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[aspergillus terreus infection in copd patients receiving corticoids. a report of three cases]. 200717583657
effects of lactose and glucose on production of itaconic acid and lovastatin by aspergillus terreus atcc 20542.fermentation products of aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 (a parent strain for lovastatin production) were collected, and the coexistence of itaconic acid (ia) with lovastatin was confirmed in this study. using a lactose-based medium (lbm), lovastatin production was 873 mg/l on day 10, but ia production was only 22-28 mg/l during the cultures. when lactose in lbm was simply replaced with glucose, ia production was markedly enhanced by 20-fold (491 mg/l on day 5), which showed a growth-associated p ...200717697977
dna microarray-based detection and identification of fungal pathogens in clinical samples from neutropenic patients.the increasing incidence of invasive fungal infections (ifi) in immunocompromised patients emphasizes the need to improve diagnostic tools. we established a dna microarray to detect and identify dna from 14 fungal pathogens (aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, candida albicans, candida dubliniensis, candida glabrata, candida lusitaniae, candida tropicalis, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, mucor racemosus, rhizopus microsporus, scedosporium prolificans, and trichos ...200717715373
a 7-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase from aspergillus fumigatus: overproduction, purification and biochemical characterization.a putative prenyltransferase gene, afu3g12930, was identified in the genome sequence of aspergillus fumigatus. eal92290, encoded by afu3g12930, consists of 472 aa, with a molecular mass of about 53 kda. the coding sequence of afu3g12930 was cloned in pqe60, and overexpressed in escherichia coli. the soluble his(6)-fusion protein was purified to apparent homogeneity, and characterized biochemically. the enzyme was found to catalyse the prenylation of trp at the c-7 position of the indole moiety, ...200717906140
posttraumatic aspergillus terreus endophthalmitis masquerading as dispersed lens fragments.a 20-year-old man developed increasing inflammation with a hypopyon 3 weeks after primary repair of a corneal laceration. an occult anterior capsule puncture was suspected as the stimulus for the inflammation. when aspiration of the suspected hydrated lens material was not curative, a vitrectomy with injection of intravitreal antibiotic agents including amphotericin (0.0125 mg) was done the following day; the culture failed to grow fungal organisms. a repeat vitrectomy was performed 1 week later ...200717397754
a comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents.the antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial potentials of volatile oils and oleoresin of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume (leaf and bark) were investigated in the present study. the oleoresins have shown excellent activity for the inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products in mustard oil added at the concentration of 0.02% which were evaluated using peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, p-anisidine and carbonyl values. moreover, it was further supported by other complementary antioxidant assay ...200717408833
in vitro determination of phagocytosis and intracellular killing of aspergillus species by mononuclear phagocytes.we investigated phagocytosis and intracellular killing of clinical and environmental isolates of aspergillus spp. by human monocyte-derived macrophages (mdms). serial pathogens such as aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus and aspergillus terreus were examined with a microbiological assay. phagocytosis for resting conidia of aspergillus spp. was similar for all isolates tested. during 30 min of incubation phagocytosis ranged from 49.9% to 85.5% for clinical isolates and from 40.3% to 87.1% f ...200717458710
itaconic acid production using sago starch hydrolysate by aspergillus terreus tn484-m1.sago starch was hydrolyzed using either chemical agents, or enzymes at various ph and concentrations. hydrolysis using 5000 aun/ml (0.5%, w/v) glucoamylase exhibited the highest itaconic acid yield up to 0.36 g/g sago starch, whereas hydrolysis using nitric acid at ph 2.0 yielded 0.35 g/g sago starch. the medium was optimized and the composition was (g/l) 140 sago starch, 1.8 corn steep liquor, 1.2 mgso(4).7h(2)o and 2.9 nh(4)no(3). when the optimal conditions of hydrolysis and medium compositio ...200717451943
[the role of voriconazole in the treatment of emerging mycoses].voriconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug belonging to triazoles class. recently, it has been recommended for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in non neutropenic patients. in addition, this drug has showed clinical efficacy in the treatment of fungal infections caused by candida species other than candida albicans, and also in several other infections caused by less common fungi, such as aspergillus terreus, fusarium and scedosporium.200717874861
opportunistic aspergillus pathogens measured in home and hospital tap water by quantitative pcr (qpcr).opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. the goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative pcr (qpcr) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, aspergillus fumigatus, a. flavus, a. terreus and a. niger, in home tap water and a hospital water supply. water samples were taken from the kitchen tap in the homes of 60 patients who were diagnosed with legionellosis. water samples were ...200717878557
biodegradation of crude oil and n-alkanes by fungi isolated from oman.ten fungal species isolated from tar balls collected from the beaches of oman were tested for their abilities to grow and degrade n-alkanes and crude oil. the abilities of aspergillus niger, a. ochraceus and penicillium chrysogenum to degrade n-alkanes (c13-c18), crude oil were compared and their mycelial biomass was measured. significant differences were found in the utilization of c15, c16, c17 and c18 by the three fungi. similarly, significant differences we found in the amount of biomass pro ...200717904586
x-ray crystal structure of aristolochene synthase from aspergillus terreus and evolution of templates for the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate.aristolochene synthase from aspergillus terreus catalyzes the cyclization of the universal sesquiterpene precursor, farnesyl diphosphate, to form the bicyclic hydrocarbon aristolochene. the 2.2 a resolution x-ray crystal structure of aristolochene synthase reveals a tetrameric quaternary structure in which each subunit adopts the alpha-helical class i terpene synthase fold with the active site in the "open", solvent-exposed conformation. intriguingly, the 2.15 a resolution crystal structure of t ...200717261032
a macrokinetic modelling of the biosynthesis of lovastatin by aspergillus terreus.in this work a simple kinetic model to describe the biosynthesis of lovastatin by aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 was proposed. several series of experiments were conducted at different media compositions. the concentrations of c- and n-sources were changed over a wide range and so were the initial biomass concentrations. from these runs the relationships ruling the substrates uptake, biomass and product formation were learnt. lovastatin biosynthesis appeared to be partly growth associated. the i ...200717602773
