma platys in dogs using polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot hybridization.several polymerase chain reactions (pcrs) and a reverse line blot hybridization (rlb) method were used to identify anaplasma platys in dogs held in a kennel in italy. whereas pcr techniques confirmed the presence of a. platys, the rlb method not only correlated the results obtained by pcr but also ruled out the presence of other species such as ehrlichia canis or e. chaffeensis. there was no correlation between infection status and age or breed of the dogs. polymerase chain reaction performed on ...200314667015
canine ehrlichiosis.ehrlichia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria with tropism for hematopoietic cells. monocytic ehrlichioses in dogs and humans are transmitted by ticks and primarily caused by e. canis and e. chaffeensis, respectively. e. canis causes canine monocytic ehrlichioses (cme), a potentially fatal disease in dogs that requires rapid and accurate diagnosis in order to initiate appropriate therapy leading to a favorable prognosis. cme is characterized by three stages; 1) acute, 2) subclinical and 3) ...200314677903
intracellular symbionts and other bacteria associated with deer ticks (ixodes scapularis) from nantucket and wellfleet, cape cod, massachusetts.the diversity of bacteria associated with the deer tick (ixodes scapularis) was assessed using pcr amplification, cloning, and sequencing of 16s rrna genes originating from seven ticks collected from nantucket island and wellfleet, cape cod, mass. the majority of sequences obtained originated from gram-negative proteobacteria. four intracellular bacteria were detected including strains of ehrlichia, rickettsia, and wolbachia and an organism related to intracellular insect symbionts from the cyto ...200414711698
infection with a proposed new subspecies of babesia canis, babesia canis subsp. presentii, in domestic cats.parasitemia with a large babesia species was identified in two domestic cats from israel. one cat, also coinfected with feline immunodeficiency virus and "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum," had profound icterus and anemia which resolved after therapy, whereas a second cat was an asymptomatic carrier. amplification and sequencing of the 18s rrna gene, followed by phylogenetic analyses, indicated that infection was caused by babesia canis. however, the sequences of the internal transcribed and 5 ...200414715738
cloning and sequencing of putative acetylcholinesterase cdnas from the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis, and the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).two putative cdnas of acetylcholinesterase (ache), one from dermacentor variabilis, and the other from rhipicephalus sanguineus, were amplified and sequenced. the deduced amino acid sequences have high amino acid identities (between 70 and 94%) to known tick ache sequences deposited in genbank. furthermore, these two aches also possess common features in their primary ache structure such as catalytic active sites. a 2,220-bp contiguous sequence, containing a 1,791-bp open reading frame encoding ...200314765667
transmission of a nuttallia of a gerbil by rhipicephalus sanguineus. 195214929242
detection of ehrlichial dna in haemaphysalis ticks recovered from dogs in japan that is closely related to a novel ehrlichia sp. found in cattle ticks from tibet, thailand, and africa.tick dna samples from dogs in japan were examined for ehrlichia infection by 16s rrna gene-based pcr and sequencing. three positive samples were detected from haemaphysalis ticks, and higher levels of similarity (98.46 to 99.06%) were found to recently detected ehrlichia spp. from cattle ticks in tibet, thailand, and africa.200415004117
detection of antibodies to tick salivary antigens among patients from a region of spain.with a view to determine which tick species bite humans most frequently in the province of soria (spain) and to know whether these species act as vectors of rickettsia conorii and/or borrelia burgdorferi, we analysed the presence of antibodies against salivary proteins of several tick species and of antibodies against r. conorii and b. burgdorferi sensu lato in 102 samples of serum. the sera were collected from 63 patients who were treated for tick bites at the health services of the soria healt ...200415012027
ectoparasitic species from canis familiaris (linné) in buenos aires province, argentina.several arthropods that live as ectoparasites on domestic dogs can cause severe dermatitis or act as vectors of pathogenic agents, resulting in serious diseases not only in dogs, but also in humans. we studied ectoparasites found on canis familiaris sampled in five areas in buenos aires province, argentina. the prevalence of fleas, ticks and lice was analyzed, as well as their seasonal variations through the different sites studied. the kind of infestation found in each host was determined and t ...200415019149
the efficacy of collars impregnated with flumethrin and propoxur against experimental infestations of adult rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs.the efficacy of 2 sets of collars (kiltix collar, bayer ag), containing different plasticisers and impregnated with the acaricides flumethrin (2.25%) and propoxur (10%), was compared against adult rhipicephalus sanguineus on experimentally infested, kennelled dogs. thirty individually penned dogs were infested with 25 male and 25 female, unfed r. sanguineus. on the following day they were allocated to 3 groups of 10 dogs each on the magnitude of their tick burdens. two days after infestation, me ...200315038425
