[construction of cdna expression library of unfed female haemaphysalis longicornis and immuno-screening].to construct a cdna expression library from unfed female tick haemaphysalis longicornis for screening and cloning potential antigenic genes.200919459491
pathogenicity of metarhizium anisopliae (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) to tick eggs and the effect of egg cuticular lipids on conidia development.the ovicidal efficacy of two entomopathogenic hyphomycetes fungi--metarhizium anisopliae variety acridum (m. an. ac.) driver and milner (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and metarhizium anisopliae variety anisopliae (m. an. an.) (metschn.) sorokin (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae)--was evaluated against eggs of three tick species (acari: ixodidae)--hyalomma excavatum (koch), rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus (say), and rhipicephalus sanguineus (latereille)--by placing eggs, laid by surface-sterilize ...200919496424
isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soils and ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) ticks: prevalence and methods.entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to ixodes scapularis say, the blacklegged tick. as a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an eastern deciduous forest where i. scapularis is common. several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter ...200919496427
the first clinical case due to ap92 like strain of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus and a field survey.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is a fatal infection, but no clinical case due to ap92 strain was reported. we described the first clinical case due to ap92 like cchfv.200919515251
identification and characterization of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations.the cattle ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. the recombinant rhipicephalus microplus bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. however, variable efficacy of bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. herein, we ...201019943063
selection of reference genes for quantitative rt-pcr studies in rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks and determination of the expression profile of bm86.for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential. in most studies on ticks where (semi-)quantitative rt-pcr is employed, normalization occurs with a single reference gene, usually beta-actin, without validation of its presumed expression stability. the first goal of this study was to evaluate the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in rhipicephalus appendiculatus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplu ...200920040102
characterization of ferritin 2 for the control of tick infestations.ixodes ricinus is one the most abundant tick species in europe and these ticks transmit pathogens causing human and animal diseases. the cattle ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. development of vaccines directed against tick proteins may reduce tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. however, a limiting step in tick vaccine development has been the identification of tick protective antigens. he ...201020171306
biogeography of tick-borne bhanja virus (bunyaviridae) in europe.bhanja virus (bhav) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. this generally neglected arbovirus of the family bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera haemaphysalis, dermacentor, hyalomma, rhipicephalus, boophilus, and amblyomma. geographic distribution of bhav covers southern and central asia, africa, and southern (partially also central) europe. comparative biogeographic study of eight know ...201020182535
preliminary tests in mexico with ddt, cube, hexachlorocyclohexane (benzene hexachloride) and combinations thereof, for the control of the cattle fever tick, boophilus annulatus. 194720251185
association of pathogen strain-specific gene transcription and transmission efficiency phenotype of anaplasma marginale.efficient transmission of pathogens by an arthropod vector is influenced by the ability of the pathogen to replicate and develop infectiousness within the arthropod host. while the basic life cycle of development within and transmission from the arthropod vector are known for many bacterial and protozoan pathogens, the determinants of transmission efficiency are largely unknown and represent a significant gap in our knowledge. the st. maries strain of anaplasma marginale is a high-transmission-e ...201020308303
novel technique for quantifying adhesion of metarhizium anisopliae conidia to the tick cuticle.the present study describes an accurate quantitative method for quantifying the adherence of conidia to the arthropod cuticle and the dynamics of conidial germination on the host. the method was developed using conidia of metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (metschn.) sorokin (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and engorged rhipicephalus annulatus (say) (arachnida: ixodidae) females and was also verified for m. anisopliae var. acridum driver et milner (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and alphitobius ...201020363785
coxiella burnetii in humans and ticks in rural senegal.q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by coxiella burnetii. epidemiologically, animals are considered reservoirs and humans incidental hosts.201020386603
evidence for role of white-tailed deer (artiodactyla: cervidae) in epizootiology of cattle ticks and southern cattle ticks (acari: ixodidae) in reinfestations along the texas/mexico border in south texas: a review and update.from 1907 when the fever tick eradication campaign began until 1933, the tick eradication methods of dipping cattle in an acaricide or "pasture vacation" were enormously successful in eradicating southern cattle ticks [rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (canestrini)], until failures began to occur in some areas of florida. regarding the failures in florida, the consensus was that populations of white-tailed deer [odocoileus virginianus (zimmermann)] infested with southern cattle ticks were resp ...201020429430
