studies on canine haemobartonellosis. i. haemobartonella canis detected in the blood of dogs inoculated with babesia gibsoni. 1978671934
some observations on experimentally induced infection of dogs with babesia gibsoni.splenectomized andnonsplenectomized dogs were experimentally infected with babesia gibsoni. infectivity of parasites was retained for 1 month in samples of blood kept at 4 c in a mixture with alsever's, acid-citrate-dextrose (acd), or ammonium-potassium oxalate solutions. when samples were slowly frozen to -70 c in a mixture with citrate solution, the parasites remained infective for 4 months. the average prepatent period was 3.3 days in splenectomized dogs and 4 days in nonsplenectomized dogs. ...19751115427
observations of babesia gibsoni in midgut epithelial cells of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis. 19921308256
anti-erythrocyte membrane antibodies detected in sera of dogs naturally infected with babesia gibsoni.due to the potential for anti-erythrocyte membrane antibodies as possible enhancers of erythrocyte destruction, the presence of serum anti-erythrocyte membrane antibodies in 31 dogs with babesia gibsoni infection admitted to a veterinary hospital was investigated by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and immunoblotting analyses. this infection resulted in an increase of anti-erythrocyte membrane antibodies in 84% (igg) and 74% (igm) of 31 infected dogs, respectively. this was confirmed ...19921477157
changes in anti-erythrocyte membrane antibody level of dogs experimentally infected with babesia account for the conflict between the excessive destruction of erythrocytes and the number of parasitized erythrocytes in dogs infected with babesia gibsoni, we examined the correlation between anti-erythrocyte membrane antibody level (aemal) and the number of erythrocytes (rbc count) in dogs with experimentally induced babesiosis using hematological examination and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in the infected dogs without splenectomy, more prominent reduction in rbc count acc ...19921477177
detection of babesia microti by polymerase chain reaction.human babesiosis, which is caused by infection with the intraerythrocytic malarialike protozoan babesia microti, has recently been diagnosed with increasing frequency in residents of new england. diagnosis is difficult because of the small size of the parasite and the sparse parasitemia that is characteristic of most infections with this pathogen. we generated b. microti-specific dna sequence information by universal primer amplification of a portion of the eukaryotic 16s-like gene; this was fol ...19921500517
hemolytic anemia caused by babesia gibsoni infection in dogs.babesia gibsoni caused severe hemolytic anemia in 11 dogs from southern california. the most common clinical signs of b gibsoni infection were lethargy, anorexia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. acute infection with b gibsoni may be misdiagnosed as autoimmune hemolytic anemia. diagnosis was most reliably determined by identification of the intraerythrocytic parasites on giemsa-stained blood smears. the pathogenicity of b gibsoni, difficulties in diagnosis, the parasite's resistance to treatment wi ...19911787120
development of babesia gibsoni in the gut epithelium of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis. 19911830766
development of babesia gibsoni in the hemolymph of the vector tick, haemaphysalis longicornis. 19911832036
multiplication of babesia gibsoni in in vitro culture and its relation to hemolysis of infected erythrocytes. 19911834224
[babesiosis of dogs in germany: epidemiologic case analysis].between january 1987 and february 1990 babesia infections were detected in 320 dogs in germany by means of microscopical and/or serological methods. it was found, that 316 dogs were infected with babesia canis and 4 animals with babesia gibsoni. of the babesia-canis-positive dogs 184 were abroad up to 4 months before diagnosis, mainly in france, spain and italy, but also in hungary, greece, jugoslavia, portugal, morocco, togo, pakistan, sri lanka, malaysia, turkey, romania, austria and the nethe ...19912068714
[studies on immunity to babesia gibsoni in dogs immunostimulation by bordetella bronchiseptica].four species of bacteria, corynebacterium anaerobium 578, actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae g-4, mycobacterium bovis bcg, and bordetella bronchiseptica a-2, were injected intravenously into mice (5 weeks old, icr-spf). the clearance of carbon from the blood stream and the weights of the spleen and liver were determined as indicators of res stimulation. mouse footpad reaction was assessed as an indicator of delayed-type hypersensitivity to each species of bacteria. the immuno-stimulative activity o ...19902232161
increased erythrophagocytic activity of macrophages in dogs with babesia gibsoni elucidate the mechanism of anemia caused by babesia gibsoni infection in dogs, the erythrophagocytic activity of macrophages in infected dogs was investigated in vitro. in the present study, macrophages obtained from peripheral blood (pb-macrophages) and bone marrow (bm-macrophages) of splenectomized dogs with chronic b. gibsoni infection were examined. the bm-macrophages in the splenectomized dogs with chronic babesiosis exhibited an increased erythrophagocytic activity compared with those f ...19902348598