cloning and sequencing of putative calreticulin complementary dnas from four hard tick species.calreticulin (crt) is a calcium-binding protein and has many functions in eukaryotic cells. crt is possibly involved in parasite host immune system evasion. to better understand the molecular basis of crt in ticks, we cloned and sequenced 4 full-length complementary dnas (cdnas) from the hard tick species, dermacentor variabilis, haemaphysalis longicornis, ixodes scapularis, and rhipicephalus sanguineus, using the technique of rapid amplification of cdna ends. the deduced amino acid sequences sh ...200415040669
molecular evidence of infections with babesia gibsoni parasites in japan and evaluation of the diagnostic potential of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.detection and analysis of babesia gibsoni infection were performed with whole-blood samples collected between july 2002 and july 2003 from 945 and 137 dogs from the aomori and okinawa prefectures of japan, respectively, by pcr and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp). on the basis of the criterion for positivity by pcr, 3.9% (37 of 945) and 10.9% (15 of 137) of the dogs had b. gibsoni dna. all 37 positive animals from aomori prefecture were male tosa dogs (japanese mastiff). the 15 dogs ...200415184421
a laboratory comparison of the life cycles of the dog ticks haemaphysalis leachi and rhipicephalus sanguineus.engorged female haemaphysalis leachi and rhipicephalus sanguineus as well as their eggs, flat and engorged larvae and nymphs were incubated at combinations of five temperatures and three relative humidities. mean pre-oviposition periods for h. leachi varied between 4.3 days and 12.1 days and for r. sanguineus between 4.8 days and 21.0 days. haemaphysalis leachi converted up to 65.7% of their body mass into eggs and produced up to 16.3 eggs/mg body mass, with 4801 eggs the maximum number deposite ...200415185571
species composition, distribution, and ecological preferences of the ticks of grazing sheep in north-central spain.the distribution and ecological preferences of tick (acari: ixodidae) parasites of grazing sheep in the region of aragón (north-central spain) were surveyed on flocks four times a year and mapped into a 5 x 5 km grid. nine tick species were found. these were species of the rhipicephalus sanguineus group (about 95% of them rhipicephalus turanicus pomerantsev, in 91% of cells of the grid), rhipicephalus bursa canestrini & fanzago (79% of cells), dermacentor marginatus (sulzer) (58% of cells), haem ...200415189237
cross-sectional survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) in sheep from an area of the southern italian apennines.a cross-sectional survey of ticks was conducted on 197 ovine farms with animals pasturing in an area (3971 km2) of the southern italian apennines. the farms were selected to be uniformly distributed throughout the study area using geographical information system (gis). ticks were collected from 309 (31.4%) out of the 985 sheep sampled, belonging to 92 (46.7%) out of the 197 farms included in the study. the following tick species were found (farm prevalence): dermacentor marginatus (37.6%), haema ...200415285146
pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae to ixodidae tick species dermacentor variabilis, rhipicephalus sanguineus, and ixodes scapularis.nymphal and adult ticks from three different tick species, dermacentor variabilis say, ixodes scapularis say, and rhipicephalus sanguineus latrielle, were treated with conidia and blastospores of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana (bals.) vuill. and metarhizium anisopliae metschnikoff. dose-response experiments indicated that a critical concentration of fungal spores is required for infection and mortality. over a 28-d time course, fungal suspensions of either b. bassiana or m. anisop ...200415311464
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in bulgaria.we report the epidemiologic characteristics of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in bulgaria, as well as the first genetic characterization of the virus strains circulating in the country in 2002 to 2003 that caused disease in humans.200415496250
demonstration of two distinct hemotropic mycoplasmas in french north america it has been shown that distinct hemotropic mycoplasmas exist in dogs. blood samples from 460 french dogs were analyzed by pcr to evaluate hemoplasma infection status. seventy-one dogs (15.4%) were positive; of these, 44 (9.6%) were infected with an organism closely related to "candidatus mycoplasma haemoparvum" only, 15 (3.3%) were infected with mycoplasma haemocanis only, and 12 dogs (2.6%) were dually infected with both organisms.200415528754
evaluation of antibiotic susceptibilities of ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia chaffeensis, and anaplasma phagocytophilum by real-time pcr.we determined mics of antibiotics against anaplasma phagocytophilum, ehrlichia chaffeensis, and ehrlichia canis by real-time quantitative pcr. the doubling times of the organisms were established: 19 h for e. chaffeensis, 26 h for a. phagocytophilum, and 28 h for e. canis. in comparison to the reference method for determining sensitivities, which uses diff-quick staining, our pcr assay was very sensitive and specific. we confirmed that doxycycline and rifampin are highly active against these bac ...200415561862