lavandula angustifolia essential oil as a novel and promising natural candidate for tick (rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus) control.lavandula angustifolia is a well known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. this experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of l. angustifolia essential oil (eo) against engorged rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus (acari; ixodidae) females. for this purpose six serial concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0% w/v) of l. angustifolia eo were used. there was considerable mortality in concentrations more than 4.0% although ...201020433836
prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks in sicily.the prevalence of anaplasma, ehrlichia, rickettsia and babesia/theileria species was analysed in questing and feeding adult ticks in sicily. a total of 678 ticks were collected and analysed in this study. of these, 29 were questing ticks and 649 were collected from infested cattle, sheep, goats or dogs. tick species analysed included rhipicephalus bursa, r. turanicus, r. sanguineus, hyalomma lusitanicum, h. marginatum, dermacentor marginatus, ixodes ricinus, r. (boophilus) annulatus and haemaphy ...201020537102
ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting humans in tokat province of turkey: species diversity and seasonal activity.ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animal and human health. tokat province, turkey, is a suitable habitat for extended tick activity with its moderate climate and vegetation. in the present study, we surveyed humans visiting health centers to determine the species diversity, geographical distribution, and seasonal activity of ixodid ticks infesting them. out of 5,999 adult ticks collected from humans from april to september, 2008, 800 ticks were identif ...201020618665
application of highly sensitive saturation labeling to the analysis of differential protein expression in infected ticks from limited samples.abstract:201020704695
molecular cloning of a small heat shock protein (shspii) from the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus salivary gland.immunoscreening of a cdna expression library of the rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus tick with purified rabbit anti-r annulatus salivary glands antigens polyclonal antibodies led to the identification of a 661bp sequence. the sequence includes an open reading frame of 543bp encoding a protein of 180 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 20.51kda, isoelectric point of 9.071 and with no signal sequence. comparison of the deduced amino acids with protein data bank showed that the ident ...201020723560
tick-borne rickettsioses, neglected emerging diseases in rural senegal.rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in west africa.201020856858
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in european part of turkey: genetic analysis of the virus strains from ticks and a seroepidemiological study in humans.abstract a survey of ticks from domestic ruminants, together with a serosurvey in humans was conducted in thrace (northwestern turkey) to evaluate the prevalence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) in ticks and humans. more prevalent ticks were hyalomma marginatum, hyalomma aegyptium, rhipicephalus bursa, and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, with low numbers of dermacentor marginatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus group, and ixodes ricinus. no differences in the tick faunal compositi ...201021028961
detection of babesia and theileria species infection in cattle from portugal using a reverse line blotting method.babesiosis and theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. in portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of babesia and theileria sp. identified: rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, ixodes ricinus and haemaphysalis punctata. all these potential babesia and theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in portugal, although they are predominant in the sout ...201021036481
the rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute babesia bovis infection.abstract:201021092112
assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing.ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. the objective of this study was to explore the r. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16s tag-encoded flx-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (btefap) technique to characterize its bacterial ...201121211038
identification and characterization of ixodes scapularis antigens that elicit tick immunity using yeast surface display.repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. in this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary antigens that react with tick-immune serum. we constructed an ixodes scapularis nymphal salivary gland yeast surface display library and screened the library with nymph-immune rabbit sera and identifie ...201121246036
rna interference in ticks.ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals and humans, and are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases(1) and the most important vectors affecting cattle industry worldwide(2). ticks are classified in the subclass acari, order parasitiformes, suborder ixodida and are distributed worldwide from arctic to tropical regions(3). despite efforts to control tick infestations, these ectoparasites remain a serious problem for human and ...201121304465
species diversity of ixodid ticks feeding on humans in amasya, turkey: seasonal abundance and presence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus.ticks (acari:ixodidae) are important pests transmitting tick-borne diseases such as crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) to humans. between 2002 and 2009, numerous cchf cases were reported in turkey, including amasya province. in the current study, species diversity, seasonal abundance of ticks, and presence of cchf virus (cchfv) in ticks infesting humans in several districts of amasya province were determined. in the survey, a total of 2,528 ixodid ticks were collected from humans with tick b ...201121337953
