meeting the challenges of on-host and off-host water balance in blood-feeding this review, we describe water balance requirements of blood-feeding arthropods, particularly contrasting dehydration tolerance during the unfed, off-host state and the challenges of excess water that accompany receipt of the bloodmeal. most basic water balance characteristics during the off-host stage are applicable to other terrestrial arthropods, as well. a well-coordinated suite of responses enable arthropods to conserve water resources, enhance their desiccation tolerance, and increase t ...201020206630
personal protection against biting insects and ticks.recent events with the first cases of local transmission of chikungunya and dengue fever virus in southern france by aedes albopictus, adding to the nuisance and potential vectors that can be encountered when traveling in tropical or sub-tropical countries, has shown the value of a reflection on the personal protection against vectors (ppav). it is seen during an outbreak of vector-borne disease, or simply because of nuisance arthropods, that our fellow citizens try to protect themselves individ ...201121395212
borrelia, rickettsia, and ehrlichia species in bat ticks, france, 2010.argas vespertilionis, an argasid tick associated with bats and bat habitats in europe, africa, and asia has been reported to bite humans; however, studies investigating the presence of vector-borne pathogens in these ticks are lacking. using molecular tools, we tested 5 a. vespertilionis ticks collected in 2010 from the floor of a bat-infested attic in southwestern france that had been converted into bedrooms. rickettsia sp. avbat, a new genotype of spotted fever group rickettsiae, was detected ...201223171714
tick parasites of rodents in romania: host preferences, community structure and geographical distribution.ticks are among the most important vectors of zoonotic diseases in temperate regions of europe, with widespread distribution and high densities, posing an important medical risk. most ticks feed on a variety of progressively larger hosts, with a large number of small mammal species typically harbouring primarily the immature stages. however, there are certain ixodidae that characteristically attack micromammals also during their adult stage. rodents are widespread hosts of ticks, important vecto ...201223171665
bioinformatics and expression analyses of the ixodes scapularis tick cystatin family.the cystatins are inhibitors of papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteinases, classified in merops subfamilies i25a-i25c. this study shows that 84 % (42/50) of tick cystatins are putatively extracellular in subfamily i25b and the rest are putatively intracellular in subfamily i25a. on the neighbor joining phylogeny guide tree, subfamily i25a members cluster together, while subfamily i25b cystatins segregate among prostriata or metastriata ticks. two ixodes scapularis cystatins, aay66864 and is ...201223053911
abiotic and biotic factors associated with tick population dynamics on a mammalian host: ixodes hexagonus infesting otters, lutra lutra.the eurasian otter, lutra lutra, hosts several parasites with zoonotic potential. as this semiaquatic mammal has large ranges across terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, it has the capacity for wide dispersion of pathogens. despite this, parasites of otters have received relatively little attention. here, we examine their ectoparasite load and assess whether this is influenced by abiotic or biotic variables. climatic phenomena such as the north atlantic oscillation (nao) affect weather c ...201223071736
survey of borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from arkansas, the eastern and upper midwestern regions of north america, ixodes scapularis (l.) is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of b. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region amblyomma americanum (say) is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit b. burgdorferi. surveys of borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern united states and often these surveys identify b. lonestari as the primary borrelia species, ...201222781030
why are there so few rickettsia conorii conorii-infected rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the wild?rickettsia conorii conorii is the etiological agent of mediterranean spotted fever, which is transmitted by the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. the relationship between the rickettsia and its tick vector are still poorly understood one century after the first description of this disease.201222724035
composition and seasonal variation of rhipicephalus turanicus and rhipicephalus sanguineus bacterial communities.a 16s rrna gene approach, including 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative pcr (qpcr), was used to describe the bacterial community in rhipicephalus turanicus and to evaluate the dynamics of key bacterial tenants of adult ticks during the active questing season. the bacterial community structure of rh. turanicus was characterized by high dominance of coxiella and rickettsia and extremely low taxonomic diversity. parallel diagnostic pcr further revealed a novel coxiella species which was present and ...201222467507
haemoparasites of free-roaming dogs associated with several remote aboriginal communities in australia.tick-borne haemoparasites babesia vogeli and anaplasma platys are common among the free-roaming canine populations associated with aboriginal communities in australia, whilst the prevalence of haemoplasmas, which are also suspected to be tick-borne, remained unexplored. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of haemoplasma infection in these populations, and to identify any correlation with other haemoparasites. blood was collected from 39 dogs associated with four aboriginal comm ...201222584120
prevalence of dirofilaria immitis, ehrlichia canis, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, anaplasma spp. and leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and cvbd-suspect dogs in portugal--a national serological study.canine vector-borne diseases (cvbds) are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. many cvbd-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. the present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to dirofilaria immitis, ehrlichia canis, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, anaplasma spp. and leishmania infantum in dogs in portugal.201222452990
