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effects of a non-conservative sequence on the properties of β-glucuronidase from aspergillus terreus li-20.we cloned the β-glucuronidase gene (atgus) from aspergillus terreus li-20 encoding 657 amino acids (aa), which can transform glycyrrhizin into glycyrrhetinic acid monoglucuronide (gamg) and glycyrrhetinic acid (ga). based on sequence alignment, the c-terminal non-conservative sequence showed low identity with those of other species; thus, the partial sequence atgus(-3t) (1-592 aa) was amplified to determine the effects of the non-conservative sequence on the enzymatic properties. atgus and atgus ...201222347419
effect of salt on survival and p-solubilization potential of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from salt affected soils.a total of 23 phosphate solubilizing bacteria (psb) and 35 phosphate solubilizing fungi (psf) were isolated from 19 samples of salt affected soils. the ability of 12 selected psb and psf to grow and solubilize tricalcium phosphate in the presence of different concentrations of nacl was examined. among 12 psb, aerococcus sp. strain psbcrg1-1 recorded the highest (12.15) log viable cell count at 0.4 m nacl concentration after 7 days after incubation (dai) and the lowest log cell count (1.39) was r ...201224936136
oxidative state in idiophase links reactive oxygen species (ros) and lovastatin biosynthesis: differences and similarities in submerged- and solid-state fermentations.the present work was focused on finding a relationship between reactive oxygen species (ros) and lovastatin biosynthesis (secondary metabolism) in aspergillus terreus. in addition, an effort was made to find differences in accumulation and control of ros in submerged (smf) and solid-state fermentation (ssf), which could help explain higher metabolite production in the latter. sod1 expression, ros content, and redox balance kinetics were measured during smf and ssf. results showed that a. terreus ...201223452946
clinical epidemiology of 960 patients with invasive aspergillosis from the path alliance registry.the study investigated the epidemiology and outcome of invasive aspergillosis (ia), an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients.201222898389
evaluation of multiplexed pcr and liquid-phase array for identification of respiratory fungal pathogens.invasive fungal infections are the cause of serious morbidity and high mortality in immunocompromised patients. early laboratory diagnostic options remain limited; however, rapid detection and accurate identification may improve outcome. herein, multiplexed pcr followed by liquid-phase array was evaluated for detection and identification of common respiratory fungal pathogens, including aspergillus fumigatus, rhizopus microsporus, scedosporium apiospermum and fusarium solani. the limit of detect ...201222435876
evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils. 201223369665
persistence versus escape: aspergillus terreus and aspergillus fumigatus employ different strategies during interactions with macrophages.invasive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ibpa) is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. although aspergillus terreus is frequently found in the environment, a. fumigatus is by far the main cause of ibpa. however, once a. terreus establishes infection in the host, disease is as fatal as a. fumigatus infections. thus, we hypothesized that the initial steps of disease establishment might be fundamentally different between these two species. since alveolar macrophages represent o ...201222319619
[invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with focus on aspergillosis and its causative agents].invasive fungal diseases (ifd) are a life-threatening infectious complications in immunocompromised patients and are associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality. the most common invasive mycosis in patients who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is invasive aspergilosis (ia), most frequently caused by the clinically dominant species aspergillus fumigatus and, rarely, also by aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus and aspergillus niger. in recent years, othe ...201223172020
in vitro activities of amphotericin b and ambisome against aspergillus isolates recovered from italian patients treated for haematological malignancies.although there is evidence that liposomal amphotericin b (ambisome) is non-inferior to amphotericin b (amb) in terms of in vivo efficacy, in vitro data regarding the activity of ambisome against clinical isolates of aspergillus are rare. in this study, the susceptibilities to amb and ambisome of 103 aspergillus complex isolates (48 aspergillus flavus, 33 aspergillus fumigatus, 13 aspergillus terreus and 9 aspergillus niger) recovered from haematological patients with invasive infection were comp ...201222429723
[agents of otomycosis in manisa region, turkey, 1995-2011].otomycosis, which is otitis externa caused by fungi, is common throughout the world especially in tropical and subtropical countries. however, the epidemiologic data about the etiologic agents of otomycosis in turkey is limited. the aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the agents of otomycosis in patients living at manisa region (located at western anatolia of turkey). a total of 2279 cases [1465 male, 813 female; age range 1-87 (mean: 41.7) years] who were clinically prediagnosed as ...201222399174
new antifungal compounds from aspergillus terreus isolated from desert soil.two new butyrolactone i derivatives: 3-[3-hydroxy-4-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-phenyl]-5-(-4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-methyl-dihydrofuran-2(3h)-one (1) and (z)-3-[3-hydroxy-4-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-phenyl]-5-(-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-methyl-dihydrofuran-2(3h)-one (2), in addition to the previously described (s)-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-[4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-benzyl]-3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-furan-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (3), were identified from a strain of aspergillus terreus thom ...201222422648
pharmacodynamic effects of simulated standard doses of antifungal drugs against aspergillus species in a new in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.in conventional μιc tests, fungi are exposed to constant drug concentrations, whereas in vivo, fungi are exposed to changing drug concentrations. therefore, we developed a new in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model where human plasma pharmacokinetics of standard doses of 1 mg/kg amphotericin b, 4 mg/kg voriconazole, and 1 mg/kg caspofungin were simulated and their pharmacodynamic characteristics were determined against three clinical isolates of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, ...201222064546
fungal life in the dead sea.the waters of the dead sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 m mg(2+), 0.5 m ca(2+), 1.5 m na(+), 0.2 m k(+), 6.5 m cl(-), 0.1 m br(-)). the ph is about 6.0. after rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. the 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga dunaliella and red archaea. at least 70 species (in 26 genera) of oomycota (chromista), mucoromycotina, ascomycota, and basidiomycota (fungi) were isolated from near- ...201222222829