eclosion blocking effect of ethanolic extract of leucas aspera (lamiaceae) on rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the crude ethanolic extract of aerial parts of leucas aspera was tested for its acaricidal properties against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus. the per cent adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of laid ova were studied at concentrations of 1.56, 3.13, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100mg/ml. adult tick mortality was significant at the highest concentration tested. inhibition of fecundity of treated groups differed significantly from control and was concentration dependent. l. aspera ...201121440993
the hard-tick fauna of mainland portugal (acari: ixodidae): an update on geographical distribution and known associations with hosts and pathogens.this work is an updated revision of the available information on portuguese ixodid tick species. it includes data on tick biology, ecology, taxonomy and host/pathogen-associations. the current list of portuguese ixodid ticks comprises twenty species: dermacentor marginatus (sulzer, 1776), dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794), haemaphysalis hispanica gil collado, 1938, haemaphysalis inermis birula, 1895, haemaphysalis punctata canestrini & fanzago, 1878, hyalomma lusitanicum koch, 1844, hyal ...201121452063
species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (acari: ixodoidea: ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in qazvin province, iran.this report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in qazvin province of iran. the primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. a total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. total direct body collections of ticks were ...201121805220
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks collected from humans, livestock, and picnic sites in the hyperendemic region of turkey.abstract during june and july 2007, about 3125 adult ticks were collected from humans, animals, and vegetation in a hyperendemic region (sivas and tokat) of turkey. a total of 2193 ticks were pooled in 225 pools and screened for the crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) presence by antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation with 95% confidence intervals (ci). the dominant tick species was found to be hyalomma ma ...201121736490
Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick protective antigens.Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. Previous studies showed that R. microplus BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a N-terminal region (BM95-MSP1a) for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane were prot ...201222085549
expression of heat shock and other stress response proteins in ticks and cultured tick cells in response to anaplasma spp. infection and heat shock.ticks are ectoparasites of animals and humans that serve as vectors of anaplasma and other pathogens that affect humans and animals worldwide. ticks and the pathogens that they transmit have coevolved molecular interactions involving genetic traits of both the tick and the pathogen that mediate their development and survival. in this paper, the expression of heat shock proteins (hsps) and other stress response proteins (srps) was characterized in ticks and cultured tick cells by proteomics and t ...201022084679
toxic effects of various solvents against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the current need of identification of a new acaricidal agent which is acceptable to public as environmentally safe is a daring task. use of herbal acaricides is such an alternative. most of the herbal extracts or fractions are dissolved in polar or non-polar solvents or detergents before tested for acaricidal activity. the solvent or detergent to be used for dissolving the herbal extract should be of little acaricidal activity. in the present study, experimentations were carried out on adult eng ...201121890070
first molecular detection of theileria ovis in rhipicephalus sanguineus tick in determine tick infestation of domestic ruminants and their infection to ovine theileriosis in northern iran.201222182639
distribution and seasonal activity of tick species on cattle in the west aegean region of turkey.the aim of the present study was to determine the identity, seasonal activity and distribution of tick species of cattle in the west aegean region of turkey between june 2006 and may 2008. nine villages within three provinces, viz. manisa, izmir and aydin, were included in the study and a total of 75 animal barns were visited monthly for a period of 24 months and 443 cattle were examined for the presence of ticks. it was determined that 23% of cattle were infested with ticks. a total of 19,679 a ...201122113777
Distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations detected in the United States along the Texas/Mexico border.Species identification and global positioning system coordinates of infestations of cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), were determined for 790 specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory between 1 October 1999 and 30 September 2010. Cattle fever tick specimens obtained by personnel of the United States Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Cattle Fever Tick Eradi ...201121845935
acaricidal activity of cassia alata against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.using adult immersion test, the acaricidal activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of cassia alata l. was studied against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus. the efficacy was assessed by measuring per cent adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching rate. the ethanolic extract of c. alata produced a concentration dependant increase in the adult tick mortality. the highest mortality (45.8%) and inhibition of fecundity (10.9%) were observed at the highest concentration tested (100 mg/m ...201221909822