[reaction of microorganisms to the digestive fluid of the earthworms].the reaction of soil bacteria and fungi to the digestive fluid of the earthworm aporrectodea caliginosa was studied. the fluid was obtained by centrifugation of the native enzymes of the digestive tract. the inhibition of growth of certain bacteria, spores, and fungal hyphae under the effect of extracts from the anterior and middle sections of the digestive tract of a. caliginosa was discovered for the first time. in bacteria, microcolony formation was inhibited as early as 20-30 s after the app ...200717410875
changing epidemiology of rare mould infections: implications for therapy.there has been an increase in rare mould infections in recent decades. these infections have been reported primarily in severely immunocompromised patients. the emergence of these organisms is multifactorial and can be related to more intense immunosuppression, the prolonged survival of patients who have what were previously fatal diseases, and the selective pressure of broad spectrum antifungal agents used for prophylaxis or therapy. among these rare mould infections, the zygomycetes are the mo ...200717722951
biochemical characterization of the minimal polyketide synthase domains in the lovastatin nonaketide synthase lovb.the biosynthesis of lovastatin in aspergillus terreus requires two megasynthases. the lovastatin nonaketide synthase, lovb, synthesizes the intermediate dihydromonacolin l using nine malonyl-coenzyme a molecules, and is a reducing, iterative type i polyketide synthase. the iterative type i polyketide synthase is mechanistically different from bacterial type i polyketide synthases and animal fatty acid synthases. we have cloned the minimal polyketide synthase domains of lovb as standalone protein ...200717466016
influence of amphotericin b and amphotericin b colloidal dispersion on the functions of human phagocytes in defence against aspergillus species.this study investigated the in vitro effects of amphotericin b and amphotericin b colloidal dispersion (abcd) on phagocytosis and inhibition of germination of clinical isolates of aspergillus spp. by monocyte-derived macrophages (mdms). both amphotericin b and abcd caused significant reductions in uptake of conidia of aspergillus spp. by mdms (p < 0.01). the inhibition of germination was superior with conidia of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus isolates. aspergill ...200717486378
a colorimetric and spectrophotometric method for in vitro susceptibility testing of aspergillus species against caspofungin.the in vitro susceptibility of 45 aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus and aspergillus terreus isolates against caspofungin (cas) was assessed by the clsi reference method with spectrophotometric reading and by a colorimetric method that employed the dye mtt. perfect agreement was found between the minimal effective concentrations (mecs) and the mic-2 values (50% growth reduction) obtained by the mtt method. the agreement found between the mics obtained by the clsi and the mtt method was de ...200717510858
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with hematological malignancy caused by aspergillus terreus and in vitro susceptibility of a. terreus isolate to micafungin.a 35-year-old man developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (ipa) with severe neutropenia after umbilical cord stem cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia. filamentous fungus isolated from his sputum was identified as aspergillus terreus. despite systemic amphotericin b (amph) administration, ipa progressed. however, intravenous administration of micafungin (mcfg) and oral itraconazole improved clinical data and symptoms, although he later died of massive hemoptysis. examination ...200717541234
[anti-fungi activity of organic extracts from the tree fagara monophylla (rutaceae) in venezuela].the tree fagara monophylla ranges throughout tropical america. the genus fagara has a diversity of alkaloid compounds with antibiotic properties; nevertheless, there are few reports antifungal activity of its organic compounds. organic extracts from venezuelan f. monophylla were tested for antimicrobial activity against aspergillus terreus, a. flavus, penicillium digitatum, p. funiculosum, p. citrinum, paecilomyces and candida albicans. minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) was determined. the ...200719086382
the effect of antifungal agents and human monocytes on in vitro galactomannan release by aspergillus spp. in liquid culture medium.invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is increasing in incidence in immunosuppressed patients. diagnosis of this infection is problematic, relying on clinical suspicion and computerized tomography of the thorax and sinuses. an assay capable of detecting the fungal cell wall component galactomannan (gm) as a sign of aspergillus infection is in use in patients with hematological malignancies. the aim of this study was to investigate the release of gm during growth of two medically important species, as ...200718184406
inhibitory effect of koji aspergillus terreus on alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia.the compounds that could inhibit the activity of a-glucosidase are potentially used for antidiabetic by suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia. this research aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic activity in a. terreus koji extracted by ethyl acetate. the extracts was dissolved in methanol: water (1:4), followed by fractionations with n-hexane, methylene chloride and ethyl acetate. each fraction was assayed for its activity against a-glucosidase. the active fraction was purified by column chroma ...200719090111
supplementation of the cultivation media with b-group vitamins enhances lovastatin biosynthesis by aspergillus terreus.the impact of the supplementation of cultivation media with b-group vitamins on the biosynthesis of lovastatin (mevinolinic acid) by aspergillus terreus atcc20542 was investigated. a hypothesis was formulated that as the biosynthesis of lovastatin requires a high throughput of coenzymes in the cells, the application of its precursors in the form of b-group vitamins might positively influence the process. in a nitrogen-deficient medium the b-group vitamins, both single, especially nicotinamide, p ...200716887228
metal complexes of schiff base derived from sulphametrole and o-vanilin. synthesis, spectral, thermal characterization and biological activity.metal complexes of schiff base derived from condensation of o-vanilin (3-methoxysalicylaldehyde) and sulfametrole [n(1)-(4-methoxy-1,2,5-thiadiazole-3-yl)sulfanilamide] (h2l) are reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, ir, 1h nmr, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance, mass spectra, uv-vis and thermal analysis (tga). from the elemental analyses data, the complexes were proposed to have the general formulae [m2x3(hl)(h2o)5].yh2o (where m=mn(ii), co(ii), ni(ii), cu( ...200716891151