first case of anaplasma platys infection in a dog from is known that anaplasma (a.) platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is endemic in countries of the mediterranean basin. however, few reports are available from the balkans. this case report describes a dog, which was imported from croatia to germany in may 2010. one month later the dog was presented to a local veterinarian in germany due to intermittent/recurrent diarrhoea. diagnostic tests were performed to identify infections caused by anaplasma spp., ehrl ...201222401583
serological investigation of vector-borne disease in dogs from rural areas of evaluate the anaplasma phagocytophilum (a. phagocytophilum), ehrlichia canis (e. canis), dirofilaria immitis (d. immitis) (canine heartworm), borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) infections in countryside dogs from yunnan, hainan and anhui provinces.201223569877
detection of wolbachia in the tick ixodes ricinus is due to the presence of the hymenoptera endoparasitoid ixodiphagus hookeri.the identification of micro-organisms carried by ticks is an important issue for human and animal health. in addition to their role as pathogen vectors, ticks are also the hosts for symbiotic bacteria whose impact on tick biology is poorly known. among these, the bacterium wolbachia pipientis has already been reported associated with ixodes ricinus and other tick species. however, the origins of wolbachia in ticks and their consequences on tick biology (known to be very diverse in invertebrates, ...201222292021
next generation sequencing uncovers unexpected bacterial pathogens in ticks in western europe.ticks are highly susceptible to global environmental and socio-economical changes. several tick-borne pathogens have been reported in new geographical regions while new species, strains or genetic variants of tick-borne microorganisms are continually being detected. however, tick-borne pathogens are still poorly understood, and it is estimated that half of all human tick-borne disease has an unknown origin. therefore in order to prevent these diseases, more effort is required to identify unknown ...201324312301
ticks and tick-borne pathogens at the cutaneous interface: host defenses, tick countermeasures, and a suitable environment for pathogen establishment.ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. all of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence ...201324312085
a nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva.arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. however, whether and how arthropod saliva counters nod-like (nlr) sensing remains elusive. nlrs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved i ...201324155744
the ovarian transcriptome of the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a bovine host infected with babesia bovis.cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle with the most severe form of the disease caused by the apicomplexan, babesia bovis. babesiosis is transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus rhipicephalus. the most prevalent species is rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, which is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. the transmission of b. bovis is transovarian and a previous study of the r. microplus ovarian proteome ide ...201324330595
tick salivary compounds: their role in modulation of host defences and pathogen transmission.ticks require blood meal to complete development and reproduction. multifunctional tick salivary glands play a pivotal role in tick feeding and transmission of pathogens. tick salivary molecules injected into the host modulate host defence responses to the benefit of the feeding ticks. to colonize tick organs, tick-borne microorganisms must overcome several barriers, i.e., tick gut membrane, tick immunity, and moulting. tick-borne pathogens co-evolved with their vectors and hosts and developed m ...201323971008
spotted fever group rickettsiae in dermacentor reticulatus and haemaphysalis punctata ticks in the uk.spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae have recently been identified for the first time in uk ticks. this included the findings of rickettsia helvetica in ixodes ricinus and rickettsia raoultii in dermacentor reticulatus. this paper further investigates the occurrence of sfg rickettsiae in additional geographically distinct populations of d. reticulatus, and for the first time, investigates the occurrence of sfg rickettsiae in uk populations of haemaphysalis punctata ticks.201323870197
seropositivity rates for agents of canine vector-borne diseases in spain: a multicentre study.controlling canine vector-borne diseases (cvbd) is a major concern, since some of these diseases are serious zoonoses. this study was designed to determine seropositivity rates in spain for agents causing the following five cvbd: leishmaniosis (leishmania infantum: li), heartworm (dirofilaria immitis: di), ehrlichiosis (ehrlichia canis: ec), anaplasmosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum/anaplasma platys: an) and lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi: bb).201323607428
co-infection with anaplasma platys, bartonella henselae and candidatus mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian.during a two year period, a 27-year-old female veterinarian experienced migraine headaches, seizures, including status epilepticus, and other neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities. prior to and during her illness, she had been actively involved in hospital-based work treating domestic animals, primarily cats and dogs, in grenada and ireland and anatomical research requiring the dissection of wild animals (including lions, giraffe, rabbits, mongoose, and other animals), mostly in south af ...201323587235
effect of owner-controlled acaricidal treatment on tick infestation and immune response to tick-borne pathogens in naturally infested dogs from eastern austria.tick-borne infections resulting from regular tick infestation in dogs are a common veterinary health problem all over the world. the application of repellent and acaricidal agents to prevent transmission of pathogens is a major protection strategy and has been proven to be highly effective in several trials under laboratory and natural conditions in dogs. despite such promising results, many dog owners still report tick infestation in their dogs although acaricidal agents are used. information a ...201323497548
