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18s rrna gene sequences and phylogenetic relationships of european hard-tick species (acari: ixodidae).the complete 18s rrna gene sequences of the following six european hard-tick species were obtained by direct pcr cycle sequencing and silver-staining methods: rhipicephalus pusillus, boophilus annulatus, dermacentor marginatus, hyalomma lusitanicum, haemaphysalis punctata, and ixodes ricinus. differences observed in the sequence alignment of these six species together with the 18s rrna gene sequences of 13 other hard-tick species demonstrate that this gene is a good marker for supraspecific diff ...19989491423
mitochondrial 16s rdna sequences and phylogenetic relationships of species of rhipicephalus and other tick genera among metastriata (acari: ixodidae).the mitochondrial 16s rrna gene sequences of the following eight european metastriata tick species were obtained by direct polymerase-chain-reaction cycle sequencing and silver-staining methods: rhipicephalus bursa, r. pusillus, r. sanguineus, r. turanicus, boophilus annulatus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis punctata, and hyalomma lusitanicum. this mitochondrial gene seems to be a good marker for the establishment of genetic relationships among closely related tick species, but it does no ...19989660138
bovine babesiosis. seroprevalence and ticks associated with cattle from two different regions of morocco.a total of 475 bovine sera collected in 1995-1996 from 10 areas belonging to two different bioclimatic strata were tested for antibody activity to babesia bigemina and babesia bovis using indirect immunofluorescence (iif). in the gharb, the b. bovis seroprevalence was 21.7% and for b. bigemina, 10.8%. the infection rate for either or both species as determined microscopically with giemsa-stained blood films was 18.9%. the tiflet area was considered an endemic focus, and the seroprevalence was 42 ...19989668467
observations of the rhythm of detachment of engorged female boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae) from cattle.a bimodal, diurnal rhythm of detachment was observed for engorged female boophilus annulatus fed on hereford heifers confined in individual stalls in an open-sided barn and exposed to ambient climate and light. in 3 experiments during which hosts were fed each morning and evening, a morning period of increased detachment activity occurred during a 6-h period centered around the 2-h collecting interval in which sunrise occurred. a 2nd peak of activity occurred during the 2-h interval that began 6 ...19989701931
trials for control of ixodid ticks using pheromone acaricide tick decoys.experimental application of hyalomma dromedarii pheromone-impregnated in cyfluthrin (pyrethroid) decoys on experimentally infested camels revealed efficacy rate of 85.33%, while the control group showed normal pattern of tick engorgement. this study proved the rapid movement of males toward decoys and some males took the mounting position with such decoys. on the other side, the same decoys (h. dromedarii) when used on naturally infested cattle with boophilus annulatus did not even disturb the b ...19989707683
protection against boophilus annulatus infestations in cattle vaccinated with the b. microplus bm86-containing vaccine gavac. off.tick infestations by boophilus spp. constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. the use of traditional control methods has been only partially successful and tick infestations remain a serious problem. recently, the gut antigen bm86 was isolated from b. microplus. recombinant preparations of this antigen have been used in vaccines for the control of b. microplus infestations. however, in several regions of the world, b. microplus coexists wi ...19989796055
pcr-ribotyping of xenorhabdus and photorhabdus isolates from the caribbean region in relation to the taxonomy and geographic distribution of their nematode hosts.the genetic diversity of symbiotic xenorhabdus and photorhabdus bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematodes was examined by a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of pcr-amplified 16s rrna genes (rdnas). a total of 117 strains were studied, most of which were isolated from the caribbean basin after an exhaustive soil sampling. the collection consisted of 77 isolates recovered from entomopathogenic nematodes in 14 caribbean islands and of 40 reference strains belonging to xen ...19989797272