[aspergillus spp. in risk areas of transplant patients in a university hospital].as a consequence of the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients, cases of aspergillosis, due to the opportunist character of this fungus, have increased considerably. aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus niger have been found in air and water samples of the majority of investigated hospitals. the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of aspergilli in transplant patients areas at the hospital universitario of bogotá, colombia. samples of air w ...200819071892
a 1-year aspergillus terreus surveillance study at the university hospital of innsbruck: molecular typing of environmental and clinical isolates.aspergillus terreus appears to have become an increasingly frequent cause of opportunistic infections in the university hospital of innsbruck (uhi) and is of serious concern because of in vivo and in vitro resistance to amphotericin b. in order to determine the possible relationship between environmental contamination by a. terreus and the occurrence of invasive aspergillosis, a 1-year prospective study (2004-2005) was carried out in the uhi. isolates obtained from air samples of various high-ri ...200819076844
clinicopathologic and diagnostic imaging characteristics of systemic aspergillosis in 30 dogs.systemic aspergillosis is a serious disease of dogs for which the clinical characteristics are poorly described.200818647155
breakpoints for posaconazole susceptibility testing: background and discussion about the need of establishing values.posaconazole is a new antifungal agent, which exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against fungi including aspergillus terreus, some zygomycetes and dematiaceous fungi. out of the group of triazole antifungal agents, it is the only compound for which interpretive breakpoints have not been established have not yet been established for candida spp. as reliable breakpoints are useful in the practical management of patients with fungal infections, it is desirable to establish the same for all avail ...200818721327
in vitro interactions of itraconazole and micafungin against clinically important filamentous fungi.the in vitro interactions between itraconazole and micafungin against 133 strains of filamentous fungi of clinical interest were evaluated using a checkerboard method. overall, synergistic interactions were observed against 30% of the strains tested. in the cases of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, fonsecaea spp. and sporothrix schenckii, synergistic interactions were observed against > or = 50% of the strains tested. for the rest of the fungi the interaction was i ...200818762407
cloning and functional characterization of the cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (cad) gene from aspergillus terreus.a filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus produces itaconic acid, which is predicted to be derived from cis-aconitic acid via catalysis by cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (cad) in the carbon metabolism of the fungus. to clarify the enzyme's function and a pathway for itaconic acid biosynthesis, we cloned a novel gene encoding the enzyme. the open reading frame of this gene (cad1) consists of 1,529 bp encoding 490 amino acids and is interrupted by a single intron. among the identified proteins in ...200818584171
mold species in dust from the international space station identified and quantified by mold-specific quantitative pcr.dust was collected over a period of several weeks in 2007 from hepa filters in the u.s. laboratory module of the international space station (iss). the dust was returned on the space shuttle atlantis, mixed, sieved and the dna was extracted. using a dna-based method called mold-specific quantitative pcr (msqpcr), 39 molds were measured in the dust. potential opportunistic pathogens aspergillus flavus and aspergillus niger and potential moderate toxin producers penicillium chrysogenum and penicil ...200818602989
purification and properties of a novel broad substrate specific alcohol oxidase from aspergillus terreus mtcc 6324.an alcohol oxidase was isolated from the microsome of n-hexadecane grown aspergillus terreus and purified by ion exchange chromatography. the oxidase was found to act on short chain-, long chain-, secondary-, and aromatic-alcohol substrates with highest affinity for n-heptanol (k(m)=0.498 mm, k(cat)=2.7x10(2) s(-1)). the native protein molecular mass was 269+/-5 kda and the subunit molecular masses were 85-, 63-, 43-, 27-, and 13-kda. the isoelectric point of the proteins was within 8.3-8.5. hig ...200818639656
[fungi microbiot of melipona subnitida ducke (hymenoptera: apidae)].this paper reports on the occurrence of filamentous fungi found on the surface of the bees body from the specie melipona subnitida ducke that inhabits rocky places on the semi-arid northeastern brazil. bees with cause of natural death were collected of beehives belonging to the centro de multiplicação de animais silvestres of the universidade federal rural do semi-arido. we found the fungi: aspergillus sp. 6 (37.5%); aspergillus niger 2 (12.5%); penicilium sp. 2 (12.5%); aspergillus terreus 1 (6 ...200818641909
significant alterations in the epidemiology and treatment outcome of invasive fungal infections in patients with hematological malignancies.invasive fungal infections (ifi) remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. this retrospective single-center study analyzed incidence, treatment and outcome of invasive fungal infections in 1,095 patients with hematological malignancies receiving either cytoreductive chemotherapy or autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our institution between 1995 and 2004. ifi occurred in 167/1,095 (15%) patients with a significant increase ov ...200818982251
molecular and biochemical evaluation of genetic effect of calotropis procera (ait.) latex on aspergillus terreus (thom).the present study was conducted to observe the genotoxic effect of latex of calotropis procera. dense conidial suspensions of aspergillus terreus thorn were treated with different concentrations of calotropis latex and assayed for percentage survival, auxotrophic mutants, dna and total protein contents and further subjected to rapd and sds-page tests. it was found that latex of calotropis procera had potent lethal and mutagenic activities. percentage survival decreased as concentration or time o ...200819024171
in vitro activity of amphotericin b against aspergillus terreus isolates from different countries and regions. 200819129077
aspergillus terreus brain abscess mimicking tumor progression in a patient with treated glioblastoma multiforme.to detail a case of aspergillus terreus brain abscess in a patient undergoing treatment for malignant glioma. central nervous system aspergillosis usually occurs in patients with hematopoietic neoplasms or post transplantation, not in those with solid tumors. most systemic invasive mold infections are attributable to aspergillus fumigatus or aspergillus flavus.200819130738
