dual silencing of long and short amblyomma americanum acidic chitinase forms weakens the tick cement cone stability.this study demonstrates that amblyomma americanum (aam) constitutively and ubiquitously expresses the long (l) and short (s) putative acidic chitinases (ach) that are distinguished by a 210 base pair (bp) deletion in aamach-s. full-length aamach-l and aamach-s cdna are 1959 and 1718 bp long, containing 1332 and 1104 bp open reading frames that code for 443 and 367 amino acid residues proteins with the former predicted to be extracellular and the latter intracellular. both aamach-l and aamach-s m ...201425189365
detection of rickettsia rickettsii, rickettsia parkeri, and rickettsia akari in skin biopsy specimens using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.rickettsia rickettsii, rickettsia parkeri, and rickettsia akari are the most common causes of spotted fever group rickettsioses indigenous to the united states. infected patients characteristically present with a maculopapular rash, often accompanied by an inoculation eschar. skin biopsy specimens are often obtained from these lesions for diagnostic evaluation. however, a species-specific diagnosis is achieved infrequently from pathologic specimens because immunohistochemical stains do not diffe ...201424829214
seasonal dynamics of rhipicephalus rossicus attacking domestic dogs from the steppic region of southeastern romania.danube delta biosphere reserve is one of the most interesting regions in europe from an epidemiological point of view due to its great biodiversity, local climatic conditions and various types of habitats. moreover, there is no data regarding the ectoparasite communities of dogs from this area. in this frame, the aims of our study were to establish the tick communities parasitizing dogs and to provide new data regarding seasonal dynamics of a neglected tick species, rhipicephalus rossicus.201424612483
identification, distribution and population dynamics of francisella-like endosymbiont in haemaphysalis doenitzi (acari: ixodidae).francisella-like endosymbionts (fles) with significant homology to francisella tularensis (γ-proteobacteria) have been characterized in several tick species, whereas knowledge on their distribution and population dynamics in ticks remains meager. hence, in the current study, we identified a novel francisella-like endosymbiont (fles-hd) from the tick haemaphysalis doenitzi and evaluated the putative functions of this symbiont. results indicated that fles-hd had 100% infection rate and a perfect v ...201627731377
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks of migratory birds in romania.birds are important hosts and dispersers of parasitic arthropods and vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. particularly migratory species may carry these parasites over long distances in short time periods. migratory hotspots present ideal conditions to get a snapshot of parasite and pathogen diversity of birds migrating between continents. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence and diversity of rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from birds at a migratory hot-spot in the danube delta, ...201627207258
candidatus coxiella massiliensis infection.bacteria genetically related to coxiella burnetii have been found in ticks. using molecular techniques, we detected coxiella-like bacteria, here named candidatus coxiella massiliensis, in skin biopsy samples and ticks removed from patients with an eschar. this organism may be a common agent of scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite.201626811945
bacteria associated with amblyomma cajennense tick eggs.ticks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. in the americas, the ixodidae ticks amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. in the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with a. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern brazil. additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from an ...201526537602
proteome of rhipicephalus sanguineus tick saliva induced by the secretagogues pilocarpine and dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to separate proteins from the saliva of rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks fed on rabbits. gel slices were subjected to tryptic digestion and analyzed by reversed-phase hplc followed by ms/ms analysis. the data were compared to a database of salivary proteins of the same tick and to the predicted proteins of the host. saliva was obtained by either pilocarpine or dopamine stimulation of partially fed ticks. electrophoretic separations of both yielde ...201324029695
the recent evolution of a maternally-inherited endosymbiont of ticks led to the emergence of the q fever pathogen, coxiella burnetii.q fever is a highly infectious disease with a worldwide distribution. its causative agent, the intracellular bacterium coxiella burnetii, infects a variety of vertebrate species, including humans. its evolutionary origin remains almost entirely unknown and uncertainty persists regarding the identity and lifestyle of its ancestors. a few tick species were recently found to harbor maternally-inherited coxiella-like organisms engaged in symbiotic interactions, but their relationships to the q fever ...201525978383
a fatal urban case of rocky mountain spotted fever presenting an eschar in san jose, costa rica.this study reports the first urban human case of rocky mountain spotted fever caused by rickettsia rickettsii, in costa rica. an 8-year-old female who died at the national children's hospital 4 days after her admission, and an important and significant observation was the presence of an "eschar" (tache noire), which is typical in some rickettsial infections but not frequent in rocky mountain spotted fever cases.201222855769
spatial disaggregation of tick occurrence and ecology at a local scale as a preliminary step for spatial surveillance of tick-borne diseases: general framework and health implications in belgium.the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing in europe. sub national information on tick distribution, ecology and vector status is often lacking. however, precise location of infection risk can lead to better targeted prevention measures, surveillance and control.201323800283
the salivary secretome of the biting midge, culicoides sonorensis.culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue and schmallenberg viruses, yet little is known about culicoides genomics and proteomics. detailed studies of members from other blood-feeding dipteran families, including those of mosquito (culicidae) and black fly (simuliidae), have shown that protein components with ...201424949243
