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animal models of tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses.tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses (tbhfv) are detected throughout the african and eurasian continents and are an emerging or re-emerging threat to many nations. due to the largely sporadic incidences of these severe diseases, information on human cases and research activities in general have been limited. in the past decade, however, novel tbhfvs have emerged and areas of endemicity have expanded. therefore, the development of countermeasures is of utmost importance in combating tbhfv as elim ...201325437041
the impact of regulations, safety considerations and physical limitations on research progress at maximum biocontainment.we describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (bsl-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. these limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (bsat) are hig ...023342380
the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fevers.viral hemorrhagic fevers (vhf) are acute zoonotic diseases that, early on, seem to cause platelet destruction or dysfunction. here we present the four major ways viruses affect platelet development and function and new evidence of molecular factors that are preferentially induced by the more pathogenic members of the families flaviviridae, bunyaviridae, arenaviridae, and filoviridae. a systematic search was performed through the main medical electronic databases using as parameters all current f ...201424921924
metagenomic profile of the viral communities in rhipicephalus spp. ticks from yunnan, china.besides mosquitoes, ticks are regarded as the primary source of vector-borne infectious diseases. indeed, a wide variety of severe infectious human diseases, including those involving viruses, are transmitted by ticks in many parts of the world. to date, there are no published reports on the use of next-generation sequencing for studying viral diversity in ticks or discovering new viruses in these arthropods from china. here, ion-torrent sequencing was used to investigate the presence of viruses ...201525799057
on the transmission pattern of kyasanur forest disease (kfd) in india.kyasanur forest disease (kfd), a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, is endemic in five districts of karnataka state, india. recent reports of the spread of disease to neighboring districts of the western ghats, namely chamarajanagar district in karnataka, nilgiri district in tamil nadu, wayanad and malappuram districts in kerala, and pali village in goa are a cause for concern. besides vaccination of the affected population, establishing an event-based surveillance system for monkey deaths in t ...201526286631
population viscosity suppresses disease emergence by preserving local herd immunity.animal reservoirs for infectious diseases pose ongoing risks to human populations. in this theory of zoonoses, the introduction event that starts an epidemic is assumed to be independent of all preceding events. however, introductions are often concentrated in communities that bridge the ecological interfaces between reservoirs and the general population. in this paper, we explore how the risks of disease emergence are altered by the aggregation of introduction events within bridge communities. ...025339728
complete genome sequencing and genetic characterization of alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus isolated from najran, saudi arabia.alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (ahfv) is a newly described flavivirus first isolated in 1994-1995 from the alkhumra district south of jeddah, saudi arabia. subsequently, the virus was also isolated from makkah (2001-2003) and najran (2008-2009), saudi arabia.201425096447
tick-borne viruses: a review from the perspective of therapeutic approaches.several important human diseases worldwide are caused by tick-borne viruses. these diseases have become important public health concerns in recent years. the tick-borne viruses that cause diseases in humans mainly belong to 3 families: bunyaviridae, flaviviridae, and reoviridae. in this review, we focus on therapeutic approaches for several of the more important tick-borne viruses from these 3 families. these viruses are crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchf) and the newly discovered tick- ...201424907187
problem of ticks and tick-borne diseases in india with special emphasis on progress in tick control research: a review.ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. the diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. a number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv), kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv), babesia spp, theileria, rickettsia conorii, anaplasma marginale, etc. and the dama ...201425540956
role of india's wildlife in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, risk factors and public health implications.evolving land use practices have led to an increase in interactions at the human/wildlife interface. the presence and poor knowledge of zoonotic pathogens in india's wildlife and the occurrence of enormous human populations interfacing with, and critically linked to, forest ecosystems warrant attention. factors such as diverse migratory bird populations, climate change, expanding human population and shrinking wildlife habitats play a significant role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonoti ...201424983511