discovery of six families of fungal defensin-like peptides provides insights into origin and evolution of the csalphabeta defensins.the defensins with a conserved cysteine-stabilized alpha-helix and beta-sheet (csalphabeta) structural motif are a group of unique antimicrobial polypeptides widely distributed in plants and animals. recently, one defensin-like peptide (dlp) with high degree of sequence and structural similarity to defensins from ancient arthropods and molluscs has been identified in a saprophytic fungus [mygind, p.h., fischer, r.l., schnorr, k.m., hansen, m.t., sönksen, c.p., ludvigsen, s., raventós, d., buskov ...200817675235
hyphal growth patterns and recurrence of fungal keratitis after lamellar keratoplasty.to evaluate growth patterns of fungal pathogens in corneas and recurrence of fungal keratitis after lamellar keratoplasty (lk).200817919731
purification and characterization of a novel endo-beta-1,4-glucanase from the thermoacidophilic aspergillus terreus.an endo-beta-1,4-glucanase from a thermoacidophilic fungus, aspergillus terreus m11, was purified 18-fold with 14% yield and a specific activity of 67 u mg(-1) protein. the optimal ph was 2 and the cellulase was stable from ph 2 to 5. the cellulase had a temperature optimum of 60 degrees c measured over 30 min and retained more than 60% of its activity after heating at 70 degrees c for 1 h. the molecular mass of the cellulase was about 25 kda. its activity was inhibited by 77% by hg(2+) (2 mm) a ...200817928959
antimicrobial activity of some important adiantum species used traditionally in indigenous systems of medicine.adiantum linn. of adiantaceae family is one of the most common and widely distributed species. ethnomedicinally, the genus is important and popularly known as "hansraj" in ayurvedic system of medicine. it has been used in cold, tumors of spleen, liver and other viscera, skin diseases, bronchitis and inflammatory diseases. it is also considered as tonic and diuretic. in the present study its four important species, i.e. adiantum capillus-veneris, adiantum peruvianum, adiantum venustum and adiantu ...200817997240
a gene having sequence homology to isoamyl alcohol oxidase is transcribed during patulin production in penicillium griseofulvum.the genes for the patulin biosynthetic pathway are most likely arranged in a cluster, as is often the case for other mycotoxins. with this in mind, genewalking has been performed to identify genes both upstream and downstream of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene. a gene present in penicillium griseofulvum nrrl 2159a had high sequence homology to the isoamyl alcohol oxidase (iao) gene and was detected downstream of the idh gene and in the same orientation. by virtue of the presence of a si ...200818000703
involvement of tetrahymena pyriformis and selected fungi in the elimination of anthracene, and toxicity assessment of the biotransformation products.anthracene (ac) is a non-mutagenic and non-carcinogenic, low-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon present in the environment. its toxicity can be dramatically increased after solar-light exposure. biotransformation capacities of ac by tetrahymena pyriformis and a selection of eight micromycetes were studied, and the ability of these microorganisms to detoxify the polluted ecosystems was assessed. we showed that t. pyriformis was able to accumulate high amounts of ac without any trans ...200817257678
broad substrate cytochrome p450 monooxygenase activity in the cells of aspergillus terreus mtcc 6324.cytochrome p450 (cyp) monooxygenase activities with different category of substrates namely, alkanes, alkane derivatives, alcohols, aromatic compounds, organic solvents, and steroids were detected in the cells of aspergillus terreus. high cyp specific activity was observed when methanol (5.6+/-0.017 u mg(-1)), acetone (7.76+/-0.02 u mg(-1)), dimethylsulphoxide (dmso) (9.70+/-0.005 u mg(-1)), n-hexadecane (4.39+/-0.02 u mg(-1)), or n-octadecane (4.23+/-0.01 u mg(-1)) were used as substrates. sign ...200817251009
caspofungin-mediated beta-glucan unmasking and enhancement of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil activity against aspergillus and non-aspergillus hyphae.we investigated whether caspofungin and other echinocandins have immune-enhancing properties that influence human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (pmn)-mediated mold hyphal damage.200818500936
quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative pcr after treatment with propidium monoazide (pma).a method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, mucor racemosus, rhizopus stolonifer and paecilomyces variotii. to test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 degrees c or held at 5 degrees c (controls) for 1 h. polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 microm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either pbs or pma. pro ...200818160156
dna microarray based on arrayed-primer extension technique for identification of pathogenic fungi responsible for invasive and superficial mycoses.an oligonucleotide microarray based on the arrayed-primer extension (apex) technique has been developed to simultaneously identify pathogenic fungi frequently isolated from invasive and superficial infections. species-specific oligonucleotide probes complementary to the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (its1 and its2) region were designed for 24 species belonging to 10 genera, including candida species (candida albicans, candida dubliniensis, candida famata, candida glabrata, candida tropical ...200818160452
activities of voriconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin b in vitro against 590 moulds from 323 patients in the voriconazole phase iii clinical studies.fungal pathogens from the voriconazole trials were identified and tested for susceptibility at two reference laboratories.200818222957
invasive aspergillus terreus sinusitis with orbitocranial extension: case report.aspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses is infrequent and usually involves the species aspergillus fumigatus and a. flavus. the maxillary sinus is the most common sinus to be affected. invasive cranio-orbital aspergillosis originating in the sphenoid sinus is rare and mostly occurs in immunocompromised patients with poor outcomes. we present a case of invasive a. terreus sphenoidal sinusitis with intraorbital and intracranial extension in an immunocompetent patient.200818262257
potential basis for amphotericin b resistance in aspergillus terreus.this study investigated the basis for intrinsic amphotericin b (amb) resistance in aspergillus terreus. the ergosterol content, cell wall composition, and lipid peroxidation level had no influence on amb resistance. the level of catalase production in a. terreus was significantly higher than that in a. fumigatus (p < 0.05). this higher-level production may contribute to amb resistance in a. terreus since oxidative damage has been implicated in amb action.200818268082
butyrolactone i derivatives from aspergillus terreus carrying an unusual sulfate moiety.in our ongoing search for new bioactive metabolites from microbial resources, aspergillus terreus (hki0499) was examined by chemical metabolite profiling. together with the known butyrolactone i ( 3), the unusual sulfate derivatives butyrolactone i 3-sulfate ( 1) and butyrolactone i 4''-sulfate ( 2) were discovered. the chemical structures were determined by nmr and ms data analyses. all compounds were tested on cdk1/cyclin b, cdk5/p25, dyrk1a, ck1, and gsk-3alpha/beta kinases; compounds 2 and 3 ...200818271552