functional genomics studies of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus ticks in response to infection with the cattle protozoan parasite, babesia bigemina.ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases, but the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. babesia spp. are tick-borne pathogens that cause a disease called babesiosis in a wide range of animals and in humans. in particular, babesia bovis and babesia bigemina are transmitted by cattle ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatu ...201222265898
identification of tropomyosin and its immunological properties from larvae of cattle tick, boophilus annulatus.boophilus annulatus is an obligate blood feeder tick that can cause great losses in animals due to anemia and its ability to injure its host skin directly. the aim of this study was identification of cattle humoral immune response to some tick proteins during experimental infestation.201323914237
toxicity of dmso, triton x 100 and tween 20 against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the problems associated with synthetic chemical pesticides include resistance, residues, pest resurgence and the adverse effects on non-target organisms. hence, many ecofriendly newer alternatives are being evaluated among which one of the most important is the use of herbal agents. many of the plant extracts or its fractions are dissolved in polar or non polar solvents or detergents before tested for acaricidal activity. the solvent or detergent used for dissolving the herbal extract should hav ...201123024514
modeling embryo development and emergence of boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae).guanine accumulation in boophilus annulatus (say) at 15 temperatures (3-42 degrees c) showed embryonic development from 9 to 42 degrees c. guanine concentrations steadily increased over the period of development. eggs at 17-36 degrees c achieved hatch (requiring 54-12 d, respectively), and eclosion dates were estimated for larvae developing at 12 degrees c (day 172) and 14 degrees c (day 154) using linear regression. development rates from 12 to 36 degrees c are described by a six-parameter biop ...19952033609
a case of histologically diagnosed tick infestation on the scalp of a korean child.a scalp mass surgically excised from a 4-year-old korean boy was identified as a tick through histological observations. in sections of the mass, characteristic features of a tick, including its gross contour, cuticular structures, well developed musculature and salivary glands, and the capitulum, were discovered. in particular, the capitulum is anteriorly protruded, which strongly suggests that the specimen be a hard tick of family ixodidae. however, the present histological features were not e ...200616809965
meeting the challenges of on-host and off-host water balance in blood-feeding this review, we describe water balance requirements of blood-feeding arthropods, particularly contrasting dehydration tolerance during the unfed, off-host state and the challenges of excess water that accompany receipt of the bloodmeal. most basic water balance characteristics during the off-host stage are applicable to other terrestrial arthropods, as well. a well-coordinated suite of responses enable arthropods to conserve water resources, enhance their desiccation tolerance, and increase t ...201020206630
the seasonal activity of ixodes ricinus tick in amol, mazandaran province, northern iran.the present study aimed to demonstrate the seasonal activities of ixodes ricinus at the pasture level and on the host.201223378970
interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens.ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. the tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune re ...201323875177
a 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome.multiple tick saliva proteins, the majority of which are unknown, confer tick resistance in repeatedly infested animals. the objective of this study was to identify the 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome. the 24-48 h tick-feeding phase is critical to tick parasitism as it precedes important events in tick biology, blood meal feeding and disease agent transmission. fed male, 24 and 96 h fed female phage display cdna expression libraries were biopanned using rabbit antibo ...201424962723
detection of borrelia theileri in rhipicephalus geigyi from mali.disease burden within cattle is a concern around the world. bovine borreliosis, one such disease, is caused by the spirochete borrelia theileri transmitted by the bite of an infected rhipicephalus (boophilus) species tick. a number of species within the genus are capable of transmitting the agent and are found on multiple continents. cattle in the west african nation of mali are infested with four species of rhipicephalus ticks of the subgenus boophilus: rhipicephalus annulatus, rhipicephalus mi ...201424709337
survey on cattle ticks in nur, north of survey the prevalence of cattle ticks in nur county and prepare a list of tick fauna in this district.201425182439
control of tick infestations and pathogen prevalence in cattle and sheep farms vaccinated with the recombinant subolesin-major surface protein 1a chimeric antigen.despite the use of chemical acaricides, tick infestations continue to affect animal health and production worldwide. tick vaccines have been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. vaccination with the candidate tick protective antigen, subolesin (sub), has been shown experimentally to be effective in controlling vector infestations and pathogen infection. furthermore, escherichia coli membranes containing the chimeric antigen composed of sub fused ...201424398155
identification of 24h ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the united states. this tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, b. miyamotoi, babesia microti, and powassan virus disease. except for the powassan virus disease, i. scapularis-vectored tbd agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. this study describes identification of 24h immunogenic i. scapularis tick saliva prote ...201525825233
tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.the abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. they are obligatory hematop ...201527047089
tick-borne diseases in turkey: a review based on one health perspective.the importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including turkey. global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (tbds) with zoonotic characteristics. in turkey, almost 19 tbds have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acantho ...201627977689
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting cattle and some other domestic and wild hosts on the french mediterranean island of is a mountainous french island in the north-western mediterranean presenting a large diversity of natural environments where many interactions between domestic animals and wild fauna occur. despite a favourable context for ticks and tick-borne diseases (tbds), the tick fauna of corsica has not systematically been investigated.201627842608
absence of antibodies to rickettsia spp., bartonella spp., ehrlichia spp. and coxiella burnetii in tahiti, french the pacific islands countries and territories, very little is known about the incidence of infectious diseases due to zoonotic pathogens. to our knowledge, human infections due to rickettsia spp., coxiella burnetii, ehrlichia spp. and bartonella spp. have never been reported in french polynesia; and infections due to c. burnetti have been reported worldwide except in new zealand. to evaluate the prevalence of this disease, we conducted a serosurvey among french polynesian blood donors.201424885466
a systems biology approach to the characterization of stress response in dermacentor reticulatus tick unfed larvae.dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794) is distributed in europe and asia where it infests and transmits disease-causing pathogens to humans, pets and other domestic and wild animals. however, despite its role as a vector of emerging or re-emerging diseases, very little information is available on the genome, transcriptome and proteome of d. reticulatus. tick larvae are the first developmental stage to infest hosts, acquire infection and transmit pathogens that are transovarially transmitted a ...201424586875
the recent evolution of a maternally-inherited endosymbiont of ticks led to the emergence of the q fever pathogen, coxiella burnetii.q fever is a highly infectious disease with a worldwide distribution. its causative agent, the intracellular bacterium coxiella burnetii, infects a variety of vertebrate species, including humans. its evolutionary origin remains almost entirely unknown and uncertainty persists regarding the identity and lifestyle of its ancestors. a few tick species were recently found to harbor maternally-inherited coxiella-like organisms engaged in symbiotic interactions, but their relationships to the q fever ...201525978383
isolation of tick and mosquito-borne arboviruses from ticks sampled from livestock and wild animal hosts in ijara district, kenya.tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. the ijara district, an arid to semiarid region in northern kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. part of the ijara district lies within the boundaries of a kenya wildlife service-protected conservation area. arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, a ...201323805790
vectors of crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus in iran.ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of crimean congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus. human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non-human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. a total of 26 species of argasid and ixodid ticks have been recorded in iran; including nine hyalomma, two rhipicephalus, two dermacentor, five haemaphysalis, two boophilus, one ixodes and two argas as well as three ornithodoros ...201526623426
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
rickettsia africae and candidatus rickettsia barbariae in ticks in israel.dna of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in israel. the findings include evidence for the existence of rickettsia africae and candidatus rickettsia barbariae in ticks in israel. the dna of r. africae was detected in a hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and dna of c. rickettsia barbariae was detected in rhipicephalus turanicus and rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. the dna of rickettsia massiliae was found in rh. sanguineus and haemaphysalis erinacei ...201424615133
hard ticks (acari, ixodidae) of croatia.the present paper is based on original and literature data. in croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. the number of tick species recorded in croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. a total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in croatia. ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by rhipice ...201223372407
multiple pathogens including potential new species in tick vectors in côte d'ivoire.our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in côte d'ivoire.201626771308
mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern romania.although cases of mediterranean spotted fever (msf) have been reported for decades in southeastern romania, there are few published data. we retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with msf at the national institute of infectious diseases "prof. dr. matei bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about msf in certain regions of romania. according to the raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. mean age was 52.5 years. one hundred and fifty-five (90.6% ...201324024190
association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (acari: ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western palearctic. a digital data set.we compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western palearctic (11°w, 45°e; 29°n, 71°n), published during 1970-2010. the literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. records from some curated collections were included. we focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, h. sulcata, hyalomma marginatum, h ...201222843316