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of tick vectors.a method for rapid species identification of ticks may help clinicians predict the disease outcomes of patients with tick bites and may inform the decision as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic antibiotic treatment. we aimed to establish a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) spectrum database based on the analysis of the legs of six tick vectors: amblyomma variegatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, ix ...201323224087
the effects of ingested mammalian blood factors on vector arthropod immunity and physiology.the blood feeding behavior of disease-transmitting arthropods creates a unique intersection between vertebrate and invertebrate physiology. here, we review host blood-derived factors that persist through blood digestion to affect the lifespan, reproduction, and immune responses of some of the most common arthropod vectors of human disease.201323370408
transmission-blocking vaccines: focus on anti-vector vaccines against tick-borne diseases.tick-borne diseases are a potential threat that account for significant morbidity and mortality in human population worldwide. vaccines are not available to treat several of the tick-borne diseases. with the emergence and resurgence of several tick-borne diseases, emphasis on the development of transmission-blocking vaccines remains increasing. in this review, we provide a snap shot on some of the potential candidates for the development of anti-vector vaccines (a form of transmission-blocking v ...201425503555
wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in austria.austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. hepatozoon canis. together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and par ...201425830102
case report: molecular evidence of anaplasma platys infection in two women from venezuela.this article presents two case reports of anaplasma platys detection in two women from venezuela. both patients were exposed to rhipicephalus sanguineus, the presumed tick vector, and experienced chronic, nonspecific clinical signs including headaches and muscle pains. intra-platelet inclusion bodies resembling a. platys were observed in buffy coat smears and a. platys dna was amplified and sequenced from whole blood; however, treatment with doxycycline did not alleviate their symptoms. these ca ...201425266347
ixodes ricinus and its transmitted pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas in europe: new hazards and relevance for public health.tick-borne diseases represent major public and animal health issues worldwide. ixodes ricinus, primarily associated with deciduous and mixed forests, is the principal vector of causative agents of viral, bacterial, and protozoan zoonotic diseases in europe. recently, abundant tick populations have been observed in european urban green areas, which are of public health relevance due to the exposure of humans and domesticated animals to potentially infected ticks. in urban habitats, small and medi ...201425520947
the speed of kill of fluralaner (bravecto™) against ixodes ricinus ticks on dogs.pathogens that are transmitted by ticks to dogs, such as anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia spp., borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and ehrlichia canis, are an increasing problem in the world. one method to prevent pathogen transmission to dogs is to kill the ticks before transmission occurs. fluralaner (bravecto™) is a novel isoxazoline insecticide and acaricide that provides long persistent antiparasitic activity following systemic administration. this study investigated the speed of kill of fl ...201425406442
pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the mexico-us border along the rio grande.transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. the complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. the rio grande serve ...201425453027
borrelia garinii and rickettsia monacensis in ixodes ricinus ticks, algeria. 201425272139
bilateral mandibular pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis and pulmonary nodules in a dog with bartonella henselae bacteremia.this report describes a 2-year-old collie dog with pulmonary nodules, visualized by computed tomographic (ct) scan, with evidence of bartonella henselae bacteremia and pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. clinical signs resolved with antimicrobial therapy.201425320386
immediate efficacy and persistent speed of kill of a novel oral formulation of afoxolaner (nexgardtm) against induced infestations with ixodes ricinus ticks.ticks are hematophageous arthropods that transmit a wide spectrum of pathogens to human and animals. the ability of an acaricidal product to kill ticks quickly provides an important added benefit, especially as protecting dogs from tick bites remains the best preventive measure against tick-borne diseases. the speed of kill of afoxolaner in a novel soft chewable formulation (nexgardtm) against induced infestations with ixodes ricinus adult ticks was evaluated during a full-month negative control ...201425261196
population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis and the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.we identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in ontario, canada, and tested blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis for borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum. among the 18 species of ticks identified, i. scapularis, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes cookei and amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in ontario's eastern region; d. variabilis in central west and easte ...201425171252
identification of tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on humans in turkey.the importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including turkey. the tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in turkey. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including babesia spp., borrelia burgdorferi se ...201425101999
high-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in europe.due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout europe. therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. to accurately screen tick-borne pathogens (tbps), a large scale epidemiological study was conducted on 7050 ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from france, denmark, and the netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. this advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detect ...201425120960
