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rhipicephalus sanguineus (ixodida, ixodidae) as intermediate host of a canine neglected filarial species with dermal microfilariae.the life cycles of filarioids of dogs presenting dermal microfilariae have been little studied. following the recent retrieval of dermal microfilariae identified as cercopithifilaria sp. in a dog from sicily (italy), this study was designed to assess the role of the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus as an intermediate host of this filarial species. an experimental tick infestation was performed on an infected dog using 300 nymphs of r. sanguineus. engorged nymphs were collected and examine ...201121831524
[tick-borne diseases in the republic of croatia].this study analyses occurence, trendline, occurence by months and geographical distribution of tick-transmitted diseases: lyme borreliosis, tick-borne meningoencephalitis (tbm) and mediterranean spotted fever in the republic of croatia in the period between 1999 and 2008. the vector for lyme borreliosis and tick-borne meningoencephalitis is ixodes ricinus, while mediterranean spotted fever is transmitted by the rhipicephalus sanguineus. lyme disease is endemic in entire continental croatia and c ...201121612103
tick cell lines for study of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.abstract continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. a preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cc ...201121955214
detection of new francisella-like tick endosymbionts in hyalomma spp. and rhipicephalus spp. (acari: ixodidae) from bulgaria.we report on the identification of two new francisella-like endosymbionts (fles) found in three different tick species from bulgaria. the fles were characterized by 16s rrna and tul4 gene sequencing and seem to lack the molecular marker rd1. these two new taxa seem to be facultative secondary endosymbionts of ticks.201121705542
bartonella and rickettsia in arthropods from the lao pdr and from borneo, malaysia.rickettsioses and bartonelloses are arthropod-borne diseases of mammals with widespread geographical distributions. yet their occurrence in specific regions, their association with different vectors and hosts and the infection rate of arthropod-vectors with these agents remain poorly studied in south-east asia. we conducted entomological field surveys in the lao pdr (laos) and borneo, malaysia by surveying fleas, ticks, and lice from domestic dogs and collected additional samples from domestic c ...201122153360
Mediterranean spotted fever and encephalitis: a case report and review of the literature.Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is a disease caused by Rickettsia conorii and transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It is widely distributed through southern Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. It is an emerging or a reemerging disease in some regions. Countries of the Mediterranean basin, such as Portugal, have noticed an increased incidence of MSF over the past 10 years. It was believed that MSF was a benign disease associated with a mortality rate of 1-3% before the a ...201121879306
species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (acari: ixodoidea: ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in qazvin province, iran.this report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in qazvin province of iran. the primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. a total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. total direct body collections of ticks were ...201121805220
q fever: current state of knowledge and perspectives of research of a neglected zoonosis.q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, coxiella burnetii. in certain areas, q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. nevertheless, knowledge of coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. its resistant (intracellular and environmental) and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. ...201122194752
pcr-detection of coxiella burnetii in ticks collected from sheep and goats in southeast iran.there is a little data on coxiella burnetii (q fever agent) in iran. ticks may play a significant role in the transmission of c. burnetii among animals. the aim of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction for the detection of c. burnetii in ticks collected in southeast iran.201122808404
ultrastructural analysis of the oocytes of female rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) ticks subjected to the action of azadirachta indica a. juss (neem).the present study provides ultrastructural information about the acaricidal effects of neem (azadirachta indica a. juss) on the ovaries of r. sanguineus engorged females. in general, the main damage caused in the oocytes was alteration in the shape of the cell and of the germinal vesicle, ring-shaped nucleolus, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and disorganization of the organelles and of the cell membranes (including the chorion), all of which indicate that these cells could be in the process of death. ...201121981820
distribution of rickettsia rickettsii in ovary cells of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille1806) (acari: ixodidae).abstract:201122117572
rnai screen reveals host cell kinases specifically involved in listeria monocytogenes spread from cell to cell.intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as listeria monocytogenes and rickettsia conorii display actin-based motility in the cytosol of infected cells and spread from cell to cell through the formation of membrane protrusions at the cell cortex. whereas the mechanisms supporting cytosolic actin-based motility are fairly well understood, it is unclear whether specific host factors may be required for supporting the formation and resolution of membrane protrusions. to address this gap in knowledge ...201121853127
effects of aggregation on the reproductive biology of rhipicephalus sanguineus females.the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus is one of the most important tick species in both veterinary and human medicine. studies on the biology of this tick are pivotal in order to develop improved control strategies. the brown dog tick is a gregarious species, tending to form large clusters in highly infested environments. this is the case of engorged females of r. sanguineus that often tend to aggregate in the environment. in the present study, we assessed whether aggregation affects r. sa ...201121909821
molecular and serological detection of ehrlichia canis and babesia vogeli in dogs in colombia.ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases, caused mainly by ehrlichia canis and babesia canis, respectively, with a worldwide occurrence in dogs, whose main vector is the brown-dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. the present work aimed to detect the presence of e. canis and babesia sp. in 91 dog blood samples in colombia, by molecular and serological techniques. we also performed sequence alignment to indicate the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. the present wo ...201122130333