evaluation of prognostic values of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever patients.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is a widespread disease in turkey, and was responsible for many deaths in endemic regions during the last decade. the pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood yet.201526587219
tick-borne pathogens of zoonotic and veterinary importance in nigerian cattle.ticks and tick-borne diseases undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-saharan africa, including nigeria. in this west african country, cattle are challenged by numerous tick species, especially during the wet season. consequently, several tbds are known to be endemic in nigerian cattle, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theilerioris (by theileria mutans and theileria velifera). to date, all investigations on cattle tbds in nigeria have been based on cytolog ...201627090756
action on the surface: entomopathogenic fungi versus the insect cuticle.infections mediated by broad host range entomopathogenic fungi represent seminal observations that led to one of the first germ theories of disease and are a classic example of a co-evolutionary arms race between a pathogen and target hosts. these fungi are able to parasitize susceptible hosts via direct penetration of the cuticle with the initial and potentially determining interaction occurring between the fungal spore and the insect epicuticle. entomogenous fungi have evolved mechanisms for a ...201326462424
genetic diversity and population structure of theileria annulata in oman.theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus theileria, is a common disease of livestock in oman. it is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to t. annulata in cattle.201526469349
comparison of in vitro acaricidal effects of commercial preparations of cypermethrin and fenvalerate against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.commercially available preparations of cypermethrin (clinar and ectomin) and fenvalerate (flytik and ticomax, 20% e.c) were compared for their acaricidal activity against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus using adult immersion test. adult tick mortality was higher with ectomin compared to clinar. complete eclosion blocking was observed at all the tested concentrations with ectomin while it was observed only at the highest concentration tested for clinar. compared to flytik, adult tick mortalit ...201424570856
detection of naturally infected vector ticks (acari: ixodidae) by different species of babesia and theileria agents from three different enzootic parts of iran.diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. in this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of iran.201324409442
tick infestation rate of sheep and their distribution in abdanan county, ilam province, iran, 2007-2008.ticks are hematophagous arthropod belonging to the class of arachnids. ticks are also one of the major vectors of pathogens to animal and human. this study was conducted to determine tick infestation rate of sheep in abdanan during 2007-2008.201022808401
blood parasites of livestock in certain regions in saudi arabia.blood samples from camels, sheep, goats and cattle from six regions in saudi arabia were examined for blood parasites. asir region camels were disinfected while those of the eastern, jazan, northern frontiers, riyadh and tabouk regions were infected with trypanosoma evansi (5-40%), those of riyadh and the eastern regions were infected with dipetalonema evansi (1-6%) and those of the eastern, jazan and riyadh regions were infected with eperythrozoon species (8-20%). sheep and goats of all tested ...023961044
importance of ticks and their chemical and immunological control in livestock.the medical and economic importance of ticks has long been recognized due to their ability to transmit diseases to humans and animals. ticks cause great economic losses to livestock, and adversely affect livestock hosts in several ways. loss of blood is a direct effect of ticks acting as potential vector for haemo-protozoa and helminth parasites. blood sucking by large numbers of ticks causes reduction in live weight and anemia among domestic animals, while their bites also reduce the quality of ...017048307
proteomic screening of antigenic proteins from the hard tick, haemaphysalis longicornis (acari: ixodidae).proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of proteome. for detection of antigens from haemaphysalis longicornis, 1-dimensional electrophoresis (1-de) quantitative immunoblotting technique combined with 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-de) immunoblotting was used for whole body proteins from unfed and partially fed female ticks. reactivity bands and 2-de immunoblotting were performed following 2-de electrophoresis t ...201525748713
histoarchitecture of the ovary of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus during pre- and postengorgement period.the present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. the ovary of r. (b.) annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. all the stages (ii, iii, iv, and v) of oocytes except stage i were similar to r. (b.) microplus. the stage i oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in othe ...201525664337
efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (atsb) against aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as the active ingredient.we tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (atsb) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against aedes albopictus in suburban haifa, israel. two three-acre gardens with high numbers of ae. albopictus were selected for perimeter spray treatment with atsb and asb (bait containing no active ingredient). baits were colored with food dye to verify feeding of the mosquitoes. the mosquito population was monitored by human landing catches and sweep net cat ...201526403337