ticks infesting humans in italy and associated pathogens.ticks may transmit a large variety of pathogens, which cause illnesses in animals and humans, commonly referred to as to tick-borne diseases (tbds). the incidence of human tbds in italy is underestimated because of poor surveillance and the scant amount of studies available.201425023709
intravascular persistence of anaplasma platys, ehrlichia chaffeensis, and ehrlichia ewingii dna in the blood of a dog and two family members.anaplasmosis, caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma platys, and ehrlichiosis, caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis, ehrlichia ewingii, the "panola mountain ehrlichia" and ehrlichia muris-like pathogens have been identified as emerging tick borne infectious diseases in dogs and human patients. persistent intravascular infection with these bacteria is well documented in dogs, but is less well documented in human beings.201424984562
serological detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and ehrlichia canis antibodies and dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in poland.canine vector-borne diseases (cvbds) have increasingly become a focus of attention in the past few years. nevertheless, in many parts of europe information on their occurrence is still scarce. in a large study in poland 3,094 serum samples taken from dogs throughout all 16 polish provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and ehrlichia canis and of dirofilaria immitis antigen. a total ...201424974092
a 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome.multiple tick saliva proteins, the majority of which are unknown, confer tick resistance in repeatedly infested animals. the objective of this study was to identify the 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome. the 24-48 h tick-feeding phase is critical to tick parasitism as it precedes important events in tick biology, blood meal feeding and disease agent transmission. fed male, 24 and 96 h fed female phage display cdna expression libraries were biopanned using rabbit antibo ...201424962723
survey of selected tick-borne diseases in dogs in finland.due to climate changes during the last decades, ticks have progressively spread into higher latitudes in northern europe. although some tick borne diseases are known to be endemic in finland, to date there is limited information with regard to the prevalence of these infections in companion animals. we determined the antibody and dna prevalence of the following organisms in randomly selected client-owned and clinically healthy hunting dogs living in finland: ehrlichia canis (ec), anaplasma phago ...201424957468
chronic coinfections in patients diagnosed with chronic lyme disease: a systematic review.often, the controversial diagnosis of chronic lyme disease is given to patients with prolonged, medically unexplained physical symptoms. many such patients also are treated for chronic coinfections with babesia, anaplasma, or bartonella in the absence of typical presentations, objective clinical findings, or laboratory confirmation of active infection. we have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to evaluate several aspects of this practice.201424929022
canine infection with dirofilaria immitis, borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma spp., and ehrlichia spp. in the united states, 2010-2012.the geographic distribution of canine infection with vector-borne disease agents in the united states appears to be expanding.201424886589
seroprevalence of some vector-borne infections of dogs in hungary.the first comprehensive study on the prevalence of canine vector-borne pathogens (anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, ehrlichia canis, and dirofilaria immitis) was carried in hungary because, except for babesiosis and dirofilariosis caused by dirofilaria repens, there were no data on their regional distribution and prevalence. in 2011 and 2012, 1305 blood samples were collected from randomly selected, apparently healthy pet dogs in 167 localities of 19 counties of hungary. all sera ...201424689833
serological and molecular prevalence of selected canine vector borne pathogens in blood donor candidates, clinically healthy volunteers, and stray dogs in north carolina.canine vector borne diseases (cvbds) comprise illnesses caused by a spectrum of pathogens that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. some dogs have persistent infections without apparent clinical, hematological or biochemical abnormalities, whereas other dogs develop acute illnesses, persistent subclinical infections, or chronic debilitating diseases. the primary objective of this study was to screen healthy dogs for serological and molecular evidence of regionally important cvbds.201424655461
bacterial and protozoal agents of feline vector-borne diseases in domestic and stray cats from southern portugal.feline vector-borne diseases (fvbd) have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. in addition to their veterinary importance, domestic cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some fvbd agents by acting as reservoirs and sentinels, a circumstance that requires a one health approach. the aim of the present work was to molecularly detect feline vector-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance, and to a ...201424655431
detection of microbial agents in ticks collected from migratory birds in central italy.tick species characterization and molecular studies were performed within ornithological surveys conducted during 2010 and 2011 in the lazio region of central italy. a total of 137 ticks were collected from 41 migratory birds belonging to 17 species (four partial migrants and 13 long-distance migrants). most ticks were nymphs, with a predominance of hyalomma marginatum marginatum and h. m. rufipes, and a small portion of ixodes and amblyomma species. all tick species analyzed were infected, and ...201424576218
survey on cattle ticks in nur, north of survey the prevalence of cattle ticks in nur county and prepare a list of tick fauna in this district.201425182439
gene cloning, expression and immunogenicity of the protective antigen subolesin in dermacentor silvarum.subolesin (4d8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. to date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. in this study, we cloned the open reading frame (orf) of d. silvarum 4d8 cdna (ds4d8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residu ...201424623890