acaricidal activity of hydroethanolic formulations of thymol against rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) and dermacentor nitens (acari: ixodidae) larvae.the aim of this study was to assess the acaricidal activity of hydroethanolic formulations of thymol at varying concentrations on rhipicephalus sanguineus and dermacentor nitens larvae. the larval packet test was used and the thymol concentrations tested were 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg/ml. the control group was exposed only to water and ethanol (50/50%) and there were 10 repetitions for each treatment. the mortality was evaluated after 24h. for the r. sanguineus larvae, the mortality rates ...201122137349
experimental infection by capillary tube feeding of rhipicephalus sanguineus with bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii.it has been speculated that ticks may serve as vectors of bartonella species. circumstantial, clinical, epidemiological and serological evidence suggest that b. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii (b. v. berkhoffii) might be transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus. the purpose of the present study was to determine whether adult r. sanguineus ticks can be infected with a b. v. berkhoffii genotype ii isolate via capillary tube feeding and whether the infection can then be transmitted from adult females ...201122062313
Infection prevalences of common tick-borne pathogens in adult lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky.Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007-2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Ricke ...201121976578
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever: a molecular survey on hard ticks (ixodidae) in yazd province, iran.to determine the rate of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) infection in hard ticks (ixodidae) in yazd province of iran.201121771418
monocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs.ehrlichiosis is the multiorgan infectious disease caused by small, intracellular rickettsias from the genus ehrlichia. these microorganisms are known as an etiologic factor of infections world wide in humans and in different species of animals. dog ehrlichiosis can be caused by several species of ehrlichia attacking different groups of blood cells, but most often an infection by ehrlichia canis is diagnosed with special relation to monocytes. a vector for e. canis are rhipicephalus sanguineus an ...201121957751
The effects of flumethrin (Bayticol® pour-on) on European ticks exposed to treated hairs of cattle and sheep.Tick infestations in cattle and sheep pose serious health problems when agents of diseases are transmitted. In addition, blood feeding of ticks induces enormous economic losses due to reduced weight gain of infested animals. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to hairs clipped from cattle and sheep treated with flumethrin (Bayticol®) on European ticks. The dose used was 10 ml/100 kg body weight for both animal species. At intervals of 7 days (days 7, 14, 21, 28 ...201122205348
ticks collected from selected mammalian hosts surveyed in the republic of korea during 2008-2009.a tick survey was conducted to determine the relative abundance and distribution of ticks associated with selected mammals in the republic of korea (rok) during 2008-2009. a total of 918 ticks were collected from 76 mammals (6 families, 9 species) captured at 6 provinces and 3 metropolitan cities in rok. haemaphysalis longicornis (54.4%) was the most frequently collected tick, followed by haemaphysalis flava (28.5%), ixodes nipponensis (7.6%), ixodes pomerantzevi (4.8%), ixodes persulcatus (4.6% ...201122072840
efficacy of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene for treatment and control of tick species infesting dogs in europe.four studies were conducted to show the effectiveness of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene in a spot-on formulation (certifect™, merial limited, ga, usa) for the therapeutic and preventive control of ixodid tick species affecting dogs in europe: ixodes ricinus, dermacentor reticulatus and rhipicephalus sanguineus. in each, untreated control dogs were compared to others treated with the novel combination. all dogs were infested with 50 adult, unfed ticks prior to treatme ...201121777735
efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene for treatment and control of induced infestations of brown dog ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs.four laboratory studies were conducted to demonstrate that a single topical dose of a novel spot-on combination containing fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene (certifect™, merial limited, ga, usa) is efficacious against the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. in each study, 6-8 male and 6-8 female purpose-bred, laboratory mongrels, terrier cross or beagles were randomly assigned to one of two study groups (treated and untreated), based on pre-treatment parasite counts. starting on the day ...201121777733
evaluation of glycoproteins purified from adult and larval camel ticks (hyalomma dromedarii) as a candidate vaccine.in order to identify antigens that can help prevent camel tick infestations, three major glycoproteins (glps) about 97, 66 and 40 kda in size were purified from adult and larval egyptian ticks, hyalomma (h.) dromedarii, using a single-step purification method with con-a sepharose. the purified glps were evaluated as vaccines against camel tick infestation in rabbits. the rabbits received three intramuscular inoculations of glps (20 µg/animal) on days 0, 14, and 28. in the immunoblot analysis, se ...201121897098
the prevention of attachment and the detachment effects of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene for rhipicephalus sanguineus and dermacentor variabilis on dogs.a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene (certifect™, merial limited, ga, usa) was evaluated for the prevention of attachment of ticks and its ability to cause detachment of ticks. for the two prevention of attachment studies, 20 purpose-bred beagles were allocated each to two equal groups based on pretreatment tick counts (treated and untreated). each dog was exposed to 50 adult rhipicephalus sanguineus and dermacentor variabilis weekly starting 24h after treatment. in study ...201121777732
the combined mode of action of fipronil and amitraz on the motility of rhipicephalus sanguineus.the motility of adult rhipicephalus sanguineus was evaluated subsequent to treatments of amitraz, fipronil and the combination of fipronil plus amitraz against a vehicle control in a petri dish assay using the lemnatec scanalyzer imaging system. the assay was run using a fixed dilution of amitraz (0.32µg/cm(2)); serial dilutions of fipronil (1.3, 0.33, 0.08, 0.02, or 0.005µg/cm(2)); and the same serial dilutions of fipronil in combination with the fixed dilution of amitraz. measurement of motili ...201121777731