serum hemolytic activity in dogs infected with babesia gibsoni.the hemolytic activity in serum of babesia gibsoni-infected dogs was examined. when the activity was assayed in a reaction system consisting of similar concentrations of the serum and canine red blood cells to those in blood, significant hemolysis was observed. the activity of the serum of b. gibsoni-infected dogs, either naturally or experimentally, was always higher than that of uninfected animals. moreover, in the experimental infection with b. gibsoni, the change in serum hemolytic activity ...19902380866
flow cytometric enumeration of reticulocyte in the peripheral blood from canine infected with babesia gibsoni.peripheral blood samples from dogs infected with babesia gibsoni were analyzed by a flow cytometer for the percentage of reticulocytes after staining with a membrane-permeable fluorochrome, thiazole orange. though thiazole orange has been reported to stain human reticulocytes and plasmodium-infected erythrocytes, number of positive cells determined by the flow cytometry did not include that of erythrocytes infected with babesia gibsoni. analysis of 51 samples revealed a correlation coefficient o ...19902402975
analysis of thermic circadian rhythm and degree of parasitemia in dogs infected with babesia gibsoni. 19883172603
morphology of babesia gibsoni in canine erythrocytes. 19883172605
erythrocytic rickettsia and protozoa of the dog and cat.this article summarizes the biologic and clinical features of the rickettsia and protozoa of canine and feline erythrocytes that are significant in north america: haemobartonella canis, haemobartonella felis, cytauxzoon felis, babesia canis, and babesia gibsoni.19873328397
the thermic circadian rhythm of dogs infected with babesia gibsoni. 19883361732
the incidence of canine haematozoa in peninsular 3 urban areas in selangor, peninsular malaysia between 1973 and 1981, blood from 4084 dogs was examined for haematozoa. the following frequencies were found: babesia gibsoni 17.7%; microfilariae of dirofilaria immitis 9.6%; hepatozoon canis 1.2%; b. canis 1.1%; ehrlichia canis 0.2%; trypanosoma evansi 0.1%. a detailed examination of b. gibsoni infections and microfilariasis due to d. immitis with regards to monthly distribution, breed frequency, sex and age, revealed that pedigree and non-ped ...19853922103
experimental babesiosis in coyotes and splenectomized and 6 intact coyotes (canis latrans), and 2 coydogs were experimentally inoculated with a recent isolate of babesia gibsoni. the disease was mild in intact animals, was fatal in the splenectomized coyote, and was characterized by a regenerative hemolytic anemia with the pcv decreasing to 16% in intact animals and to 6% in the splenectomized coyote. peak parasitemia ranged from 3% to 21% of erythrocytes infected and was inversely correlated to pcv. serum lactate dehydrogenase, ...19853970435
be alert for babesia gibsoni infections. 19853997634
differentiation of babesia gibsoni and haemobartonella canis. 19704099193
modification of field's stain for examination of growth forms of babesia gibsoni. 19704099194
modification of field's stain for examination of growth forms of babesia gibsoni. 19704193923
babesia gibsoni in a dog. 19684233354
babesia gibsoni (patton, 1910) from a dog in kuala lumpur. 19684234362
babesia gibsoni: field and laboratory studies of canine infections. 19724622045
action of certain antiprotozoal compounds against babesia gibsoni in dogs. 19734703508
[comparative studies on the fine structure of babesia gibsoni and babesia canis]. 19684976227
babesia canis and babesia gibsoni: soluble and corpuscular antigens isolated from blood of dogs. 19715003033
babesia gibsoni: chemotherapy in dogs. 19725022393
biochemical parameters of dogs infected with babesia gibsoni. 19725039609
babesia gibsoni: influence of infection on serum enzymes of dogs. 19715157924
treatment of babesia gibsoni infections with phenamidine isethionate. 19705411947
preliminary study of babesia gibsoni patton in wild carnivores and domesticated dogs in egypt. 19705437113
[on the chemotherapy of babesia gibsoni infection in dogs]. 19675594732
[serum antibody levels and the course of anemia-parasitemia in dogs inoculated with babesia gibsoni]. 19836663705
canine babesiosis: indirect fluorescent antibody test for a north american isolate of babesia gibsoni.a sensitive and reproducible indirect fluorescent antibody test for a north american isolate of babesia gibsoni was described. in blind tests (coded samples), titer reproducibility was within two 4-fold dilutions and the appropriate positive and negative sera were identified as such. babesia gibsoni antisera reacted with homologous antigen at one to three 4-fold dilutions greater than with the following heterologous species: b bigemina, b argentina, b equi, plasmodium falciparum, and p brasilian ...19807011131
clinical observations on babesia gibsoni and babesia canis infections in dogs.thirty-five cases of babesia gibsoni infection and 11 cases of babesia canis infection were diagnosed and treated in dogs at kadena air base in okinawa, japan, between april 1979 and february 1980. diagnosis was made by demonstrating the organisms in blood smears and by serologic examination, using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. serologic findings correlated well with the occurrence of infection in mature dogs, but poorly in young (1- to 3-month-old) dogs. although these 2 intraerythrocy ...19827061333