ecological approaches to informing public health policy and risk assessments on emerging vector-borne zoonoses.pathogens associated with vector-borne zoonoses occur in enzootic cycles within nature. they are driven by a combination of vertebrate host and invertebrate vector population dynamics, which in turn respond to changes in environmental stimuli. human involvement in these cycles, and hence the occurrence of human disease, is often to act as incidental host. from a public health perspective our ability to better predict human outbreaks of these diseases and prepare intervention and mitigation strat ...201022460391
rickettsial disease in the peruvian amazon basin.using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in iquitos, peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) and typhus group rickettsiae (tgr) by elisa and/or pcr; ectoparasites were screened by pcr. logistic regression was used ...201627416029
vector databank in the indian armed forces.medical intelligence of disease vectors deals with understanding vector distribution and control.201127408077
cofeeding intra- and interspecific transmission of an emerging insect-borne rickettsial fleas (ctenocephalides felis) are known as the primary vector and reservoir of rickettsia felis, the causative agent of flea-borne spotted fever; however, field surveys regularly report molecular detection of this infectious agent from other blood-feeding arthropods. the presence of r. felis in additional arthropods may be the result of chance consumption of an infectious bloodmeal, but isolation of viable rickettsiae circulating in the blood of suspected vertebrate reservoirs has not been d ...026414611
international union of basic and clinical pharmacology. [corrected]. lxxxix. update on the extended family of chemokine receptors and introducing a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors.sixteen years ago, the nomenclature committee of the international union of pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7tm) g protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. this was announced in pharmacological reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [murphy pm, baggiolini m, charo if, hé ...201324218476
sero-epidemiological survey of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in tunisia.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by hyalomma marginatum. the geographical distribution of h. marginatum covers most of the western mediterranean basin. we aimed to investigate whether cchf virus (cchfv) is circulating in tunisia. samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed ...201626956221
transcriptome of the female synganglion of the black-legged tick ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) with comparison between illumina and 454 systems.illumina and 454 pyrosequencing were used to characterize genes from the synganglion of female ixodes scapularis. go term searching success for biological processes was similar for samples sequenced by both methods. however, for molecular processes, it was more successful for the illumina samples than for 454 samples. functional assignments of transcripts predicting neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors, neurotransmitter receptors and other genes of interest was done, supported by strong e-value ...201425075967
endogenous tick viruses and modulation of tick-borne pathogen growth.ticks transmit a wide range of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens, many of which can establish persistent infections of lifelong duration in the vector tick and in some cases are transmitted transovarially to the next generation. in addition many ixodid and argasid tick cell lines and, by inference the parent ticks from which they were derived, harbor endogenous viruses (etv) of which almost nothing is known. in general, low level persistent infections with viral pathogens (arboviruses) ar ...201323875176
vectors of crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus in iran.ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of crimean congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus. human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non-human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. a total of 26 species of argasid and ixodid ticks have been recorded in iran; including nine hyalomma, two rhipicephalus, two dermacentor, five haemaphysalis, two boophilus, one ixodes and two argas as well as three ornithodoros ...201526623426
safety evaluation of parastar(®) plus in dogs and assessment of transferable residue of fipronil and cyphenothrin from dogs to humans.dogs are easily infested with fleas, ticks, and other ectoparasites serving as vectors for transmitting bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. therefore, the use of ectoparasiticides is inevitable and important. the present investigation was undertaken with two specific objectives: one, to evaluate the safety of fipronil and cyphenothrin in dogs after topical application of parastar(®) plus, and two, to determine the transferable residue of these insecticides from dogs to humans. six healthy, ...201627747219
molecular detection and characterization of zoonotic and veterinary pathogens in ticks from northeastern china.tick-borne diseases are considered as emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals in china. in this study, ixodes persulcatus (n = 1699), haemaphysalis concinna (n = 412), haemaphysalis longicornis (n = 390), dermacentor nuttalli (n = 253), and dermacentor silvarum (n = 204) ticks were collected by flagging from northeastern china, and detected for infection with anaplasma, ehrlichia, babesia, and hepatozoon spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays and sequencing analysis. an ...201627965644
rural residents in china are at increased risk of exposure to tick-borne pathogens anaplasma phagocytophilum and ehrlichia emerging tick born rickettsial diseases caused by a. phagocytophilum and e. chaffeensis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis have become a serious threat to human and animal health throughout the world. in particular, in china, an unusual transmission of nosocomial cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis occurred in anhui province in 2006 and more recent coinfection case of a. phagocytophilum and e. chaffeensis was documented in shandong province. although the seroprevalence of human granulocytic ...201424877080