Ultrastructural changes in the ovary cells of engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks treated with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis).Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a widely distributed tick species that has adapted to the urban environment, and the dog is its main host. This species is also known as a vector and reservoir of diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Currently, acaricides of synthetic chemical origin have been widely and indiscriminately used, leading to the development of resistance to these products by ticks and causing damage to the environment. Thus, these issues have made it necessary to seek other ...201122131265
bartonellae in animals and vectors in new caledonia.bartonellae are gram-negative facultative intracellular alpha-proteobacteria from the family bartonellaceae. the natural history of bartonellae consists of a reservoir/host, which is a vertebrate with chronic intravascular infection with sustained bacteremia, and a vector (usually an arthropod) that transfers the bacteria from the reservoir to a susceptible yet uninfected host. in order to reveal the sources and reservoirs of bartonella infection in animals and vectors in new caledonia, we colle ...201122018646
serodetection of ehrlichia canis infection in dogs from ludhiana district of punjab, india.dot-elisa (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) immunocomb(®) assay was conducted to detect the presence of antibodies against ehrlichia canis in blood samples of 60 privately owned dogs suspected to be infected with e. canis from the small animal clinics, college of veterinary science, guru angad dev veterinary and animal sciences university, ludhiana, punjab (india). antibodies reactive to e. canis were detected in plasma in 48 samples out of 60 samples by immunocomb(®) dot-elisa. out of these 3 ...201123024503
Hard ticks (Ixodidae) in Romania: surveillance, host associations, and possible risks for tick-borne diseases.Ticks and tick-borne diseases represent a great concern worldwide. Despite this, in Romania the studies regarding this subject has just started, and the interest of medical personnel, researchers, and citizens is increasing. Because the geographical range of many tick-borne diseases started to extend as consequences of different biological and environmental factors, it is important to study the diversity of ticks species, especially correlated with host associations. A total number of 840 ticks ...201122033737
a survey of canine tick-borne diseases in india.abstract: background: there are few published reports on canine babesia, ehrlichia, anaplasma, hepatozoon and haemotropic mycoplasma infections in india and most describe clinical disease in individual dogs, diagnosed by morphological observation of the microorganisms in stained blood smears. this study investigated the occurrence and distribution of canine tick-borne disease (tbd) pathogens using a combination of conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in four cities in india. results: ...201121771313
identification of rickettsia felis in fleas but not ticks on stray cats and dogs and the evidence of rickettsia rhipicephali only in adult stage of rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides.rickettsia spp. are zoonotic pathogens and mainly transmitted by various arthropod vectors, such as fleas, ticks, and lice. previous epidemiological studies indicated that ectoparasites infested on dogs or cats may be infected by rickettsia spp., and transmit them to human beings accidentally. in this study, the prevalence of rickettsia infection was evaluated using fleas and ticks from stray dogs and cats in taiwan. a total of 158 pools made by 451 cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) from 37 dogs ...201122000945
starvation and overwinter do not affect the reproductive fitness of rhipicephalus sanguineus.rhipicephalus sanguineus is the most widespread tick in the world, being able to survive under different climate conditions. in this study, the longevity of r. sanguineus was investigated under laboratory and natural climate conditions in southern italy. moreover, the reproductive fitness of females after overwintering was assessed. in the environment, unfed larvae, nymphs and adults were able to survive for up to 34, 40 and 385 days, respectively. however, the longevity of larvae (44 days), nym ...201122075042
Seroprevalence and risk factors to Ehrlichia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil.Sera of 320 dogs from urban and rural areas of a Pantanal region of Brazil were evaluated for rickettsial (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. rhipicephali, R. felis, and R. bellii) and ehrlichial (Ehrlichia canis) infection by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Risk factors for ehrlichiosis or rickettsiosis were also evaluated. Positive reaction against Ehrlichia spp. was detected in 227 (70.9%) dogs, 119 (74.3%) from an urban area and 108 (67.5%) from rural areas (P>0.05). Fo ...201122108015
Inhibitory action of neem aqueous extract (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.The present study revealed unheard of data about the action of aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, proving that these extracts in 10 and 20% concentrations do not have the potential to kill the females; however, in lower concentrations (10%) provokes great morphological alterations in germinative cells such as the emergence of extended cytoplasmic vacuolization areas as well as the fragmentation of the germinal vesicle, ev ...201121936022
domestic dogs (canis familiaris) as reservoir hosts for rickettsia conorii.abstract rickettsia conorii is the causative agent of mediterranean spotted fever (msf) and israeli spotted fever (isf) transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. in areas where msf or isf are prevalent, dogs have high prevalence of r. conorii -neutralizing antibodies. however, the true role of dogs in the persistence of the r. conorii transmission cycle is unknown, and their reservoir competence for this pathogen has remained untested. we assessed the ability of dogs infected ...201121923270
First transcriptome of the testis-vas deferens-male accessory gland and proteome of the spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a ne ...201121949745
molecular detection of bartonella species in ticks from peru.a total of 103 ticks, collected from canines, horses, donkeys, and snakes from peru, were screened for the presence of bartonella dna by polymerase chain reaction analysis. bartonella dna was detected in two ticks using bartonella 16s-23s intergenic spacer region primers and in an additional two ticks using bartonella nadh dehydrogenase gamma subunit gene (nuog) primers. bartonella rochalimae eremeeva et al., b. quintana schmincke, and b. elizabethae daly et al. dna was detected in a rhipicephal ...201122238888
