isoterreulactone a, a novel meroterpenoid with anti-acetylcholinesterase activity produced by aspergillus terreus.a new seven-membered lactone type meroterpenoid, isoterreulactone a, was isolated from the solid state fermentation of aspergillus terreus and its structure was established by various spectral analysis. isoterreulactone a inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an ic(50) value of 2.5 microm while did not inhibit butyrylcholinesterase even at 500 microm.200515603953
total structural assignment and absolute configuration of terreinol by 13c and 1h nmr.the carbon-carbon connectivity of terreinol, a new metabolite isolated from aspergillus terreus, and its previous (13)c assignments were confirmed by a two-dimensional inadequate experiment using a few milligrams of the compound with natural (13)c abundance. the carbon-carbon correlations were determined by computational analysis (with >99% probability) of this experiment. additionally, the absolute configuration of terreinol was achieved indirectly via its corresponding secondary alcohol by the ...200515625725
pellet morphology, culture rheology and lovastatin production in cultures of aspergillus terreus.pellet growth of aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 in submerged batch fermentations in stirred bioreactors was used to examine the effects of agitation (impeller tip speed u(t) of 1.01-2.71 ms(-1)) and aeration regimens (air or an oxygen-enriched mixture containing 80% oxygen and 20% nitrogen by volume) on the fungal pellet morphology, broth rheology and lovastatin production. the agitation speed and aeration methods used did not affect the biomass production profiles, but significantly influenced ...200415652430
occurrence of fructosyl-amino acid oxidase-reactive compounds in fungal cells.fructosyl-amino acid oxidase (faod)-reactive fraction (fry) was found in commercial yeast extract. fry showed very hydrophilic property and was adsorbed to phenylboronate silica gel, indicating that it contained the amadori compound. tlc and amino acid analyses revealed that glucosone, lysine, and arginine were produced from fry after incubation with faod. tof-ms analysis confirmed that fry is a mixture of fructosyl lysine and fructosyl arginine. these compounds were also detected in mycelial ex ...200515665502
[farmer's lung cases of a farmer and his son with high bal fluid beta-d glucan levels].a farmer and his son, who treated straw in a cowshed, were admitted to our hospital because of severe dyspnea during summer time. their chest x-ray films revealed bilateral reticulonodular shadows in the middle to lower lung fields. bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) fluid analyses showed a high proportion of lymphocytes and an increased cd4/8 ratio. they were diagnosed with farmer's lung and treated with pulse therapy with methylprednisolone and tapering of steroid. hypoxemia and interstitial shadow ...200415678910
novel method for cell immobilization and its application for production of organic acid.the aim was to develop a novel and simple technique for the entrapment of fungal hyphae.200515715641
parallel capillary electrophoresis for the quantitative screening of fermentation broths containing natural products.directed molecular evolution is a recursive process of controlled genetic diversification and functional screening. the success of this approach is dependent on both the quality of the genetic diversity and the ability to accurately screen a large population of individual genetic variants for those having improved function. in this paper, the application of parallel capillary electrophoresis to rapidly quantitate lovastatin production levels by aspergillus terreus mutants is described. a paralle ...200515721810
cardiac aspergillosis with pedunculated mass in the left ventricle.immunosuppression can allow organisms that are not usually pathogenetic to cause disease; under such circumstances, aspergillus species frequently form large masses of fungal elements. we describe the case of a 12-year-old girl with hematologic remission of leukemia. she had a left ventricular pedunculated mass that was detected by echocardiographic study; at surgery, the presence of aspergillus terreus was confirmed.200415745301
analysis of the influence of tween concentration, inoculum size, assay medium, and reading time on susceptibility testing of aspergillus spp.the influence of several test variables on susceptibility testing of aspergillus spp. was assessed. a collection of 28 clinical isolates was tested against amphotericin b, itraconazole, voriconazole, and terbinafine. inoculum size (10(4) cfu/ml versus 10(5) cfu/ml) and glucose supplementation (0.2% versus 2%) did not have significant effects on antifungal susceptibility testing results and higher inoculum size and glucose concentration did not falsely elevate mics. in addition, antifungal suscep ...200515750092
clinical identification of common species of dermatophytes by pcr and find a fast and efficient way of identifying seven common dermatophytes in clinical practice, we used the techniques of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) targeting topoisomerase ii gene. the dna of 7 dermatophytes, along with candida albicans, aspergillus terreus and aspergillus flavus were amplified by consensus primer dpsd1. they were then subjected to a second pcr with primers dpsd2 and species-specific primers pst and psme separately. ...200415791867