chronic candidal bronchitis: a consecutive series.persistent candida from fungal cultures of respiratory secretions are often ignored and not treated due to assumptions concerning benign colonization.201223264835
Aspergillus versicolor, a New Causative Agent of Canine Disseminated Aspergillosis.Disseminated aspergillosis in dogs has been associated with Aspergillus terreus or A. deflectus infection. We report a case of disseminated A. versicolor infection presenting as diskospondylitis, osteomyelitis, and pyelonephritis. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings. The etiologic agent was identified by fungal culture and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This is the first description of canine aspergillosis caused b ...201222031699
enhanced itaconic acid production in aspergillus niger using genetic modification and medium optimization.aspergillus niger was selected as a host for producing itaconic acid due to its versatile and tolerant character in various growth environments, and its extremely high capacity of accumulating the precursor of itaconic acid: citric acid. expressing the cad gene from aspergillus terreus opened the metabolic pathway towards itaconic acid in a. niger. in order to increase the production level, we continued by modifying its genome and optimizing cultivation media.201222925689
[identification of filamentous fungi isolated from clinical samples by two different methods and their susceptibility results].molds are widely distributed in nature. aspergillus spp. represent the most frequently observed causative agents, however less frequent pathogens fusarium, scedosporium and zygomycetes have also been considered the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in profoundly immunosuppressed hosts. the aims of this study were to identify filamentous fungi isolated from clinical specimens by conventional and molecular methods, and to detect their antifungal susceptibilities. a total of 6742 cli ...201222399173
the hydrolysis of agro-industrial residues by holocellulose-degrading enzymes.holocellulose structures from agro-industrial residues rely on main and side chain attacking enzymes with different specificities for complete hydrolysis. combinations of crude enzymatic extracts from different fungal species, including aspergillus terreus, aspergillus oryzae, aspergillus niger and trichoderma longibrachiatum, were applied to sugar cane bagasse, banana stem and dirty cotton residue to investigate the hydrolysis of holocellulose structures. a. terreus and a. oryzae were the best ...201224031857
evolutionary imprint of catalytic domains in fungal pks-nrps hybrids.fungal hybrid enzymes consisting of a polyketide synthase (pks) and a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps) module are involved in the biosynthesis of a vast array of ecologically and medicinally relevant natural products. whereas a dozen gene clusters could be assigned to the requisite pks-nrps pathways, the programming of the multifunctional enzymes is still enigmatic. through engineering and heterologously expressing a chimera of pks (lovastatin synthase, lovb) and nrps (cytochalasin synthas ...201223023987
single cell oil of oleaginous fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands as a potential feedstock for biodiesel.single cell oils (scos) accumulated by oleaginous fungi have emerged as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. though fungi from mangrove ecosystem have been reported for production of several lignocellulolytic enzymes, they remain unexplored for their sco producing ability. thus, these oleaginous fungi from the mangrove ecosystem could be suitable candidates for production of scos from lignocellulosic biomass. the accumulation of lipids being species specific, strain select ...201222646719
optimization of culture conditions and bench-scale production of l-asparaginase by submerged fermentation of aspergillus terreus mtcc 1782.optimization of culture conditions for l-asparaginase production by submerged fermentation of aspergillus terreus mtcc 1782 was studied using a 3-level central composite design of response surface methodology and artificial neural network linked genetic algorithm. the artificial neural network linked genetic algorithm was found to be more efficient than response surface methodology. the experimental l-asparaginase activity of 43.29 iu/ml was obtained at the optimum culture conditions of temperat ...201222580311
operating conditions optimization for (+)-terrein production in a stirred bioreactor by aspergillus terreus strain pf-26 from marine sponge phakellia fusca.terrein is a fungal metabolite with application values in the fields of medicine, cosmetology, and agriculture. however, mass production of single configuration terrein is still a big challenge. in this study, operating factors such as inoculation, agitation speed, aeration rate, ph control, and nutrient feeding were preliminarily optimized to improve the (+)-terrein production in the 5-l stirred bioreactor from the marine sponge-derived fungus aspergillus terreus pf-26. spore inoculation, low a ...201222527032
rapid identification of aspergillus terreus from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by pcr and electrospray ionization with mass spectrometry.we describe the application of pcr and electrospray-ionization with mass spectrometry (pcr/esi-ms) to culture-negative bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) fluid in order to identify septate hyphae noted by gomori methenamine silver (gms) staining of the fluid that was obtained from an immunocompromised woman with neutropenia following induction chemotherapy for treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (aml). the patient was treated with empirical antifungal therapy, including intrathecal amphotericin b, ...201222518857
disseminated aspergillosis in a dog due to aspergillus alabamensis.disseminated aspergillosis is uncommon in dogs and often associated with aspergillus terreus. a case of disseminated disease in an english springer spaniel is reported from which aspergillus alabamensis was recovered by culture and identified by molecular means suggesting a potential role for this agent as a primary pathogen of dogs.201224371723
effect of ph on biosynthesis of lovastatin and other secondary metabolites by aspergillus terreus atcc 20542.the effect of the initial ph value of the cultivation medium on lovastatin (mevinolinic acid) biosynthesis by aspergillus terreus atcc20542 was studied. it was found that if the ph value of the broth is acidic, the direct chromatographic assay of mevinolinic acid leads to the underestimated values. thus, the equilibrium curve was determined for the transformation of β-hydroxy acid form of lovastatin (mevinolinic acid) into lovastatin lactone. the calculation of the equilibrium constant shows tha ...201222995742
furandiones from an endophytic aspergillus terreus residing in malus halliana.two new furandiones named asperterone b (1) and c (2) together with four known metabolites (3-6) were isolated from the liquid culture of the endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus mhl-p22 residing in the fresh leaves of malus halliana. the structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of their ms, ir, 1d- and 2d-nmr spectra. 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against human colorectal carcinoma sw1116 cells with ic(50) values of 57.5 and 71.0 µm, respectively. the biosynth ...201222971827