antiviral activity of the adenosine analogue bcx4430 against west nile virus and tick-borne flaviviruses.there are currently no approved antiviral therapies against medically important human flaviviruses. the imino-c-nucleoside bcx4430 shows broad-spectrum antiviral activity against a wide range of rna viruses. here, we demonstrate that bcx4430 inhibits tick-borne species of the genus flavivirus; however, the antiviral effect varies against individual species. micro-molar bcx4430 levels inhibited tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev); while, approximately 3-8-fold higher concentrations were needed t ...201728336346
kyasanur forest disease virus breaking the endemic barrier: an investigation into ecological effects on disease emergence and future outlook.kyasanur forest disease (kfd) is found in a limited range of india, but is epidemiologically understudied. the seasonal patterns of kfd are well known; however, the significant concern is on the extent to which changes in epidemiology happen especially under the influence of ecological destructions and by the eventual effects of resulting climate change. presently, a southward and northward spread of the kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) along the western ghats has been reported in the adjoin ...201728220635
development of a subgenomic clone system for kyasanur forest disease virus.emerging tropical viruses pose an increasing threat to public health because social, economic and environmental factors such as global trade and deforestation allow for their migration into previously unexposed populations and ecological niches. among such viruses, kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) deserves particular recognition because it causes hemorrhagic fever. this work describes the completion of an antiviral testing platform (subgenomic system) for kfdv that could be used to quickly a ...201627357207
an early passage human isolate of kyasanur forest disease virus shows acute neuropathology in experimentally infected cd-1 mice.kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) is a tick-borne flavivirus that causes a severe illness in humans. disease spectrum can vary from subclinical infection to fatal cases with hemorrhagic complications. the pathology of kfdv remains incompletely understood.201627171207
new focus of kyasanur forest disease virus activity in a tribal area in kerala, india, 2014.kyasanur forest disease (kfd) is a febrile illness characterized by hemorrhages, and is reported endemic in the shimoga district in karnataka state, india. it is caused by the kfd virus (kfdv) of the family flaviviridae, and is transmitted to monkeys and humans by haemaphysalis ticks.201525750730
outbreak of kyasanur forest disease in thirthahalli, karnataka, india, 2014.kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) was first identified in 1957, when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the kyasanur forest in karnataka state, india. since then it has been reported to be enzootic in five districts of karnataka state, india. recent reports of human infections have reached an alarming level, in spite of the availability of a vaccine. this disease has also been reported from new areas, such as tamil nadu and kerala state. during january-march 2014, kfdv-positive cases wer ...201425063021
emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases in southeast asia.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have become significant public health problems, with the emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases nearly worldwide. the most populated southeast asia region is particularly vulnerable. the arboviral diseases such as dengue (den), japanese encephalitis (je), west nile virus (wnv), chikungunya fever (chik), hemorrhagic fevers such as crimean-congo hemorrhagic (cchf) fever, kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv), etc. are on the rise and have spread unpre ...201323995308
development of single step rt-pcr for detection of kyasanur forest disease virus from clinical samples.kyasanur forest disease (kfd), a tick borne flavivirus, which was earlier endemic to karnataka state, india, has been confirmed and detected from neighboring states of tamil nadu, maharashtra, goa and kerala states in india. increased human and vector surveillance therefore becomes essential for the identification of kfd affected regions and control of further spread of the disease. currently, available kfd detection assays include realtime rt-pcr and nested rt-pcr assays. here we describe the d ...201829560461
cross-neutralisation of viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis complex following tick-borne encephalitis vaccination and/or infection.the tick-borne encephalitis complex contains a number of flaviviruses that share close genetic homology, and are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality with widespread geographical range. although many members of this complex have been recognised for decades, licenced human vaccines with broad availability are only available for tick-borne encephalitis virus. while tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccines have been demonstrated to induce significant protective immunity, as deter ...201729263866
tick-borne flaviviruses and the type i interferon response.flaviviruses are globally distributed pathogens causing millions of human infections every year. flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are mainly transmitted by either ticks or mosquitoes. mosquito-borne flaviviruses and their interactions with the innate immune response have been well-studied and reviewed extensively, thus this review will discuss tick-borne flaviviruses and their interactions with the host innate immune response.201829933625