an evidence-based review on medicinal plants used as insecticide and insect repellent in traditional iranian medicine.insects can be the cause of major ecological problems; they can transmit microbes and parasites that affect humans, and damage food crops, trees, and homes. the total economic cost of insect-related damage and disease is immeasurable. in traditional iranian medicine (tim), several medicinal plants have been identified as insecticides or insect repellents, but many of them are still unknown. therefore, the aim of this study was to review the insecticidal or insect repellent activity of certain me ...201627186389
hard tick species of livestock and their bioecology in golestan province, north of iran.a survey on tick species composition was carried out in golestan province iran during year 2010-2011.the aim was to determine tick species parasitizing domestic ruminants and their seasonal population dynamics.201325629071
biocontrol of pigeon tick argas reflexus (acari: argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae (ascomycota: hypocreales).the pigeon tick argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. as a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. in this study, the efficacy of three strains (v245, 685 and 715c) of entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae for biological c ...201124031777
hard ticks on domestic ruminants and their seasonal population dynamics in yazd province, iran.ticks are the main vectors for transmission of different pathogens to human and animals. this survey was performed to find out distribution of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in yazd province, central iran during year 2008-2009.201022808391
molecular methods routinely used to detect coxiella burnetii in ticks cross-react with coxiella-like bacteria.q fever is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by coxiella burnetii. ticks may act as vectors, and many epidemiological studies aim to assess c. burnetii prevalence in ticks. because ticks may also be infected with coxiella-like bacteria, screening tools that differentiate between c. burnetii and coxiella-like bacteria are essential.201526609691
insecticide and repellent mixture pour-on protects cattle against animal trypanosomosis.african animal trypanosomosis (aat), transmitted by tsetse flies and tick-borne diseases are the main constraints to livestock production in sub-saharan africa. vector control methods such as pour-on offer individual protection against ticks but not against tsetse so far, for which protection has always been communal, through a reduction of their density. the latter requires the treatment of a large part of the herd in a given landscape and is not instantaneous.201628027324
perspectives on modelling the distribution of ticks for large areas: so far so good?this paper aims to illustrate the steps needed to produce reliable correlative modelling for arthropod vectors, when process-driven models are unavailable. we use ticks as examples because of the (re)emerging interest in the pathogens they transmit. we argue that many scientific publications on the topic focus on: (i) the use of explanatory variables that do not adequately describe tick habitats; (ii) the automatic removal of variables causing internal (statistical) problems in the models withou ...201627030357
tick-borne haemoparasites in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) from two wildlife areas in northern botswana.the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is a host for many pathogens known to cause economically important diseases and is often considered an important reservoir for livestock diseases. theileriosis, heartwater, babesiosis and anaplasmosis are considered the most important tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-saharan africa, resulting in extensive economic losses to livestock farmers in endemic areas. information on the distribution of tick-borne diseases and ticks is scarce in northern botswa ...201525589064
ixodid ticks of traditionally managed cattle in central nigeria: where rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus does not dare (yet?).ticks and tick-borne diseases (tbds) undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-saharan africa, including nigeria. the aim of this study was to document the composition of tick species, assessing the burden of infestation, in traditionally managed cattle in an area of central nigeria where acaricides have not been used historically.201323758913
looking for tropheryma whipplei source and reservoir in rural senegal.tropheryma whipplei, the bacterium linked to whipple's disease, is involved in acute infections and asymptomatic carriage. in rural senegal, the prevalence of t. whipplei is generally high but is not homogeneous throughout households in the same village. we studied environmental samples collected in two senegalese villages and conducted the survey to investigate the difference between households. overall, the comparison between five households with very high t. whipplei prevalence and three hous ...201223249690
cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in catvac.a meeting sponsored by the bill & melinda gates foundation was held at the avanti hotel, mohammedia, morocco, july 14-15, 2015. the meeting resulted in the formation of the cattle tick vaccine consortium (catvac).201626911668
immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extracts.rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. recently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle.201627308287
rhipicephalus annulatus (acari: ixodidae) control by nigella sativa, thyme and spinosad preparations.several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. the control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study.201627308273
bumped kinase inhibitor prohibits egression in babesia bovis.babesiosis is a global zoonotic disease acquired by the bite of a babesia-infected ixodes tick or through blood transfusion with clinical relevance affecting humans and animals. in this study, we evaluated a series of small molecule compounds that have previously been shown to target specific apicomplexan enzymes in plasmodium, toxoplasma and cryptosporidium. the compounds, bumped kinase inhibitors (bkis), have strong therapeutic potential targeting apicomplexa-specific calcium dependent protein ...201526790733