personal protection against biting insects and ticks.recent events with the first cases of local transmission of chikungunya and dengue fever virus in southern france by aedes albopictus, adding to the nuisance and potential vectors that can be encountered when traveling in tropical or sub-tropical countries, has shown the value of a reflection on the personal protection against vectors (ppav). it is seen during an outbreak of vector-borne disease, or simply because of nuisance arthropods, that our fellow citizens try to protect themselves individ ...201121395212
spotted fever group rickettsia infecting ticks (acari: ixodidae) in the state of santa catarina, brazil.during 2006-2008, a total of 260 adult ticks were collected from domestic and wild animals in different regions of the state of santa catarina (sc), brazil, including areas where human cases of brazilian spotted fever have been reported. collected ticks belonging to nine species (amblyomma aureolatum, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma dubitatum, amblyomma longirostre, amblyomma ovale, amblyomma tigrinum, dermacentor nitens, rhipicephalus microplus and rhipicephalus sanguineus) were tested by polym ...201122241112
an assessment of genetic variability in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of cercopithifilaria sp. (spirurida, onchocercidae) from dog and rhipicephalus sanguineus populations.this study investigates sequence variation in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene within cercopithifilaria sp. recorded recently in italy. fourteen sequence types (haplotypes) were characterized for 163 (7.7%) amplicons from 2111 genomic dna samples prepared from skin samples from dogs and from rhipicephalus sanguineus (ticks) from different geographical areas of the mediterranean basin (i.e., italy, spain and greece). the most prevalent sequence types represented haplotypes i (70. ...201122227114
a survey on endoparasites and ectoparasites of stray cats from mashhad (iran) and association with risk factors.as there appeared to be no data available on parasite infection of stray cats in the region and considering the potential threat of stray cats for animal and public health, the present study was carried out using biological samples and necropsy finding collected from cats captured in mashhad city in the northeast of iran. from a total 52 stray cats examined, 18 (34.6%) were male and 34 (65.4%) were female. ten species of endoparasites including helminthes and protozoa and two species of ectopara ...201123024505
An unusual case of fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in pregnancy.Rickettsial diseases are common in Srilanka. The spotted fever group of rickettsiae presents in many ways, including very severe disease causing significant morbidity and mortality. A regional variation of the Rickettsia conorii subspecies and differences in clinical presentations are reported. This case describes disseminated Rickettsia conorii infection in a pregnant woman presenting with endocarditis.201121886958
vector databank in the indian armed forces.medical intelligence of disease vectors deals with understanding vector distribution and control.201127408077
migratory birds, ticks, and bartonella.bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus and possibly also bartonella. thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the mediterranean islands capri and antikythera were screened for bartonella spp. rna. one or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds. m ...201122957116
rickettsia felis, an emerging flea-transmitted human pathogen.rickettsia felis was first recognised two decades ago and has now been described as endemic to all continents except antarctica. the rickettsiosis caused by r. felis is known as flea-borne spotted fever or cat-flea typhus. the large number of arthropod species found to harbour r. felis and that may act as potential vectors support the view that it is a pan-global microbe. the main arthropod reservoir and vector is the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis, yet more than 20 other species of fleas, tick ...201124149035
[mediterranean spotted fever in paediatric and adult patients: two clinical aspects of the same disease].mediterranean spotted fever is an acute febrile disease caused by rickettsia conorii and transmitted to humans by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. nearly 400 cases are reported every year in sicily, mainly from june to september. the aim of this study is to compare the clinical and laboratory features of two different groups of patients , one of adults and one of children. the analysis included all adult patients with msf diagnosed at the institute of infectious diseases, paolo giacc ...201122212164
urban family cluster of spotted fever rickettsiosis linked to rhipicephalus sanguineus infected with rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia and rickettsia massiliae.here, we report an epidemiological and entomological investigation of a cluster of cases of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiosis occurring in southern france. a family of 3 (husband, wife, and their son) presented with symptoms compatible with sfg rickettsiosis. for 2 patients, serum samples presented increased levels of igm and igg for sfg rickettsia. the patients' home was investigated, and rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were collected from the floor from behind the furniture. of 22 ticks c ...201223140893
some epidemiological features of the mediterranean spotted fever re-emerging in bulgaria.the mediterranean spotted fever (msf), caused by rickettsia conorii conorii strain malish, is transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. in bulgaria, cases of msf occurred in two epidemic waves, the first in 1948-1970, (after there were no report of new cases more than for 20 years) and the second started in 1993 and is still going on. the aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of the re-emerging msf in plovdiv city and its suburbs, which is the ...201222908829
rickettsia parkeri: a rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern uruguay.at first rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. later rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. the natural vector of r. conorii, rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in uruguay. to address this question, 180 r. sanguineus from dogs and 245 a. triste from vegetation (flagging) collected in three endemic localities w ...201222634883
apparent tick paralysis by rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) in dogs.certain tick species including ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. a single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. this study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by r. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southe ...201222546547