animal bone char solubilization with itaconic acid produced by free and immobilized aspergillus terreus grown on glycerol-based medium.cells of aspergillus terreus, free and immobilized in polyurethane foam, were employed in itaconic acid fermentation processes on glycerol-based media. the purpose was to assess their suitability for animal bone char solubilization and the development of a biotechnological alternative to p fertilizers chemically produced from rock phosphate. animal bones constitute a renewable source of p that can replace the traditionally used finite, nonrenewable rock phosphate as a p source. glycerol was an e ...201222956279
butyrolactone and cycloheptanetrione from mangrove-associated fungus aspergillus terreus.a new butyrolactone, 7″-hydroxybutyrolactone iii (1) and three new cycloheptanetriones, terretrione a-c (2-4), together with five known compounds, butyrolactone i, cyclo(leu-pro), cyclo(val-pro), cyclo(ile-pro), cyclo(phe-pro), were isolated from mangrove-associated marine fungus aspergillus terreus. the structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of physical data analysis (nmr, high resolution-electrospray ionization (hr-esi)-ms), especially by 2d-nmr techniques. these compounds ...201223124567
murine infection models for aspergillus terreus pulmonary aspergillosis reveal long-term persistence of conidia and liver degeneration.aspergillus terreus is emerging as a causative agent of life-threatening invasive aspergillosis. prognosis for affected patients is often worse than for a. fumigatus infections. to study a. terreus-mediated disease, we developed 3 infection models. in embryonated hen's eggs and leucopenic mice, the outcome of invasive aspergillosis was similar to that described for a. fumigatus. however, 10(2)- and 10(3)-fold higher conidia concentrations were required for 100% lethality. in corticosteroid-treat ...201222438397
aspergillus terreus: how inoculum size and host characteristics affect its virulence. 201222438395
lovastatin production by aspergillus terreus using agro-biomass as substrate in solid state fermentation.ability of two strains of aspergillus terreus (atcc 74135 and atcc 20542) for production of lovastatin in solid state fermentation (ssf) using rice straw (rs) and oil palm frond (opf) was investigated. results showed that rs is a better substrate for production of lovastatin in ssf. maximum production of lovastatin has been obtained using a. terreus atcc 74135 and rs as substrate without additional nitrogen source (157.07 mg/kg dry matter (dm)). although additional nitrogen source has no benefit ...201223118499
studies on the metabolism of five model drugs by fungi colonizing cadavers using lc-esi-ms/ms and gc-ms analysis.it is well-known that cadavers may be colonized by microorganisms, but there is limited information if or to what extent these microbes are capable of metabolizing drugs or poisons, changing the concentrations and metabolic pattern of such compounds in postmortem samples. the aim of the present study was to develop a fungal biotransformation system as an in vitro model to investigate potential postmortem metabolism by fungi. five model drugs (amitriptyline, metoprolol, mirtazapine, promethazine, ...201222825674
a small molecule ifb07188 inhibits proliferation of human cancer cells by inducing g2/m cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.a small molecule, 15b-β-hydroxy-5-n-acetylardeemin (ifb07188), was previously isolated from the fungi aspergillus terreus. however, the toxicological features of this natural product have never been investigated. in present study, we described the anticancer activities of ifb07188. we found that ifb07188 can decrease the viability and invasive potency of multiple cancer cell lines. further mechanistic investigation demonstrates that cell cycles are arrested at g2/m phase and the arrest is induce ...201222770989
microbial production of itaconic acid: developing a stable platform for high product concentrations.biotechnologically produced itaconic acid (ia) is a promising organic acid with a wide range of applications and the potential to open up new application fields in the area of polymer chemistry, pharmacy, and agriculture. in this study, a systematic process optimization was performed with an own isolated strain of aspergillus terreus and transferred from a 250-ml to a 15-l scale. an ia concentration of 86.2 g/l was achieved within 7 days with an overall productivity of 0.51 g/(l h), a maximum pr ...201222752264
biosynthesis of xylobiose: a strategic way to enrich the value of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber.xylooligosaccharides are functional foods mainly produced during the hydrolysis of xylan by physical, chemical, or enzymatic methods. in this study, production of xylobiose was investigated using oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (opefb) as a source material, by chemical and enzymatic methods. xylanase-specific xylan hydrolysis followed by xylobiose production was observed. among different xylanases, xylanase from fxy-1 released maximum xylobiose from pretreated opefb fiber, and this fungal strai ...201222713984
physiological studies on carboxymethyl cellulase formation by aspergillus terreus dsm 826.physiological studies were conducted to determine the optimum cultural conditions for maximal carboxymethyl cellulase (cmcase) formation by aspergillus terreus dsm 826. shaking condition at 150 rpm is favorable for the production of cmcase from rice straw and sugar cane bagasse. the highest enzyme yield was obtained at the third day of incubation at 30 °c for both cases; however cmcase formation occurred at a broad range of ph values, with maximal formation of a. terreus dsm 826 cmcase at ph 4.5 ...201224031798
characterization of hemicellulases from thermophilic fungi.the thermophilic fungi thermomyces lanuginosus, malbranchea cinnamomea, myceliophthora fergusii and the thermotolerant aspergillus terreus were cultivated on various carbon sources, and hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzyme profiles were evaluated. all fungi could grow on locust bean galactomannan (lbg), solka floc, wheat bran and pectin, except t. lanuginosus, which failed to utilize lbg for growth. different levels of cellulase and hemicellulase activities were produced by these fungal stra ...201222371150
asperjinone, a nor-neolignan, and terrein, a suppressor of abcg2-expressing breast cancer cells, from thermophilic aspergillus terreus.breast cancer cells express abcg2 transporters, which mediate multidrug resistance. discovering a novel compound that can suppress abcg2 expression and restore drug sensitivity could be the key to improving breast cancer therapeutics. in the current work, one new nor-neolignan, asperjinone (1), as well as 12 other known compounds, was isolated from aspergillus terreus. the structure of the new isolate was determined by spectroscopic methods. among these isolates, terrein (2) displayed strong cyt ...201222360613
biosorption of strontium from aqueous solution by fungus aspergillus terreus.the biosorption characteristics of strontium ions using fungus aspergillus terreus were investigated. experimental parameters affecting the biosorption process such as ph, contact time, initial metal concentration, and temperature were studied.201222322289
