PMID(sorted ascending)
an assessment of genetic variability in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of cercopithifilaria sp. (spirurida, onchocercidae) from dog and rhipicephalus sanguineus populations.this study investigates sequence variation in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene within cercopithifilaria sp. recorded recently in italy. fourteen sequence types (haplotypes) were characterized for 163 (7.7%) amplicons from 2111 genomic dna samples prepared from skin samples from dogs and from rhipicephalus sanguineus (ticks) from different geographical areas of the mediterranean basin (i.e., italy, spain and greece). the most prevalent sequence types represented haplotypes i (70. ...201122227114
trends in clinical diagnoses of rocky mountain spotted fever among american indians, 2001-2008.american indians are at greater risk for rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) than the general u.s. population. the epidemiology of rmsf among american indians was examined by using indian health service inpatient and outpatient records with an rmsf international classification of diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification diagnosis. for 2001-2008, 958 american indian patients with clinical diagnoses of rmsf were reported. the average annual rmsf incidence was 94.6 per 1,000,000 persons, wit ...022232466
molecular detection of bartonella species in ticks from peru.a total of 103 ticks, collected from canines, horses, donkeys, and snakes from peru, were screened for the presence of bartonella dna by polymerase chain reaction analysis. bartonella dna was detected in two ticks using bartonella 16s-23s intergenic spacer region primers and in an additional two ticks using bartonella nadh dehydrogenase gamma subunit gene (nuog) primers. bartonella rochalimae eremeeva et al., b. quintana schmincke, and b. elizabethae daly et al. dna was detected in a rhipicephal ...201122238888
spotted fever group rickettsia infecting ticks (acari: ixodidae) in the state of santa catarina, brazil.during 2006-2008, a total of 260 adult ticks were collected from domestic and wild animals in different regions of the state of santa catarina (sc), brazil, including areas where human cases of brazilian spotted fever have been reported. collected ticks belonging to nine species (amblyomma aureolatum, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma dubitatum, amblyomma longirostre, amblyomma ovale, amblyomma tigrinum, dermacentor nitens, rhipicephalus microplus and rhipicephalus sanguineus) were tested by polym ...201122241112
evolution, expansion and expression of the kunitz/bpti gene family associated with long-term blood feeding in ixodes scapularis.abstract: background: recent studies of the tick saliva transcriptome have revealed the profound role of salivary proteins in blood feeding. kunitz/bpti proteins are abundant in the salivary glands of ticks and perform multiple functions in blood feeding, such as inhibiting blood coagulation, regulating host blood supply and disrupting host angiogenesis. however, kunitz/bpti proteins in soft and hard ticks have different functions and molecular mechanisms. how these differences emerged and whet ...201222244187
a novel tick antigen shows high vaccine efficacy against the dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus.ticks are acaridae ectoparasites that, while taking a blood meal, can transmit viruses, bacteria, protozoa and filarial nematodes, which cause a variety of human and animal illnesses. the use of chemical pesticides constitutes the primary measure for control of these ectoparasites. however, the intensive use of these chemicals has drawbacks such as the contamination of food, environmental pollution and development of resistance by ectoparasites. vaccination is considered a promising alternative ...201222245603
detection of wolbachia in the tick ixodes ricinus is due to the presence of the hymenoptera endoparasitoid ixodiphagus hookeri.the identification of micro-organisms carried by ticks is an important issue for human and animal health. in addition to their role as pathogen vectors, ticks are also the hosts for symbiotic bacteria whose impact on tick biology is poorly known. among these, the bacterium wolbachia pipientis has already been reported associated with ixodes ricinus and other tick species. however, the origins of wolbachia in ticks and their consequences on tick biology (known to be very diverse in invertebrates, ...201222292021
the sialotranscriptome of antricola delacruzi female ticks is compatible with non-hematophagous behavior and an alternative source of food.the hosts for antricola delacruzi ticks are insectivorous, cave-dwelling bats on which only larvae are found. the mouthparts of nymphal and adult a. delacruzi are compatible with scavenging feeding because the hypostome is small and toothless. how a single blood meal of a larva provides energy for several molts as well as for oviposition by females is not known. adults of a. delacruzi possibly feed upon an unknown food source in bat guano, a substrate on which nymphal and adult stages are always ...201222306723
transcriptional profiling of the murine cutaneous response during initial and subsequent infestations with ixodes scapularis nymphs.ixodes scapularis ticks are hematophagous arthropods capable of transmitting many infectious agents to humans. the process of blood feeding is an extended and continuous interplay between tick and host responses. while this process has been studied extensively in vitro, no global understanding of the host response to ticks has emerged.201222309607
seroprevalence of ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii in dogs in north america.this study evaluated the exposure of dogs to three different ehrlichia spp. in the south and central regions of the united states where vector-borne disease prevalence has been previously difficult to ascertain, particularly beyond the metropolitan areas.201222316160
molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in nigerian ticks.a molecular epidemiology investigation was undertaken in two nigerian states (plateau and nassarawa) to determine the prevalence of pathogens of veterinary and public health importance associated with ticks collected from cattle and dogs using pcr, cloning and sequencing or reverse line blot techniques. a total of 218 tick samples, amblyomma variegatum (n=153), rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus (n=45), and rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=20) were sampled. pathogens identified in ticks included p ...201222326937
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus-tick survey in endemic areas in bulgaria.the balkan peninsula and bulgaria in particular, is a well-known endemic region for crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf). this study describes the prevalence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) among tick populations from areas, previously recognized with emerging cases of cchf disease in humans. these include regions from the southeastern (regions of kardzhali and haskovo) and central (region of stara zagora) parts of the country. for the period 2006-2010 a total of 911 adult tic ...201222337300