resistant ticks inhibit metarhizium infection prior to haemocoel invasion by reducing fungal viability on the cuticle surface.we studied disease progression of, and host responses to, four species in the metarhizium anisopliae complex expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp). we compared development and determined their relative levels of virulence against two susceptible arthropods, the cattle tick rhipicephalus annulatus and the lepidopteran galleria mellonella, and two resistant ticks, hyalomma excavatum and rhipicephalus sanguineus. metarhizium brunneum ma7 caused the greatest mortality of r. annulatus, metarhizi ...201222507442
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks and fleas from the democratic republic of the congo.little is known about the prevalence of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae in ticks and fleas in the democratic republic of the congo. in 2008, 12 amblyomma compressum ticks were collected from 3 pangolins (manis gigantea). two haemaphysalis punctaleachi ticks were collected from 2 african civets (civettictis civetta congica), and one was collected from an antelope (onotragus leche). a total of 111 rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, 23 ctenocephalides canis fleas, 39 c. felis fleas, and 5 tricho ...201223137572
[detection of rickettsia in ectoparasites of wild and domestic mammals from the cerro chucanti private reserve and from neighboring towns, panamá, 2007-2010].ectoparasites are the main vectors of rickettsiosis. in panama, however, limited data are available concerning the arthropod species that serve as vectors or reservoirs.201223242292
epidemiology of brazilian spotted fever in the atlantic forest, state of são paulo, brazil.the tick-borne bacterium rickettsia rickettsii is the aetiological agent of brazilian spotted fever (bsf). the present study evaluated tick infestations on wild and domestic animals, and the rickettsial infection in these animals and their ticks in 7 forest areas adjacent to human communities in the são paulo metropolitan area (spma). the results were compared to ecological traits of each sampled area. two main tick species, amblyomma aureolatum and rhipicephalus sanguineus, were collected from ...201222716923
ticks (ixodida) on humans from central panama, panama (2010-2011).from january 2010 to december 2011, a total of 138 cases of ticks feeding on humans were reported from 11 locations in central panama. five of these locations were situated in forest environments, three in rural landscapes and three in urban areas. the ticks were submitted to the gorgas memorial institute, where nine species were identified among 65 specimens: amblyomma cajennense s.l., a. dissimile, a. naponense, a. oblongoguttatum, a. ovale, a. sabanerae, a. tapirellum, haemaphysalis juxtakoch ...201222544074
ectoparasite infestation patterns of domestic dogs in suburban and rural areas in borneo.domestic dogs, canis lupus, have been one of the longest companions of humans and have introduced their own menagerie of parasites and pathogens into this relationship. here, we investigate the parasitic load of 212 domestic dogs with fleas (siphonaptera) chewing lice (phthiraptera), and ticks (acarina) along a gradient from rural areas with near-natural forest cover to suburban areas in northern borneo (sabah, malaysia). we used a spatially-explicit hierarchical bayesian model that allowed us t ...201222526293
action of andiroba oil (carapa guianensis) on rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged females: morphophysiological evaluation of reproductive system.because of the increasing medical-veterinary importance of ticks, the development of alternative control methods, less aggressive to the host and the environment has become the target of several researches. in this sense, the present study analyzed the action of different concentrations (5, 10, and 20%) of andiroba seed oil (carapa guianensis) on the reproductive system of rhipicephalus sanguineus females, through histochemical techniques and the quantification of the reproductive efficiency ind ...201222972770
cytotoxic effects of andiroba oil (carapa guianensis) in reproductive system of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged females.the present study performed an analysis about the effects of andiroba seed oil (carapa guianensis) in the ovary of rhipicephalus sanguineus semi-engorged females; once, there are few studies about the action of natural products on the reproductive system, a vital organ for the biological success of this animal group. the results showed that andiroba oil is a potent natural agent which causes significant structural changes in the oocytes, such as the emergence of large vacuolated cytoplasmic regi ...201222797575
ectoparasites of livestock, dogs, and wild rodents in the chittagong hill tracts in southeastern bangladesh.a large variety of ectoparasites parasitizing on livestock, dogs, and rodents are documented throughout the world, of which several are proven vectors for major (including zoonotic) diseases affecting humans and/or livestock. however, there remains a significant lack of knowledge in regard to the ectoparasite fauna in remote regions of the developing world, such as southeastern bangladesh, and an urgent need to investigate this fauna to improve diagnostic options. in the course of the present st ...201222576854
[survey on ticks and detection of new bunyavirus in some vect in the endemic areas of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (ftls) in henan province].to investigate the distribution, species, seasonal fluctuation of ticks and detect new bunyavirus in some hematophagus in the endemic areas of fever thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (ftls) in henan province.201222943894
morphological characterization of the nymphs rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae). description of the testes, integument, malpighian tubules, and midgut on the detachment day.this study presents the morpho-histological and histochemical characterization of the testes, integument, malpighian tubules, and midgut of engorged rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs on the detachment day, showing the morphological and physiological characteristics to this phase in the life cycle of these individuals. the testis is constituted by germinative cells (only spermatogonia) with large, round-shaped and strongly stained nuclei which are organized into cysts by a thin layer of somatic cel ...201222615106
copulation is necessary for the completion of a gonotrophic cycle in the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae).ovarian development and egg maturation are essential stages in animal reproduction. for bisexual ixodid ticks, copulation is an important prerequisite for the completion of the gonotrophic cycle. in this study, we aimed to characterize the morpho-histological changes in the ovary and oocytes of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, together with the identification of feeding and reproductive parameters associated with mating. virgin and cross-mated females (with r. turanicus males) weighed 60% less ...201222626791