comparative genome analysis of alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus with kyasanur forest disease and tick-borne encephalitis viruses by the in silico approach.alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (ahfv), a relatively new member of the flaviviruses, was discovered in saudi arabia 23 years ago. ahfv is classified in the tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex, along with the kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev). currently, very little is known about the pathologies of ahfv. in this study, using the available genome information of ahfv, kfdv and tbev, we have predicted and compared the following aspects of these vir ...201829745301
growth kinetics of kyasanur forest disease virus in mammalian cell lines and development of plaque reduction neutralization test.kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) is a tick-borne flavivirus identified in 1957 in the karnataka state of india causing fatalities in monkeys and humans. even after the introduction of a vaccine in the endemic areas, hundreds of cases are reported every year. being a high-risk category pathogen, the studies on this virus in india were limited till the past decade. the growth characteristics of this virus in various mammalian cell lines have not yet been studied. in this study, we have demonst ...201930994413
kyasanur forest disease in india: innovative options for intervention.kyasanur forest disease (kfd) is a tick-borne hemorrhagic fever of human, caused by kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) in india. the tick, haemaphysalis spinigera, has been incriminated as the vector of kfdv. in human, kfd clinically presents with high fever, frontal headache, and severe myalgia, followed by bleeding from the nasal cavity, throat, gingivae, and in some cases, gastrointestinal tract. the mortality rate in kfdv infected cases is estimated to be 3-10%. monkeys infected with the v ...201930945970
genetic diversity of alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus in western asia.alkhurma hemorrhagic fever, caused by alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (alkv), is an arboviral infection which is further expanding in tropical and subtropical regions of the western asia. a number of alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (alkv) strains have been isolated from clinical cases representing saudi arabia and egypt; however, the phylogenetic relationship of these particular isolates to those reported previously elsewhere in the world remains elusive. based on the analysis of the envelope ...201930779959
kyasanur forest disease virus infection activates human vascular endothelial cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells.kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) is a highly pathogenic tick-borne flavivirus enzootic to india. in humans, kfdv causes a severe febrile disease. in some infected individuals, hemorrhagic manifestations, such as bleeding from the nose and gums and gastrointestinal bleeding with hematemesis and/or blood in the stool, have been reported. however, the mechanisms underlying these hemorrhagic complications remain unknown, and there is no information about the specific target cells for kfdv. we in ...201830401896
epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of a tick-borne disease- kyasanur forest disease: current status and future directions.in south asia, haemaphysalis spinigera tick transmits kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv), a flavivirus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with neurological manifestations such as mental disturbances, severe headache, tremors, and vision deficits in infected human beings with a fatality rate of 3-10%. the disease was first reported in march 1957 from kyasanur forest of karnataka (india) from sick and dying monkeys. since then, between 400 and 500 humans cases per year have been recorded; monk ...201829868505
bioinformatics characterization of envelope glycoprotein from kyasanur forest disease virus.kyasanur forest disease (kfd) is a febrile illness characterized by haemorrhages and caused by kfd virus (kfdv), which belongs to the flaviviridae family. it is reported to be an endemic disease in shimoga district of karnataka state, india, especially in forested and adjoining areas. several outbreaks have been reported in newer areas, which raised queries regarding the changing nature of structural proteins if any. the objective of the study was to investigate amino acid composition and antige ...201829806609
alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus rna in hyalomma rufipes ticks infesting migratory birds, europe and asia minor.alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus rna was detected in immature hyalomma rufipes ticks infesting northward migratory birds caught in the north mediterranean basin. this finding suggests a role for birds in the ecology of the alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus and a potential mechanism for dissemination to novel regions. increased surveillance is warranted.201829664386
kyasanur forest disease virus non-mouse animal models: a pilot study.mouse models have delivered variable recapitulation of kyasanur forest disease (kfd) pathology and consistently demonstrated neurological involvement which may be a limited feature of human disease. with the purpose of more accurately modelling human disease progression we infected several small-mammalian models: guinea pigs, hamsters and ferrets with a titered infectious dose of kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv). clinical indicators of disease severity were observed for seventeen days, on da ...202032539799
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