assessment of four dna fragments (coi, 16s rdna, its2, 12s rdna) for species identification of the ixodida (acari: ixodida).the 5' region of cytochrome oxidase i (coi) is the standard marker for dna barcoding. however, coi has proved to be of limited use in identifying some species, and for some taxa, the coding sequence is not efficiently amplified by pcr. these deficiencies lead to uncertainty as to whether coi is the most suitable barcoding fragment for species identification of ticks.201424589289
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
characterization of haemaphysalis flava (acari: ixodidae) from qingling subspecies of giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) in qinling mountains (central china) by morphology and molecular markers.tick is one of important ectoparasites capable of causing direct damage to their hosts and also acts as vectors of relevant infectious agents. in the present study, the taxa of 10 ticks, collected from qinling giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) in qinling mountains of china in april 2010, were determined using morphology and molecular markers (nucleotide its2 rdna and mitochondrial 16s). microscopic observation demonstrated that the morphological features of these ticks were simi ...201323894541
complete mitochondrial genome sequence data provides genetic evidence that the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) represents a species complex.ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites of great medical and veterinary significance that can transmit bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses, and cause a variety of human and animal diseases worldwide. in the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of rhipicephalus sanguineus from china (rsc) and compared with that of r. sanguineus from usa (rsu). nucleotide sequence difference in the full mt genome was 11.23% between rsc and rsu. for the 13 protein-coding genes, compari ...201323630448
rickettsia africae and candidatus rickettsia barbariae in ticks in israel.dna of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in israel. the findings include evidence for the existence of rickettsia africae and candidatus rickettsia barbariae in ticks in israel. the dna of r. africae was detected in a hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and dna of c. rickettsia barbariae was detected in rhipicephalus turanicus and rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. the dna of rickettsia massiliae was found in rh. sanguineus and haemaphysalis erinacei ...201424615133
hard ticks (acari, ixodidae) of croatia.the present paper is based on original and literature data. in croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. the number of tick species recorded in croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. a total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in croatia. ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by rhipice ...201223372407
candidatus bartonella merieuxii, a potential new zoonotic bartonella species in canids from iraq.bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in iraq under the united states army zoonotic disease surveillance program. serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for b. henselae, b. clarridgeiae, b. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and b. bovis. overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12 ...201223029597
proceedings of the ix international symposium on phlebotomine sandflies (isops ix), reims, france, june 28th-july 1st, 2016. 201627677701
high prevalence of rickettsia spp. infections in small mammals in taiwan.surveillance for rickettsia spp. is urgently needed due to the recent emergence of many novel rickettsioses around the globe, but previous studies in taiwan have been limited to small areas and no investigation of infections in vertebrate hosts has ever been attempted. we surveyed rickettsial infections systematically in small-mammal hosts trapped between 2006 and 2010 throughout taiwan. fragments of ompb and glta genes in the liver, spleen, and kidney of mammals were targeted by nested polymera ...025629776
a tick-borne segmented rna virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors.although segmented and unsegmented rna viruses are commonplace, the evolutionary links between these two very different forms of genome organization are unclear. we report the discovery and characterization of a tick-borne virus--jingmen tick virus (jmtv)--that reveals an unexpected connection between segmented and unsegmented rna viruses. the jmtv genome comprises four segments, two of which are related to the nonstructural protein genes of the genus flavivirus (family flaviviridae), whereas th ...201424753611
anaplasma species of veterinary importance in japan.anaplasma species of the family anaplasmataceae, order rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. in japan, all recognized species of anaplasma (except for anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel anaplasma sp. closely related to anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in japan although the zoonotic a. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinic ...201627956767
molecular epidemiology of the emerging zoonosis agent anaplasma phagocytophilum (foggie, 1949) in dogs and ixodid ticks in brazil.anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of humans, dogs and other animals, and it is transmitted by ixodid ticks. the objective of the current study was a) detect a. phagocytophilum in dogs and ixodid ticks using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr); and b) determine important variables associated to host, environment and potential tick vectors that are related to the presence of a. phagocytophilum in dogs domiciled in rio de janeiro, brazil.201324330631
vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in europe.presently, 45% of the total human population of europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (vbh) causing diseases. a plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. although canine dirofilarioses by dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of vbh spreading into non-endemic areas, another e ...201323324440
a survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) of companion animals in australia.ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting companion animals, and also cause health problems such as tick paralysis, anaemia, dermatitis, and secondary infections. twenty ixodid species have previously been recorded on dogs, cats, and horses in australia, including rhipicephalus sanguineus, ixodes holocyclus and haemaphysalis longicornis, which transmit tick-borne diseases. a survey of hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) was conducted during 2012-2015 to investigate tick species ...201627160149
prediction of g protein-coupled receptor encoding sequences from the synganglion transcriptome of the cattle tick, rhipicephalus microplus.the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, is a pest which causes multiple health complications in cattle. the g protein-coupled receptor (gpcr) super-family presents a candidate target for developing novel tick control methods. however, gpcrs share limited sequence similarity among orthologous family members, and there is no reference genome available for r. microplus. this limits the effectiveness of alignment-dependent methods such as blast and pfam for identifying gpcrs from r. mi ...201626922323
mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern romania.although cases of mediterranean spotted fever (msf) have been reported for decades in southeastern romania, there are few published data. we retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with msf at the national institute of infectious diseases "prof. dr. matei bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about msf in certain regions of romania. according to the raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. mean age was 52.5 years. one hundred and fifty-five (90.6% ...201324024190
detection of rickettsia spp in ticks by maldi-tof ms.matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) has been shown to be an effective tool for the rapid identification of arthropods, including tick vectors of human diseases.201525659152
detection of bartonella tamiae, coxiella burnetii and rickettsiae in arthropods and tissues from wild and domestic animals in northeastern recent years, the scope and importance of emergent vector-borne diseases has increased dramatically. in algeria, only limited information is currently available concerning the presence and prevalence of these zoonotic diseases. for this reason, we conducted a survey of hematophagous ectoparasites of domestic mammals and/or spleens of wild animals in el tarf and souk ahras, algeria.201626791781
association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (acari: ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western palearctic. a digital data set.we compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western palearctic (11°w, 45°e; 29°n, 71°n), published during 1970-2010. the literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. records from some curated collections were included. we focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, h. sulcata, hyalomma marginatum, h ...201222843316
challenges posed by tick-borne rickettsiae: eco-epidemiology and public health implications.rickettsiae are obligately intracellular bacteria that are transmitted to vertebrates by a variety of arthropod vectors, primarily by fleas and ticks. once transmitted or experimentally inoculated into susceptible mammals, some rickettsiae may cause febrile illness of different morbidity and mortality, and which can manifest with different types of exhanthems in humans. however, most rickettsiae circulate in diverse sylvatic or peridomestic reservoirs without having obvious impacts on their vert ...201525954738
morphological and genetic diversity of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato from the new and old worlds.the taxonomic status of the brown dog tick (rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu stricto), which has long been regarded as the most widespread tick worldwide and a vector of many pathogens to dogs and humans, is currently under dispute.201323880226
genome sequence of rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia, the agent of astrakhan fever.rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia is the agent of astrakhan fever, a spotted fever group rickettsiosis endemic to astrakhan, russia. the present study reports the draft genome of rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia strain a-167.022887666
a secondary structural common core in the ribosomal its2 (internal transcribed spacer) of culexspecies from diverse geographical the present study, sequence and structural analysis of its2 region (the spacer segment between 5.8s and 28s rrna of mature rrna sequences) of 7 culex species belonging to 5 different geographical locations was carried out. alignment of the its2 sequence from the 7 species revealed 8 homologous domains. four species namely c. vishnui, c. annulus, c. pipiens, c. quiquefasciatusshowed high sequence (98-100%) and rna secondary structure similarity. the its2 similarity among different species is h ...200517597853
theileria annae (syn. babesia microti-like) infection in dogs in nw spain detected using direct and indirect diagnostic techniques: clinical report of 75 north-western spain, piroplamosis caused by theileria annae is now recognized as a serious problem because veterinarians, despite being aware of the clinical signs of piroplasmosis, lack the necessary information on its epidemiology or specific diagnostic tools for its management. this, along with the fact that t. annae infection is also refractory to current piroplamosis treatments, prompted this study designed to assess the clinical presentation and diagnosis of this largely unknown parasit ...201525890106
first report of anaplasma platys infection in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and molecular detection of ehrlichia canis and leishmania infantum in foxes from portugal.the bacteria anaplasma platys and ehrlichia canis and the protozoan leishmania infantum are vector-borne agents that cause canine vector-borne diseases, some of which are zoonotic. the present survey investigated the prevalence of anaplasma, ehrlichia and leishmania in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from portugal by molecular analysis, in order to evaluate the epidemiological role of these canids as reservoirs of infection.201525889750
efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against ctenocephalides felis flea infestation in dogs.five studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin on cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis, when applied to dogs, including dogs that underwent water exposure or shampooing.201525630582