screening of medicinal higher basidiomycetes mushrooms from turkey for lovastatin production.as a first attempt, a study was carried out to test for lovastatin production ability in local higher basidiomycetes mushroom isolates from turkey. an extended screening was performed for lovastatin production in yeast lactose agar medium, among a total of 136 macrofungi isolates from the basidiomycetes culture collection of eskisehir osmangazi university. lovastatin production was evaluated by disc diffusion method and was also confirmed by tlc and hplc. only six isolates were found to be lovas ...201222506575
production of cellulases by solid state fermentation with aspergillus terreus and enzymatic hydrolysis of mild alkali-treated rice straw.rice straw was used as substrate for cellulase production by solid state fermentation with aspergillus terreus. substrate concentration, moisture ratio, inoculum size and initial ph were optimized using response surface methodology involving box-behnken design. the predicted filter paper activity under optimized parameters was 9.73 u/g and the validated filter paper activity was 10.96 u/g. hydrolysis of the biomass pretreated with 0.125% to 1% naoh for 24h at room temperature was performed using ...201222864171
antimicrobial and synergistic effects of silver nanoparticles synthesized using soil fungi of high altitudes of eastern himalaya.fifty three fungi isolated from soils of different microhabitats of eastern himalayan range (3,400~3,600 msl) were screened for mycosynthesis of silver nanaoparticles (agnps) and their efficacy as antimicrobials were assessed in combination with commonly used antibiotics. three isolates aspergillus terreus sp5, paecilomyces lilacinus sf1 and fusarium sp. mp5 identified based on morphological and 18s rrna gene sequences were found to synthesize agnps. these nanoparticles were characterized by vis ...201222783131
in vivo emergence of aspergillus terreus with reduced azole susceptibility and a cyp51a m217i alteration.azole resistance in aspergillus terreus isolates was explored. twenty related (mb) and 6 unrelated a. terreus isolates were included. cyp51a sequencing and rapd genotyping was performed. five mb isolates were itraconazole susceptible, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) for 15 mb isolates were elevated (1-2 mg/l). voriconazole and posaconazole mics were 0.5-4 and 0.06-0.5 mg/l, respectively, for mb isolates but 0.25-0.5 and <0.03-0.06 mg/l, respectively, for controls. sequencing ...201222782947
microbial transformation of the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin c by the fungus aspergillus terreus.the biotransformation of the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin c by the fungus aspergillus terreus mt 5.3 yielded a rare derivative that was elucidated by spectrometric methods. the fungus led to the formation of a different product through an unusual epoxidation reaction between c4 and c5, formation of a c3,c10 ether bridge, and a methoxylation of the c1 of tagitinin c. the chemical structure of the product, namely 1β-methoxy-3α-hydroxy-3,10β-4,5α-diepoxy-8β-isobutyroyloxygermacr-11(13)-en-6α,12- ...201222782617
asperterrestide a, a cytotoxic cyclic tetrapeptide from the marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus scsgaf0162.a new cytotoxic and antiviral cyclic tetrapeptide, asperterrestide a (1), a new alkaloid, terremide c (2), and a new aromatic butenolide, aspernolide e (3), together with 10 known compounds were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus scsgaf0162. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the mosher ester technique and analysis of the acid hydrolysates using a chiral-phase hplc co ...201323806112
rep-pcr and rapd-pcr fingerprinting of aspergillus terreus.we compared two pcr methods for molecular typing the medically important filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus. in a set of 46 strains investigated we found 19 and 12 different fingerprinting types obtained by random amplified polymorphic dna pcr (rapd) and semi-automated repetitive element pcr (rep-pcr), respectively.201323758105
virulence and thrombocyte affectation of two aspergillus terreus isolates differing in amphotericin b susceptibility.aspergillus terreus-induced invasive infections exhibit high lethality, partly due to the intrinsic resistance for amphotericin b (amb). we compared the virulence and pathogenesis of an amb-resistant isolate of a. terreus (atr) with that of a rare variant showing enhanced sensitivity for amb (ats). the modifications that result in enhanced amb sensitivity of isolates are not associated with reduced virulence in vivo; instead, the ats-infected mice died even faster than the atr-infected animals. ...201323722593
lovastatin in aspergillus terreus: fermented rice straw extracts interferes with methane production and gene expression in methanobrevibacter smithii.lovastatin, a natural byproduct of some fungi, is able to inhibit hmg-coa (3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl coa) reductase. this is a key enzyme involved in isoprenoid synthesis and essential for cell membrane formation in methanogenic archaea. in this paper, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that lovastatin secreted by aspergillus terreus in fermented rice straw extracts (frse) can inhibit growth and ch4 production in methanobrevibacter smithii (a test methanogen). by hplc analysis, 7 ...201323710454
aspergillus arachnoiditis post intrathecal baclofen pump insertion.this report describes an unusual fungal infection of an intrathecal baclofen pump which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. we describe a 39-year-old man with severe lower limb spasticity due to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis that was managed with insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump. he subsequently presented with distinct neurological decline secondary to an intrathecal baclofen pump infection with aspergillus terreus.201323685108
genome-scale reconstruction and in silico analysis of aspergillus terreus metabolism.aspergillus terreus is widely used for industrial production of important chemical compounds such as itaconate and lovastatin. to improve understanding of its physiology, we reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic model, ijl1454, consisting of 1454 genes, 1451 reactions and 1155 metabolites, based on genome annotation and literature mining. the model accurately predicted the growth phenotype of a. terreus on different carbon and nitrogen sources, and after deletion of essential genes. in ijl1454, ...201323624532
isolation and characterization of three fungi with the potential of transforming glycyrrhizin.three fungi with different types of transformation of glycyrrhizin (gl) were isolated from the soil samples of glycyrrhiza glabra planting area in china. according to their morphologies and 18 s rdna gene sequence analysis, the three fungi were identified and named as penicillium purpurogenum li-3, aspergillus terreus li-20 and aspergillus ustus li-62. transforming products analysis by tlc and hplc-ms indicated that p. purpurogenum li-3, a. terreus li-20 and a. ustus li-62 could stably transform ...201323247917