nad deamidation "a new reaction" by an enzyme from aspergillus terreus dsm 826.nad deamidation is a non-previously recognized reaction. this reaction has been found to be catalyzed by extracts of aspergillus terreus dsm 826. conversion of nad to the biosynthetic intermediate, deamido nad, by these extracts, at the optimum ph and temperature did not exceed about 55 of the amount of the substrate added. completion of the reaction was achieved when the extracts were pre-heated at 50 degrees c for 15 min in absence of the substrate. in a very similar manner, the extracts catal ...200515793621
amphotericin b lipid complex in the management of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients.the efficacy and renal safety of amphotericin b lipid complex (ablc) were assessed in 398 patients with invasive aspergillosis. the most common underlying conditions were hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (101/398 [25%]), hematologic malignancy (101/398 [25%]), and solid-organ transplantation (109/398 [27%]). the most common reason for administration of ablc was lack of response to prior antifungal therapy. overall, 65% of patients had a favorable clinical response: 44% were cured or impro ...200515809925
extracellular abts-oxidizing activity of autochthonous fungal strains from argentina in solid medium.the screening for extracellular oxidases and peroxidases from autochthonous filamentous fungi isolated from different substrates is an important step towards the detection of extracellular fungal oxidative systems. thirty-one autochthonous fungal strains from argentina, belonging to different ecophysiological and taxonomic groups, were plate-screened for their ability to produce extracellular oxidoreductases. modified kirk solid medium containing the chromogen 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin ...200015813698
assessment of ribosomal large-subunit d1-d2, internal transcribed spacer 1, and internal transcribed spacer 2 regions as targets for molecular identification of medically important aspergillus species.molecular approaches are now being developed to provide a more rapid and objective identification of fungi compared to traditional phenotypic methods. ribosomal targets, especially the large-subunit rna gene (d1-d2 region) and internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (its1 and its2 regions), have shown particular promise for the molecular identification of some fungi. we therefore conducted an assessment of these regions for the identification of 13 medically important aspergillus species: aspergill ...200515872227
in vitro activities of amphotericin b and voriconazole against aleurioconidia from aspergillus terreus.this study used aleurioconidia as inoculum and compared the mics of amphotericin b and voriconazole to those obtained for conidia of 31 aspergillus terreus strains. for conidia and aleurioconidia, the mic at which 90% of strains were inhibited was 2.5 microg/ml and 5 microg/ml with amphotericin b and 1 microg/ml and 2 microg/ml with voriconazole.200515917567
aspergillus terreus endophthalmitis.we report a case of aspergillus terreus endophthalmitis and review the 4 previously reported cases. immunosuppression, intravenous drug use, intraocular surgery or trauma, and a compatible clinical picture should raise suspicion of the diagnosis. this species often exhibits resistance to amphotericin b and outcomes are poor despite current therapies.200516012022
use of fluorescent probes to determine mics of amphotericin b and caspofungin against candida spp. and aspergillus spp.we investigated the utility of mechanism-based fluorescent probes for determination of mics (fmics) of amphotericin b and caspofungin against candida spp. and aspergillus spp. amphotericin b was selected as a membrane-active antifungal agent, and caspofungin was selected as a cell wall-active agent. fmics were also compared to the mic determined by clsi (formerly nccls) methods. five isolates per species of candida albicans, candida glabrata, candida parapsilosis, aspergillus fumigatus, and aspe ...200516081911
evolutionary relationships among aspergillus terreus isolates and their relatives.aspergillus terreus is a ubiquitous fungus in our environment. it is an opportunistic human pathogen and economically important as the main producer of lovastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug. our aim was to examine the genetic variability of a. terreus and closely related species using molecular and analytical techniques. lovastatin production was examined by hplc. lovastatin was produced by seven isolates belonging to the species a. terreus. rapd analyses were carried out using 25 different ra ...200516096690
posaconazole: clinical pharmacology and potential for management of fungal infections.posaconazole is a novel lipophilic antifungal triazole that inhibits cytochrome p450-dependent 14-alpha demethylase in the biosynthetic pathway of ergosterol. inhibition of this enzyme leads to an accumulation of toxic 14-alpha methylsterols and a depletion of ergosterol, resulting in a perturbation of the function of the fungal cell membrane and blockage of cell growth and division. in vitro, posaconazole has potent and broad-spectrum activity against opportunistic, endemic and dermatophytic fu ...200516107193