parasitism by ixodiphagus wasps (hymenoptera: encyrtidae) in rhipicephalus sanguineus and amblyomma ticks (acari: ixodidae) in three regions of brazil.hymenopteran parasitoids have been shown to be of potential value in tick biocontrol. tick parasitoids has been reported only once in brazil, over 95 yr ago when ixodiphagus hookeri (howard) was reported parasitizing rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) nymphs in rio de janeiro. herein, we report the occurrence of ixodiphagus spp. in ticks from three different regions of brazil. in the state of maranhão, in northeastern brazil, parasitoids were detected in r. sanguineus nymphs on three occasions ...201223356061
action of permethrin on rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged females: morpho-physiological evaluation of salivary glands.currently the most effective method of tick control is the use of acaricides, among which stands out permethrin (active ingredient of acaricide advantage(®) max3, bayer), a neurotoxic pyrethroid. however, assessments of their effects on other tick systems such as glandular are still scarce. thus, this study provides information, through histochemical techniques, about the toxic effect of this pyrethroid on the morphophysiology of salivary glands of semi-engorged rhipicephalus sanguineus females ...201222749738
cutaneous distribution and localization of cercopithifilaria sp. microfilariae in dogs.the aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of microfilariae of a recently described cercopithifilaria sp. and the relationship with the preferred attachment sites of its vector, the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. skin samples from 20 dogs were collected from eight anatomical sites and soaked twice in saline solution at 37°c. all samples were also molecularly processed for the specific amplification of partial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene. microfilariae were une ...201222698796
continuous in vitro cultivation of a recently identified babesia that infects small ruminants in china.babesia sp. xinjiang was isolated from a splenectomised sheep infested by rhipicephalus sanguineus and hylomma anatolicum anatolicum, collected from sheep and cattle in xinjiang province. it was considered to be a novel ovine babesia species on the basis of its morphology, pathogenicity, vector tick species and alignments of 18s ribosomal rna (18s rrna) and internal transcribed spacers (its) gene sequences. continuous in vitro cultures of the ovine parasite were established using infected sheep ...201222386948
tick paralysis: first zoonosis record in egypt.tick paralysis caused by the secretion of toxin with saliva while taking a blood meal is an important veterinary disease, but is rare in humans. although it has certain geographical proclivities, it exists worldwide. tick paralysis was demonstrated for the first time in egypt among four children living in rural area at giza governorate. the clinical pictures were confused with rabies; myasthensia gravis; botulism; diphtheritic polyneuropathy encountered in rural areas. the recovery of tick infes ...201222662597
central nervous system of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (acari: ixodidae): an ultrastructural study.this study performed the ultrastructural description of the synganglion of rhipicephalus sanguineus males and females, aiming to contribute to the understanding of the cellular organization of this organ. the results show that the central nervous system of these individuals consists of a mass of fused nerves, named synganglion, from where nerves emerge towards several parts of the body. it is surrounded by the neural lamella, a uniform and acellular layer, constituted by repeated layers of homog ...201222610445
ecdysteroid levels changed by permethrin action in female rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) ticks.as recent studies have shown that ecdysteroids may play a major role in the regulation of vitellogenesis in ixodidae, the present study quantified, by means of a radioimmunoassay, the levels of ecdysteroids present in the hemolymph of semi-engorged females of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks obtained from control females (exposed to distilled water) and those exposed to increasing concentrations of permethrin. the levels of ecdysteroids decreased significantly as the concentration of permethrin in ...201222483974
detection of leishmania infantum dna mainly in rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis.sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. in order to evaluate natural infection by leishmania infantum in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult r. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied.201222613502
an assessment of whole blood and fractions by nested pcr as a dna source for diagnosing canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis.ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases. ehrlichia canis and anaplasma platys infect mainly white cells and platelets, respectively. the main dna source for pcr is peripheral blood, but the potential of blood cell fractions has not been extensively investigated. this study aims at assessment of whole blood (wb) and blood fractions potential in nested pcr (npcr) to diagnose canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. the 16s rrna gene was amplified in 71.4, 17.8, 31.57, and 30% of the wb, ...201222973174
morphometric variations in gametocytes of hepatozoon canis from naturally infected dogs.this study presents the morphometric characteristic of canine haemoprotozoan, hepatozoon canis, using software dp2-bsw (olympus). the gametocytes of h. canis found inside the neutrophils were characteristic in shape and size and varied from 9.50 to 11.80 μm × 5.10-6.00 μm. parasitaemia ranged from 1.00 to 39.00 %. few gametocytes without nuclei and of abnormal shapes were also observed. the results were compared with the measurements done by using ocular micrometer.201224431557
a survey on ectoparasite infestations in companion dogs of ahvaz district, south-west of iran.the objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of shahid chamran university of ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010.201223293781
transcriptome walking: a laboratory-oriented gui-based approach to mrna identification from deep-sequenced data.deep sequencing technology provides efficient and economical production of large numbers of randomly positioned, relatively short, estimates of base identities in dna molecules. application of this technology to mrna samples allows rapid examination of the molecular genetic environment in individual cells or tissues, the transcriptome. however, assembly of such short sequences into complete mrna creates a challenge that limits the usefulness of the technology, particularly when no, or limited, g ...201223217191
detection of leishmania infantum, babesia canis, and rickettsiae in ticks removed from dogs living in italy.the aims of this study were to determine natural infections by anaplasma phagocytophilum/anaplasma platys, bartonella henselae, ehrlichia canis, leishmania infantum, rickettsia spp., babesia spp., and hepatozoon spp. by molecular methods in ticks (n=91) removed from dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with tick-borne diseases (n=22) living in italy and to assess the distribution and species of ticks encountered. ticks from dogs living in southern italy were all ident ...201223182545