expression of fusion proteins of aspergillus terreus reveals a novel allene oxide synthase.aspergilli oxidize c18 unsaturated fatty acids by dioxygenase-cytochrome p450 fusion proteins to signal molecules involved in reproduction and host-pathogen interactions. aspergillus terreus expresses linoleate 9r-dioxygenase (9r-dox) and allene oxide synthase (aos) activities in membrane fractions. the genome contains five genes (ateg), which may code for a 9r-dox-aos fusion protein. the genes were cloned and expressed, but none of them oxidized 18:2n-6 to 9r-hydroperoxy-10(e),12(z)-octadecadie ...201323479731
aspergillus terreus complex: an emergent opportunistic agent of onychomycosis.the incidence of onychomycosis due to non-dermatophyte moulds (ndm) is increasing. aspergillus terreus is relatively undocumented as an agent of this fungal infection. the aim of this work is to show the prevalence of onychomycosis caused by a. terreus and to describe its clinical features. nail samples were collected for microscopic examination and culturing in selective media. all cases of onychomycosis due to ndm were confirmed by a second sample. aspergillus terreus isolates were identified ...201323448599
purification and biochemical characterization of feruloyl esterases from aspergillus terreus mtcc 11096.aspergillus terreus mtcc 11096 isolated from the soils of agricultural fields cultivating sweet sorghum was previously identified to produce feruloyl esterases (faes). the enzymes responsible for feruloyl esterase activity were purified to homogeneity and named as atfae-1, atfae-2, and atfae-3. the enzymes were monomeric having molecular masses of 74, 23 and 36 kda, respectively. active protein bands were identified by a developed ph-dependent zymogram on native page. the three enzymes exhibited ...201323606660
biosynthetic pathway for the epipolythiodioxopiperazine acetylaranotin in aspergillus terreus revealed by genome-based deletion analysis.epipolythiodioxopiperazines (etps) are a class of fungal secondary metabolites derived from diketopiperazines. acetylaranotin belongs to one structural subgroup of etps characterized by the presence of a seven-membered 4,5-dihydrooxepine ring. defining the genes involved in acetylaranotin biosynthesis should provide a means to increase the production of these compounds and facilitate the engineering of second-generation molecules. the filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus produces acetylaranoti ...201323586797
a new sesquiterpene from the mangrove endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus (no. gx7-3b).a new compound 1 (named botryosphaerin f), along with other three known compounds 2 (13,14,15,16-tetranorlabd-7-ene-19,6b:12,17-diolide), 3 (botryosphaerin b) and 4 (ll-z1271β), has been isolated from the mangrove fungus aspergillus terreus (no. gx7-3b). the structure of the new compound was established by analysis of spectroscopic data. the hypothetical biogenic relationship of four sesquiterpene analogues was also described in this paper. furthermore, in the cytotoxicity assays, compound 1 sho ...201323521163
sexual reproduction in the opportunistic human pathogen aspergillus terreus.aspergillus terreus has a worldwide distribution in soil, constitutes the third most important cause of invasive aspergillosis in humans and is classically regarded as a strictly asexual species. strains of a. terreus were characterized by its, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences. mating type was identified by amplifying and sequencing mat1-1 and mat1-2 genes. one mat1-2 strain produced hyphal masses when crossed with four mat1-1 strains on mixed cereal agar after 3 wk at 37 c. cleistothecia form ...201323074177
terrein induces apoptosis in hela human cervical carcinoma cells through p53 and erk regulation.terrein, a fungal metabolite derived from aspergillus terreus, has been shown to have a variety of biological activities in human cells including inhibition of melanogenesis, as well as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. in the present study, terrein was shown to have marked anticancer activity on hela human cervical carcinoma cells. terrein exhibited inhibition of proliferation within the same ranges for other cancer cell types with an ic50 at 0.29 mm. the growth inhibiti ...201323417151
aspulvinones from a mangrove rhizosphere soil-derived fungus aspergillus terreus gwq-48 with anti-influenza a viral (h1n1) activity.a new butenolide isoaspulvinone e (1), together with two known butenolides aspulvinone e (2) and pulvic acid (3) were isolated from the marine-derived fungus, aspergillus terreus gwq-48. they showed significant anti-influenza a h1n1 virus activities, with ic50 values of 32.3, 56.9, and 29.1μg/ml, respectively. moreover, only compound 1 exhibited effective inhibitory activity against h1n1 viral neuraminidase (na), and docking of two isomers (1-2) into the active sites of na showed that the e doub ...201323411074
high-dose induction liposomal amphotericin b followed by de-escalation is effective in experimental aspergillus terreus pneumonia.aspergillus terreus is considered to be resistant to amphotericin b (amb). however, it is unknown whether higher daily doses of liposomal amb (l-amb) can overcome this resistance in vivo. we evaluated the efficacy and total lung homogenate amb concentrations of escalating intravenous doses of l-amb (3-20 mg/kg daily) versus an induction-de-escalation dosing strategy (10 mg/kg/day ×3 days, then 3 mg/kg/day) in an experimental neutropenic murine model of a. terreus pneumonia.201323349440
severe bacterial superinfection based on influenza a (h1n1) pneumonia in a heart-lung transplant recipient.a 47-year-old heart-lung transplant recipient presented to our outpatient transplant clinic with respiratory infection. her nose and throat swabs for influenza a (h1n1) infection were negative. broncheoalveolar lavage showed a positive result for h1n1 infection. antiviral therapy was initiated. because of superinfection with pseudomonas aeruginosa and aspergillus terreus, her clinical condition worsened. the clinical condition of the patient improved with antibiotic and antifungal treatment. neg ...201323344758
n-glycosylation affects the proper folding, enzymatic characteristics and production of a fungal ß-glucosidase.heterologous expression of ß-glucosidase is one of the approaches to enhance the efficiency of fungal cellulase preparations. it has been reported that n-glycosylation affects the structure framework, function and stability of proteins. in this study, a ß-glucosidase from aspergillus terreus (genbank: xp_001216552, bgls) was heterologously expressed in pichia pastoris and trichoderma reesei. the four asparagine residues were all linked with high-mannose-type oligosaccharides in p. pastoris, wher ...201324308062
chemoenzymatic synthesis of α-l-rhamnosides using recombinant α-l-rhamnosidase from aspergillus terreus.this study describes an efficient, large scale fermentation of a recombinant α-l-rhamnosidase originating from aspergillus terreus. high-cell-density pichia pastoris fermentation resulted in yields up to 627 u/l/h. the recombinant enzyme was used for the reverse rhamnosylation of various small organic compounds. a full factorial experimental design setup was applied to identify the importance of temperature, substrate concentrations, solvent type and concentration as well as the acidity of the r ...201324012095