first evidence and molecular characterization of babesia vogeli in naturally infected dogs and rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in southern france.babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease of animals and humans caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genera babesia and theileria. in france canine babesiosis has a high prevalence with babesia canis thought to be the main aetiological agent of the disease. babesia vogeli has already been reported to occur in europe and in other countries around the mediterranean sea. the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, the main known vector of b. vogeli, occurs in southern france. however, only one cas ...201222342131
transovarial transmission of babesia ovis by rhipicephalus sanguineus and hyalomma marginatum.rhipicephalus sanguineus and hyalomma marginatum are the most common species in sheep herds in northeast of iran. there is preliminary evidence that these species may be the vectors of babesia ovis in iran. we carried out two experiments in mashhad area, khorasan razavi province to determine whether b. ovis could be transovarially transmitted by r. sanguineus and h. marginatum.022347253
considerations for assessing maximum critical temperatures in small ectothermic animals: insights from leaf-cutting ants.the thermal limits of individual animals were originally proposed as a link between animal physiology and thermal ecology. although this link is valid in theory, the evaluation of physiological tolerances involves some problems that are the focus of this study. one rationale was that heating rates shall influence upper critical limits, so that ecological thermal limits need to consider experimental heating rates. in addition, if thermal limits are not surpassed in experiments, subsequent tests o ...201222384147
continuous in vitro cultivation of a recently identified babesia that infects small ruminants in china.babesia sp. xinjiang was isolated from a splenectomised sheep infested by rhipicephalus sanguineus and hylomma anatolicum anatolicum, collected from sheep and cattle in xinjiang province. it was considered to be a novel ovine babesia species on the basis of its morphology, pathogenicity, vector tick species and alignments of 18s ribosomal rna (18s rrna) and internal transcribed spacers (its) gene sequences. continuous in vitro cultures of the ovine parasite were established using infected sheep ...201222386948
first case of anaplasma platys infection in a dog from is known that anaplasma (a.) platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is endemic in countries of the mediterranean basin. however, few reports are available from the balkans. this case report describes a dog, which was imported from croatia to germany in may 2010. one month later the dog was presented to a local veterinarian in germany due to intermittent/recurrent diarrhoea. diagnostic tests were performed to identify infections caused by anaplasma spp., ehrl ...201222401583
degenerative process and cell death in salivary glands of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged female exposed to the acaricide permethrin.ticks are ectoparasites of great medical and veterinary importance around the world and synthetic chemicals such as permethrin have been used for their control. this study provides a cytochemistry analysis of both degenerative and cell death processes in salivary glands of the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus semi-engorged females exposed to 206, 1,031, and 2,062 ppm of permethrin. the results presented herein demonstrate that permethrin is a potent chemical acaricide that would act on th ...201222407742
comparison of real-time quantitative pcr and culture for the diagnosis of emerging rickettsioses.isolation of rickettsia species from skin biopsies may be replaced by pcr. we evaluated culture sensitivity compared to pcr based on sampling delay and previous antibiotic treatment.201222413026
underwater survival of rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) is a worldwide distributed tick, also due to its adaptability to different environmental conditions. in order to assess its ability to survive and to lay eggs after water immersion, 150 engorged females from southern italy were water immersed for 1-15 days whereas eggs were flooded for 1-5 days. all females survived water immersion for 48 h, some of them up to 72 h, but egg hatch rate was negatively correlated with female submersion period. all eggs flo ...201222415243
brown dog tick (rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestation of the penis detected by dermoscopy. 201222416887
stray dogs of northern jordan as reservoirs of ticks and tick-borne hemopathogens.dogs are competent reservoir hosts of several hemopathogens including zoonotic agents and can serve as readily available source of nutrition for many blood-feeding arthropods. three hemopathogens had been detected for the first time in jordan. the pcr prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum, hepatozoon canis, and piroplasmid dna were 39.5%, 28.9%, and 7.9% (n=38) respectively. sequencing of amplicons of pcr with universal primers targeting the 18s rrna gene of piroplasmids shows the highest simi ...201222434363
phylogeography and demographic history of amblyomma variegatum (fabricius) (acari: ixodidae), the tropical bont tick.the genetic diversity of amblyomma variegatum (fabricius) from four caribbean islands and five african countries was compared by analyzing the sequences of three gene fragments, two mitochondrial (12srdna and d-loop-dl), and one nuclear (intergenic transcribed spacer 2 [its2]). genetic variability of the its2 dna fragment consisted of only uninformative single nucleotide mutations, and therefore this gene was excluded from further analyses. mitochondrial gene divergences among african population ...201222448720
prevalence of dirofilaria immitis, ehrlichia canis, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, anaplasma spp. and leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and cvbd-suspect dogs in portugal--a national serological study.canine vector-borne diseases (cvbds) are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. many cvbd-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. the present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to dirofilaria immitis, ehrlichia canis, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, anaplasma spp. and leishmania infantum in dogs in portugal.201222452990