morphological studies of multiplication of babesia gibsoni in canine erythrocytes. 19827143869
incidence of brown dog ticks, rhipicephalus sanguineus, at a kennel in okayama prefecture.twenty two adult dogs suffered from tick infestation at a kennel in okayama prefecture in the summer of 1994. four of them had been introduced from u.s.a. some dogs showed pyoderma, anemia, neutrophilia or eosinophilia. neither babesia gibsoni nor hepatozoon canis was detected on the smear samples of peripheral blood. the ticks detected were morphologically identified as rhipicephalus sanguineus. this case was a rare incidence of the tick in the other areas of japan than okinawa.19957548423
development of babesia gibsoni in the salivary glands of the larval tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus.the development of babesia gibsoni in the salivary glands of larval rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks was morphologically studied for 4 days of feeding of tick on rabbits. babesia gibsoni showed two forms (sporont and sporozoite) in the budding process. sporozoites were formed in the acinar cells of salivary glands and released from the hollow cytoplasmic area of these cells by day 4 of feeding. the morphology of b. gibsoni in the salivary glands of r. sanguineus shows a close similarity to those o ...19957756402
immunologic characteristics of anti-erythrocyte membrane antibody produced in dogs during babesia gibsoni infection.serum anti-erythrocyte membrane (rbcm) antibodies and anti-rbcm antibodies eluted from erythrocytes of babesia gibsoni-infected dogs were examined for immunologic characteristics by immunoblotting analysis. serum anti-rbcm antibodies of the dogs before and after the experimental inoculation with parasitized erythrocytes reacted with cytoskeletal (bands 1, 2, 2.1, 4.1, 4.2 and 5) and transmembrane structural (band 3) proteins of either self or non-self rbcm. anti-rbcm antibodies eluted from eryth ...19957756403
reactivity of serum anti-erythrocyte membrane antibody in babesia gibsoni-infected dogs.reactivity of anti-erythrocyte membrane (rbcm) antibody in sera of b. gibosni-infected dogs on native rbcm and erythrocyte surface (rbcs) was examined using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. anti-rbcm antibody attached to native rbcm and the surface of erythrocytes (rbc) treated with phenylhydrazine or neuraminidase, but not to the surface of non-treated rbc. based on these results, anti-cytoskeletal protein antibody in sera of b. gibsoni-infected dogs is considered to attach to native rbcm, ...19947865610
changes of serum hemolytic activity and the number of reticulocytes in canine babesia gibsoni-infection.when the serum hemolytic activity in babesia gibsoni-infected dogs was determined with self red blood cells from the infected animals, the decrease in the activity is paralleled with the increase in the number of reticulocytes. the activity determined with red blood cells from phenylhydrazine-induced anemia also decreased parallel with the increase in the number of reticulocytes. these results suggest that the rapid decrease in the serum hemolytic activity after reaching the peak is due to the i ...19947948407
development of babesia gibsoni in the salivary glands of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis. 19937967376
observations of babesia gibsoni in the ovary of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis. 19937967377
elevated erythrocyte-bound igg value in dogs with clinical babesia gibsoni infection.erythrocyte (rbc)-bound igg values (igg concentration, ng/ml) were examined in 8 babesia gibsoni-infected and 10 healthy dogs by a competitive enzyme immunoassay. five dogs with clinical b. gibsoni infection, manifesting severe anemia, were observed to have increased rbc-bound igg values compared to dogs with subclinical b. gibsoni infection and healthy controls, this suggesting that anemia in b. gibsoni infection may be explained in part on the basis of a humoral immunologic mechanism.19947999903
cultivation and phylogenetic characterization of a newly recognized human pathogenic intraerythrocytic protozoan (wa1) recently isolated from a patient in washington state was shown to be morphologically identical to babesia microti but biologically and genetically distinct. continuous growth of wa1 was established in stationary erythrocyte cultures. hybridization of a chemiluminescent babesia-specific dna probe to southern blots of restriction enzyme-digested genomic dna showed that wa1 could be distinguished from other babesia species that were antigenically cross-reactive ...19948169390
evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of babesia gibsoni infections in dogs.we determined the extent of the serologic cross-reactivity in the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test for babesia gibsoni, and the optimal cut-off titer for seropositivity in the test. the lowest titer to b gibsoni detected in a dog with naturally acquired clinical babesiosis was 1,280, and 7 of 12 dogs had titer between 10,240 and 20,480. two experimentally infected normosplenic dogs developed high titer (40,960 to 81,920) to b gibsoni, and the same sera reacted in ifa tests for b canis (t ...19938250380