studies on the application of immobilization technique for the production of cyclosporin a by a local strain of aspergillus terreus.the formation of cyclosporin a (cy a) by immobilized spores and mycelia of aspergillus terreus was investigated. different carriers were tested as immobilizing carriers, whereby ca-alginate was selected for further experimentation. the role of alginate concentration, biomass weight, ph value of the cultivation medium, repeated utilization of the immobilized fungus as well as the supplementation of different amino acid precursors were studied. best cy a outputs were attained with ca-alginate 3% ( ...200516107751
sesterterpenoids, terretonins a-d, and an alkaloid, asterrelenin, from aspergillus terreus.four new sesterterpenoids, terretonins a-d (1-4), and a new alkaloid, asterrelenin (5), together with five known compounds, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a solid-state fermented culture of aspergillus terreus. their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. the structures of 1, 2, and 5 were confirmed by x-ray crystallographic analysis.200516124769
non-dermatophytic molds as agents of onychomycosis in izmir, turkey - a prospective study.the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of causative non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi in onychomycosis. totally 1,222 (1,222 x 3 = 3,666) samples of nail scrapings from 1,146 patients (from 76 patients two specimens: both from finger- and toe-nails) with prediagnosis of onychomycosis sent to the mycology laboratory from the clinic of dermatology, ege university hospital, izmir, turkey, july 2001-december 2003, were prospectively studied with conventional mycological procedur ...200516170607
micafungin in combination with voriconazole in aspergillus species: a pharmacodynamic approach for detection of combined antifungal activity in vitro.preclinical and clinical evidence indicate that echinocandin-triazole combinations provide enhanced killing versus triazoles alone against some aspergillus isolates, however, in vitro test results designed to detect this combined effect are difficult to interpret.200516188916
epidemiology and outcome of infections due to aspergillus terreus: 10-year single centre experience.aspergillus terreus, a less common pathogen, appears to be an emerging cause of infection at our institution, the medical university hospital of innsbruck. thus the epidemiology and outcome of a. terreus infections over the past 10 years was assessed. we analysed 67 cases of proven invasive aspergillosis (ia) according to the european organisation for research and treatment of cancer/mycoses study group criteria, investigated antifungal susceptibility of amphotericin b (amb), voriconazole and ca ...200516197450
development of a dna microarray for detection and identification of fungal pathogens involved in invasive mycoses.invasive fungal infections have emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. conventional identification of pathogenic fungi in clinical microbiology laboratories is time-consuming and, therefore, often imperfect for the early initiation of an adequate antifungal therapy. we developed a diagnostic microarray for the rapid and simultaneous identification of the 12 most common pathogenic candida and aspergillus species. oligonucleotide probes were designed by ...200516207946
the anticancer activity of the fungal metabolite terrecyclic acid a is associated with modulation of multiple cellular stress response pathways.tumors are dependent on cellular stress responses, in particular the heat shock response, for survival in their hypoxic, acidotic, and nutrient-deprived microenvironments. using cell-based reporter assays, we have identified terrecyclic acid a (tca) from aspergillus terreus, a fungus inhabiting the rhizosphere of opuntia versicolor of the sonoran desert, as a small-molecule inducer of the heat shock response that shows anticancer activity. further characterization suggested that tca also affects ...200516227407
subcellular localization of fructosyl amino acid oxidases in peroxisomes of aspergillus terreus and penicillium janthinellum.fructosyl amino acid oxidase (faod) is the enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deglycation of amadori compounds, such as fructosyl amino acids, yielding the corresponding amino acids, glucosone, and h(2)o(2). in a previous report, we determined the primary structures of cdnas coding for faods from two fungal strains aspergillus terreus ap1 and penicillium janthinellum and we found that both fungal faods included the putative peroxisome targeting signal 1 (pts1) at the carboxyl terminal (yoshida, n. ...199916232435
purification and characterization of an alkaline manganese peroxidase from aspergillus terreus ld-1.we report that aspergillus terreus ld-1 produces an extracellular ligninolytic enzyme, manganese peroxidase (mnp), that reacts under alkaline conditions. this mnp was purified 13.1-fold from the culture supernatant to elicit a single band upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). the molecular weight of this mnp was estimated as either 43 kda by sds-page or 44 kda by gel permeation chromatography, suggesting a monomeric structure. the optimum ph and temperature o ...200216233222