occurrence of pathogenic fungi to amblyomma cajennense in a rural area of central brazil and their activities against vectors of rocky mountain spotted fever.two isolates of beauveria bassiana and one of purpureocillium lilacinum (=paecilomyces lilacinus) were found infecting amblyomma cajennense engorged females collected on horses (0.15% infection rate from a total of 1982 specimens) and another two isolates of p. lilacinum and one metarhizium anisopliae detected in soils (2.1% from 144 samples) collected in typical pasture habitats of this tick in central brazil from october 2009 to march 2011. fungi were isolated from soils with rhipicephalus san ...201222459109
ecological approaches to informing public health policy and risk assessments on emerging vector-borne zoonoses.pathogens associated with vector-borne zoonoses occur in enzootic cycles within nature. they are driven by a combination of vertebrate host and invertebrate vector population dynamics, which in turn respond to changes in environmental stimuli. human involvement in these cycles, and hence the occurrence of human disease, is often to act as incidental host. from a public health perspective our ability to better predict human outbreaks of these diseases and prepare intervention and mitigation strat ...201022460391
evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in europe.the objective of these two gcp multicentre european clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (seresto®, bayer animalhealth, investigational veterinary product(ivp)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("ungezieferband fuer hunde/fuer katzen", beaphar, control product (cp)).201222463745
potential of the insect growth regulator, fluazuron, in the control of rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae): determination of the ld95 and ld50.conventional pesticides have suffered two main drawbacks: (a) broad spectrum of action and (b) selection of target species resistant to the different active ingredients. thus compounds that are less harmful to the environment and to human health, more specific and that do not induce resistance need to be developed. one alternative are insect growth regulators, such as fluazuron. the present study examined the efficacy of fluazuron (active ingredient of the acaricide acatak®) and the sensitivity ...201222465612
composition and seasonal variation of rhipicephalus turanicus and rhipicephalus sanguineus bacterial communities.a 16s rrna gene approach, including 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative pcr (qpcr), was used to describe the bacterial community in rhipicephalus turanicus and to evaluate the dynamics of key bacterial tenants of adult ticks during the active questing season. the bacterial community structure of rh. turanicus was characterized by high dominance of coxiella and rickettsia and extremely low taxonomic diversity. parallel diagnostic pcr further revealed a novel coxiella species which was present and ...201222467507
rickettsia monacensis as cause of mediterranean spotted fever-like illness, italy. 022469314
ecdysteroid levels changed by permethrin action in female rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) recent studies have shown that ecdysteroids may play a major role in the regulation of vitellogenesis in ixodidae, the present study quantified, by means of a radioimmunoassay, the levels of ecdysteroids present in the hemolymph of semi-engorged females of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks obtained from control females (exposed to distilled water) and those exposed to increasing concentrations of permethrin. the levels of ecdysteroids decreased significantly as the concentration of permethrin in ...201222483974
prevalence of tick infestation (rhipicephalus sanguineus and hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum) in dogs in punjab, pakistan.this study was conducted to identify ticks that infest dogs in the rawalpindi region of punjab, pakistan. a total of 525 dogs were examined between june and september 2010. of these, 60 (11.42%) were infested with ticks. the morphological features of the ticks were identified by using a stereomicroscope to confirm their identity using morphological keys. two species were observed, namely: rhipicephalus sanguineus and hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. the prevalence rate of these species was 98.33% ...201322485006
fatal rocky mountain spotted fever in the united states, 1999-2007.death from rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) is preventable with prompt, appropriate treatment. data from two independent sources were analyzed to estimate the burden of fatal rmsf and identify risk factors for fatal rmsf in the united states during 1999-2007. despite increased reporting of rmsf cases to the centers for disease control and prevention, no significant changes in the estimated number of annual fatal rmsf cases were found. american indians were at higher risk of fatal rmsf relativ ...201222492159
the synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats.the control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. for these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and ...201222498105
resistant ticks inhibit metarhizium infection prior to haemocoel invasion by reducing fungal viability on the cuticle surface.we studied disease progression of, and host responses to, four species in the metarhizium anisopliae complex expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp). we compared development and determined their relative levels of virulence against two susceptible arthropods, the cattle tick rhipicephalus annulatus and the lepidopteran galleria mellonella, and two resistant ticks, hyalomma excavatum and rhipicephalus sanguineus. metarhizium brunneum ma7 caused the greatest mortality of r. annulatus, metarhizi ...201222507442
efficacy of slow-release collar formulations of imidacloprid/flumethrin and deltamethrin and of spot-on formulations of fipronil/(s)-- methoprene, dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin and (s) -methoprene/amitraz/fipronil against rhipicephalus sanguineus and ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs.two studies evaluating the efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (seresto®, bayer animal health, ivp), a deltamethrin collar (scalibor®, msd, cp1), a fipronil/(s)-methoprene spot-on (frontline combo®, merial, cp2), a dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin spot-on (vectra 3d®, ceva, cp3) and an amitraz/fipronil/(s)-methoprene spot-on (certifect®, merial, cp4/cp5) against repeated infestations with rhipicephalus sanguineus and ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs were conducted over periods of ...201222520338
ectoparasite infestation patterns of domestic dogs in suburban and rural areas in borneo.domestic dogs, canis lupus, have been one of the longest companions of humans and have introduced their own menagerie of parasites and pathogens into this relationship. here, we investigate the parasitic load of 212 domestic dogs with fleas (siphonaptera) chewing lice (phthiraptera), and ticks (acarina) along a gradient from rural areas with near-natural forest cover to suburban areas in northern borneo (sabah, malaysia). we used a spatially-explicit hierarchical bayesian model that allowed us t ...201222526293