the seasonal occurrence of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on sheep and in the field in the judean area of israel.a 2 year survey of ixodid ticks in the judean area of israel between 1983 and 1985 showed that sheep were parasitized by the following species: rhipicephalus sanguineus group (30.6%), rhipicephalus bursa (25.3%), haemaphysalis cretica (20.5%), haemaphysalis otophila (20.1%) and hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (3.1%). three other species, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, boophilus annulatus and amblyomma lepidum were also present but in very low numbers. a total of 50,816 specimens (78.1% adult ticks) ...19968746133
immunization of cattle against boophilus annulatus ticks using adult female tick antigen.ten crossbred calves (friesian x egyptian native) aged between 7-9 months old were used to evaluate the immunizing effect of whole adult b. annulatus tick antigen. a soluble fraction was obtained from extensively disrupted ticks and this fraction was used to vaccinate calves with 1 mg protein antigen. the vaccination protocol for five randomly selected calves involved two immunizations, the first was administered subcutaneously (plus aluminium hydroxide adjuvant) at the beginning of the experime ...19968766904
ticks of domestic animals in the macedonia region of greece.a study was carried out on ticks of domestic animals in the macedonia region of greece. during 1983-1986, 11,620 tick specimens, belonging to 18 species and subspecies, were collected from cattle, sheep, goats and dogs, in 64 localities throughout macedonia. rhipicephalus bursa, the most common tick, and hyalomma marginatum marginatum occurred in all bioclimatic zones, as well as the two one-host ticks, boophilus annulatus and h. detritum scupense, which were present in fewer localities. r. tura ...19968792578
acaricidal efficacy of cypermethrine (a new synthetic pyrethroid) against boophilus annulatus ticks in cattle.resistance of ticks to acaricides had spread dramatically in recent years, so changing of acaricides periodically is needed to avoid resistant strains. cypermethrine is a new pyrethroid acaricide recently introduced in the skin parasites control programs in egypt. fourteen crossbred cows (friesian x egyptian native) were used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of cypermethrine against boophilus annulatus ticks. cows were allocated into treated and control groups, each consists of 7 animals. at da ...19968968127
modeling embryo development and emergence of boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae).guanine accumulation in boophilus annulatus (say) at 15 temperatures (3-42 degrees c) showed embryonic development from 9 to 42 degrees c. guanine concentrations steadily increased over the period of development. eggs at 17-36 degrees c achieved hatch (requiring 54-12 d, respectively), and eclosion dates were estimated for larvae developing at 12 degrees c (day 172) and 14 degrees c (day 154) using linear regression. development rates from 12 to 36 degrees c are described by a six-parameter biop ...19952033609
[parasitic horse ticks in italy. observations on their distribution and pathogenic role].the following 13 species of ticks, belonging to ixodidae family, were recorded in italy on horse (equus caballus) since 1931: ixodes ricinus, i. gibbosus, haemaphysalis inermis, h. parva, h. punctata, h. sulcata, dermacentor marginatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rh. bursa, rh. turanicus, hyalomma marginatum, hy. detritum, boophilus annulatus. the regional distribution and the role of the species in the transmission of pathogens are reported.19947637997
stagewise mortality, ovipositional biology, and egg viability of boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae) on boselaphus tragocamelus (artiodactyla: bovidae).the stagewise mortality, ovipositional biology, and egg viability of the cattle tick, boophilus annulatus (say), on nilgai antelope, boselaphus tragocamelus pallas, was compared with ticks reared on bos taurus (hereford) cattle. mortality was highest during the larval stage on both host species, but larval mortality on nilgai (78.6%) was significantly higher than on cattle (45.6%) hosts. mortality during the nymphal stage was also significantly higher on nilgai (49.3%) than on cattle (13.9%). du ...19938271258
distribution and host-relationship of ticks (ixodoidea) infesting domestic animals and rodents in sinai peninsula.geographical distribution of ticks infesting farm animals in sinai peninsula revealed the presence of 12 tick species namely hyalomma dromedarii, h. impeltatum, h. an anatolicum, h. an. excavatum, h. marginatum rufipes, h. m. turanicum, h. schulzei, rhipicephalus sanguineus, r. turanicus, boophilus annulatus, ornithodors erraticus and argas persicus. the distribution map of those species is given. the areas of sinai could be arranged as regards the number of tick species in the following descend ...19938376863