a seventeen-year epidemiological surveillance study of borrelia burgdorferi infections in two provinces of northern spain.this paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. serum samples (1,179) from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation) bitten by ticks in two regions of northern spain were ifa-tested for b. burgdorferi antibodies. positive results were confirmed by western blotting. antibodies specific for b. burgdorferi ...201424487455
hard tick factors implicated in pathogen transmission.ticks are the most common arthropod vector, after mosquitoes, and are capable of transmitting the greatest variety of pathogens. for both humans and animals, the worldwide emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne disease is becoming increasingly problematic. despite being such an important issue, our knowledge of pathogen transmission by ticks is incomplete. several recent studies, reviewed here, have reported that the expression of some tick factors can be modulated in response to pathogen infec ...201424498444
control of tick infestations and pathogen prevalence in cattle and sheep farms vaccinated with the recombinant subolesin-major surface protein 1a chimeric antigen.despite the use of chemical acaricides, tick infestations continue to affect animal health and production worldwide. tick vaccines have been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. vaccination with the candidate tick protective antigen, subolesin (sub), has been shown experimentally to be effective in controlling vector infestations and pathogen infection. furthermore, escherichia coli membranes containing the chimeric antigen composed of sub fused ...201424398155
insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats.this review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. we introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. our purpose is to provide the veterinary p ...201424393426
laboratory identification of arthropod ectoparasites.the collection, handling, identification, and reporting of ectoparasitic arthropods in clinical and reference diagnostic laboratories are discussed in this review. included are data on ticks, mites, lice, fleas, myiasis-causing flies, and bed bugs. the public health importance of these organisms is briefly discussed. the focus is on the morphological identification and proper handling and reporting of cases involving arthropod ectoparasites, particularly those encountered in the united states. o ...201424396136
emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the 'one pathogen-one disease' vision to the pathobiome paradigm.ticks, as vectors of several notorious zoonotic pathogens, represent an important and increasing threat for human and animal health in europe. recent applications of new technology revealed the complexity of the tick microbiome, which may affect its vectorial capacity. appreciation of these complex systems is expanding our understanding of tick-borne pathogens, leading us to evolve a more integrated view that embraces the 'pathobiome'; the pathogenic agent integrated within its abiotic and bioti ...201526610021
detection of canine vector-borne diseases in eastern poland by elisa and pcr.the aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of ehrlichia canis, anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in eastern poland and to determine the factors associated with exposure (seroposity) or infection (pcr). anti-a. phagocytophilum, anti-b. burgdorferi and anti-e. canis antibodies were determined in 400 dogs, using the snap 4dx ® test (idexx laboratories). in addition, pcrs were performed for the detection of e. canis, a. phagocytophilum and b. burgdorferi dna. in re ...201526581374
emerging tick-borne infections in mainland china: an increasing public health threat.since the beginning of the 1980s, 33 emerging tick-borne agents have been identified in mainland china, including eight species of spotted fever group rickettsiae, seven species in the family anaplasmataceae, six genospecies in the complex borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, 11 species of babesia, and the virus causing severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. in this review we have mapped the geographical distributions of human cases of infection. 15 of the 33 emerging tick-borne agents have be ...201526453241
climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: the butterfly effect.we have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. the impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. on the occasion of the impact of environmental changes on infectious diseases (iec ...201526835253
modulation of host immunity by tick generation sequencing and proteomics have helped to comprehensively characterize gene expression in tick salivary glands at both the transcriptome and the proteome level. functional data are, however, lacking. given that tick salivary secretions are critical to the success of the tick transmission lifecycle and, as a consequence, for host colonization by the pathogens they spread, we thoroughly review here the literature on the known interactions between tick saliva (or tick salivary gland ...201526189360
tick microbiome: the force within.ticks are obligate blood-feeders and serve as vectors of human and livestock pathogens worldwide. defining the tick microbiome and deciphering the interactions between the tick and its symbiotic bacteria in the context of tick development and pathogen transmission will likely reveal new insights and spawn new paradigms to control tick-borne diseases. descriptive observations on the tick microbiome that began almost a century ago serve as forerunners to the gathering momentum to define the tick m ...201525936226
identification of 24h ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the united states. this tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, b. miyamotoi, babesia microti, and powassan virus disease. except for the powassan virus disease, i. scapularis-vectored tbd agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. this study describes identification of 24h immunogenic i. scapularis tick saliva prote ...201525825233
bacterial and protozoal agents of canine vector-borne diseases in the blood of domestic and stray dogs from southern portugal.the so-called canine vector-borne diseases (cvbd) are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods. in addition to their veterinary importance, many of these canine vector-borne pathogens can also affect the human population due to their zoonotic potential, a situation that requires a one health approach. as the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in cats from southern portugal has been recently evaluated, the aim of the present study was to assess if the same agents were prese ...201525886525