transuterine transmission of aspergillus terreus in a case of disseminated canine aspergillosis.aspergillus terreus was isolated from the organs of a german shepherd pup removed from the bitch by cesarean intervention. in the following days, the bitch developed signs of canine disseminated aspergillosis and was euthanized. the fungus was isolated from a necrotic lesion in the uterus and other organs. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the transuterine transmission of a. terreus during a case of canine disseminated aspergillosis.200818324497
production and characterization of cellulolytic enzymes from the thermoacidophilic fungal aspergillus terreus m11 under solid-state cultivation of corn stover.the production of extracellular cellulases by a newly isolated thermoacidophilic fungus, aspergillus terreus m11, on the lignocellulosic materials was studied in solid-state fermentation (ssf). the results showed that the high-level cellulase activity was produced at 45 degrees c ph 3 and moisture 80% with corn stover and 0.8% yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen sources. 581 u endoglucanase activity, 243 u filter paper activity and 128 u beta-glucosidase activity per gram of carbon source were ...200818346891
domain-domain interactions in the iterative type i polyketide synthase atx from aspergillus terreus. 200818412189
lovastatin biosynthetic genes of aspergillus terreus are expressed differentially in solid-state and in liquid submerged fermentation.molecular studies were performed to establish the causes of the superior lovastatin productivity of a novel solid-state fermentation (ssf) process, in relation with liquid submerged fermentation (smf; 20 mg/g vs. 0.65 mg/ml). in ssf, biosynthetic genes love and lovf transcripts accumulated to high levels from day 1 to day 7. in this period, love transcript showed 4.6-fold higher accumulation levels (transcription) than the highest level detected in smf (day 5). lovf transcript showed two-fold hi ...200818414850
a new spiroketal from aspergillus terreus, an endophytic fungus in opuntia ficusindica mill.a new spiroketal, named aspergiketal (1) was isolated from the culture broth of aspergillus terreus, an endophytic fungus in the stems of the plant opuntia ficusindica mill., together with two known compounds, physcion (2) and asterric acid (3). their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2d-nmr techniques.200818383227
x-ray crystallographic studies of substrate binding to aristolochene synthase suggest a metal ion binding sequence for catalysis.the universal sesquiterpene precursor, farnesyl diphosphate (fpp), is cyclized in an mg(2+)-dependent reaction catalyzed by the tetrameric aristolochene synthase from aspergillus terreus to form the bicyclic hydrocarbon aristolochene and a pyrophosphate anion (pp(i)) coproduct. the 2.1-a resolution crystal structure determined from crystals soaked with fpp reveals the binding of intact fpp to monomers a-c, and the binding of pp(i) and mg(2+)(b) to monomer d. the 1.89-a resolution structure of th ...200818385128
investigation into the production of 2-pentylfuran by aspergillus fumigatus and other respiratory pathogens in vitro and human breath samples.our objective was to identify, for diagnostic purposes, potential volatile biomarkers of human microbial pathogens. we analysed the head space of cultures of medically important bacterial and fungal respiratory pathogens for 2-pentylfuran (2pf) production through the use of solid phase micro extraction (spme) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (gc/ms). our results confirm that 2pf is consistently produced by aspergillus fumigatus, fusarium spp., aspergillus terreus, aspergillus flavus and ...200818404548
[diversity of facultatively anaerobic microscopic mycelial fungi in soils].the numbers of microscopic fungi isolated from soil samples after anaerobic incubation varied from tens to several hundreds of cfu per one gram of soil; a total of 30 species was found. this group is composed primarily of mitotic fungi of the ascomycete affinity belonging to the orders hypocreales (fusarium solani, f. oxysporum, fusarium sp., clonostachys grammicospora, c. rosea. acremonium sp., gliocladium penicilloides, trichoderma aureoviride, t. harzianum, t. polysporum, t. viride. t. koning ...200818365728
[fungal infection in the otorinolaryngologic area].recent trends of fungal infections of the ear and nose were introduced from the viewpoint of otolaryngologic practice. aspergillus terreus was the most common pathogen of otomycosis followed by a. niger and a.flavus. aspergillosis is the most common fungal disease in the paranasal sinuses. unilateral opacity of the maxillary sinus which contains flecks of calcification was specifically found by ct-study. these two fungal infections are easily treated surgical removal of the fungus ball and estab ...200819069094
peritonitis due to aspergillus terreus in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.aspergillus peritonitis is a rare, potentially fatal complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (capd). we report a case of capd peritonitis caused by aspergillus terreus in a 55-year-old female patient.200818254757
cloning and characterization of monacolin k biosynthetic gene cluster from monascus pilosus.monacolin k is a secondary metabolite synthesized by polyketide synthases (pks) from monascus, and it has the same structure as lovastatin, which is mainly produced by aspergillus terreus. in the present study, a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) clone, mps01, was screened from the bac library constructed from monascus pilosus bcrc38072 genomic dna. the putative monacolin k biosynthetic gene cluster was found within a 42 kb region in the mps01 clone. the deduced amino acid sequences encoded ...200818578535
microbial production and biomedical applications of lovastatin.lovastatin is a potent hypercholesterolemic drug used for lowering blood cholesterol. lovastatin acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. commercially lovastatin is produced by a variety of filamentous fungi including penicillium species, monascus ruber and aspergillus terreus as a secondary metabolite. production of lovastatin by fermentation decreases the production cost compared to costs of chemic ...200821369428
acyltransferase mediated polyketide release from a fungal megasynthase.lovf is a highly reducing polyketide synthase (hr-pks) from the filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus. lovf synthesizes the alpha-s-methylbutyrate side chain that is subsequently transferred to monacolin j to yield the cholesterol-lowering natural product lovastatin. in the report, we expressed the full length lovf and reconstituted the megasynthase activities in vitro. we confirmed the diketide product of lovf is offloaded from the lovf acp domain by the dissociated acyltransferase lovd. this ...200919530726