crossbreeding between different geographical populations of the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).brown dog ticks are distributed world-wide, and their systematics and phylogeny are the subject of an ongoing debate. the present study evaluates the reproductive compatibility between rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from north america, israel, and africa. female ticks of the parent generation were mated with males from the same and alternate colonies. every pure and hybrid cohort was maintained separately into the f2 generation with f1 females being allowed to mate only with males from the same ...201222527838
efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats.the objectives of the studies listed here were to ascertain the therapeutic and sustained efficacy of 10% imidacloprid (w/w) and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against laboratory-infestations of fleas and ticks on cats. efficacy was evaluated against the flea ctenocephalides felis felis, and the ticks ixodes ricinus, amblyomma americanum and rhipicephalus turanicus. the number of studies was so large that only a general overview can be presented in this abstr ...201222541037
ticks (ixodida) on humans from central panama, panama (2010-2011).from january 2010 to december 2011, a total of 138 cases of ticks feeding on humans were reported from 11 locations in central panama. five of these locations were situated in forest environments, three in rural landscapes and three in urban areas. the ticks were submitted to the gorgas memorial institute, where nine species were identified among 65 specimens: amblyomma cajennense s.l., a. dissimile, a. naponense, a. oblongoguttatum, a. ovale, a. sabanerae, a. tapirellum, haemaphysalis juxtakoch ...201222544074
synopsis of the hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) of romania with update on host associations and geographical distribution.the current paper is a synoptic review of the distribution and host associations of the 25 species of hard tick fauna (family ixodidae) in romania. in addition to a full literature survey, original data is presented, based on eight years of occasional or targeted sample collection. the literature data on geographical distribution was transposed digitally to the decimal degree coordinate system. for each species, an updated distribution map is given together with all historical data and new host ...201222544174
apparent tick paralysis by rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) in dogs.certain tick species including ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. a single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. this study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by r. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southe ...201222546547
morphological, biological and molecular characteristics of bisexual and parthenogenetic haemaphysalis longicornis.the reproductive mechanism of haemaphysalis longicornis is quite different from many other animal species. in this article, several characteristics of parthenogenetic and bisexual populations of h. longicornis were analyzed, including some important micro-structures, synchronized life cycle feature and sequences of mitochondrial 16s rrna gene. the results suggested even though many observations of the two populations were similar to each other, some important differences also existed. the genita ...201222560314
multiple live subconjunctival dipetalonema: report of a case.parasitic infestations of the eye have been reported since centuries, affecting various parts of the eye. some are subtle, coexisting with vision, while many others damage and destroy, in part or totally, the gift of sight. this report describes a patient with live subconjunctival dipetalonema infestation of the right eye, with 22 parasites removed live in one sitting from one eye.022569390
ectoparasites of livestock, dogs, and wild rodents in the chittagong hill tracts in southeastern bangladesh.a large variety of ectoparasites parasitizing on livestock, dogs, and rodents are documented throughout the world, of which several are proven vectors for major (including zoonotic) diseases affecting humans and/or livestock. however, there remains a significant lack of knowledge in regard to the ectoparasite fauna in remote regions of the developing world, such as southeastern bangladesh, and an urgent need to investigate this fauna to improve diagnostic options. in the course of the present st ...201222576854
haemoparasites of free-roaming dogs associated with several remote aboriginal communities in australia.tick-borne haemoparasites babesia vogeli and anaplasma platys are common among the free-roaming canine populations associated with aboriginal communities in australia, whilst the prevalence of haemoplasmas, which are also suspected to be tick-borne, remained unexplored. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of haemoplasma infection in these populations, and to identify any correlation with other haemoparasites. blood was collected from 39 dogs associated with four aboriginal comm ...201222584120
effect of calea serrata less. n-hexane extract on acetylcholinesterase of larvae ticks and brain wistar rats.acetylcholinesterase (ache), an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine (ach) at cholinergic synapses, is a target for pesticides and its inhibition by organophosphates leads to paralysis and death of arthropods. it has been demonstrated that the n-hexane extract of calea serrata had acaricidal activity against larvae of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and rhipicephalus sanguineus. the aim of the present study was to understand the mechanism of the acaricidal action of c. serrata n-hexane extra ...201222608349
central nervous system of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (acari: ixodidae): an ultrastructural study.this study performed the ultrastructural description of the synganglion of rhipicephalus sanguineus males and females, aiming to contribute to the understanding of the cellular organization of this organ. the results show that the central nervous system of these individuals consists of a mass of fused nerves, named synganglion, from where nerves emerge towards several parts of the body. it is surrounded by the neural lamella, a uniform and acellular layer, constituted by repeated layers of homog ...201222610445
detection of leishmania infantum dna mainly in rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis.sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. in order to evaluate natural infection by leishmania infantum in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult r. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied.201222613502