intrastadial and interstadial transmission of anaplasma marginale by boophilus annulatus ticks in cattle.the 1-host tick boophilus annulatus was found to transmit anaplasmosis in cattle transstadially. anaplasma marginale was invariably transmitted when ticks that had been pulled off anaplasma-infected calves either after 7 days (as fully engorged larvae) or after 14 to 15 days (as fully engorged nymphs) were transferred within 4 days to susceptible calves. three morphologically different a marginale isolates, 1 round (tailless) and 2 with different types of appendages (tailed) were transmitted by ...19938498744
pathogenicity of 17 isolates of entomophagous nematodes (steinernematidae and heterorhabditidae) for the ticks amblyomma variegatum (fabricius), boophilus microplus (canestrini) and boophilus annulatus (say).entomopathogenous nematodes are well known biocontrol agents of insects. they live in the superficial layer of the soil, a location where ticks accomplish their molt and where they oviposit their eggs, making them, theoretically, the preys of infective larvae of nematodes. seventeen strains of entomopathogenous nematodes: eight strains of steinernema and nine strains of heterorhabditis were placed in contact with each of the free living stages of three tick species: amblyomma variegatum, boophil ...19937628227
a survey of ticks on farm animals in libya.thirteen species of ixodid ticks and two species of argasid ticks were collected during a three-year survey of 58 farms in libya. these included boophilus annulatus, b. microplus, b. decoloratus, seven species of hyalomma, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rh. evertsi, rh. bursa, argas persicus and ornithodoros foleyi. this is the first recording of b. microplus, b. decoloratus and rh. bursa in libya. of 20,391 animals examined by random sampling, 2020 (9.6%) had ticks; particularly common were hy. drom ...19921288437
test for assortative mating between boophilus microplus and boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae).the closely related cattle ticks, boophilus microplus (canestrini) and b. annulatus (say), were tested for possible assortative mating under conditions designed to mimic those in the field. patterns in the numbers of the four possible types of matings were generally indicative of a preference for conspecific mates in both species. there were significantly more conspecific and fewer interspecific matings than would be predicted from the observed frequencies of males and females among the two spec ...19921495080
infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (steinernematidae and heterorhabditidae) to female ticks of boophilus annulatus (arachnida: ixodidae).exposing boophilus annulatus (say) to different concentrations of steinernema carpocapsae (filipjev) infective juveniles in petri dishes (50-10,000 nematodes per dish) resulted in high mortality (greater than 90%) at nematode concentrations as low as 500 nematodes per dish within 8 d. at a concentration of 10,000 nematodes per dish, 100% of the ticks died within 2 d after infestation. after exposure to 500 nematodes per dish, complete mortality was achieved with the heterorhabditis bacteriophora ...19921495070
survival of larvae of boophilus annulatus, boophilus microplus, and boophilus hybrids (acari: ixodidae) in different temperature and humidity regimes in the laboratory.the survival period for larvae of boophilus annulatus (say), boophilus microplus (canestrini) and hybridized boophilus ticks was determined by exposure to various combinations of temperature (20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees c) and relative humidity (32, 63, 75, 84 and 97% rh) in the laboratory. results indicated that within a given temperature and rh regime, there was no difference (p greater than 0.05) in larval survival among the three species tested, indicating that these ticks respond similarly ov ...19911788937
preliminary observations on ticks and tick-borne diseases in the north west province of cameroon. i. babesiosis and anaplasmosis.during a survey on ticks and tick-borne diseases in the north-western cameroon at the bamenda cattle market, the ticks identified were boophilus annulatus (20%) and b. decoloratus (80%). more than 50% of the ticks were collected during the dry season. of 524 blood smears 47.3% were positive for babesia bovis, 31.1% for b. bigemina and 2.2% for anaplasma marginale. 19.4% were negative.19911824132