purification and characterization of cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase from aspergillus terreus tn484-m1.cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (cad) was assumed to be a key enzyme in the production of itaconic acid by comparing the activity of cad from aspergillus terreus tn484-m1 with that of cad from the low-itaconate yielding strain aspergillus terreus cm85j. the constitutive cad was purified to homogeneity from a. terreus tn484-m1 by ammonium sulfate fractionation, and column chromatography on deae-toyopearl, butyl-toyopearl, and sephacryl s200hr, and then characterized. a molecular mass of 55 kda fo ...200216233265
application of oxygen vectors to aspergillus terreus cultivation.research was undertaken to examine the effects of adding an oxygen carrier (n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, or n-hexadecane) on lovastatin production by aspergillus terreus in both shaking-flask and 5-l fermentor cultivations. in the shaking-flask cultivation, an addition of 2.5% (w/v) n-dodecane to the medium gave about a 1.4-fold increase (0.51 g/l) in lovastatin production. this improvement was related to morphological changes in the fungal cells, and resulted mainly from the formation of small, u ...200216233333
cloning, expression, and characterization of a xylanase 10 from aspergillus terreus (bcc129) in pichia pastoris.a full-length xylanase gene, encoding 326 amino acids belonging to the fungal glycosyl hydrolase family 10, from aspergillus terreus bcc129 was cloned and sequenced. sequence analysis suggested that the first 25 amino acids of this enzyme is the signal peptide. therefore, only the mature xylanase gene of 906 bp was cloned into a yeast expression vector, ppiczalphaa, for heterologous expression in pichia pastoris. a band of approximately, 33 kda was observed on the sds-page gel after one day of m ...200616275128
efficacy of caspofungin against aspergillus terreus.we investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of caspofungin against aspergillus terreus. the drug increased survival and reduced tissue fungal burden in neutropenic mice. therefore, our data support the role of caspofungin in treating systemic infections due to this emerging pathogen.200516304185
purification and properties of beta-glucosidase from aspergillus terreus.a beta-glucosidase (ec from the fungus aspergillus terreus was purified to homogeneity as indicated by disc acrylamide gel electrophoresis. optimal activity was observed at ph 4.8 and 50 degrees c. the beta-glucosidase had k(m) values of 0.78 and 0.40 mm for p-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside and cellobiose, respectively. glucose was a competitive inhibitor, with a k(i) of 3.5 mm when p-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside was used as the substrate. the specific activity of the enzyme ...198216346147
biosynthesis of territrems by aspergillus terreus.different radioactive precursors were added to 8-day potato-dextrose liquid cultures of aspergillus terreus 23-1. territrems were isolated from chloroform extracts of the cultures at day 14 and purified by thin-layer chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography. the territrem b obtained was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide, and 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy benzoic acid was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the reaction mixture and purified by thin-layer chromatography and high-pre ...198816347569
bioremediation of endosulfan using aspergillus terreus and cladosporium oxysporum. 200516400595
hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) has broad-spectrum fungicidal activity and is efficacious in a mouse model of cryptococcosis.the alkyl phosphocholine drug miltefosine is structurally similar to natural substrates of the fungal virulence determinant phospholipase b1 (plb1), which is a potential drug target. we determined the mics of miltefosine against key fungal pathogens, correlated antifungal activity with inhibition of the plb1 activities (plb, lysophospholipase [lpl], and lysophospholipase-transacylase [lpta]), and investigated its efficacy in a mouse model of disseminated cryptococcosis. miltefosine inhibited sec ...200616436691
intrinsic in vitro susceptibility of primary clinical isolates of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, aspergillus nidulans, candida albicans and candida lusitaniae against amphotericin b.a total of 60 clinical fungal isolates from patients without prior amphotericin b treatment and three control strains were evaluated for their intrinsic susceptibility to amphotericin b (amb) using microdilution, etest and disc diffusion assays, on three media each, roswell park memorial institute (rpmi) 1640, antibiotic medium 3 (am3) and high resolution medium. the fungal strains included isolates of aspergillus fumigatus (n = 10), aspergillus terreus (n = 12), aspergillus nidulans (n = 9), ca ...200616466441
disseminated aspergillosis in two dogs in israel.aspergillus terreus, normally a soil or plant saprophyte, causes disseminated systemic infection, involving primarily the skeletal and the cardiopulmonary system in humans and dogs.(1, 2) we describe two cases of german shepherd dogs that were referred to koret school of veterinary medicine teaching hospital with a history of anorexia and weakness. case 1 suffered from neurological deficits, paraparesis and lumbar pain whereas case 2 suffered from unilateral uveitis and exophthalmus. both dogs w ...200616466447