morphological characterization of the nymphs rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae). description of the testes, integument, malpighian tubules, and midgut on the detachment day.this study presents the morpho-histological and histochemical characterization of the testes, integument, malpighian tubules, and midgut of engorged rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs on the detachment day, showing the morphological and physiological characteristics to this phase in the life cycle of these individuals. the testis is constituted by germinative cells (only spermatogonia) with large, round-shaped and strongly stained nuclei which are organized into cysts by a thin layer of somatic cel ...201222615106
copulation is necessary for the completion of a gonotrophic cycle in the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae).ovarian development and egg maturation are essential stages in animal reproduction. for bisexual ixodid ticks, copulation is an important prerequisite for the completion of the gonotrophic cycle. in this study, we aimed to characterize the morpho-histological changes in the ovary and oocytes of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, together with the identification of feeding and reproductive parameters associated with mating. virgin and cross-mated females (with r. turanicus males) weighed 60% less ...201222626791
genome sequence of rickettsia conorii subsp. indica, the agent of indian tick typhus.rickettsia conorii subsp. indica is the agent of indian tick typhus. the present study reports the draft genome of rickettsia conorii subsp. indica strain ittr (atcc vr-597).022628514
rickettsia parkeri: a rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern first rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. later rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. the natural vector of r. conorii, rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in uruguay. to address this question, 180 r. sanguineus from dogs and 245 a. triste from vegetation (flagging) collected in three endemic localities w ...201222634883
efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs.the studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. efficacy was evaluated against the flea ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks rhipicephalus sanguineus, ixodes ricinus, ixodes scapularis, dermacentor reticulatus and dermacentor variabilis, the mite sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse trichodectes canis.201222647530
molecular method for the characterization of coxiella burnetii from clinical and environmental samples: variability of genotypes in spain.coxiella burnetii is a highly clonal microorganism which is difficult to culture, requiring bsl3 conditions for its propagation. this leads to a scarce availability of isolates worldwide. on the other hand, published methods of characterization have delineated up to 8 different genomic groups and 36 genotypes. however, all these methodologies, with the exception of one that exhibited limited discriminatory power (3 genotypes), rely on performing between 10 and 20 pcr amplifications or sequencing ...201222656068
tick paralysis: first zoonosis record in egypt.tick paralysis caused by the secretion of toxin with saliva while taking a blood meal is an important veterinary disease, but is rare in humans. although it has certain geographical proclivities, it exists worldwide. tick paralysis was demonstrated for the first time in egypt among four children living in rural area at giza governorate. the clinical pictures were confused with rabies; myasthensia gravis; botulism; diphtheritic polyneuropathy encountered in rural areas. the recovery of tick infes ...201222662597
cutaneous distribution and localization of cercopithifilaria sp. microfilariae in dogs.the aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of microfilariae of a recently described cercopithifilaria sp. and the relationship with the preferred attachment sites of its vector, the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. skin samples from 20 dogs were collected from eight anatomical sites and soaked twice in saline solution at 37°c. all samples were also molecularly processed for the specific amplification of partial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene. microfilariae were une ...201222698796
epidemiology of brazilian spotted fever in the atlantic forest, state of são paulo, brazil.the tick-borne bacterium rickettsia rickettsii is the aetiological agent of brazilian spotted fever (bsf). the present study evaluated tick infestations on wild and domestic animals, and the rickettsial infection in these animals and their ticks in 7 forest areas adjacent to human communities in the são paulo metropolitan area (spma). the results were compared to ecological traits of each sampled area. two main tick species, amblyomma aureolatum and rhipicephalus sanguineus, were collected from ...201222716923
why are there so few rickettsia conorii conorii-infected rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the wild?rickettsia conorii conorii is the etiological agent of mediterranean spotted fever, which is transmitted by the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. the relationship between the rickettsia and its tick vector are still poorly understood one century after the first description of this disease.201222724035
action of permethrin on rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged females: morpho-physiological evaluation of salivary glands.currently the most effective method of tick control is the use of acaricides, among which stands out permethrin (active ingredient of acaricide advantage(®) max3, bayer), a neurotoxic pyrethroid. however, assessments of their effects on other tick systems such as glandular are still scarce. thus, this study provides information, through histochemical techniques, about the toxic effect of this pyrethroid on the morphophysiology of salivary glands of semi-engorged rhipicephalus sanguineus females ...201222749738
anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in domestic animals in ten provinces/cities of china.a nationwide epidemiologic investigation of domestic animal infections has been conducted in nine provinces and one city during 2007-2010. serum samples from a total of 707 goats, 433 cattle, and 219 dogs were collected for detecting anaplasma phagocytophilum igg antibody by immunofluorescence assays and the average seroprevalences were 10.05% for dogs, 3.82% for goats, and 0.69% for cattle, respectively. a total of 472 goats, 201 cattle, 102 dog blood clots, and 1,580 ticks were collected for p ...022764312
survey of borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from arkansas, the eastern and upper midwestern regions of north america, ixodes scapularis (l.) is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of b. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region amblyomma americanum (say) is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit b. burgdorferi. surveys of borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern united states and often these surveys identify b. lonestari as the primary borrelia species, ...201222781030