direct evidence for preferential multiplication of babesia gibsoni in young clarify the effect of the age of host erythrocytes on the multiplication of babesia parasites, b. gibsoni was cultured together with reticulocytes, immature erythrocytes, or mature erythrocytes from dogs. parasitemia reached peak levels (34.1% +/- 15.8%) at cultivation day 8 in immature-erythrocyte culture, whereas the highest parasitemia attained in mature-cell culture was only 3.6% +/- 2.2% at day 5. these results clearly demonstrate that b. gibsoni parasites preferentially invade and multi ...19938327448
babesiosis in washington state: a new species of babesia?to characterize the etiologic agent (wa1) of the first reported case of babesiosis acquired in washington state.19938328736
immunosuppression in dogs naturally infected with babesia gibsoni.we examined lymphoproliferative response to phytohemagglutinin and anti-parasite antibody level in dogs naturally infected with babesia gibsoni. the dogs with subclinical b. gibsoni infection exhibited suppressed lymphocyte blastogenesis. prominent depression of lymphocyte blastogenesis and anti-parasite antibody production was observed in dogs suffering from relapses of clinical b. gibsoni infection.19938357932
isolation of babesia gibsoni piroplasms from infected erythrocytes of eliminate the influence of anti-dog erythrocyte membrane antibodies in babesia gibsoni-infected dogs on the immunological investigations of parasites, an attempt was made to purify b. gibsoni piroplasms from infected erythrocytes by n2 cavitation and centrifugation in a percoll discontinuous density gradient. although electron microscopic examination revealed that the concentrated piroplasms visible as a band at the interface between 30% and 40% percoll solutions were contaminated with a smal ...19938395229
serum hemolytic activity of babesia gibsoni-infected dogs: the difference in the activity between self and nonself red blood cells.the serum hemolytic activity of babesia gibsoni-infected dogs varied when assayed with nonself red blood cells from different dogs, whereas it did not vary when assayed with red blood cells, irrespective of self or nonself, from a particular dog throughout the experiment. the variety in activity determined with nonself red blood cells was not related to the type of red blood cell by dea, d and j systems. serum hemolytic activity with self red blood cells was different in the course of infection ...19938512998
reactivity of anti-erythrocyte antibody induced by babesia gibsoni infection against aged erythrocytes.effects of ageing treatment of erythrocytes to binding activity of the anti-erythrocyte antibody(s) in the serum of dogs infected artificially with babesia gibsoni were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using fixed cell antigen. when erythrocytes made senescent by two artificial ageing treatments, one of which was storing erythrocytes at 37 degrees c in medium for some days and the other was oxidation of erythrocytes with phenylhydrazine, reactivity of anti-erythrocyte antibo ...19958533268
detection of canine erythrocytes infected with babesia gibsoni by flow cytometry.peripheral blood samples from dogs infected with babesia gibsoni were analyzed by flow cytometry for parasitized erythrocytes after staining with hydroethidine. cells identified as positive by flow cytometry were erythrocytes infected with b. gibsoni. analysis of 26 samples by flow cytometry for % parasitemia revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.97 in comparison to the conventional method of light microscopy.19968691376
oxidative damage and enhanced erythrophagocytosis in canine erythrocytes infected with babesia gibsoni.oxidative damage to canine erythrocytes infected with babesia gibsoni was investigated. b. gibsoni was cultured together with erythrocytes from normal dogs. when parasitemia reached a peak level, concentrations of both methemoglobin (methb) and malondialdehyde (mda), an end product of lipid peroxidation, in erythrocytes were significantly higher than at cultivation day 0. in addition, b. gibsoni-infected dogs with high parasitemia showed significant increases of both methb and mda concentration ...19968777235
erythrocyte oxidation in artificial babesia gibsoni infection.we have already reported that anti-erythrocyte antibody induced by babesia gibsoni infection (aeab) showed higher reactivity against aged and/or oxidized erythrocytes than intact one in vitro (morita et al., 1995). to clarify the meaning of such a binding character of aeab in vivo, changes in erythrocyte oxidation were observed in artificially infected dogs. the ratio of methemoglobin concentration against total hemoglobin concentration (methb%) as the indicator of erythrocyte oxidation was incr ...19968792575
clinical, anatomic, and immunopathologic characterization of babesia gibsoni infection in the domestic dog (canis familiaris).the pathology associated with acute, chronic, and recrudescent babesia gibsoni infections was characterized in a group of 6 naturally or experimentally infected, spleen-intact and splenectomized dogs. all experimentally infected dogs became acutely parasitemic, lethargic, anemic, thrombocytopenic, and hemoglobinuric. anatomic lesions associated, with the disease included diffuse nonsuppurative periportal and centrilobular hepatitis, multifocal necrotizing arteritis, membranoproliferative glomeru ...19979267413
canine piroplasmosis due to babesia gibsoni: clinical and morphological aspects. 19989519430