physically discrete beta-lactamase-type thioesterase catalyzes product release in atrochrysone synthesis by iterative type i polyketide synthase.ateg_08451 in aspergillus terreus, here named atrochrysone carboxylic acid synthase (acas), is a nonreducing, iterative type i polyketide synthase that contains no thioesterase domain. in vitro, reactions of acas with malonyl-coa yielded a polyketide intermediate, probably attached to its acyl carrier protein (acp). the addition of ateg_08450, here named atrochrysone carboxyl acp thioesterase (acte), to the reaction resulted in the release of products derived from atrochrysone carboxylic acid, s ...200919549600
mycobiota and concentration of ochratoxin a in concentrated poultry feed from venezuela.the main objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency distribution of mycobiota and the concentration of ochratoxin a (ota) in 50 samples from one company of commercial brand poultry feed produced in venezuela. the concentration of ota in the samples analyzed was determined using the competitive elisa method. the most frequently isolated genera of moulds were aspergillus (36%) and penicillium (20%). of these genera, the most frequently isolated species were aspergillus flavus, aspergill ...200919580016
purification and characterization of thermostable alpha-galactosidase from aspergillus terreus (gr).an extracellular thermostable alpha-galactosidase producing aspergillus terreus (gr) strain was isolated from soil sample using guar gum as sole source of carbon. it was purified to apparent homogeneity by acetone precipitation, gel filtration followed by deae-sephacel chromatographic step. the purified enzyme showed a single band after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). the molecular weight of the purified enzyme after sds-page was 108 kda. the enzyme showed o ...200918543114
studies of the production of fungal polyketides in aspergillus nidulans by using systems biology tools.many filamentous fungi produce polyketide molecules with great significance as human pharmaceuticals; these molecules include the cholesterol-lowering compound lovastatin, which was originally isolated from aspergillus terreus. the chemical diversity and potential uses of these compounds are virtually unlimited, and it is thus of great interest to develop a well-described microbial production platform for polyketides. using genetic engineering tools available for the model organism aspergillus n ...200919168657
harnessing hsp90 function as a powerful, broadly effective therapeutic strategy for fungal infectious disease.invasive fungal infections are a leading cause of mortality among immunocompromised individuals. treatment is notoriously difficult with the limited armamentarium of antifungal drugs, whose efficacy is compromised by host toxicity, a limited activity spectrum, or the emergence of drug resistance. we previously established that the molecular chaperone hsp90 enables the emergence and maintenance of fungal drug resistance. for the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, candida albicans, hsp90 me ...200919196973
aspergillus flavus: an emerging non-fumigatus aspergillus species of significance.invasive aspergillosis is rare in immunocompetent people but contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients. the majority (approximately 80%) of invasive aspergillus infections is caused by aspergillus fumigatus. the second most frequent (approximately 15-20%) pathogenic species is aspergillus flavus and to a lesser extent, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus. aspergillus flavus has emerged as a predominant pathogen in patients with fungal sinusitis and fun ...200919207851
aspergillus terreus complex.aspergillus terreus can cause invasive infections in humans, which are often refractory to therapy with the antifungal drug amphotericin b and have a propensity to dissemination. the organism has diverse colony morphology, and sub-typing studies have demonstrated that isolates of a. terreus are diverse in their genotypes. however, detailed phylogenetic studies of section terrei employing sequence information from protein coding regions have not been thus far attempted. interestingly, a. terreus ...200919291598
aspergillus alabamensis, a new clinically relevant species in the section terrei.phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins enolase (enoa), beta-tubulin (bena), and calmodulin (calm) of a large number of isolates within the section terrei, genus aspergillus, revealed the presence of a new cryptic species within this section, aspergillus alabamensis. most members of this new cryptic species were recovered as colonizing isolates from immunocompetent patient populations, had decreased in vitro susceptibilities to the antifu ...200919304950
insect-specific polyketide synthases (pkss), potential pks-nonribosomal peptide synthetase hybrids, and novel pks clades in tropical fungi.polyketides draw much attention because of their potential use in pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. this study identifies an abundant pool of polyketide synthase (pks) genes from local isolates of tropical fungi found in thailand in three different ecological niches: insect pathogens, marine inhabitants, and lichen mutualists. we detected 149 pks genes from 48 fungi using pcr with pks-specific degenerate primers. we identified and classified 283 additional pks genes from 13 funga ...200919346345
dissociation and reconstitution studies of a broad substrate specific multimeric alcohol oxidase protein produced by aspergillus terreus.a multimeric alcohol oxidase from aspergillus terreus was dissociated and simultaneously deflavinated into catalytically inactive fad-free subunits when incubated with 0.74 m beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-me) for 8 h at 4 degrees c. this dissociation process had traversed through two fad-associated intermediate proteins, between these one of them showed the enzyme activity. on removal of beta-me, the multimeric apoprotein was regenerated, which was, however, catalytically inactive. reactivation of ...200919060312
occurrence and relevance of filamentous fungi in respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis--a review.the colonization of airways by filamentous fungi and the development of respiratory infections require some predisposing factors as encountered in patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). indeed, the defective mucociliary clearance which characterizes the disease is associated with local immunological disorders. in addition, the prolonged therapy with antibiotics and the use of corticosteroid treatments also facilitate fungal growth. an important fungal biota has been described in respiratory secreti ...200919107638
patterns of susceptibility of aspergillus isolates recovered from patients enrolled in the transplant-associated infection surveillance network.we analyzed antifungal susceptibilities of 274 clinical aspergillus isolates from transplant recipients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis collected as part of the transplant-associated infection surveillance network (transnet) and examined the relationship between mic and mortality at 6 or 12 weeks. antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) m38-a2 broth dilution method for amphotericin b (amb), itraconazole (itr), voric ...200919692558