high prevalence of intestinal infections and ectoparasites in dogs, minas gerais state (southeast brazil).in the present study, 155 dogs euthanized by the zoonotic disease unit of uberlândia in minas gerais state (southeast brazil) were autopsied. ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs was systematically examined for the presence of helminthic parasites. in total, we isolated 5,155 metazoan parasites of eight species (three intestinal helminth species, five ectoparasite species). the cestode dipylidium caninum was present in 57 dogs (36.8 %), the nematodes ancylostoma canin ...201222825284
stray dogs of northern jordan as reservoirs of ticks and tick-borne hemopathogens.dogs are competent reservoir hosts of several hemopathogens including zoonotic agents and can serve as readily available source of nutrition for many blood-feeding arthropods. three hemopathogens had been detected for the first time in jordan. the pcr prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum, hepatozoon canis, and piroplasmid dna were 39.5%, 28.9%, and 7.9% (n=38) respectively. sequencing of amplicons of pcr with universal primers targeting the 18s rrna gene of piroplasmids shows the highest simi ...201222434363
occurrence of pathogenic fungi to amblyomma cajennense in a rural area of central brazil and their activities against vectors of rocky mountain spotted fever.two isolates of beauveria bassiana and one of purpureocillium lilacinum (=paecilomyces lilacinus) were found infecting amblyomma cajennense engorged females collected on horses (0.15% infection rate from a total of 1982 specimens) and another two isolates of p. lilacinum and one metarhizium anisopliae detected in soils (2.1% from 144 samples) collected in typical pasture habitats of this tick in central brazil from october 2009 to march 2011. fungi were isolated from soils with rhipicephalus san ...201222459109
parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of serra do cipó national park, brazil.over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. this study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, cerdocyon thous) in the serra do cipó national park (43-44º w and 19-20º s) and endo ...201223070438
first evidence and molecular characterization of babesia vogeli in naturally infected dogs and rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in southern france.babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease of animals and humans caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genera babesia and theileria. in france canine babesiosis has a high prevalence with babesia canis thought to be the main aetiological agent of the disease. babesia vogeli has already been reported to occur in europe and in other countries around the mediterranean sea. the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, the main known vector of b. vogeli, occurs in southern france. however, only one cas ...201222342131
molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in nigerian ticks.a molecular epidemiology investigation was undertaken in two nigerian states (plateau and nassarawa) to determine the prevalence of pathogens of veterinary and public health importance associated with ticks collected from cattle and dogs using pcr, cloning and sequencing or reverse line blot techniques. a total of 218 tick samples, amblyomma variegatum (n=153), rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus (n=45), and rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=20) were sampled. pathogens identified in ticks included p ...201222326937
first molecular detection of ehrlichia canis and anaplasma platys in ticks from dogs in cebu, philippines.ehrlichia canis infection of dogs in the philippines has been detected by serological and peripheral blood smear examination methods, but not by molecular means. anaplasma platys infection in dogs has not yet been officially reported, although it is suspected to occur in the country. thus, sensitive and specific molecular techniques were used in this study to demonstrate the presence of both e. canis and a. platys in the philippines. a total of 164 rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks was collected fr ...201223168049
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus-tick survey in endemic areas in bulgaria.the balkan peninsula and bulgaria in particular, is a well-known endemic region for crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf). this study describes the prevalence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) among tick populations from areas, previously recognized with emerging cases of cchf disease in humans. these include regions from the southeastern (regions of kardzhali and haskovo) and central (region of stara zagora) parts of the country. for the period 2006-2010 a total of 911 adult tic ...201222337300
ehrlichia canis in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the ivory coast.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by ehrlichia canis is distributed globally, but its prevalence in africa is poorly known. in the study reported herein, 27% of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from watchdogs in abidjan, ivory coast, were positive for e. canis using quantitative real-time pcr. a new molecular strategy is proposed that can be used not only for epidemiological study, but also for the diagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. our findings show for the first time the pr ...201223141106
mitochondrial dna analysis of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (acari: ixodidae) in the southern cone of south america.a genetic analysis of partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rdna genes of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato collected in the southern cone of south america was carried out. also, sequences of ticks belonging to this taxon from europe, africa and other south american localities were included. tcs networks constructed with 16s rdna sequences showed two clusters of haplotypes, namely, southern lineage (st) and northern lineage (nt). haplotypes representing the specimens coming from l ...201222818199
effect of calea serrata less. n-hexane extract on acetylcholinesterase of larvae ticks and brain wistar rats.acetylcholinesterase (ache), an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine (ach) at cholinergic synapses, is a target for pesticides and its inhibition by organophosphates leads to paralysis and death of arthropods. it has been demonstrated that the n-hexane extract of calea serrata had acaricidal activity against larvae of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and rhipicephalus sanguineus. the aim of the present study was to understand the mechanism of the acaricidal action of c. serrata n-hexane extra ...201222608349
[investigation of ticks parasitizing on bodies of dogs in shanghai].to investigate the ticks which parasitize on the bodies of dogs in shanghai.201223373258