[seasonal dynamics of tick infestations in cattle (ixodoidea) in cattle sold in the area of yaoundé, cameroon].among the tick species identified in cameroon, eight were found in cattle in yaoundé: amblyomma variegatum, boophilus annulatus, b. decoloratus, haemaphysalis aciculifer, hyalomma nitidum, rhipicephalus longus, rh. lunulatus, rh. sulcatus. three species, hm. aciculifer, h. nitidum and rh. lunulatus, were identified for the first time in yaoundé. rhipicephalus and hyalomma were abundant during the rainy season. boophilus was abundant throughout the year, with a maximum concentration at the end of ...19911824137
failure of white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus l., to sustain a population of cattle ticks, boophilus annulatus (say), through successive generations.cattle ticks, boophilus annulatus (say), previously reared only on cattle, were placed on 3 white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus l. ticks were maintained through successive generations solely on the same deer as they aged (3, 6, and 9 mo of age) and received repeated challenges (0, 1, and 2 previous challenges). cattle were infested simultaneously to assess tick viability and provide a comparison of tick numbers, female weight, egg mass weight, and egg hatch. the initial infestation (3,000 ...19902352065
suitability of white-tailed deer as hosts for cattle fever ticks (acari: ixodidae).white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus l.) were evaluated as an alternate host for the cattle fever tick, boophilus annulatus (say). the total of adult female ticks recovered and associated reproductive parameters were compared between deer and bovine hosts. significantly fewer ticks were recovered from deer than from cattle; this was attributed to the grooming behavior of the deer. the mean weight of ticks taken from deer (243.5 mg) was significantly less than that of ticks recovered from ca ...19892724312
efficacy and stability of wettable powder amitraz in field and laboratory studies against boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae) in south texas.a study was done at the usda-ars, cattle fever tick research laboratory, mission, tex., to determine the efficacy of a 50% wettable powder (wp) amitraz formulation applied as a whole-body spray in a standard dip vat, and in a laboratory bioassay against boophilus annulatus (say) on cattle. a study also was done at the king ranch in kleberg county, tex., to determine the stability of 50% wp amitraz in a dip vat under south texas conditions cattle were infested with all parasitic life stages of b. ...19892754100
effect of temperature on the ovipositional biology and egg viability of the cattle tick boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae).the effect of temperature on the ovipositional biology of boophilus annulatus (say) was determined under laboratory conditions. engorged females subjected to constant temperatures of 12 and 45 degrees c died without ovipositing, while females held at 15 and 40 degrees c laid eggs which did not hatch. the preoviposition period at 25-40 degrees c was 2-3 days; however, significant increases occurred at 20 degrees c (5.2 days) and at 15 degrees c (16.3 days). the number of eggs laid per female was ...19883197576
effect of temperature on transovarial transmission of babesia bigemina (smith and kilborne, 1893) in boophilus annulatus (say, 1821).the effect of the temperature on the transovarial passage of babesia bigemina has been studied in female boophilus annulatus during their oviposition. kinetes of babesia were present in eggs laid at the temperatures of 16, 20, 26, 28, 30 and 35 degrees c. the rate of infection was temperature dependent. it reached at least 50%, even at low temperatures. the average infection level at 26 and 30 degrees c was 270 kinetes per egg. however, between 20 and 35 degrees c the eggs laid during the first ...19883347984
the infection of various tick species with babesia bigemina, its transmission and identification.strains of boophilus decoloratus and b. microplus were easily infected with a single stock of babesia bigemina; boophilus annulatus could be infected less easily, and it was difficult to infect rhipicephalus evertsi. two strains of r. appendiculatus and one strain each of r. bursa and hyalomma anatolicum excavatum were refractory. the same stock of b. bigemina was transmitted by nymphs and adults of b. decoloratus but only by nymphs of r. evertsi. vertical infection was not observed in r. everts ...19883387405