in vitro antimicrobial potential of the lichen parmotrema sp. extracts against various pathogens.the ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. the perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. this study was aimed to explore in vitro antim ...201323997920
application of scale-up criterion of constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kla) for production of itaconic acid in a 50 l pilot-scale fermentor by fungal cells of aspergillus terreus.the scale-up criterion of constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kla) was applied for the production of itaconic acid (ia) in a 50 l pilot-scale fermentor by the fungal cells of aspergillus terreus. various operating conditions were examined to collect as many kla data as possible by adjusting the stirring speed and aeration rate in both 5 l and 50 l fermentor systems. in the fermentations performed with the 5 l fermentor, the highest ia production was obtained under the operating conditions ...201323928842
spiro fused diterpene-indole alkaloids from a creek-bottom-derived aspergillus terreus.four metabolites, teraspiridoles a-d (2-5), formed from the merger of a diterpene and modified indole scaffold were obtained from an aspergillus terreus isolate. the structures and absolute configurations of these natural products were established using nmr, mass spectrometry, marfey's method, vcd, and ecd data. teraspiridole b (3) exhibited weak inhibition of planaria regeneration/survival.201323924243
aspergillus terreus-related ureteral obstruction in a diabetic patient.an aspergillus fungal ball is a rare cause of ureteral obstruction attributed to indwelling catheters, stents, antibiotics, anastomotic leaks, obstruction, and immunosuppressive therapy and other immunocompromised states. we describe a case of unilateral ureteral obstruction caused by aspergillus terreus following ureteroscopic lithotripsy and ureteral stenting in a 45-year-old diabetic man. the patient was successfully treated with endoscopic removal of the fungal mass and oral voriconazole. we ...201323485541
lovastatin-enriched rice straw enhances biomass quality and suppresses ruminal methanogenesis.the primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that solid state fermentation (ssf) of agro-biomass (using rice straw as model); besides, breaking down its lignocellulose content to improve its nutritive values also produces lovastatin which could be used to suppress methanogenesis in the rumen ecosystem. fermented rice straw (frs) containing lovastatin after fermentation with aspergillus terreus was used as substrate for growth study of rumen microorganisms using in vitro gas pro ...201323484116
aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis in a nonimmunocompromised patient with a history of bronchiectasis.to present the first case of aspergillus terreus endophthalmitis in a patient without previous ocular surgery or immunocompromised status with a review of literature.201323480607
characterization of the biosynthetic genes for 10,11-dehydrocurvularin, a heat shock response-modulating anticancer fungal polyketide from aspergillus terreus.10,11-dehydrocurvularin is a prevalent fungal phytotoxin with heat shock response and immune-modulatory activities. it features a dihydroxyphenylacetic acid lactone polyketide framework with structural similarities to resorcylic acid lactones like radicicol or zearalenone. a genomic locus was identified from the dehydrocurvularin producer strain aspergillus terreus ah-02-30-f7 to reveal genes encoding a pair of iterative polyketide synthases (a. terreus curs1 [atcurs1] and atcurs2) that are pred ...201323335766
new insight into amphotericin b resistance in aspergillus terreus.amphotericin b (amb) is the predominant antifungal drug, but the mechanism of resistance is not well understood. we compared the in vivo virulence of an amb-resistant aspergillus terreus (atr) isolate with that of an amb-susceptible a. terreus isolate (ats) using a murine model for disseminated aspergillosis. furthermore, we analyzed the molecular basis of intrinsic amb resistance in vitro by comparing the ergosterol content, cell-associated amb levels, amb-induced intracellular efflux, and proo ...201323318794
itaconic acid--a biotechnological process in change.in the last years, itaconic acid has gained increasing interest as future bio-based platform chemical. to replace petrol-based compounds such as methacrylic acid in industry, the economic efficiency of the current biotechnological production processes with the fungus aspergillus terreus has to be improved. the recent progress in understanding the biosynthesis, the regulation and the cellular transport of itaconic acid has facilitated the optimisation of existing processes as well as the construc ...201323298766
mic values of voriconazole are predictive of treatment results in murine infections by aspergillus terreus species complex.we evaluated the efficacy of voriconazole against nine strains of aspergillus terreus with different mics (0.12 to 4 μg/ml) by using a murine model. markers of efficacy included survival, tissue burden, galactomannan antigenemia, and drug serum levels. voriconazole was especially effective in prolonging survival and reducing the fungal load in infections by strains that showed mics that were less than or equal to the epidemiological cutoff value (1 μg/ml). in vitro data might be useful for predi ...201323295929
structure revision of asperjinone using computer-assisted structure elucidation methods.the elucidated structure of asperjinone (1), a natural product isolated from thermophilic aspergillus terreus, was revised using the expert system structure elucidator. the reliability of the revised structure (2) was confirmed using 180 structures containing the (3,3-dimethyloxiran-2-yl)methyl fragment (3) as a basis for comparison and whose chemical shifts contradict the suggested structure (1).201323289877
coupled production of single cell oil as biodiesel feedstock, xylitol and xylanase from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept using fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands.this work evaluates sugarcane bagasse (scb) conversion, in a biorefinery approach, to coproduce biodiesel and high value products using two novel mangrove fungi. on acid pre-treatment, sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (scbh) resulted in a xylitol yield of 0.51 g/g xylose consumed in 72 h by williopsis saturnus. after scb pretreatment, sugarcane bagasse residue (scbr) was utilized using aspergillus terreus for production of xylanase (12.74 u/ml) and cell biomass (9.8 g/l) which was extracted for sin ...201323260270
mechanistic insights from the binding of substrate and carbocation intermediate analogues to aristolochene synthase.aristolochene synthase, a metal-dependent sesquiterpene cyclase from aspergillus terreus, catalyzes the ionization-dependent cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate (fpp) to form the bicyclic eremophilane (+)-aristolochene with perfect structural and stereochemical precision. here, we report the x-ray crystal structure of aristolochene synthase complexed with three mg(2+) ions and the unreactive substrate analogue farnesyl-s-thiolodiphosphate (fspp), showing that the substrate diphosphate group is a ...201323905850