fipronil and permethrin combination: a novel ectoparasiticide for dogs. 201525622552
current status of l. infantum infection in stray cats in the madrid region (spain): implications for the recent outbreak of human leishmaniosis?since 2009, the incidence of human leishmaniosis in the sw of the madrid region has been unusually high. although dogs are the main reservoir for this disease, a role played by dogs in this outbreak has been ruled out and investigators are now considering other hosts (eg. cats, rabbits, hares) as possible alternative reservoirs.this study was designed to examine the leishmania infantum status of stray cats in madrid to assess its possible implications in the human leishmaniosis outbreak.201424655361
first detection of leishmania infantum (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) in culicoides spp. (diptera: ceratopogonidae).culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) species are known to be the vectors of bluetongue virus and african horses sickness virus (ahsv) in different areas of the world. nevertheless, other researchers have hypothesized that these arthropods could be involved in the transmission of other pathogens such as schmallenberg virus, plasmodium and leishmania parasites. identification of the culicoides' potential vector competence is crucial in understanding the worldwide culicoides/leishmania life cycle.201424460752
rickettsia felis, an emerging flea-transmitted human pathogen.rickettsia felis was first recognised two decades ago and has now been described as endemic to all continents except antarctica. the rickettsiosis caused by r. felis is known as flea-borne spotted fever or cat-flea typhus. the large number of arthropod species found to harbour r. felis and that may act as potential vectors support the view that it is a pan-global microbe. the main arthropod reservoir and vector is the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis, yet more than 20 other species of fleas, tick ...201124149035
effect of attractant sex pheromone on immature larval stages of ixodid tick species.attractant sex pheromone (asp) 2,6-dichloro phenol was used in the current study to evaluate the percentage attraction and the behavioural responses of the five ixodid tick species namely rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhipicephalus microplus (boophilus microplus), haemaphysalis bispinosa, rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and hyalomma marginatum using petridish bioassay. two concentrations of 2,6-dcp (0.1 m and 0.05 m) was used for the larval stages of all five ixodid tick species of which 0.1 m concen ...201224082519
tick-borne pathogens of zoonotic and veterinary importance in nigerian cattle.ticks and tick-borne diseases undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-saharan africa, including nigeria. in this west african country, cattle are challenged by numerous tick species, especially during the wet season. consequently, several tbds are known to be endemic in nigerian cattle, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theilerioris (by theileria mutans and theileria velifera). to date, all investigations on cattle tbds in nigeria have been based on cytolog ...201627090756
anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors.antibody responses against anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. the extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and qualitative (mosqu ...201223148599
tick-box for 3'-end formation of mitochondrial transcripts in ixodida, basal chelicerates and drosophila.according to the trna punctuation model, the mitochondrial genome (mtdna) of mammals and arthropods is transcribed as large polycistronic precursors that are maturated by endonucleolytic cleavage at trna borders and rna polyadenylation. starting from the newly sequenced mtdna of ixodes ricinus and using a combination of mitogenomics and transcriptional analyses, we found that in all currently-sequenced tick lineages (prostriata, metastriata and argasidae) the 3'-end of the polyadenylated nad1 an ...201223077630
the sialotranscriptome of antricola delacruzi female ticks is compatible with non-hematophagous behavior and an alternative source of food.the hosts for antricola delacruzi ticks are insectivorous, cave-dwelling bats on which only larvae are found. the mouthparts of nymphal and adult a. delacruzi are compatible with scavenging feeding because the hypostome is small and toothless. how a single blood meal of a larva provides energy for several molts as well as for oviposition by females is not known. adults of a. delacruzi possibly feed upon an unknown food source in bat guano, a substrate on which nymphal and adult stages are always ...201222306723
speculations on biting midges and other bloodsucking arthropods as alternative vectors of leishmania.sand flies remain the only proven vectors of leishmania spp. but recent implementation of pcr techniques has led to increasing speculation about "alternative vectors", including biting midges. here, we summarize that pcr has considerable limits for studing the role of bloodsucking arthropods in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. the leishmania life cycle in the sand fly includes a complex series of interactions which are in many cases species-specific, the early phase of the infection is, howeve ...201424884857
synanthropic mammals as potential hosts of tick-borne pathogens in panama.synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. the aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in panama, spotted fever group rickettsia (sfgr) and borrelia relapsing fever (rf) spirochetes. one hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos), four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. to evaluate ...201728060928
first identification and description of rickettsioses and q fever as causes of acute febrile illness in nicaragua.rickettsial infections and q fever present similarly to other acute febrile illnesses, but are infrequently diagnosed because of limited diagnostic tools. despite sporadic reports, rickettsial infections and q fever have not been prospectively studied in central america.201628036394
host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on neotropical vertebrates.identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (acari: ixodida) across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. the species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. here, we evaluate this rela ...201627812506