[imported arthropod-borne parasites and parasitic arthropods in dogs. species spectrum and epidemiologic analysis of the cases diagnosed in 1995/96].between january 1995 and december 1996 nonendemic or only regionally occurring arthropodborne parasites including ehrlichiae and parasitic arthropods in germany were detected in 484 dogs, whereby at least 15 species were involved. listed in decreasing order, leishmania infections occurred most frequently, followed by infections/infestations with babesia canis, ehrlichia canis, rhipicephalus sanguineus, dirofilaria immitis and dermacentor reticulatus. the other species, namely babesia gibsoni, tr ...19989531673
a survey of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in naturally exposed dogs from israel.antibody reactivity against seven bacterial or protozoal pathogens was measured in sera derived from 40 dogs suspected of a tick-borne disease. sera from 73% (29/40) of the dogs reacted with three or more test antigens. seroreactivity was most prevalent to babesia canis antigen (90%) followed by babesia gibsoni (75%), ehrlichia canis (63%), rickettsia conorii--moroccan strain (58%), rickettsia conorii--israeli strain no. 2 (28%), borrelia burgdorferi (10%) or bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffii) (10 ...19989561701
antibody response to hepatozoon canis in experimentally infected dogs.canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan hepatozoon canis. five puppies were inoculated by ingestion of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks experimentally infected with h. canis, and all became infected with h. canis: gametocytes were detected in blood smears from four dogs and schizonts were observed in the spleen and bone marrow of the fifth. antibodies reactive with h. canis gametocytes were detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifa), with igm detected in ...19989561714
survey of tick-borne diseases in dogs infested with rhipicephalus sanguineus at a kennel in okayama prefecture, japan.serological tests were performed to investigate extent of tick-borne diseases in dogs infested with rhipicephalus sanguineus at a kennel in okayama prefecture. three of 22 dogs (13.6%) were positive for ehrlichia canis. two of 19 dogs (10.5%) were positive for rickettsia japonica. three of 22 dogs (13.6%) were positive for babesia gibsoni. none of these animals were positive for coxiella burnetii or hepatozoon canis. a microfilaria was detected in a drop smear of hemolymph from an engorged femal ...19989673953
babesia gibsoni infections in dogs from north carolina.the recognition of canine babesiosis in north carolina caused by babesia gibsoni documents the expansion of the previously reported endemic area of this disease. clinical signs ranged from severe hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia to subclinical infections. no infected dogs had traveled to endemic areas. antibabesial treatment failed to eradicate the organism from infected dogs.199910102180
babesia canis canis, babesia canis vogeli, babesia canis rossi: differentiation of the three subspecies by a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on amplified small subunit ribosomal rna genes.the parasites babesia canis and babesia gibsoni (phylum apicomplexa) are responsible for canine babesiosis throughout the world. babesia canis was previously described as a group of three biologically different subspecies, namely b. canis canis, b. canis vogeli, and b. canis rossi. we report partial sequences of small subunit ribosomal rna gene (ssu-rdna) of each subspecies amplified in vitro with primers derived from a semi-conserved region of the ssu-rdna genes in other babesia species. the po ...199910377990
development of babesia gibsoni in the midgut of larval tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus.studies were made on the development of babesia gibsoni in the midgut of the larval tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. six hr after repletion, merozoites of b. gibsoni, freed from erythrocytes, were observed in the midgut contents of the tick. after that, within 24 hr, those merozoites were transformed into the ring-forms which were relatively large, 2-3 microns in diameter. later, the ring forms developed into the spherical forms which were subelliptical in shape and 4-6 microns in diameter. withi ...199910423693
development of babesia gibsoni in the midgut of the nymphal stage of the tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus.studies were made on the development of babesia gibsoni in the midgut of the nymphal stage of the tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. six hr after repletion, merozoites of b. gibsoni, free of erythrocytes, were observed in the midgut contents of the ticks. after that, within 24 hr, those merozoites were transformed into ring-forms which were relatively large ring 1-2 microns in diameter. later, the ring forms developed into spherical forms which were somewhat elliptical in shape and 3-4 microns in d ...199910423695
detection of a new pathogenic babesia microti-like species in dogs.small babesiae in dogs are generally considered to belong to babesia gibsoni. here we describe the genotypic characterisation of small piroplasms found in the blood of a dog which suffered from clinical babesiosis. pairwise identities as well as distance, parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of the 18s rdna clearly demonstrated that this isolate was only distantly related to the other canine piroplasms characterised genetically so far, including b. gibsoni. it was more closely related to b. ...200010760414