two β-xylanases from aspergillus terreus: characterization and influence of phenolic compounds on xylanase activity.sugarcane bagasse was used as an inexpensive alternative carbon source for production of β-xylanases from aspergillus terreus. the induction profile showed that the xylanase activity was detected from the 6th day of cultivation period. two low molecular weight enzymes, named xyl t1 and xyl t2 were purified to apparent homogeneity by ultrafiltration, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatographies and presented molecular masses of 24.3and 23.60 kda, as determined by sds-page, respectively. xyl t ...201323892064
secondary metabolites of a mangrove endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus (no. gx7-3b) from the south china sea.the mangrove endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus (no. gx7-3b) was cultivated in potato dextrose liquid medium, and one rare thiophene compound (1), together with anhydrojavanicin (2), 8-o-methylbostrycoidin (3), 8-o-methyljavanicin (4), botryosphaerone d (5), 6-ethyl-5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxynaphthoquinone (6), 3β,5α-dihydroxy-(22e,24r)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (7), 3β,5α,14α-trihydroxy-(22e,24r)-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (8), nga0187 (9) and beauvericin (10), were isolated. their structures were ...201323877026
optimization of complex fermentation media for glucose oxidase production using statistical approach.production cost of enzyme is largely determined by the type of the strain and raw material used to propagate the strain. hence, selection of the strain and raw materials is crucial in enzyme production. for glucose oxidase (gox), previous studies showed aspergillus terreus unimap aa-1 offers a better alternative to the existing sources. thus, a lower production cost could be logically anticipated by growing the strain in a cheaper complex media such as molasses. in this work, sugar cane molasses ...201324502155
studies on extraction of mannanase enzyme by aspergillus terreus suk-1 from fermented palm kernel cake.microbial mannanases have become biotechnologically important in industry but their application is limited due to high production cost. in presents study, the extraction of mannanase from fermented palm kernel cake (pkc) in the solid state fermentation (ssf) was optimized. local isolate of aspergillus terreus suk-1 was grown on pkc in (ssf) using column bioreactor. the optimum condition were achieved after two washes of fermented pkc by adding of 10% glycerol (v/v) soaked for 10 h at the room te ...201324502150
discovery of a linoleate 9s-dioxygenase and an allene oxide synthase in a fusion protein of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum is a devastating plant pathogen that oxidizes c₁₈ fatty acids sequentially to jasmonates. the genome codes for putative dioxygenase (dox)-cytochrome p450 (cyp) fusion proteins homologous to linoleate diol synthases (ldss) and the allene oxide synthase (aos) of aspergillus terreus, e.g., foxb_01332. recombinant foxb_01332 oxidized 18:2n-6 to 9s-hydroperoxy-10(e),12(z)-octadecadienoic acid by hydrogen abstraction and antarafacial insertion of molecular oxygen and sequentially to ...201324082064
a systems biology approach for the identification of target genes for the improvement of itaconic acid production in aspergillus species.in this paper, a clone based transcriptome analysis towards the identification of genes related to itaconic acid production in aspergillus terreus was carried out as an extension of a previously published a clone-based transcriptome analysis from a set of batch fermentation experiments. also a publically available a. niger transcriptome dataset from cultures similar to those of the a. terreus data set was analyzed to evaluate the specificity of the approach followed for a. terreus.201324304666
a new β-glucuronidase inhibiting butyrolactone from the marine endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus.an endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus, var. boedijnii (blochwitz) was isolated from red marine alga laurencia ceylanica, j. agardh, cultured in large scale and extracted with etoac. the above-mentioned extract yielded a new butyrolactone, 3-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-methoxycarbonyl-5-(4-hydroxy-3-formylbenzyl)-2,5-dihydro-2-furanone (1), along with the previously reported nine compounds, butyrolactone-1 (2), 6-hydroxymellin (3), (3 r, 4 r)-6,7-dimethoxy-4-hydroxymellin (4), (+)-territonin ...201322913423
a novel pathway construction in candida tropicalis for direct xylitol conversion from corncob xylan.in this study, an integrated xylitol production pathway, directly using xylan as the substrate, was constructed in candida tropicalis bit-xol-1 which could efficiently convert xylose into xylitol. in order to consolidate this bioprocessing, a β-1,4-xylanase gene (atn) and a β-xylosidase gene (atl) were cloned from aspergillus terreus, and were constructed onto episomal plasmid paur123. additionally, combination of the individual atn and atl expression cassette was also cloned onto paur123. after ...201323211479
enhanced production of (+)-terrein in fed-batch cultivation of aspergillus terreus strain pf26 with sodium citrate.(+)-terrein is a fungal metabolite with multiple biological activities, especially with great value in medicine. however, the mass production of single configuration terrein is still a big challenge. in this study, the effects of acetic acid, sodium acetate, citric acid and sodium citrate on the (+)-terrein production by aspergillus terreus strain pf26 derived from marine sponge phakellia fusca were investigated. sodium citrate was selected for fed-batch cultivation because it showed the best ef ...201323085955
unusual biotransformation products of the sesquiterpene lactone budlein a by aspergillus species.biotransformation of chemicals by microorganisms can be effective in increasing chemical diversity. some fungi have been described to be useful for the biotransformation of sesquiterpene lactones. nevertheless, in most cases, only minor or simple transformations of functional groups have been observed. budlein a is a sesquiterpene lactone found in high amounts in american sunflower-like species of the genus viguiera (asteraceae). it shows important biological effects like in vitro and in vivo an ...201324135634
application of an efficient gene targeting system linking secondary metabolites to their biosynthetic genes in aspergillus terreus.nonribosomal peptides (nrps) are natural products biosynthesized by nrp synthetases. a kusa-, pyrg- mutant strain of aspergillus terreus nih 2624 was developed that greatly facilitated the gene targeting efficiency in this organism. application of this tool allowed us to link four major types of nrp-related secondary metabolites to their responsible genes in a. terreus. in addition, an nrp affecting melanin synthesis was also identified in this species.201323841722
in vitro and in vivo role of heat shock protein 90 in amphotericin b resistance of aspergillus terreus.aspergillus terreus (a. terreus) is of serious concern because of a high propensity to dissemination and in vitro and in vivo resistance to amphotericin b (amb). the underlying molecular mechanism of amb is not known yet and here we want to explore whether fungal heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) is involved in polyene resistance in a. terreus. amb-susceptible (ats) and amb-resistant (atr) a. terreus and amb-susceptible aspergillus fumigatus (afs) were investigated in response to amb with a special ...201322515428