host specificity in a diverse neotropical tick community: an assessment using quantitative network analysis and host specificity is a fundamental determinant of tick population and pathogen transmission dynamics, and therefore has important implications for human health. tick host specificity is expected to be particularly high in the tropics, where communities of ticks, hosts and pathogens are most diverse. yet the degree to which tropical tick species are host-specific remains poorly understood. combining new field data with published records, we assessed the specificity of tick-host associations in pan ...201627357506
brazilian spotted fever with an approach in veterinary medicine and one health perspective.there is increasing interaction between man and pathogens transmitted by arthropods, especially by ticks. it is on this background that a holistic approach stands out, for the sake of public health. brazilian spotted fever is an endemic disease at the country's southeast, with amblyomma sculptum as its major contributor, followed by a. aureolatum and potentially rhipicephalus sanguineus. dogs have been considered sentinels, and in some areas the disease in dogs can precede human disease. conside ...201626881183
genetic identification of rickettsial isolates from fatal cases of brazilian spotted fever and comparison with rickettsia rickettsii isolates from the american continents.fifteen bacterial isolates from spotted fever group rickettsiosis in brazil were genetically identified as rickettsia rickettsii. in a phylogenetic analysis with other r. rickettsii isolates from genbank, the central/south american isolates showed low polymorphism and formed a clade distinct from two north american clades, with the north american clades having greater in-branch polymorphism.201425078908
growth of ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in vector and non-vector ixodid tick cell lines.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichia canis, a small gram-negative coccoid bacterium that infects circulating monocytes. the disease is transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and is acknowledged as an important infectious disease of dogs and other members of the family canidae worldwide. e. canis is routinely cultured in vitro in the canine monocyte-macrophage cell line dh82 and in non-vector ixodes scapularis tick cell lines, but not in cells derived from ...201626837859
missed retained tick: "look for the legs". 201526900234
propagation of the israeli vaccine strain of anaplasma centrale in tick cell lines.anaplasma centrale has been used in cattle as a live blood vaccine against the more pathogenic anaplasma marginale for over 100 years. while a. marginale can be propagated in vitro in tick cell lines, facilitating studies on antigen production, immunisation and vector-pathogen interaction, to date there has been no in vitro culture system for a. centrale. in the present study, 25 cell lines derived from 13 ixodid tick species were inoculated with the israeli vaccine strain of a. centrale and mon ...201526210950
partial characterization of a novel anti-inflammatory protein from salivary gland extract of hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum 77acari: ixodidae) ticks.hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks transmit theileria annulata, causative agent of tropical theileriosis to cattle and buffaloes causing a major economic loss in terms of production and mortality in tropical countries. ticks have evolved several immune evading strategies to circumvent hosts' rejection and achieve engorgement. successful feeding of ticks relies on a pharmacy of chemicals located in their complex salivary glands and secreted saliva. these chemicals in saliva could inhibit host i ...201527065646
distribution of ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of golestan province, determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of golestan province and their geographical distribution.025183090
species diversity and distribution of ticks (acari: ixodidae) in zabol county, eastern iran.ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. they are considered as main vectors for transmission of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and parasitical pathogens. the aim of the present study was to find out species diversity of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in zabol county, eastern iran in 2012.201426114136
pcr-based detection of babesia spp. infection in collected ticks from cattle in west and north-west of iran.babesiosis is a haemoparasitic disease of domestic and wild animals caused by species of the genus babesia. babesia bigemina, b. bovis and b. divergens are known to be pathogenic in cattle. the disease is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. ixodid ticks are vectors in the transmission of babesiosis. the classic presentation is a febrile syndrome with apparent anemia and hemoglobinuria. thi ...201324409438
prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle, sheep and goats in ilam county, ilam province, iran.this survey was performed to find out the infestation rate of ixodidae ticks in domestic ruminants in ilam county during 21 march 2009 to 23 august 2009. sampling was performed in 25 villages and 15 animal farm from different areas of this county. a total of 1,316 ticks were collected from 416 cattle, 208 sheep and 147 goats. the overall prevalence of ticks was recorded: 43, 23.5, and 49/6 % in cattle, sheep, and goats respectively. the number of ticks that collected from cattle, sheep, and goat ...201325698857
acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of tagetes patula l. (asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806).the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as babesia canis, ehrlichia canis, coxiella burnetii, rickettsia ricketsii, rickettsia conorii, among others. studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. tagetes patula (asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the ...201223244493
serological evaluation of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in humans with high-risk professions living in enzootic regions of isfahan province of iran and genetic analysis of circulating strains.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is a zoonotic viral disease that is asymptomatic in infected livestock, but causes a serious threat to humans with a mortality rate up to 50%. although the cchf virus (cchfv) is often transmitted by ticks, livestock-to-human and human-to-human transmission also occurs. in the current study, we focused on cchf in the province of isfahan, located in the center of iran and deemed to be the second most infected province. human and livestock sera and resident ti ...201222217167