'babesia gibsoni' of dogs from north america and asia belong to different species.18s rdna sequences from 4 isolates of babesia gibsoni originating from japan, malaysia and sri lanka were compared with a previously published, 0.5 kb portion of the 18s rdna from a b. gibsoni isolate from california, usa, and with the corresponding 18s rdna sequences of other babesia spp. distance, parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses showed almost identical genotypes among the small canine babesia from asia, but an unexpectedly distant genetic relationship to that from the usa. while the ...200010811277
the cause of the predilection of babesia gibsoni for reticulocytes.this study was conducted to determine why babesia gibsoni replicates well in reticulocytes. first, b. gibsoni was cultivated in resealed erythrocyte ghosts loaded with either erythrocyte or reticulocyte lysate, and in reticulocyte ghosts loaded with either erythrocyte or reticulocyte lysate. the parasites multiplied well in the erythrocyte or reticulocyte ghosts loaded with reticulocyte lysate compared to the other resealed cells loaded with erythrocyte lysate. second, the parasites were cultiva ...200010945292
continuous in vitro cultivation of babesia gibsoni.two stocks of the protozoan parasite babesia gibsoni, one of the causative agents of canine piroplasmosis, were propagated continuously in dog erythrocytes in microaerophilous stationary-phase culture. cultures of both stocks were initiated in a humidified 5% co2, 2% o2, 93% n2 atmosphere at 37 degrees c at a time when very few parasites (<0.01%) were detected in a thin blood smear. cultures of one stock were also initiated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% co2 in air at 37 degrees c during a pat ...200011097298
morphological changes of babesia gibsoni grown in canine red blood cell-substituted severe combined immune deficiency mice.canine red blood cell-substituted severe combined immune deficiency (ca-rbc-scid) mice were prepared for canine babesia gibsoni infection. the ca-rbc-scid mice infected with b. gibsoni developed a high level of parasitemia, and showed clinical symptoms such as anemia and hemoglobinuria, which are similar to those observed in dogs infected with b. gibsoni. the b. gibsoni parasites grown in ca-rbc-scid mice showed marked morphological changes, including a significantly larger size of parasites tha ...200011128518
use of canine red blood cell with high concentrations of potassium, reduced glutathione, and free amino acid as host cells for in vitro cultivation of babesia determine the usefulness of canine rbc with high concentrations of potassium, reduced glutathione (gsh), and amino acid(i.e., hk cells) for in vitro cultivation of babesia gibsoni.200011131592
a genotypically unique babesia gibsoni-like parasite recovered from a dog in oklahoma.a small babesia gibsoni-like parasite was identified and isolated as the cause of clinical babesiosis in a dog from oklahoma. because this was potentially the first documented case of b. gibsoni infection in oklahoma, further characterization was warranted, and the 18s nuclear small subunit ribosomal rna gene was sequenced. sequence comparison with other piroplasms from dogs showed significant nucleotide sequence differences between this isolate and both b. canis and b. gibsoni. these findings d ...200111318581
comparison of partial ribosomal dna sequences of babesia gibsoni occurring in miyazaki prefecture, japan.nucleotide sequences of ribosomal dna (rdna) of babesia (b.) gibsoni occurring in miyazaki, western japan, were examined using blood samples obtained from seven dogs suffering from natural canine babesiosis. dna isolated from these blood samples was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the nucleotide sequences of the pcr products were determined and compared with other rdna sequences of b. gibsoni isolated from asia, europe and u.s.a. although homology values between our isolates an ...200111411504
identification and expression of a 50-kilodalton surface antigen of babesia gibsoni and evaluation of its diagnostic potential in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a cdna expression library prepared from babesia gibsoni merozoite mrna was screened with b. gibsoni-infected dog serum. cdna encoding a 50-kda protein was cloned and designated the p50 gene. the complete nucleotide sequence of the p50 gene was 1,922 bp. computer analysis suggested that the sequence of the p50 gene contained an open reading frame of 1,401 bp with a coding capacity of approximately 50 kda. the complete genomic nucleotide sequence of the p50 gene has been analyzed and shown to cont ...200111427577
fatal babesia gibsoni infection in a dog from spain. 200111467614
development of a polymerase chain reaction method for diagnosing babesia gibsoni infection in dogs.a pair of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of the p18 gene of babesia gibsoni (b. gibsoni), nrcpd strain, and were used to detect parasite dna from blood samples of b. gibsoni-infected dogs by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). pcr was specific for b. gibsoni since no amplification was detected with dna from b. canis or normal dog leucocytes. pcr was sensitive enough to detect parasite dna from 2.5 microl of blood samples with a parasitemia of 0.000002%. p ...200111642286