use of highly variable intergenic spacer sequences for multispacer typing of rickettsia conorii use of the nearly perfectly colinear genomes of rickettsia conorii and rickettsia prowazekii, we compared the usefulness of three types of sequences for typing of r. conorii isolates: (i) 5 variable coding genes comprising the 16s ribosomal dna, glta, ompb, and sca4 (gene d) genes, which are present in both genomes, and the ompa gene, which is degraded in r. prowazekii; (ii) 28 genes degraded in r. conorii but intact in r. prowazekii, including 23 split and 5 remnant genes; and (iii) 27 conse ...200415583310
immunization effect of recombinant p27/30 protein expressed in escherichia coli against the hard tick haemaphysalis longicornis (acari: ixodidae) in rabbits.we investigated the induction of resistance to haemaphysalis longicornis infestation in rabbits that had been immunized with recombinant h. longicornis p27/30 protein. the success of immunological control methods is dependent upon the use of potential key antigens as tick vaccine candidates. previously, we cloned a gene encoding 27 kda and 30 kda proteins (p27/30) of h. longicornis, and identified p27/30 as a troponin i-like protein. in this study, rabbits that were immunized with recombinant p2 ...200415591837
[epidemiologic features of mediterranean spotted fever in portugal].mediterranean spotted fever (msf) is a tick-borne rickettsial disease. it is endemic in portugal and ricardo jorge recognized it in 1930. rhipicephalus sanguineus is the main vector and reservoir of the disease. in portugal the etiologic agents are two strains of rickettsia conorii complex: r. conorii malish and "israeli tick typhus". msf is clinically characterized by a vasculitis process with the classical clinical triad of fever, rash, and lesion at the site of tick bite. although the majorit ...200315631855
allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana.background: beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of beauveria species has not been widely studied. methods: ige-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. skin reactivity to b. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal s ...200515644142
tick saliva inhibits differentiation, maturation and function of murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells.haematophagous arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, tsetse flies, sandflies and ticks have evolved salivary immunomodulatory factors that prevent the vertebrate host from rejecting them meanwhile enhancing pathogen transmission. as dendritic cells (dc) play a major role in host immune responses, we studied the effects of rhipicephalus sanguineus tick saliva on dc differentiation and maturation. flow cytometry analysis revealed that the addition of saliva to bone marrow cells inhibits the differ ...200515667568
extract of the seeds of the plant vitex agnus castus proven to be highly efficacious as a repellent against ticks, fleas, mosquitoes and biting flies.about 70 plant extracts were tested for their ability to repel the attacks of blood-sucking arthropods. it was found that a co2 extract of the seeds of the mediterranean plant vitex agnus castus (monk's pepper) can be used as a spray to keep away especially ixodes ricinus and rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from animals and humans for at least 6 h. in addition mosquitoes, biting flies and fleas are also repelled for about 6 h.200515682335
molecular differentiation of metastriate tick immatures.hard ticks, family ixodidae, are divided into two groups, the metastriata and the prostriata, based on morphological differences. in the united states, there are four medically important genera of the ixodidae: ixodes, amblyomma, dermacentor, and rhipicephalus. ixodes is the only genus in and representative of the prostriata, whereas the latter three genera are members of the metastriata. all developmental stages of the prostriata can be easily differentiated from the metastriata using morpholog ...200415682516
cloning of a novel babesia equi gene encoding a 158-kilodalton protein useful for serological this study, we characterized a babesia equi be158 gene obtained by immunoscreening a b. equi cdna expression phage library with b. equi-infected horse serum. the be158 gene consists of an open reading frame of 3,510 nucleotides. the recombinant be158 gene product was produced in escherichia coli and used for the immunization of mice. in western blot analysis, mouse immune serum against the be158 gene product recognized 75- and 158-kda proteins from the lysate of b. equi-infected erythrocytes. ...200515699430
efficacy of a collar impregnated with amitraz and pyriproxyfen for prevention of experimental tick infestations by rhipicephalus sanguineus, ixodes ricinus, and ixodes scapularis in compare the efficacy of collars impregnated with 9% amitraz or 9% amitraz and 0.5% pyriproxyfen (ppf) for control of newly established tick infestations by rhipicephalus sanguineus, ixodes ricinus, and ixodes scapularis in dogs and determine whether egg production by surviving female ticks was decreased.200515706971