identification of ochratoxin a producing fungi associated with fresh and dry liquorice.the presence of fungi on liquorice could contaminate the crop and result in elevated levels of mycotoxin. in this study, the mycobiota associated with fresh and dry liquorice was investigated in 3 producing regions of china. potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin a (ota) and aflatoxin b1 (afb1) production using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and rna polymerase ii second largest subu ...201324205182
six novel constitutive promoters for metabolic engineering of aspergillus niger.genetic tools for the fine-tuning of gene expression levels are a prerequisite for rational strain optimization through metabolic engineering. while aspergillus niger is an industrially important fungus, widely used for production of organic acids and heterologous proteins, the available genetic tool box for this organism is still rather limited. here, we characterize six novel constitutive promoters of a. niger providing different expression levels. the selection of the promoters was based on p ...201322707054
overexpression of a modified 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase results in an increased itaconic acid productivity in aspergillus niger.a modified 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase was expressed in a citrate producing aspergillus niger strain in combination with cis-aconitate decarboxylase from aspergillus terreus to study the effect on the production of itaconic acid. the modified pfka gene was also expressed in combination with the itaconic acid biosynthetic cluster from a. terreus, which consists of cis-aconitate decarboxylase cada, a putative mitochondrial transporter mtta and a putative plasmamembrane transporter mfsa. the combined ...201324034235
reduced by-product formation and modified oxygen availability improve itaconic acid production in aspergillus niger.aspergillus niger has an extraordinary potential to produce organic acids as proven by its application in industrial citric acid production. previously, it was shown that expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cada) from aspergillus terreus converted a. niger into an itaconic acid producer (li et al., fungal genet bio 48: 602-611, 2011). after some initial steps in production optimization in the previous research (li et al., bmc biotechnol 12: 57, 2012), this research aims at modify ...201323397482
biological interactions between soil saprotrophic fungi and ascaris suum eggs.the in vitro effect of saprotrophic soil fungi on the embryonic development of ascaris suum was evaluated. the fungi tested were aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, penicillium citrinum, penicillium expansum, fusarium oxysporum and trichothecium roseum, isolated from children's recreation areas in the city of lodz (poland). each species was co-cultured with a. suum egg suspension (6 × 10(3)eggs/ml) at 25 ± 2°c for 60 days. each day, 100 eggs were randomly collected and their developmenta ...201323534981
differential antibacterial properties of the mura inhibitors terreic acid and fosfomycin.terreic acid is a metabolite with antibiotic properties produced by the fungus aspergillus terreus, but its cellular target remains unknown. we recently reported that terreic acid inactivates the bacterial cell wall biosynthetic enzyme mura in vitro by covalent reaction with residue cys115 in a similar manner as the mura-specific antibiotic fosfomycin. to address if terreic acid also targets mura in vivo, we conducted antibacterial studies using selected e. coli strains in parallel with fosfomyc ...201323686727
fatal-mixed cutaneous zygomycosis-aspergillosis: a case report.mucorales and aspergillus are molds responsible for infections in immunocompromised patients. in this report, we describe a case of a rare extensively mixed cutaneous infection caused by lichtheimia ramosa, aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus in a neutropenic patient suffering from an acute leukemia. the fatal outcome of this patient can be attributed to its hematologic malignancy, the extensive nature of the lesions and the resistance of the strains to antifungals.201324085614
targeting enzymes to the right compartment: metabolic engineering for itaconic acid production by aspergillus niger.itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block. it can be microbially produced from some aspergillus species, such as aspergillus itaconicus and aspergillus terreus. however, the achieved titers are significantly lower as compared to the citric acid production by a. niger. heterologous expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase in a. niger leads to the accumulation of small amounts of itaconic acid. additional expression of aconitase, ...201323727192
activity of antifungal combinations against aspergillus species evaluated by isothermal microcalorimetry.we evaluated the activity of antifungals alone or in combination against aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus by real-time measurement of fungal growth-related heat production. amphotericin b, voriconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin were tested alone or in combination. heat production was measured in sabouraud dextrose broth containing 10(5)aspergillus conidia/ml for 48 h at 37 °c. antifungal activity was evaluated by measuring the heat detection time relative to the growth control ...201323871413
biochemical characterization of a gh53 endo-β-1,4-galactanase and a gh35 exo-β-1,4-galactanase from penicillium chrysogenum.an endo-β-1,4-galactanase (pcgal1) and an exo-β-1,4-galactanase (pcgalx35c) were purified from the culture filtrate of penicillium chrysogenum 31b. pcgal1 and pcgalx35c cdnas encoding pcgal1 and pcgalx35c were isolated by in vitro cloning. the deduced amino acid sequences of pcgal1 and pcgalx35c are highly similar to a putative endo-β-1,4-galactanase of aspergillus terreus (70% amino acid identity) and a putative β-galactosidase of neosartorya fischeri (72%), respectively. pfam analysis revealed ...201322584433
heterologous reconstitution of the intact geodin gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans through a simple and versatile pcr based approach.fungal natural products are a rich resource for bioactive molecules. to fully exploit this potential it is necessary to link genes to metabolites. genetic information for numerous putative biosynthetic pathways has become available in recent years through genome sequencing. however, the lack of solid methodology for genetic manipulation of most species severely hampers pathway characterization. here we present a simple pcr based approach for heterologous reconstitution of intact gene clusters. s ...201324009710
an efficient system for heterologous expression of secondary metabolite genes in aspergillus nidulans.fungal secondary metabolites (sms) are an important source of medically valuable compounds. genome projects have revealed that fungi have many sm biosynthetic gene clusters that are not normally expressed. to access these potentially valuable, cryptic clusters, we have developed a heterologous expression system in aspergillus nidulans . we have developed an efficient system for amplifying genes from a target fungus, placing them under control of a regulatable promoter, transferring them into a. ...201323621425
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