telomere organization in the ligninolytic basidiomycete pleurotus ostreatus.telomeres are structural and functional chromosome regions that are essential for the cell cycle to proceed normally. they are, however, difficult to map genetically and to identify in genome-wide sequence programs because of their structure and repetitive nature. we studied the telomeric and subtelomeric organization in the basidiomycete pleurotus ostreatus using a combination of molecular and bioinformatics tools that permitted us to determine 19 out of the 22 telomeres expected in this fungus ...200919114509
primary cutaneous aspergillosis in a patient with cutaneous t-cell lymphoma.we present a case of primary cutaneous aspergillosis caused by aspergillus terreus in a patient with cutaneous t-cell lymphoma. a 41-year-old woman bruised her left shin and presented with a 1 x 2 cm ecchymosis on the upper third of the left shin for over 6 months. before mycological examination and sequential biopsies, the patient was erroneously treated with antibiotics and local debridement. after final diagnosis of cutaneous aspergillosis caused by a. terreus cutaneous t-cell lymphoma on the ...200918983429
rapid detection of common pathogenic aspergillus species by a novel real-time pcr approach.invasive aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. standard culture based methods for the diagnosis of aspergillus infections have limited sensitivity and specificity and are time consuming. the recent availability of novel molecular based diagnostic techniques offers the potential of rapid, highly sensitive and specific pathogen detection. in this study, we aimed to develop a diagnostic assay to detect simultaneously common patho ...200918643890
in vitro activities of various antifungal drugs against aspergillus terreus: global assessment using the methodology of the european committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing.this study presents in vitro susceptibility data for clinical (n = 48) and environmental (n = 31) isolates of aspergillus terreus against nine antifungal agents. the methodology of the european committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing was applied. posaconazole and anidulafungin had the lowest and amphotericin b the highest mics. no differences in susceptibility patterns were observed between environmental and clinical isolates.200919064891
molecular detection and identification of aspergillus spp. from clinical samples using real-time pcr.the definite and rapid diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is necessary because of the high mortality caused. the objective of this study was to evaluate a real-time pcr assay to detect aspergillus spp. in clinical samples, based on the light cycler technology. specificity was assessed by using dna extracted from pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria/fungi from spanish collection including: two aspergillus flavus, four aspergillus fumigatus, two aspergillus nidulans, two aspergillus niger and t ...200918643921
aspernolides a and b, butenolides from a marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus.two aromatic butenolides, aspernolides a and b along with the known metabolites, butyrolactone i, terrein and physcion were isolated from the fermentation broth of a soft coral derived fungus aspergillus terreus. the structures of these metabolites were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. the absolute stereochemistry of aspernolides a (1) and b (2) was established by their preparation from the known butyrolactone i. biogenetically aspernolides a and b must be derived from b ...200919081582
annotation of stress-response proteins in the aspergilli.stress-response proteins of aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus clavatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae, aspergillus terreus and neosartorya fischeri (3908 in total) were annotated and grouped according to stress types (http://193.6.155.82/aspergillusstress/). all genomes harboured elements of the sska-hoga/saka stress signalling pathway. there are accumulating data pointing at the importance of sska-hoga/saka signalling in different types of stre ...200918703157
aspergillus terreus accessory conidia are unique in surface architecture, cell wall composition and germination kinetics.infection with aspergillus terreus is more likely to result in invasive, disseminated disease when compared to other aspergillus species; importantly this species appears to be less susceptible to the antifungal drug amphotericin b. unique to this species is the ability to produce specialized structures denoted as accessory conidia (ac) directly on hyphae both in vitro and in vivo. with the hypothesis that production of ac by a. terreus may enhance virulence of this organism, we analyzed the phe ...200919888344
complete reconstitution of a highly reducing iterative polyketide synthase.highly reducing iterative polyketide synthases are large, multifunctional enzymes that make important metabolites in fungi, such as lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug from aspergillus terreus. we report efficient expression of the lovastatin nonaketide synthase (lovb) from an engineered strain of saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as complete reconstitution of its catalytic function in the presence and absence of cofactors (the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and ...200919900898
invasive aspergillosis caused by aspergillus terreus in a living donor liver transplant recipient successfully treated by caspofungin.summary invasive aspergillosis is one of the most severe complications after liver transplantation characterised by early dissemination of disease and high mortality. recent data show that the prognosis is diminishing even further when aspergillus terreus, a strain resistant to standard treatment with amphotericin, is isolated. we report a high risk liver transplant recipient with multiple co-morbidities including renal failure and allograft dysfunction in whom pulmonary aspergillosis due to a. ...200920051012
aspergillus terreus nadp-glutamate dehydrogenase is kinetically distinct from the allosteric enzyme of other aspergilli.nadp-glutamate dehydrogenase (nadp-gdh) located at the interface of carbon and nitrogen metabolism has the potential to dictate fungal carbon flux. nadp-gdh from aspergillus terreus, itaconate producer and an opportunistic pathogen, was purified to homogeneity using novel reactive dye-affinity resins. the pure enzyme was extensively characterized for its biochemical and kinetic properties and compared with its well studied aspergillus niger counterpart. the a. terreus nadp-gdh was more stable an ...200919619653
high lovastatin production by aspergillus terreus in solid-state fermentation on polyurethane foam: an artificial inert support.a novel solid-state fermentation (ssf) process, using high-density polyurethane foam (puf) as an inert support, was developed for the production of lovastatin. results indicated that forced aeration is not conducive to metabolite production since it reduces the solid medium's moisture content. the highest level of production was achieved in closed flasks (cf), in which 7.5 mg of lovastatin was generated per gram of dry culture, equivalent to 493 mug/mg dry mycelium. however, since mycelial growt ...200919619855