increased generation of superoxide in erythrocytes infected with babesia gibsoni.the present study was conducted to clarify the mechanism underlying the oxidative process in erythrocytes infected with babesia gibsoni. the parasite b. gibsoni was cultured together with erythrocytes from normal dogs for 7 days. when parasitemia reached 12.0-13.4% at day 7. the production of superoxide in erythrocytes was significantly higher in the parasitized culture than in the control culture (p<0.005). the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (tbars) in erythrocytes in ...200111714022
infection of dogs in north-west spain with a babesia microti-like agent.during 1996 a small, ring-shaped, piroplasm was observed in blood smears from 157 dogs in north-west spain. none of them had previously been in areas endemic for babesia gibsoni, which was until recently the only small piroplasm known to parasitise dogs. haematological and serum biochemistry analyses showed that almost all the dogs had an intense regenerative haemolytic anaemia and that in some cases there was evidence of renal failure. a molecular study was made of a sample of the parasite obta ...200111720208
electron microscopic investigations on stages of dog piroplasms cultured in vitro: asian isolates of babesia gibsoni and strains of b. canis from france and hungary.stages obtained from two asian babesia gibsoni-isolates cultured in vitro were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and compared to strains of b. canis cultured in vitro. while the developmental stages of the latter preserved their shape in culture, many of the initially small stages of the b. gibsoni strains grew considerably and often looked rather similar to b. canis.200211822735
babesia gibsoni infection among dogs in the southeastern united identify subclinical babesia gibsoni infection in american pit bull terriers from the southeastern united states and to determine the genetic sequence of parasite dna isolated from these dogs.200211829262
the effect of macrophages on the erythrocyte oxidative damage and the pathogenesis of anemia in babesia gibsoni-infected dogs with low parasitemia.the role of macrophages in the erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage and the pathogenesis of anemia in babesia gibsoni-infected dogs with low parasitemia were investigated. macrophages derived from peripheral blood monocytes (pbm) from b. gibsoni-infected dogs produced significantly higher chemiluminescent responses, indicating the release of reactive oxygen intermediates, than those from non-infected dogs when the cells were subjected to non-specific stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-ace ...200211999441
babesia gibsoni infection in a dog from indiana.a 10-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented to the purdue university veterinary teaching hospital (puvth) with complaints of persistent anemia with occasional exacerbations, anorexia, and lethargy. the dog had been presented to the referring veterinarian 2 months prior with multiple bite wounds received during a fight with 3 pit bull terriers. the dog was discharged after the wounds were cleaned and surgically closed. upon admission to the puvth, blood was collected for a complete ...200112024299
platelet size, platelet surface-associated igg, and reticulated platelets in dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia.immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (imt) is a disorder in which bound igg on the surface of platelets results in platelet removal and alterations in mean platelet volume. using flow cytometry, alterations in platelet size, platelet surface-associated igg (psaigg), and numbers of reticulated platelets were determined in 13 dogs with primary imt and 4 dogs with secondary imt induced by experimental infection with babesia gibsoni. effects of sample age on platelet parameters also were determined, usi ...200112024314
molecular characterisation of babesia canis canis and babesia canis vogeli from naturally infected european dogs.the morphologically small babesia species isolated from naturally infected dogs in europe, japan, and us are described as babesia gibsoni despite the fact that molecular techniques show that they should be assigned to two or three separate taxons. the morphologically large babesia isolated from dogs in europe, africa, and us were generally classified as b. canis until it was proposed to distinguish three related, albeit genetically distinct subspecies of this genus, namely b. canis canis, b. can ...200212079734
clinical and hematologic effects of experimental infection of dogs with recently identified babesia gibsoni-like isolates from characterize clinical and hematologic responses in dogs following experimental inoculation with babesia gibsoni-like isolates from infected dogs in oklahoma.200212126127
continuous in vitro culture of erythrocytic stages of babesia gibsoni and virulence of the cultivated parasite.babesia gibsoni infected erythrocytes were collected from the blood of an experimentally infected dog. the parasite isolated could be continuously cultivated in vitro, with an average parasitemia of 18.2 +/- 2.4% on day 3 of culture, in rpmi-1640 medium supplemented with 7.5% normal dog serum in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% co(2) at 37 degrees c. the parasites in the original culture were morphologically similar to those found in the peripheral blood of dogs, however, on the 4th generat ...200212185309
molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of babesia gibsoni heat shock protein 70.the babesia gibsoni heat shock protein 70 gene (bghsp70) was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequenced. the length of the gene was 1938 bp and the predicted polypeptide was 646 amino acids long with a calculated molecular weight of 70,627. the amino acid sequences of bghsp70 from 17 isolates were identical, though there were six types of polymorphisms among the corresponding nucleotide sequences. there was no intron in the bghsp70 gene. phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid seque ...200212446097
babesia gibsoni infection in three dogs in victoria.small intraerythrocytic parasites were observed in the blood of three related male american pit bull terriers. two of the dogs, both less than 1-year-old, were anaemic at the time of initial examination and the third, an adult and sire of the two younger dogs, had a normal haemogram and low parasitaemia. the morphological appearance of the erythrocyte inclusions, analysis of a 450-bp region of the 18s rrna gene and antibody titres provided evidence that this parasite was babesia gibsoni, a speci ...200212465811
babesiosis: an update on epidemiology and treatment.babesiosis is caused by a tick-borne hemoparasite that, like malaria, can cause fever, hemolysis, and anemia. typically self-limited, in the asplenic, immunocompromised, or elderly, disease can be severe or deadly. us cases have been primarily due to babesia microti; wa-1, which may be related to babesia gibsoni; and mo-1, related to babesia divergens. european infections are usually due to b. divergens. north american cases are treated either with quinine and clindamycin or with atovaquone and ...200312525291
ixodes hexagonus is the main candidate as vector of theileria annae in northwest spain.babesia canis and babesia gibsoni have, until recently, been considered the only piroplasms that parasitise dogs. however, recent reports indicate that "small" babesia infections in spanish dogs are surprisingly frequent and molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the infecting agent is closely related to babesia microti. because the 18srdna sequence was not completely identical to that of b. microti, the new name "theileria annae" was assigned to the canine agent. no information is avail ...200312581593
babesia gibsoni: molecular cloning and characterization of rab6 and rab11 homologues.members of the rab subfamily of gtpases have been implicated as important components in vesicle trafficking in the eukaryotes, individual rab proteins have a remarkable degree of specific subcellular localization. as a first step towards developing a set of compartment specific probes for studying protein trafficking in babesia-infected erythrocyte, here we describe the cloning and characterization of rab6 and rab11 gene homologues in babesia gibsoni (bgrab6 and bgrab11). the deduced amino acid ...200212594961
transfusion-associated babesia gibsoni infection in a dog.a 2.5-year-old spayed female german shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of progressive anemia, lethargy, and weight loss. seventeen days earlier, the dog had received a whole blood transfusion to manage hemorrhage after ovariohysterectomy. mild fever, splenomegaly, and thrombocytopenia were also identified. von willebrand disease and babesia gibsoni infection were diagnosed. because of the serologic cross-reactivity of b gibsoni and b canis in the immunofluorescent antibody assay for igg an ...200312685786
cdna cloning of a rab5 homologue in babesia gibsoni.for studying protein trafficking in babesia-infected erythrocyte, we describe the cloning of a rab5, one of molecular marker for vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells, gene homologue in babesia gibsoni (bgrab5). the full-length cdna of bgrab5 is 1,020 bp long with an open reading frame encoding a protein of 220 amino acids. the deduced amino acid sequence of bgrab5 contained the highly conserved gtp-binding consensus sequence and shares about 40% homology with that of rab5 from plasmodium falc ...200312736436
two species of canine babesia in australia: detection and characterization by pcr.the haemoprotozoan babesia canis has been recognized in australia for many years, and a second, smaller species has recently been discovered. amplification and sequencing of a partial region of the 18s small subunit ribosomal rna (rrna) gene enabled detection and characterization of the large and small canine babesiae of australia for the first time. isolates from northern australia were genetically characterized to be 99% homologous to babesia canis vogeli, confirming previous speculation about ...200312760669
lymphocyte subsets and specific igg antibody levels in clindamycin-treated and untreated dogs experimentally infected with babesia gibsoni.this study was carried out to clarify the role of lymphocyte subpopulations and babesia-specific antibody on the treatment of clindamycin in dogs infected with b. gibsoni. ten beagle dogs were divided into two groups: an untreated group (5 dogs) and a clindamycin-treated group (5 dogs), which was administered clindamycin at 25 mg/ kg body weight, per os, q 12 hr from 7 days to 21 days post-infection (pi). on the acute stage of infection, clindamycin treatment resolved anaemia and other clinical ...200312808209
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