cytotoxic effects of andiroba oil (carapa guianensis) in reproductive system of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged females.the present study performed an analysis about the effects of andiroba seed oil (carapa guianensis) in the ovary of rhipicephalus sanguineus semi-engorged females; once, there are few studies about the action of natural products on the reproductive system, a vital organ for the biological success of this animal group. the results showed that andiroba oil is a potent natural agent which causes significant structural changes in the oocytes, such as the emergence of large vacuolated cytoplasmic regi ...201222797575
[investigation of the cases presenting to dokuz eylül university hospital with tick bites].determination of the properties of ticks, which are the vectors of many infectious diseases and the patients with tick bites are important for the prevention of these diseases. for tist reason, the purpose of this study is to determine the important properties of the cases presenting with tick bites to dokuz eylul university hospital and of the removed ticks from the cases.201222801910
hard ticks on domestic ruminants and their seasonal population dynamics in yazd province, iran.ticks are the main vectors for transmission of different pathogens to human and animals. this survey was performed to find out distribution of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in yazd province, central iran during year 2008-2009.201022808391
pcr-detection of coxiella burnetii in ticks collected from sheep and goats in southeast iran.there is a little data on coxiella burnetii (q fever agent) in iran. ticks may play a significant role in the transmission of c. burnetii among animals. the aim of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction for the detection of c. burnetii in ticks collected in southeast iran.201122808404
mitochondrial dna analysis of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (acari: ixodidae) in the southern cone of south america.a genetic analysis of partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rdna genes of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato collected in the southern cone of south america was carried out. also, sequences of ticks belonging to this taxon from europe, africa and other south american localities were included. tcs networks constructed with 16s rdna sequences showed two clusters of haplotypes, namely, southern lineage (st) and northern lineage (nt). haplotypes representing the specimens coming from l ...201222818199
high prevalence of intestinal infections and ectoparasites in dogs, minas gerais state (southeast brazil).in the present study, 155 dogs euthanized by the zoonotic disease unit of uberlândia in minas gerais state (southeast brazil) were autopsied. ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs was systematically examined for the presence of helminthic parasites. in total, we isolated 5,155 metazoan parasites of eight species (three intestinal helminth species, five ectoparasite species). the cestode dipylidium caninum was present in 57 dogs (36.8 %), the nematodes ancylostoma canin ...201222825284
ectoparasites of dogs in home environments on the caribbean slope of costa rica.reports on ectoparasites on dogs in central america are scarce. the aim of this study was to identify flea, louse and tick species infesting dogs in home environments on the caribbean slope of costa rica, and determine their frequency and coexistence. ectoparasites were collected from dogs in 83 rural homes at five study sites. specimens were identified and separated according to species. fleas were the most common ectoparasite (g = 22,217, df = 8, p = 0.004). ctenocephalides felis and pulex sim ...201322832763
association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (acari: ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western palearctic. a digital data set.we compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western palearctic (11°w, 45°e; 29°n, 71°n), published during 1970-2010. the literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. records from some curated collections were included. we focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, h. sulcata, hyalomma marginatum, h ...201222843316
a fatal urban case of rocky mountain spotted fever presenting an eschar in san jose, costa rica.this study reports the first urban human case of rocky mountain spotted fever caused by rickettsia rickettsii, in costa rica. an 8-year-old female who died at the national children's hospital 4 days after her admission, and an important and significant observation was the presence of an "eschar" (tache noire), which is typical in some rickettsial infections but not frequent in rocky mountain spotted fever cases.201222855769
genome sequence of rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia, the agent of astrakhan fever.rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia is the agent of astrakhan fever, a spotted fever group rickettsiosis endemic to astrakhan, russia. the present study reports the draft genome of rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia strain a-167.022887666
identification of endosymbionts in ticks by broad-range polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.many organisms, such as insects, filarial nematodes, and ticks, contain heritable bacterial endosymbionts that are often closely related to transmissible tickborne pathogens. these intracellular bacteria are sometimes unique to the host species, presumably due to isolation and genetic drift. we used a polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry assay designed to detect a wide range of vectorborne microorganisms to characterize endosymbiont genetic signatures from amblyomm ...201222897044
some epidemiological features of the mediterranean spotted fever re-emerging in bulgaria.the mediterranean spotted fever (msf), caused by rickettsia conorii conorii strain malish, is transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. in bulgaria, cases of msf occurred in two epidemic waves, the first in 1948-1970, (after there were no report of new cases more than for 20 years) and the second started in 1993 and is still going on. the aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of the re-emerging msf in plovdiv city and its suburbs, which is the ...201222908829
rickettsia species in ticks removed from humans in istanbul, turkey.a total of 167 ticks collected from humans in istanbul (turkey) in 2006 were screened for rickettsia species, and nested pcrs targeting glta and ompa rickettsial fragment genes were carried out. rickettsia monacensis (51), r. aeschlimannii (8), r. conorii subsp. conorii (3), r. helvetica (2), r. raoultii (1), r. africae (1), r. felis (1), and other rickettsia spp. (2), were detected. to our knowledge, these rickettsia species (except r. conorii) had never been reported in ticks removed from huma ...201222925016