biotechnological production of itaconic acid and its biosynthesis in aspergillus terreus.more than 80,000 tons of itaconic acid (ia) is produced worldwide each year and is sold at a price of around us$ 2/kg. the ia production yield from sugar is higher than 80 g/l. the widespread use of ia in synthetic resins, synthetic fibers, plastics, rubbers, surfactants, and oil additives has resulted in an increased demand for this product. however, at present, the ia production capacity exceeds the demand because this product has a restricted range of applications. studies have been actively ...200919629471
invasive mould infections: a multi-disciplinary update.systemic fungal infections remain a significant cause of mortality in neutropenic and immunocompromised patients, despite advances in their diagnosis and treatment. the incidence of such infections is rising due to the use of intensive chemotherapy regimens in patients with solid tumours or haematological cancers, the increasing numbers of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants, and the use of potent immunosuppressive therapy in patients with autoimmune disorders. in add ...200919444698
physiological, morphological and kinetic aspects of lovastatin biosynthesis by aspergillus terreus.this review focuses on selected aspects of lovastatin biosynthesis by aspergillus terreus. biochemical issues concerning this process are presented to introduce polyketide metabolites, in particular lovastatin. the formation of other than lovastatin polyketide metabolites by a. terreus is also shown, with special attention to (+)-geodin and sulochrin. the core of this review discusses the physiology of a. terreus with regard to the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources, cultivation broth aera ...200919452466
purification and properties of an endoglucanase of aspergillus terreus dsm 826.endoglucanase (eg) from a. terreus dsm 826 grown on sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source was purified using acetone fractionation, then a sepharose-4b chromatographic column, with purification of about 27-fold and 10.5% recovery. the optimum temperature and ph for activity of the purified eg were found to be 50 degrees c and ph 4.8, respectively. the purified enzyme can stand heating up to 50 degrees c for 1 h without apparent loss of activity. however, the enzyme, incubated at 80 degrees c for ...200919455521
cutaneous infection caused by aspergillus terreus.aspergillus species are widely distributed in nature, and more than 30 species have been reported to be involved in human and animal infection. cutaneous infections due to aspergillus terreus are particularly rare. in this report, we describe a case of cutaneous infection caused by a. terreus in a paediatric patient who underwent surgical treatment for an open tibial fracture secondary to an agricultural accident.200919502369
screening and selection of lovastatin hyper-producing mutants of aspergillus terreus using cyclic mutagenesis.134 fungal cultures isolated from different soil samples were screened for lovastatin production. of these, 38 isolates produced different levels of lovastatin. an aspergillus terreus strain gd13, producing 190 mg/l of lovastatin was selected and subjected to a rational mutation-selection programme based on the resistance to lovastatin and fatty acid synthase (fas) inhibitors, viz., iodoacetamide and n-ethylmaleimide. after three cycles of mutagenesis, a hyper-producing mutant (em19) exhibiting ...200919621768
central nervous system aspergillus infection after epidural analgesia: diagnosis, therapeutic challenges, and literature review.aspergillus terreus was identified in an intradural spinal biopsy specimen from an african female with recurrent headache and hydrocephalus. prior laboratory testing of cerebrospinal fluid was nondiagnostic, despite extensive central nervous system (cns) involvement. cns aspergillus infection presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is reviewed in the context of this particularly instructive and difficult case.200919717262
study of codon bias perspective of fungal xylanase gene by multivariate analysis.fungal xylanases has important applications in food, baking, pulp and paper industries in addition to various other industries. xylanases are produced extensively by both bacterial and fungal sources and has tremendous potential of being active at extremes of temperature and ph. in the present study an effort has been made to explore the codon bias perspective of this potential enzyme using bioinformatics tools. multivariate analysis has been used as a tool to study codon bias perspectives of xy ...200919759864
discriminatory protein binding by a library of 96 new affinity resins: a novel dye-affinity chromatography tool-kit.initial acceptance of cibacron blue 3g-a based matrices has made dye-ligand affinity chromatography an attractive proposition. this prompted the synthesis and search for new dye structures. a systematic library of 96 affinity resins was generated using novel analogs of cibacron blue 3g-a and also by varying spacer lengths for immobilization. the library was tested in a batch binding and elution mode using seven different proteins--four aspergillus enzymes namely, nadp-glutamate dehydrogenase, la ...200919766065
profiling differential expression of cellulases and metabolite footprints in aspergillus terreus.this study reports differential expression of endoglucanase (eg) and beta-glucosidase (betag) isoforms of aspergillus terreus. expression of multiple isoforms was observed, in presence of different carbon sources and culture conditions, by activity staining of poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. maximal expression of four eg isoforms was observed in presence of rice straw (28 u/g dw substrate) and corn cobs (1.147 u/ml) under solid substrate and shake flask culture, respectively. furthermo ...201019779865
immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with aspergillus terreus pulmonary infection in an autologous stem cell transplant recipient.we describe an autologous stem cell transplant recipient who developed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (iris) associated with aspergillus terreus invasive pulmonary infection after recovery from neutropenia. clinical and radiological worsening of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis coincident with a robust decline of serum galactomannan values and rising neutrophil counts should be interpreted as iris and should not require changes to antifungal therapy.201019793067
antifungal activity of eugenol against penicillium, aspergillus, and fusarium species.the antifungal activity of eugenol in a model system against aspergilli (aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, and emericella nidulans), penicilli (penicillium expansum, penicillium glabrum, and penicillium italicum), and fusaria (fusarium oxysporum and fusarium avenaceum) was investigated. minimum detection time (time to attain a colony diameter of 1 cm) and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. the effectiveness of the active compound seemed to be strain or genus dependent; 100 mg/liter rep ...201020537272
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