blood parasites of livestock in certain regions in saudi arabia.blood samples from camels, sheep, goats and cattle from six regions in saudi arabia were examined for blood parasites. asir region camels were disinfected while those of the eastern, jazan, northern frontiers, riyadh and tabouk regions were infected with trypanosoma evansi (5-40%), those of riyadh and the eastern regions were infected with dipetalonema evansi (1-6%) and those of the eastern, jazan and riyadh regions were infected with eperythrozoon species (8-20%). sheep and goats of all tested ...023961044
rickettsia felis, an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis.rickettsia felis is an emerging insect-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of flea-borne spotted fever. first described as a human pathogen from the usa in 1991, r. felis is now identified throughout the world and considered a common cause of fever in africa. the cosmopolitan distribution of this pathogen is credited to the equally widespread occurrence of cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis), the primary vector and reservoir of r. felis. although r. felis is a relatively new member ...201627340613
rickettsia typhi in rodents and r. felis in fleas in yucatán as a possible causal agent of undefined febrile cases.rickettsia typhi is the causal agent of murine typhus; a worldwide zoonotic and vector-borne infectious disease, commonly associated with the presence of domestic and wild rodents. human cases of murine typhus in the state of yucatán are frequent. however, there is no evidence of the presence of rickettsia typhi in mammals or vectors in yucatán. the presence of rickettsia in rodents and their ectoparasites was evaluated in a small municipality of yucatán using the conventional polymerase chain r ...025923891
forest refugia in western and central africa as 'museums' of mesozoic biodiversity.the refugial speciation model, or 'species pump', is widely accepted in the context of tropical biogeography and has been advocated as an explanation for present species distributions in tropical western and central africa. in order to test this hypothesis, a phylogeny of the cryptic arachnid order ricinulei, based on four nuclear and mitochondrial dna markers, was inferred. this ancient clade of litter-dwelling arthropods, endemic to the primary forests of western and central africa and the neo ...023193047
migratory birds, ticks, and bartonella.bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus and possibly also bartonella. thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the mediterranean islands capri and antikythera were screened for bartonella spp. rna. one or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds. m ...201122957116
the complete mitochondrial genome of pseudocellus pearsei (chelicerata: ricinulei) and a comparison of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in arachnida.mitochondrial genomes are widely utilized for phylogenetic and population genetic analyses among animals. in addition to sequence data the mitochondrial gene order and rna secondary structure data are used in phylogenetic analyses. arachnid phylogeny is still highly debated and there is a lack of sufficient sequence data for many taxa. ricinulei (hooded tickspiders) are a morphologically distinct clade of arachnids with uncertain phylogenetic affinities.200717961221
the complete mitochondrial genome of the sea spider achelia bituberculata (pycnogonida, ammotheidae): arthropod ground pattern of gene arrangement.the phylogenetic position of pycnogonids is a long-standing and controversial issue in arthropod phylogeny. this controversy has recently been rekindled by differences in the conclusions based on neuroanatomical data concerning the chelifore and the patterns of hox expression. the mitochondrial genome of a sea spider, nymphon gracile (pycnogonida, nymphonidae), was recently reported in an attempt to address this issue. however, n. gracile appears to be a long-branch taxon on the phylogenetic tre ...200717908292
the complete mitochondrial genome of the sea spider nymphon gracile (arthropoda: pycnogonida).mitochondrial genomes form units of genetic information replicating indepentently from nuclear genomes. sequence data (most often from protein-coding genes) and other features (gene order, rna secondary structure) of mitochondrial genomes are often used in phylogenetic studies of metazoan animals from population to phylum level. pycnogonids are primarily marine arthropods, often considered closely related to chelicerates (spiders, scorpions and allies). however, due to their aberrant morphology ...200617087824
detection of theileria orientalis genotypes in haemaphysalis longicornis ticks from southern australia.theileria are blood-borne intracellular protozoal parasites belonging to the phylum apicomplexa. previously considered a benign parasite in australia, outbreaks of clinical disease resulting from theileria orientalis genotypes have been reported in australia since 2006. since this time, outbreaks have become widespread in south-eastern australia, resulting in significant adverse impacts on local dairy and beef industries. this paper provides the first investigation into the possible biological a ...201525889204
molecular detection of rickettsia species in ticks collected from the southwestern provinces of the republic of korea.rickettsiae constitute a group of arthropod-borne, gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are the causative agents of diseases ranging from mild to life threatening that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide.201728069059
first molecular evidence of hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from hungary.recently, hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of hungary, which is considered to be free of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with croatia. the aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of h. canis in hungary.201424985073