off-host aggregation in the non-fed, female brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille), is induced by tick excreta and enhanced by low relative humidity.we report that rhipicephalus sanguineus (ixodida: ixodidae) faeces and its main component, guanine, act as assembly pheromones in short-range petri plate bioassays. arrestment activity in response to guanine was lower than that in response to natural excreta, indicating the presence of other active ingredients in natural excreta. the selective removal of appendages was used to establish the important roles played by the palps and the front pair of legs in the detection of the pheromone. reaction ...201322928633
genome sequence of rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis, the agent of israeli spotted fever.rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis is the agent of israeli spotted fever. the present study reports the draft genome of rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis strain istt cdc1, isolated from a rhipicephalus sanguineus tick collected in israel.022933760
[survey on ticks and detection of new bunyavirus in some vect in the endemic areas of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (ftls) in henan province].to investigate the distribution, species, seasonal fluctuation of ticks and detect new bunyavirus in some hematophagus in the endemic areas of fever thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (ftls) in henan province.201222943894
migratory birds, ticks, and bartonella.bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus and possibly also bartonella. thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the mediterranean islands capri and antikythera were screened for bartonella spp. rna. one or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds. m ...201122957116
action of andiroba oil (carapa guianensis) on rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) semi-engorged females: morphophysiological evaluation of reproductive system.because of the increasing medical-veterinary importance of ticks, the development of alternative control methods, less aggressive to the host and the environment has become the target of several researches. in this sense, the present study analyzed the action of different concentrations (5, 10, and 20%) of andiroba seed oil (carapa guianensis) on the reproductive system of rhipicephalus sanguineus females, through histochemical techniques and the quantification of the reproductive efficiency ind ...201222972770
an assessment of whole blood and fractions by nested pcr as a dna source for diagnosing canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis.ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases. ehrlichia canis and anaplasma platys infect mainly white cells and platelets, respectively. the main dna source for pcr is peripheral blood, but the potential of blood cell fractions has not been extensively investigated. this study aims at assessment of whole blood (wb) and blood fractions potential in nested pcr (npcr) to diagnose canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. the 16s rrna gene was amplified in 71.4, 17.8, 31.57, and 30% of the wb, ...201222973174
unusual bacterial infections and the pleura.rickettsiosis, q fever, tularemia, and anthrax are all bacterial diseases that can affect the pleura. rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) and mediterranean spotted fever (msf) are caused by rickettsia rickettsii and rickettsia conorii, respectively. pleural fluid from a patient with msf had a neutrophil-predominant exudate. coxiellaburnetii is the causative agent of q fever. of the two cases described in the literature, one was an exudate with a marked eosinophilia while the other case was a tra ...201222977649
fluazuron-induced morphophysiological changes in the cuticle formation and midgut of rhipicephalus sanguineus latreille, 1806 (acari: ixodidae) nymphs.the present study demonstrated the effects of the arthropod growth regulator, fluazuron (acatak®), in the formation of the integument and digestive processes of rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs fed on rabbits treated with different doses of this chemical acaricide. for this, three different doses of fluazuron (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) were applied "pour on" to the hosts (groups ii, iii, and iv), as well as distilled water to the control group. on the first day after treatment (24 h), the hosts were a ...201322992894
serodetection of ehrlichia canis infection in dogs from ludhiana district of punjab, (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) immunocomb(®) assay was conducted to detect the presence of antibodies against ehrlichia canis in blood samples of 60 privately owned dogs suspected to be infected with e. canis from the small animal clinics, college of veterinary science, guru angad dev veterinary and animal sciences university, ludhiana, punjab (india). antibodies reactive to e. canis were detected in plasma in 48 samples out of 60 samples by immunocomb(®) dot-elisa. out of these 3 ...201123024503
a survey on endoparasites and ectoparasites of stray cats from mashhad (iran) and association with risk there appeared to be no data available on parasite infection of stray cats in the region and considering the potential threat of stray cats for animal and public health, the present study was carried out using biological samples and necropsy finding collected from cats captured in mashhad city in the northeast of iran. from a total 52 stray cats examined, 18 (34.6%) were male and 34 (65.4%) were female. ten species of endoparasites including helminthes and protozoa and two species of ectopara ...201123024505
candidatus bartonella merieuxii, a potential new zoonotic bartonella species in canids from iraq.bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in iraq under the united states army zoonotic disease surveillance program. serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for b. henselae, b. clarridgeiae, b. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and b. bovis. overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12 ...201223029597
identification of salivary antigenic markers discriminating host exposition between two european ticks: rhipicephalus sanguineus and dermacentor succeed blood meal, ticks inject salivary proteins to mammalian hosts, eliciting an antibody response against these foreign antigens. although this immune response has been proposed as a surrogate marker of exposure to tick bites, identification of the corresponding antigens remains elusive. for this aim, a comparison by immunoblots of the kinetic igg responses to protein salivary gland extracts from two european tick species, rhipicephalus sanguineus or dermacentor reticulatus, in rabbits wa ...201323040662
effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (ricinus communis) on the oocyte yolk components of the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae).rhipicephalus sanguineus are bloodsucking ectoparasites, whose main host is the domestic dog, thus being present in urban areas and closely located to people. eventually, this tick species parasitize humans and can become a potential vector of infectious diseases. methods to control this type of pest have been the focus of many research groups worldwide. the use of natural products is increasingly considered nowadays, due to the low toxicity levels to the host and low waste generation to the env ...201323040769
morphology of the midgut of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806) (acari: ixodidae) adult ticks in different feeding stages.the intestinal epithelial cells of ticks are fundamental for their full feeding and reproductive success, besides being considered important sites for the development of pathogens. rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks are known for their great medical and veterinary importance, and for this reason, the knowledge of their intestinal morphology may provide relevant subsidies for the control of these animals, either by direct acaricidal action over these cells or by the production of vaccines. therefore, ...201323052783
bioinformatics and expression analyses of the ixodes scapularis tick cystatin family.the cystatins are inhibitors of papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteinases, classified in merops subfamilies i25a-i25c. this study shows that 84 % (42/50) of tick cystatins are putatively extracellular in subfamily i25b and the rest are putatively intracellular in subfamily i25a. on the neighbor joining phylogeny guide tree, subfamily i25a members cluster together, while subfamily i25b cystatins segregate among prostriata or metastriata ticks. two ixodes scapularis cystatins, aay66864 and is ...201223053911
parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of serra do cipó national park, brazil.over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. this study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, cerdocyon thous) in the serra do cipó national park (43-44º w and 19-20º s) and endo ...201223070438
abiotic and biotic factors associated with tick population dynamics on a mammalian host: ixodes hexagonus infesting otters, lutra lutra.the eurasian otter, lutra lutra, hosts several parasites with zoonotic potential. as this semiaquatic mammal has large ranges across terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, it has the capacity for wide dispersion of pathogens. despite this, parasites of otters have received relatively little attention. here, we examine their ectoparasite load and assess whether this is influenced by abiotic or biotic variables. climatic phenomena such as the north atlantic oscillation (nao) affect weather c ...201223071736
tick-box for 3'-end formation of mitochondrial transcripts in ixodida, basal chelicerates and drosophila.according to the trna punctuation model, the mitochondrial genome (mtdna) of mammals and arthropods is transcribed as large polycistronic precursors that are maturated by endonucleolytic cleavage at trna borders and rna polyadenylation. starting from the newly sequenced mtdna of ixodes ricinus and using a combination of mitogenomics and transcriptional analyses, we found that in all currently-sequenced tick lineages (prostriata, metastriata and argasidae) the 3'-end of the polyadenylated nad1 an ...201223077630
experimental evaluation of birds as disseminators of the cosmopolitan tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).rhipicephalus sanguineus is believed to be the most widespread tick species of the world and its dissemination seems to rely on the diffusion of its main host, the dog. empirical observations indicate that several bird species in urban areas regularly steal dog food. such circumstances create a chance for r. sanguineus ticks to climb on birds and carry ticks to another site. in this work we evaluated experimentally the likelihood of birds (chicks) to either feed and/or carry r. sanguineus ticks ...201223078993
rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentatio ...201323086445
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks and fleas from the democratic republic of the congo.little is known about the prevalence of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae in ticks and fleas in the democratic republic of the congo. in 2008, 12 amblyomma compressum ticks were collected from 3 pangolins (manis gigantea). two haemaphysalis punctaleachi ticks were collected from 2 african civets (civettictis civetta congica), and one was collected from an antelope (onotragus leche). a total of 111 rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, 23 ctenocephalides canis fleas, 39 c. felis fleas, and 5 tricho ...201223137572
urban family cluster of spotted fever rickettsiosis linked to rhipicephalus sanguineus infected with rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia and rickettsia, we report an epidemiological and entomological investigation of a cluster of cases of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiosis occurring in southern france. a family of 3 (husband, wife, and their son) presented with symptoms compatible with sfg rickettsiosis. for 2 patients, serum samples presented increased levels of igm and igg for sfg rickettsia. the patients' home was investigated, and rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were collected from the floor from behind the furniture. of 22 ticks c ...201223140893
ehrlichia canis in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the ivory coast.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by ehrlichia canis is distributed globally, but its prevalence in africa is poorly known. in the study reported herein, 27% of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from watchdogs in abidjan, ivory coast, were positive for e. canis using quantitative real-time pcr. a new molecular strategy is proposed that can be used not only for epidemiological study, but also for the diagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. our findings show for the first time the pr ...201223141106
anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors.antibody responses against anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. the extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and qualitative (mosqu ...201223148599
first molecular detection of ehrlichia canis and anaplasma platys in ticks from dogs in cebu, philippines.ehrlichia canis infection of dogs in the philippines has been detected by serological and peripheral blood smear examination methods, but not by molecular means. anaplasma platys infection in dogs has not yet been officially reported, although it is suspected to occur in the country. thus, sensitive and specific molecular techniques were used in this study to demonstrate the presence of both e. canis and a. platys in the philippines. a total of 164 rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks was collected fr ...201223168049
Displaying items 901 - 1000 of 1724