tissue tropism and vertical transmission of coxiella in rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus turanicus ticks.arthropod symbionts present tissue tropism that corresponds to the nature of the association and the mode of transmission between host generations. in ticks, however, our knowledge of symbiont tissue tropism and function is limited. here, we quantified and localized previously described coxiella-like symbionts in several organs of the tick rhipicephalus turanicus. quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed high densities of coxiella in the female gonads, and both male and female malpighian ...201424650112
assessment of the efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato.two studies were conducted to confirm that a single oral dose of the novel insecticide/acaricide afoxolaner is efficacious against existing infestations of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato in dogs and can control re-infestation for up to 35 days. each study utilized 16 purpose bred adult dogs using a controlled randomized block design. one or two days prior to treatment, all dogs were infested with 50 unfed adult ticks. on day 0 one group was treated with an oral chewable formulation of afoxo ...201424629425
a novel approach to control brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus using sustained release poly-ɛ-caprolactone-pheromone microspheres.control of brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus was attempted by utilizing sustained release preparations of synthetic analogues of assembly pheromones. the assembly pheromone, in defined ratio, was encapsulated using poly-ɛ-caprolactone by water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. in the in vitro bioassay, percent mortality with test microspheres was 95.6, 64 and 44 among the unfed larvae, unfed nymph and unfed adults respectively, 24 hours post-exposure. field tr ...201424570062
glutathione s-transferase affects permethrin detoxification in the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus.control of ticks on dogs is often done by application of repellents that contain permethrin as the active ingredient. in this research, we studied the role of a glutathione s-transferase (gst) gene in detoxification of permethrin by ticks using a gene silencing method rna interference (rnai). the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus, used in these studies, has a notable host preference for dogs, but also infests other mammals. in this research, r. sanguineus females were injected with gst do ...201424548526
control of brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus using assembly pheromone encapsulated in natural polymer, the current study, an attempt was made to encapsulate assembly pheromone using natural polymer, chitosan. chitosan beads were prepared by incorporating assembly pheromone in conjunction with an acaricide, namely, deltamethrin. in the in vitro bioassay, the test beads attracted and killed 79 % of unfed larvae, 88 % of unfed nymphs and 61 % of unfed adults of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus, in 24 h of exposure. field trials were carried out to attract and kill the pre-parasitic en ...201424375150
acaricidal activity of extract of artemisia absinthium against rhipicephalus sanguineus of dogs.the objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of chloroform extract obtained from the aerial parts of artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of the dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus using the adult immersion test (ait), egg hatchability test (eht) and larval packet test (lpt), respectively. five concentrations of the extract (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 %) with three replications for each concentration were used in all ...201424288053
acaricidal efficacy of topical formulation of fipronil in naturally infested dogs in amazonic region, brazil.this study was conducted to show the effectiveness of a novel formulation of fipronil in a spot-on formulation for the therapeutic and preventive control of rhipicephalus sanguineus in naturally infested dogs. ticks on all dogs were counted at the moment of treatment and weekly after treatment (therapeutic efficacy) or infestation (preventive efficacy). the profile of the therapeutic efficacy for rhipicephalus sanguineus suggested that the formulation was able to control the ixodid species for a ...201324252969
action of the insect growth regulator fluazuron, the active ingredient of the acaricide acatak®, in rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae).the present study evaluated the efficacy of fluazuron (active ingredient of the acaricide acatak®) and its effects on rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs fed on rabbits exposed to different doses of this insect growth regulator. three different doses of fluazuron (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg) were applied on the back of hosts (via "pour on"), while distilled water was applied to the control group. on the first day of treatment with fluazuron (24 h), hosts were artificially infested with r. sang ...201324000046
histopathology of the tegument of rabbits infested by rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) ticks and exposed to selamectin (active principle of acaricide revolution, pfizer).ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites which can transmit several diseases to the host during their feeding process. when ticks mechanically damage the tissue, they eventually induce inflammatory responses on the skin spot where they are fixed. one of the alternatives to control these ectoparasites is the use of chemical substances like selamectin-the active principle of pfizer's antiparasitic revolution-a macrocyclic lactone capable of doing neurotoxic damage to the tick and eventually eliminati ...201323613180
mediterranean spotted fever--classification by disease course and criteria for determining the disease severity.mediterranean spotted fever (msf) in bulgaria is caused by ricketsia conorii conorii with a major vector the dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. the first cases of re-emerging msf were reported in this country in the early 1990s after some 20 years of absence and then registered an annual increase until 2001-2003 after which the disease prevalence declined. msf still poses a serious health problem in the country as severe, complicated cases with lethal outcome occur. the aim of this paper was to ...201423441470
bartonella species in dogs and their ectoparasites from khon kaen province, order to access the prevalence of bartonella species in dogs, whole blood and any associated ectoparasites were collected from 164 dogs with owners in 25 villages throughout khon kaen province. dna was extracted from dog blood, 92 ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus) and 137 fleas (ctenocephalides spp) and screened by pcr using intergenic spacer region and citrate synthase gene primers. b. clarridgeiae dna was detected in blood of 3 dogs, 4 c. felis and 1 c. canis; b. rochalimae dna was found in ...201223431825
systematics and ecology of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus.rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, kennel tick, or pan-tropical dog tick, is probably the most widespread ixodid tick, colonising both human and canine dwellings. it is of great significance in both human and veterinary medicine as a vector of several important pathogens and can also cause clinical illness in heavy infestations of dogs. however, there are still significant taxonomic uncertainties, and it is probable that some records of this tick refer to other species. most past revi ...201323415851