morphological, biological and molecular characteristics of bisexual and parthenogenetic haemaphysalis longicornis.the reproductive mechanism of haemaphysalis longicornis is quite different from many other animal species. in this article, several characteristics of parthenogenetic and bisexual populations of h. longicornis were analyzed, including some important micro-structures, synchronized life cycle feature and sequences of mitochondrial 16s rrna gene. the results suggested even though many observations of the two populations were similar to each other, some important differences also existed. the genita ...201222560314
synopsis of the hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) of romania with update on host associations and geographical distribution.the current paper is a synoptic review of the distribution and host associations of the 25 species of hard tick fauna (family ixodidae) in romania. in addition to a full literature survey, original data is presented, based on eight years of occasional or targeted sample collection. the literature data on geographical distribution was transposed digitally to the decimal degree coordinate system. for each species, an updated distribution map is given together with all historical data and new host ...201222544174
potential of the insect growth regulator, fluazuron, in the control of rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae): determination of the ld95 and ld50.conventional pesticides have suffered two main drawbacks: (a) broad spectrum of action and (b) selection of target species resistant to the different active ingredients. thus compounds that are less harmful to the environment and to human health, more specific and that do not induce resistance need to be developed. one alternative are insect growth regulators, such as fluazuron. the present study examined the efficacy of fluazuron (active ingredient of the acaricide acatak®) and the sensitivity ...201222465612
bartonella species in dogs and their ectoparasites from khon kaen province, thailand.in order to access the prevalence of bartonella species in dogs, whole blood and any associated ectoparasites were collected from 164 dogs with owners in 25 villages throughout khon kaen province. dna was extracted from dog blood, 92 ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus) and 137 fleas (ctenocephalides spp) and screened by pcr using intergenic spacer region and citrate synthase gene primers. b. clarridgeiae dna was detected in blood of 3 dogs, 4 c. felis and 1 c. canis; b. rochalimae dna was found in ...201223431825
[investigation of the cases presenting to dokuz eylül university hospital with tick bites].determination of the properties of ticks, which are the vectors of many infectious diseases and the patients with tick bites are important for the prevention of these diseases. for tist reason, the purpose of this study is to determine the important properties of the cases presenting with tick bites to dokuz eylul university hospital and of the removed ticks from the cases.201222801910
crossbreeding between different geographical populations of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).brown dog ticks are distributed world-wide, and their systematics and phylogeny are the subject of an ongoing debate. the present study evaluates the reproductive compatibility between rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from north america, israel, and africa. female ticks of the parent generation were mated with males from the same and alternate colonies. every pure and hybrid cohort was maintained separately into the f2 generation with f1 females being allowed to mate only with males from the same ...201222527838
brown dog tick (rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestation of the penis detected by dermoscopy. 201222416887
underwater survival of rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) is a worldwide distributed tick, also due to its adaptability to different environmental conditions. in order to assess its ability to survive and to lay eggs after water immersion, 150 engorged females from southern italy were water immersed for 1-15 days whereas eggs were flooded for 1-5 days. all females survived water immersion for 48 h, some of them up to 72 h, but egg hatch rate was negatively correlated with female submersion period. all eggs flo ...201222415243
degenerative process and cell death in salivary glands of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged female exposed to the acaricide permethrin.ticks are ectoparasites of great medical and veterinary importance around the world and synthetic chemicals such as permethrin have been used for their control. this study provides a cytochemistry analysis of both degenerative and cell death processes in salivary glands of the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus semi-engorged females exposed to 206, 1,031, and 2,062 ppm of permethrin. the results presented herein demonstrate that permethrin is a potent chemical acaricide that would act on th ...201222407742
synganglion histology in different stages of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (acari: ixodidae).the present study performs a morpho-histological description of the central nervous system of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in order to analyze if there are differences in this tissue among larvae, nymphs, and adults. the results showed that the central nervous system in all the life stages of r. sanguineus consists of a mass of fused nerves named synganglion. externally, this organ does not present segmentation, consisting of a single structure located ventromedially in the third anterior of t ...201222218921
experimental evaluation of birds as disseminators of the cosmopolitan tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).rhipicephalus sanguineus is believed to be the most widespread tick species of the world and its dissemination seems to rely on the diffusion of its main host, the dog. empirical observations indicate that several bird species in urban areas regularly steal dog food. such circumstances create a chance for r. sanguineus ticks to climb on birds and carry ticks to another site. in this work we evaluated experimentally the likelihood of birds (chicks) to either feed and/or carry r. sanguineus ticks ...201223078993
effect of attractant sex pheromone on immature larval stages of ixodid tick species.attractant sex pheromone (asp) 2,6-dichloro phenol was used in the current study to evaluate the percentage attraction and the behavioural responses of the five ixodid tick species namely rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhipicephalus microplus (boophilus microplus), haemaphysalis bispinosa, rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and hyalomma marginatum using petridish bioassay. two concentrations of 2,6-dcp (0.1 m and 0.05 m) was used for the larval stages of all five ixodid tick species of which 0.1 m concen ...201224082519
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