the complete mitochondrial genome of the house dust mite dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (trouessart): a novel gene arrangement among arthropods.the apparent scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in acari (mites and ticks). this subclass encompasses over 48,000 species and forms the largest group within the arachnida. although mitochondrial genomes are widely utilised for phylogenetic and population genetic studies, only 20 mitochondrial genomes of acari have been determined, of which only one belongs to the diverse order of the sarcoptiformes. in this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of ...200919284646
comparative efficacy of oral administrated afoxolaner (nexgard™) and fluralaner (bravecto™) with topically applied permethrin/imidacloprid (advantix(®)) against transmission of ehrlichia canis by infected rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.the ability of the topical spot-on advantix(®) (50 % permethrin/10 % imidacloprid) to prevent transmission of ehrlichia canis by infected rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs has previously been reported. the recent market introduction of chewable tablets containing the novel compounds, afoxolaner (nexgard™) and fluralaner (bravecto™) enabled us to conduct a comparative efficacy study with respect to the ability of these three products to block transmission of e. canis by ticks to dogs. the sp ...201627317101
virulence genes of rickettsia rickettsii are differentially modulated by either temperature upshift or blood-feeding in tick midgut and salivary glands.rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of rocky mountain spotted fever, is transmitted to humans by ticks. during tick feeding, r. rickettsii is exposed to both temperature elevation and components of the blood meal, which have previously been associated with the reactivation of its virulence. these environmental stimuli were also reported to modulate virulence genes of r. rickettsii infecting a set of organs of adult females of its natural vector, amblyomma aureolatum.201627287539
risk factors for bartonella species infection in blood donors from southeast brazil.bacteria from the genus bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. however, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. in humans, bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scrat ...201626999057
satellite hyperspectral imagery to support tick-borne infectious diseases surveillance.this study proposed the use of satellite hyperspectral imagery to support tick-borne infectious diseases surveillance based on monitoring the variation in amplifier hosts food sources. to verify this strategy, we used the data of the human rickettsiosis occurrences in southeastern brazil, region in which the emergence of this disease is associated with the rising capybara population. spatio-temporal analysis based on monte carlo simulations was used to identify risk areas of human rickettsiosis ...201526599337
feeding period required by amblyomma aureolatum ticks for transmission of rickettsia rickettsii to vertebrate hosts.rocky mountain spotted fever is endemic to the são paulo metropolitan area, brazil, where the etiologic agent, rickettsia rickettsii, is transmitted to humans by adult amblyomma aureolatum ticks. we determined the minimal feeding period required by a. aureolatum nymphs and adults to transmit r. rickettsii to guinea pigs. unfed nymphs and unfed adult ticks had to be attached to the host for >10 hours to transmit r. rickettsii. in contrast, fed ticks needed a minimum of 10 minutes of attachment to ...025148391
rickettsia and vector biodiversity of spotted fever focus, atlantic rain forest biome, brazil. 024565262
dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in brazil: opening the black box.dogs and cats in brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. these may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). while some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., aelurostrongylus abstrusus and felicola subrostratus for cats, and angiostrongylus vasorum and trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other h ...201424423244
ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in brazil.spotted-fever-caused rickettsia rickettsii infection is in brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to r. parkeri was discovered in the country (atlantic rainforest strain). both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the mai ...201323875178
comparative evaluation of infected and noninfected amblyomma triste ticks with rickettsia parkeri, the agent of an emerging rickettsiosis in the new world.the distribution of rickettsia parkeri in south america has been associated with amblyomma triste ticks. the present study evaluated under laboratory conditions two colonies of a. triste: one started from engorged females that were naturally infected by r. parkeri (designated as infected group); the other started from noninfected females (designated as control group). both colonies were reared in parallel for five consecutive generations. tick-naïve domestic rabbits were used for feeding of each ...201323936795
participation of ticks in the infectious cycle of canine visceral leishmaniasis, in teresina, piauí, this study, we detected leishmania spp. infection in r. sanguineus collected from dogs that were naturally infected with l. (l.) infantum. we examined 35 dogs of both sexes and unknown ages. the infected dogs were serologically positive by the immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and quick test-dpp (dual path platform), as well as parasitological examination of a positive skin biopsy or sternal bone marrow aspiration. ten negative dogs were inclu ...025076429
molecular ecological insights into neotropical bird-tick the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. however, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. in contrast, immature neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. in panama ...201627203693
serological survey of ehrlichia species in dogs, horses and humans: zoonotic scenery in a rural settlement from southern brazil.the aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of ehrlichia spp. and risk factors for exposure in a restricted population of dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites in a brazilian rural settlement using a commercial elisa rapid test and two indirect immunofluorescent assays (ifa) with e. canis and e. chaffeensis crude antigens. serum samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were used. fifty-six out of 132 (42.4%) dogs were seropositive for e. canis. dogs > one y ...024037288
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