participation of rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) in the epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniasis.the vectorial competence of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus is discussed in relation to the epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniasis, taking into account its strict association with dogs and the low indices of natural infection presented by its known vector, the phlebotomine sand fly lutzomyia longipalpis. in order to evaluate natural infection by leishmania chagasi and the infectivity of these parasites in the tick, 39 specimens (6 females, 11 males and 22 nymphs) of r. sanguineus were r ...200415725545
ixodid ticks on dogs in southern mozambique.the objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of ticks infesting domestic dogs in southern mozambique. to this end 89 collections were taken from dogs and the geographic coordinates of the localities at which they were made noted. fifty-eight of these collections were from animals in the city of maputo and 16 from animals at rural settlements close to maputo. a further 15 collections were made from dogs in rural environments north of maputo. ten ixodid tick species, o ...200415732454
preliminary survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in northern a cross sectional survey conducted during the period june 2001 to july 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the sudan was determined. seventeen locations were surveyed from northern, central, eastern, western, blue nile and white nile provinces. total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. four tick genera and 11 species were identified. the tick species collected included amblyomma lepidum, amblyomma variegatum, boophilus decoloratus, hyalom ...200415732459
[ticks (acarina: ixodidae) as vectors and reservoirs of pathogen microorganisms in spain].hard and soft-ticks are obligate haematophagous arachnids of medical and veterinary significance mainly because of the animal disease agents transmitted by them, which include an array of different pathogens (virus, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes). ticks transmit microbes by several routes including salivary secretions, coxal fluids, regurgitation and faeces. among the biological factors that contribute to the high vector potential of ticks are their living habits and characteristic properties ...200515743581
transcriptional response of rickettsia conorii exposed to temperature variation and stress starvation.rickettsia conorii is an obligate intracellular bacterium transmitted to humans by rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. the success of this microorganism at surviving in nature implicates the ability to efficiently adapt to different environments, including the arthropod vector and the mammalian host. numerous bacterial species possess a highly evolved system for stress adaptation. this so-called stringent response is mediated by guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate and guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-tripho ...200415748986
detection and identification of ehrlichia spp. in ticks collected in tunisia and morocco.a broad-range 16s rrna gene pcr assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16s rrna gene was used for the detection of members of the family anaplasmataceae in ticks in north africa. a total of 418 questing ixodes ricinus ticks collected in tunisia and morocco, as well as 188 rhipicephalus ticks from dogs and 52 hyalomma ticks from bovines in tunisia, were included in this study. of 324 adult i. ricinus ticks, 16.3% were positive for ehrlichia spp., whereas only 3.4 and 2.8% of nymphs and larva ...200515750072
proposal to create subspecies of rickettsia conorii based on multi-locus sequence typing and an emended description of rickettsia conorii.rickettsiae closely related to the malish strain, the reference rickettsia conorii strain, include indian tick typhus rickettsia (ittr), israeli spotted fever rickettsia (isfr), and astrakhan fever rickettsia (afr). although closely related genotypically, they are distinct serotypically. using multilocus sequence typing (mlst), we have recently found that distinct serotypes may not always represent distinct species within the rickettsia genus. we investigated the possibility of classifying ricke ...200515766388
ticks (acari: ixodoidea: argasidae, ixodidae) of chile.the tick species recorded from chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: argas keiransi estrada-peña, venzal and gonzalez-acuña, a. neghmei kohls and hoogstraal; ornithodoros amblus chamberlin; otobius megnini (dugès); amblyomma parvitarsum neumann; a. tigrinum koch; ixodes auritulus neumann; i. chilensis kohls; i. cornuae arthur, i. sigelos keirans, clifford and corwin; i. stilesi neumann; i. uriae white; rhipicephalus sanguineus koch. (2) probably establishe ...200515777007
rickettsiae in ixodid ticks, sicily. 200515789496
comparison of the external morphology of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) ticks from brazil and the present study the external morphology of semi-engorged rhipicephalus sanguineus females ticks from brazil and argentina were compared by scanning electron microscopy. many differences were detected among the r. sanguineus collected at the two localities, such as body size, shape of the genital pore, and morphology of the sensory structures. all these characteristics are fundamental for the diagnosis of species of the genus rhipicephalus and thus indicate the need for further comparisons a ...200515817214
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