study on cheliceral sensilla of the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) involved in taste perception of phagostimulants.phagostimulants are chemical compounds that stimulate feeding. some tick species are known to have pores in their inner cheliceral digits, called pit sensillum (ps), which are involved in taste perception. this study investigated the existence of ps in chelicerae of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks by scanning electron microscopy (sem) and their involvement in the perception of phagostimulatory substances, such as the salts potassium chloride and sodium chloride (kcl and nacl), sugars (glucose, su ...201323352572
effect of egg clustering on the fitness of rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae.several biological aspects of rhipicephalus sanguineus have been studied, but scant information is available on the effect of egg clustering on incubation period and larval survival. herein, r. sanguineus eggs were separated in groups composed by 1 (gi), 10 (gii), 50 (giii), 100 (giv), 500 (gv) and 1,000 (gvi) eggs (10 replicates), and incubation and larval survival period were recorded. no correlation was observed between the amount of egg batches and hatching percentage. larvae from gi hatched ...201323254589
inoculation of salivary gland extracts obtained from female of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari, ixodidae) with 2, 4, and 6 days of feeding in rabbit: i--histopathology of the feeding lesion.this study analyzed the histopathology of rabbit skin, previously immunized with sge2, sge4, and sge6 gland extracts prepared from salivary glands of rhipicephalus sanguineus female with 2, 4, and 6 days of feeding, at the region of the r. sanguineus female feeding lesion 2, 4, and 6 days after tick attachment. in this work, infestation-naïve new zealand white rabbits were inoculated either with the extracts (test group (tg)) or with phosphate buffer and complete freund's adjuvant mixture (contr ...201323229316
experimental evaluation of birds as disseminators of the cosmopolitan tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).rhipicephalus sanguineus is believed to be the most widespread tick species of the world and its dissemination seems to rely on the diffusion of its main host, the dog. empirical observations indicate that several bird species in urban areas regularly steal dog food. such circumstances create a chance for r. sanguineus ticks to climb on birds and carry ticks to another site. in this work we evaluated experimentally the likelihood of birds (chicks) to either feed and/or carry r. sanguineus ticks ...201223078993
morphology of the midgut of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) adult ticks in different feeding stages.the intestinal epithelial cells of ticks are fundamental for their full feeding and reproductive success, besides being considered important sites for the development of pathogens. rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks are known for their great medical and veterinary importance, and for this reason, the knowledge of their intestinal morphology may provide relevant subsidies for the control of these animals, either by direct acaricidal action over these cells or by the production of vaccines. therefore, ...201323052783
off-host aggregation in the non-fed, female brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille), is induced by tick excreta and enhanced by low relative humidity.we report that rhipicephalus sanguineus (ixodida: ixodidae) faeces and its main component, guanine, act as assembly pheromones in short-range petri plate bioassays. arrestment activity in response to guanine was lower than that in response to natural excreta, indicating the presence of other active ingredients in natural excreta. the selective removal of appendages was used to establish the important roles played by the palps and the front pair of legs in the detection of the pheromone. reaction ...201322928633
[investigation of the cases presenting to dokuz eylül university hospital with tick bites].determination of the properties of ticks, which are the vectors of many infectious diseases and the patients with tick bites are important for the prevention of these diseases. for tist reason, the purpose of this study is to determine the important properties of the cases presenting with tick bites to dokuz eylul university hospital and of the removed ticks from the cases.201222801910
crossbreeding between different geographical populations of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).brown dog ticks are distributed world-wide, and their systematics and phylogeny are the subject of an ongoing debate. the present study evaluates the reproductive compatibility between rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from north america, israel, and africa. female ticks of the parent generation were mated with males from the same and alternate colonies. every pure and hybrid cohort was maintained separately into the f2 generation with f1 females being allowed to mate only with males from the same ...201222527838
brown dog tick (rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestation of the penis detected by dermoscopy. 201222416887
underwater survival of rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) is a worldwide distributed tick, also due to its adaptability to different environmental conditions. in order to assess its ability to survive and to lay eggs after water immersion, 150 engorged females from southern italy were water immersed for 1-15 days whereas eggs were flooded for 1-5 days. all females survived water immersion for 48 h, some of them up to 72 h, but egg hatch rate was negatively correlated with female submersion period. all eggs flo ...201222415243
degenerative process and cell death in salivary glands of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged female exposed to the acaricide permethrin.ticks are ectoparasites of great medical and veterinary importance around the world and synthetic chemicals such as permethrin have been used for their control. this study provides a cytochemistry analysis of both degenerative and cell death processes in salivary glands of the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus semi-engorged females exposed to 206, 1,031, and 2,062 ppm of permethrin. the results presented herein demonstrate that permethrin is a potent chemical acaricide that would act on th ...201222407742
synganglion histology in different stages of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (acari: ixodidae).the present study performs a morpho-histological description of the central nervous system of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in order to analyze if there are differences in this tissue among larvae, nymphs, and adults. the results showed that the central nervous system in all the life stages of r. sanguineus consists of a mass of fused nerves named synganglion. externally, this organ does not present segmentation, consisting of a single structure located ventromedially in the third anterior of t ...201222218921
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