cage design for the confinement of deer and goats infested with ectoparasites.the design for a cage for the confinement of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and goats (capra sp.) for use in ectoparasite studies is presented. the cage was successfully used for the infestation of these hosts with boophilus annulatus and may be useful for host/parasite studies using similar hosts and other ectoparasites. the cage will accommodate mature hosts with adequate space for normal grooming activity. a detailed description of materials and methods for the assembly of the cag ...19883418463
effect of infection by babesia spp. on the development and survival of free-living stages of boophilus annulatus.oviposition, egg hatching and survival of newly-hatched larvae of boophilus annulatus were studied in relation to infection by babesia species and different temperature regimens. infection of female ticks by babesia bigemina or b. bovis had no effect on the time elapsed between engorgement and oviposition. the duration of oviposition was shorter in infected females incubated at 25 degrees c or 35 degrees c and infected females laid fewer eggs than the controls. no larvae hatched at 16 degrees c. ...19873564342
tick infestations on livestock in the yemen arab republic and their potential as vectors of livestock diseases.a survey of ticks on cattle, camels, sheep, goats and donkeys in four different geographical locations of the yemen arab republic (yar) was carried out to provide more information on the possible risk of tick-borne diseases to imported exotic cattle included in the yar's plans for livestock development. the most abundant ticks were hyalomma spp. particularly on camels. ticks found on cattle included hyalomma spp., amblyomma variegatum, boophilus annulatus and rhipicephalus spp. in general with t ...19873603710
effects of certain pesticides on the embryogenesis of boophilus annulatus (say). ixodoidea. ixodidae. 19873693956
genetic similarity and variability between natural populations and laboratory colonies of north american boophilus (acari: ixodidae).four natural populations and 4 laboratory colonies of boophilus microplus (canestrini) and a laboratory colony of boophilus annulatus (say) were subjected to electrophoretic analysis to determine levels of genetic similarity and genetic variability. populations of b. microplus exhibited high genetic similarity (i = 0.984 +/- 0.012) indicating that all populations share a relatively undifferentiated gene pool. host vagility is proposed as an important mechanism promoting gene flow in ectoparasite ...19863712179
[studies on ticks (acarina, ixodidae), parasites of cattle in west algeria. i. systematic survey and seasonal activity].tick samples (acarina, ixodidae) were collected for two years on bovidae from the whole oran area which were brought weekly at the oran open market (algeria). the 5,500 ticks thus obtained could be divided into six genera and twelve species. from the phenological analysis the following were defined: three spring species (rhipicephalus bursa, rh. turanicus and rh. sanguineus), three summer species (hyalomma detritum, h. impeltatum and boophilus annulatus), three winter species (ixodes ricinus, ha ...19863813419
[ecology of tick-borne arboviruses in the central african republic].ticks have been collected on cattle skins for seven consecutive years in bangui, berberati, bangassou and bouar. 150 strains of arboviruses have been isolated from the four following species: amblyomma variegatum: dugbe, jos, thogoto, crimean-congo hemorragic fever (cchf), yellow fever, bhanja and pétévo; boophilus annulatus: dugbe, jos and thogoto; b. decoloratus: dugbe, jos, thogoto and cchf; hyalomma nitidum: cchf. dugbe (112 isolated strains), jos (19 isolates) and thogoto (11 isolates) viru ...19854028317
seasonal observations on the development and ovipositional capability of boophilus annulatus and b. microplus (acari: ixodidae) reared on bovines. 19827120294
prevalence of cattle ticks in morocco.during july 1980 the prevalence of cattle ticks was studied in 4 bioclimatic regions of morocco. all the 24 farms examined were infested. the mean number of ticks per animal varied from 6.5 to 36.3 in different regions. eight species of ticks were identified: hyalomma marginatum, h. detritum, h. lusitanicum, h. anatolicum, boophilus annulatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, r. turanicus, r. bursa. numerically h. detritum (30.8%) h. marginatum (25.5%) and b. annulatus (29.2%) were most important. the ...19827123663