canine vector-borne infections in mauritius.canine vector-borne diseases have a worldwide distribution, but to the best of our knowledge, no research has been carried out to evaluate their presence on the indian ocean island of mauritius. an investigation into canine vector-borne infections was conducted in dogs (n = 78) resident at an animal shelter in port louis, mauritius using a combination of traditional microscopy and serological methods.201525889893
tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.the abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. they are obligatory hematop ...201527047089
anaphylaxis to the carbohydrate side chain 2007, the monoclonal antibody cetuximab caused severe hypersensitivity reactions during the first infusion in a region of the southeastern united states. investigation of pretreatment sera established that they contained immunoglobulin (ig) e against the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), which is present on the fab of cetuximab. alpha-gal is a blood group substance of nonprimate mammals. these ige antibodies are also associated with delayed anaphylaxis to red meat (ie ...201525841549
guideline for veterinary practitioners on canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in europe.canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are important tick-borne diseases with a worldwide distribution. information has been continuously collected on these infections in europe, and publications have increased in recent years. prevalence rates are high for ehrlichia and anaplasma spp. infections in dogs from different european countries. the goal of this article was to provide a practical guideline for veterinary practitioners on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ehrlichiosis and anapla ...201525649069
acaricidal efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against ixodes ricinus and rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.two blinded, controlled laboratory studies were conducted to assess the acaricidal efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin (frontline tri-act/frontect) against two tick species. study a evaluated the efficacy of the product against both ixodes ricinus and rhipicephalus sanguineus and study b evaluated the efficacy against r. sanguineus only.201525622698
diagnosis and incidence risk of clinical canine monocytic ehrlichiosis under field conditions in southern europe.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (cme), due to the bacterium ehrlichia canis and transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, is a major tick-borne disease in southern europe. in this area, infections with other vector-borne pathogens (vbp) are also described and result in similar clinical expression. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence risk of clinical cme in those endemic areas and to assess the potential involvement of other vbp in the occurrence of clinical ...201525561342
gray wolf exposure to emerging vector-borne diseases in wisconsin with comparison to domestic dogs and concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. in the united sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. of these diseases, lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. gray wolves (canis lupus) recolonized wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of ...201627898670
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting cattle and some other domestic and wild hosts on the french mediterranean island of is a mountainous french island in the north-western mediterranean presenting a large diversity of natural environments where many interactions between domestic animals and wild fauna occur. despite a favourable context for ticks and tick-borne diseases (tbds), the tick fauna of corsica has not systematically been investigated.201627842608
systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticides: a review of the efficacy against ticks and fleas on dogs.acaricidal (tick) and insecticidal (flea) efficacy of systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticide products for dogs are compared based on permethrin and fluralaner as representative molecules. results of efficacy studies against fleas and ticks are reviewed that show generally good to excellent results. both externally and systemically distributed treatments have benefits and weaknesses in potentially preventing pathogen transmission by these arthropod vectors.four general properti ...201627502490
molecular evidence of bartonella species in ixodid ticks and domestic animals in palestine.ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the gram-negative pathogen bartonella. here, we evaluated the presence of bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from palestine. we tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for bartonella using its-pcr. bartonella dna was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. none of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive f ...201627540374
identification of a novel β-adrenergic octopamine receptor-like gene (βaor-like) and increased atp-binding cassette b10 (abcb10) expression in a rhipicephalus microplus cell line derived from acaricide-resistant ticks.the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus is an economically important parasite of livestock. effective control of ticks using acaricides is threatened by the emergence of resistance to many existing compounds. several continuous r. microplus cell lines have been established and provide an under-utilised resource for studies into acaricide targets and potential genetic mutations associated with resistance. as a first step to genetic studies using these resources, this study aimed to de ...201627484910
passive surveillance of ixodes scapularis (say), their biting activity, and associated pathogens in massachusetts.a passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006-2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the university of massachusetts for pcr testing. the vast majority of these ticks were ixodes scapularis from massachusetts (n = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. two taqman duplex qpcr assays were developed to test i. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesi ...201627248292
countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for anaplasma spp., borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), dirofilaria immitis and ehrlichia canis in mexico.canine vector-borne diseases (cvbd) have become a major concern for canine and human public health. the aim of the study described here is to add epidemiological data regarding four pathogens responsible for cvbd, namely anaplasmosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis and ehrlichiosis in a national survey conducted in mexico.201627474020
exposure to vector-borne pathogens in candidate blood donor and free-roaming dogs of northeast italy.many vector-borne pathogens including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes occur in northeast italy, representing a potential threat to animal and human populations. little information is available on the circulation of the above vector-borne pathogens in dogs. this work aims to (i) assess exposure to and circulation of pathogens transmitted to dogs in northeast italy by ticks, sandflies, and mosquitoes, and (ii) drive blood donor screening at the newly established canine blood bank of the ...201627357128
borrelia sp. phylogenetically different from lyme disease- and relapsing fever-related borrelia spp. in amblyomma varanense from python reticulatus.species of the genus borrelia are causative agents of lyme disease and relapsing fever. lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. however, in some parts of the world lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever may be caused by novel borrelia genotypes. herein, we report the presence of a borrelia sp. in an amblyomma varanense collected from python reticulatus.201627342652
dermacentor reticulatus: a vector on the rise.dermacentor reticulatus is a hard tick species with extraordinary biological features. it has a high reproduction rate, a rapid developmental cycle, and is also able to overcome years of unfavourable conditions. dermacentor reticulatus can survive under water for several months and is cold-hardy even compared to other tick species. it has a wide host range: over 60 different wild and domesticated hosts are known for the three active developmental stages. its high adaptiveness gives an edge to th ...201627251148
seroprevalence of vector-borne pathogens and molecular detection of borrelia afzelii in military dogs from portugal.canine vector-borne diseases (cvbds) are increasingly being reported worldwide and represent a serious threat to both animal and public health. military dogs may constitute a risk group for the agents causing these diseases, as they frequently work outdoors in different areas and are thus exposed to vector arthropods. in order to assess the risk of exposure of this type of dogs, a serological and molecular survey was conducted in military working dogs in portugal. one hundred apparently healthy ...201627160284
molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from portugal.wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. the aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the centre and south of portugal.201627160767
factors associated with anaplasma spp. seroprevalence among dogs in the united states.dogs in the united states are hosts to a diverse range of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, including a. phagocytophilum, an important emerging canine and human pathogen. previously, a companion animal parasite council (capc)-sponsored workshop proposed factors purported to be associated with the infection risk for tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in the united states, including climate conditions, socioeconomic characteristics, local topography, and vector distribution.201627004557
novel spotted fever group rickettsiae in haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks from gansu, northwest china.rickettsia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and well known as transmitted by arthropods. these pathogens have a broad geographic distribution and a high degree of biological and clinical diversity. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from gansu, where borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and anaplasma phagocytophilum were previously reported in ticks and ruminants.201626968160
origin and evolution of rickettsial plasmids.rickettsia species are strictly intracellular bacteria that have undergone a reductive genomic evolution. despite their allopatric lifestyle, almost half of the 26 currently validated rickettsia species have plasmids. in order to study the origin, evolutionary history and putative roles of rickettsial plasmids, we investigated the evolutionary processes that have shaped 20 plasmids belonging to 11 species, using comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis between rickettsial, microbial and no ...201626866478
genomic insights into the ixodes scapularis tick vector of lyme disease.ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. we describe the 2.1 gbp nuclear genome of the tick, ixodes scapularis (say), which vectors pathogens that cause lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. the large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive dna, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. annotation of scaffolds representing ∼57% of the ge ...201626856261
update on canine and feline blood donor screening for blood-borne update on the 2005 american college of veterinary internal medicine (acvim) consensus statement on blood donor infectious disease screening was presented at the 2015 acvim forum in indianapolis, indiana, followed by panel and audience discussion. the updated consensus statement is presented below. the consensus statement aims to provide guidance on appropriate blood-borne pathogen testing for canine and feline blood donors in north america.201626806261
ixodes scapularis tick saliva proteins sequentially secreted every 24 h during blood feeding.ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa. this study describes lc-ms/ms identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of i. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (bd), and spontaneously detached (sd). the 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity ...201626751078
tick-borne pathogen - reversed and conventional discovery of disease.molecular methods have increased the number of known microorganisms associated with ticks significantly. some of these newly identified microorganisms are readily linked to human disease while others are yet unknown to cause human disease. the face of tick-borne disease discovery has changed with more diseases now being discovered in a "reversed way," detecting disease cases only years after the tick-borne microorganism was first discovered. compared to the conventional discovery of infectious d ...201425072045