mutual medication in capuchin monkeys - social anointing improves coverage of topically applied anti-parasite medicines.wild and captive capuchin monkeys will anoint themselves with a range of strong smelling substances including millipedes, ants, limes and onions. hypotheses for the function of the behaviour range from medicinal to social. however, capuchin monkeys may anoint in contact with other individuals, as well as individually. the function of social anointing has also been explained as either medicinal or to enhance social bonding. by manipulating the abundance of an anointing resource given to two group ...201526456539
climate suitability for european ticks: assessing species distribution models against null models and projection under ar5 climate.there is increasing evidence that the geographic distribution of tick species is changing. whilst correlative species distribution models (sdms) have been used to predict areas that are potentially suitable for ticks, models have often been assessed without due consideration for spatial patterns in the data that may inflate the influence of predictor variables on species distributions. this study used null models to rigorously evaluate the role of climate and the potential for climate change to ...201526310856
serological and molecular diagnostic surveys combined with examining hematological profiles suggests increased levels of infection and hematological response of cattle to babesiosis infections compared to native buffaloes in egypt.babesiosis threatens the development of the cattle and buffaloes industries in egypt and improved control is needed. the main objectives of this study are surveying the presence of bovine babesiosis in distinct selected bovine and buffalo populations in egypt using novel molecular and previously validated serological methods, while also comparing the occurrence of hematological alterations among babesia infected cattle and buffalos.201526062684
circulation of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the former yugoslav republic of macedonia revealed by screening of cattle sera using a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.there are only few assays available for the detection of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv)-specific antibodies in animals, and data about diagnostic sensitivity and specificity are incompletely documented for most of these tests. this is unfortunate since cchfv antibodies in animals can be used as indicator for virus circulation in a geographic area and therewith potential risk of human exposure. this paper therefore reports on a novel elisa for the detection of cchfv-specific antibo ...201525742017
acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extract of leaves of tetrastigma leucostaphylum (dennst.) alston against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract of leaves of tetrastigma leucostaphylum (dennst.) alston (family: vitaceae) against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus was assessed using adult immersion test (ait). the per cent of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity, and blocking of hatching of eggs were studied at different concentrations. the extract at 10% concentration showed 88.96% inhibition of fecundity, 58.32% of adult tick mortality, and 50% inhibition of hatching. peak mort ...201425436226
rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus aquaporin as an effective vaccine antigen to protect against cattle tick infestations.vaccination as a control method against the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus has been practiced since the introduction of two products in the mid-1990s. there is a need for a vaccine that could provide effective control of r. microplus in a more consistent fashion than existing products. during our transcriptome studies of r. microplus, several gene coding regions were discovered to encode proteins with significant amino acid similarity to aquaporins.201425306139
multiple mutations in the para-sodium channel gene are associated with pyrethroid resistance in rhipicephalus microplus from the united states and mexico.acaricide resistant rhipicephalus microplus populations have become a major problem for many cattle producing areas of the world. pyrethroid resistance in arthropods is typically associated with mutations in domains i, ii, iii, and iv of voltage-gated sodium channel genes. in r. microplus, known resistance mutations include a domain ii change (c190a) in populations from australia, africa, and south america and a domain iii mutation (t2134a) that only occurs in mexico and the u.s.201425266983
modeling the impact of climate and landscape on the efficacy of white tailed deer vaccination for cattle tick control in northeastern mexico.cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. white tailed deer (wtd) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. the aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of wtd to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic ...201425047078
anaplasma infection in ticks, livestock and human in ghaemshahr, mazandaran province, iran.anaplasmosis is an important issue for animal breeders in terms of economic losses as well as a health concern to human. ticks are considered as the main vector of this disease. lack of documented information about anaplasma species in iran was the scope of this study to determine the population of ticks and the presence of anaplasma in ticks, domestic ruminants and also human beings in northern iran.201426114134
retrospective study of hemoparasites in cattle in southern italy by reverse line blot hybridization.tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. in order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization. the study had been carried out in three regions of southern italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. rlb showed that ...201424614604
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