the effects of temperature, humidity, photoperiod and weight of the engorged female on oviposition of boophilus annulatus (say, 1821).at a constant temperature of 25 degrees c and 84% relative humidity the pre-oviposition period of boophilus annulatus was 2-5 days (mean 2.7 days) and the oviposition lasted 11-17 days (mean 15 days). the peak egg laying occurred 1-6 days (mean 3.5 days) after the start of oviposition. the daily egg output was 135 (range 90-190) and the total egg production was 2004 (range 1432-2664). light had no significant effect on oviposition. there was a highly significant correlation between the weight of ...19826891854
implication of white-tailed deer in the boophilus annulatus tick eradication program. 1979298937
the transmission of borrelia theileri by boophilus annulatus (say, 1821). 1978664021
egg output in the weights and states of engorgement of amblyomma variegatum (fabr.) and boophilus annulatus (say): (ixodoidea: ixodidae).the relationship between egg output and the weights and states of engorgement of two species of ixodid ticks amblyomma variegtum (fabr.) and boophilus annulatus (say) was studied, using over 3,000 female ticks of different sizes. based on the average weights and numbers of eggs produced, guide indices are provided for the predictability of the oviposition potential in females of different weights. linear correlation was noted between weights of the ticks and the weights and numbers of eggs they ...1977881144
[isolation of thogoto virus from amblyomma and boophilus ticks in central africa].a survey has been carried out in the cameroons and the central african republic about the role of the ticks in the ecology of arboviruses in central africa. attempts for virus isolation were made for 12,678 amblyomma variegatum, 3,276 boophilus decoloratus and 1,769 boophilus annulatus, by inoculation into suckling mice. from 968 pools which were inoculated, 20 yielded isolates which were identified to thogoto virus. considering previously published results concerning tick-borne virus isolations ...19761037382
tests of acaricides for control of boophilus annulatus and b. microplus. 19761249305
boophilus annulatus and b. microplus: laboratory tests of insecticides. 19734690254
boophilus annulatus: effect of host nutrition on development of female ticks. 19734707746
boophilus annulatus and b. microplus: sprays and dips of insecticides for control on cattle. 19725085795
cross-mating experiments with boophilus annulatus and b. microplus (acarina: ixodidae). 19724654687
[babesia influencing of bigemina parasitemias by boophilus annulatus following experimental transmissions]. 19715087606
apparent failure of boophilus annulatus to transmit anaplasmosis to white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). 19715090975
preliminary tests in mexico with ddt, cube, hexachlorocyclohexane (benzene hexachloride) and combinations thereof, for the control of the cattle fever tick, boophilus annulatus. 194720251185
blood parasites of livestock in certain regions in saudi arabia.blood samples from camels, sheep, goats and cattle from six regions in saudi arabia were examined for blood parasites. asir region camels were disinfected while those of the eastern, jazan, northern frontiers, riyadh and tabouk regions were infected with trypanosoma evansi (5-40%), those of riyadh and the eastern regions were infected with dipetalonema evansi (1-6%) and those of the eastern, jazan and riyadh regions were infected with eperythrozoon species (8-20%). sheep and goats of all tested ...023961044
importance of ticks and their chemical and immunological control in livestock.the medical and economic importance of ticks has long been recognized due to their ability to transmit diseases to humans and animals. ticks cause great economic losses to livestock, and adversely affect livestock hosts in several ways. loss of blood is a direct effect of ticks acting as potential vector for haemo-protozoa and helminth parasites. blood sucking by large numbers of ticks causes reduction in live weight and anemia among domestic animals, while their bites also reduce the quality of ...017048307
in-vitro assessment of the acaricidal properties of artemisia annua and zataria multiflora essential oils to control cattle ticks.the aim of this study was to investigate the 'acaricidal effect' of zataria multiflora and artemisia annua essential oils on rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.022347275
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
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