fatal rocky mountain spotted fever in the united states, 1999-2007.death from rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) is preventable with prompt, appropriate treatment. data from two independent sources were analyzed to estimate the burden of fatal rmsf and identify risk factors for fatal rmsf in the united states during 1999-2007. despite increased reporting of rmsf cases to the centers for disease control and prevention, no significant changes in the estimated number of annual fatal rmsf cases were found. american indians were at higher risk of fatal rmsf relativ ...201222492159
absence of antibodies to rickettsia spp., bartonella spp., ehrlichia spp. and coxiella burnetii in tahiti, french the pacific islands countries and territories, very little is known about the incidence of infectious diseases due to zoonotic pathogens. to our knowledge, human infections due to rickettsia spp., coxiella burnetii, ehrlichia spp. and bartonella spp. have never been reported in french polynesia; and infections due to c. burnetti have been reported worldwide except in new zealand. to evaluate the prevalence of this disease, we conducted a serosurvey among french polynesian blood donors.201424885466
anaplasma platys in bone marrow megakaryocytes of young dogs.anaplasma platys is an obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen that infects platelets of dogs, forming basophilic intracellular morulae. in the present report, cellular inclusions were documented in bone marrow thrombocyte precursors of two young naturally infected dogs, indicating that a. platys can infect megakaryocytes and promegakaryocytes.201424622106
emerging and re-emerging zoonoses of dogs and cats.since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as "family members" within households. however, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad), but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. bacterial zoonoses include bacter ...201426480316
small regulatory rnas of rickettsia conorii.small regulatory rnas comprise critically important modulators of gene expression in bacteria, yet very little is known about their prevalence and functions in rickettsia species. r. conorii, the causative agent of mediterranean spotted fever, is a tick-borne pathogen that primarily infects microvascular endothelium in humans. we have determined the transcriptional landscape of r. conorii during infection of human microvascular endothelial cells (hmecs) by strand-specific rna sequencing to ident ...201627834404
retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by hepatozoon canis in ludhiana, punjab, evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with hepatozoon canis (h. canis) presented at the small animal clinics of guru angad dev veterinary and animal sciences university, ludhiana.201323730562
unusual bacterial infections and the pleura.rickettsiosis, q fever, tularemia, and anthrax are all bacterial diseases that can affect the pleura. rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) and mediterranean spotted fever (msf) are caused by rickettsia rickettsii and rickettsia conorii, respectively. pleural fluid from a patient with msf had a neutrophil-predominant exudate. coxiellaburnetii is the causative agent of q fever. of the two cases described in the literature, one was an exudate with a marked eosinophilia while the other case was a tra ...201222977649
identification of endosymbionts in ticks by broad-range polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.many organisms, such as insects, filarial nematodes, and ticks, contain heritable bacterial endosymbionts that are often closely related to transmissible tickborne pathogens. these intracellular bacteria are sometimes unique to the host species, presumably due to isolation and genetic drift. we used a polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry assay designed to detect a wide range of vectorborne microorganisms to characterize endosymbiont genetic signatures from amblyomm ...201222897044
molecular method for the characterization of coxiella burnetii from clinical and environmental samples: variability of genotypes in spain.coxiella burnetii is a highly clonal microorganism which is difficult to culture, requiring bsl3 conditions for its propagation. this leads to a scarce availability of isolates worldwide. on the other hand, published methods of characterization have delineated up to 8 different genomic groups and 36 genotypes. however, all these methodologies, with the exception of one that exhibited limited discriminatory power (3 genotypes), rely on performing between 10 and 20 pcr amplifications or sequencing ...201222656068
diversity of bacterial endosymbionts associated with macrosteles leafhoppers vectoring phytopathogenic, we investigate the endosymbiotic microbiota of the macrosteles leafhoppers m. striifrons and m. sexnotatus, known as vectors of phytopathogenic phytoplasmas. pcr, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16s rrna genes identified two obligate endosymbionts, "candidatus sulcia muelleri" and "candidatus nasuia deltocephalinicola," and five facultative endosymbionts, wolbachia, rickettsia, burkholderia, diplorickettsia, and a novel bacterium belonging to the rickettsiaceae, ...201323770905
ticks and associated pathogens collected from dogs and cats in belgium.although ixodes spp. are the most common ticks in north-western europe, recent reports indicated an expanding geographical distribution of dermacentor reticulatus in western europe. recently, the establishment of a d. reticulatus population in belgium was described. d. reticulatus is an important vector of canine and equine babesiosis and can transmit several rickettsia species, coxiella burnetii and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev), whilst ixodes spp. are vectors of pathogens causing babesi ...201323777784
prevalence of francisella tularensis and francisella-like endosymbionts in the tick population of hungary and the genetic variability of francisella-like agents.several new taxa belonging to the genus francisella have been described recently. the present study describes the prevalence of francisella tularensis and francisella-like endosymbionts (fle) in ticks collected from hungary from 2007 to 2009 and characterizes the genetic variability of fles. a total of 5402 ixodid ticks (ixodes ricinus, i. acuminatus, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis inermis, h. concinna, h. punctata) were collected from vegetation and animal hosts and teste ...201323421891
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