effects of the sporulation conditions on the lovastatin production by aspergillus terreus.the production of biomass and lovastatin by spore-initiated submerged fermentations of aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 was shown to depend on the age of the spores used for inoculation. cultures started from older spores produced significantly higher titers of lovastatin. for example, the lovastatin titer increased by 52% when the spore age at inoculation rose from 9 to 16 days. the lovastatin titer for a spore age of 16 days was 186.5+/-20.1 mg l(-1). the time to sporulation on surface cultures ...200616491374
functional characterization of alcohol oxidases from aspergillus terreus mtcc 6324.short chain alcohol oxidase (scao), long chain alcohol oxidase (lcao), secondary alcohol oxidase (sao), and aryl alcohol oxidase (aao) activities were localized in the microsome of aspergillus terreus during growth of the fungi on n-hexadecane. zymogram analysis of the microsomes of n-hexadecane-grown cells in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed distinct bands, h4, h3, h2, and h1, in a sequence of their molecular weight (mr) from high to low. the mr of the isozymes corresponding to the ban ...200616547701
antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activity of plagiochasma appendiculatum lehm. et lind.plagiochasma appendiculatum (aytoniaceae) of the order marchantiales is widely used in the form of paste ethnomedicinally by gaddi tribe in kangra valley for treating skin diseases. in this context, antimicrobical potential of plagiochasma appendiculatum against a wide range of microorganisms was studied. to validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied, besides antioxidant activity to understand the mechanism of wound healing activity. th ...200616600543
studies in the biochemistry of micro-organisms: the metabolic products of aspergillus terreus thom. a new mould metabolic product-terrein. 193516745705
studies in the biochemistry of micro-organisms: the metabolic products of aspergillus terreus thom. part ii. two new chlorine-containing mould metabolic products, geodin and erdin. 193616746160
studies in the biochemistry of micro-organisms: the molecular constitution of terrein, a metabolic product of aspergillus terreus thom. 193716746426
studies in the biochemistry of micro-organisms: the molecular constitution of geodin and erdin, two chlorine-containing metabolic products of aspergillus terreus thom. part i. the constitutional relationship of geodin and erdin. 193716746438
studies in the biochemistry of micro-organisms: the molecular constitution of geodin and erdin, two chlorine-containing metabolic products of aspergillus terreus thom. part ii. dihydrogeodin and dihydroerdin and the synthesis of their trimethyl ethers. 193916746946
studies in the biochemistry of micro-organisms: itaconic acid, a metabolic product of a strain of aspergillus terreus thom. 193916747058
studies on the biochemistry of micro-organisms: 74. the molecular constitution of geodin and erdin, two chlorine-containing metabolic products of aspergillus terreus thom. part 3. possible structural formulae for geodin and erdin. 194716748191
stimulation of alkalothermophilic aspergillus terreus xylanase by low-intensity laser this study, aspergillus terreus was irradiated by a 7.3 mw he-ne laser in the presence of crystal violet, toluidine blue o and hematoporphyrin as photosensitizers. xylanases recovered from non-irradiated and irradiated fungi were purified and characterized. the maximum production of xylanase (42.2 u/ml) was obtained after 5 min of laser irradiation in the absence of the photosensitizer. the irradiation of the sensitized fungus diminished the production of xylanase. on purification using g-100 ...200616810525
exposure to airborne fungi during conservative dental treatment.the aim of the study was a mycological assessment of bioaerosol forming during conservative dental treatment, taking into account concentration and type of fungal microflora, and evaluation of the influence of duwl disinfecting protocol on the fungal contamination of the bioaerosol. the research was conducted on 25 operative sites located in public dental clinics. the air contained in the space between a patient and a dentist during conservative dental treatment with the use of a high-speed hand ...200616841889
comparison of the eucast-afst broth dilution method with the clsi reference broth dilution method (m38-a) for susceptibility testing of posaconazole and voriconazole against aspergillus spp.the susceptibilities of 40 clinical isolates of aspergillus spp. (aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus) were determined for posaconazole and voriconazole by the clsi m38-a and eucast-afst broth dilution methods. where a discrepancy was observed between the methods, the eucast method tended to give higher mic values. overall, the level of agreement was 92.5% and the intra-class correlation coefficient was > 0.90.200616882296
supplementation of the cultivation media with b-group vitamins enhances lovastatin biosynthesis by aspergillus terreus.the impact of the supplementation of cultivation media with b-group vitamins on the biosynthesis of lovastatin (mevinolinic acid) by aspergillus terreus atcc20542 was investigated. a hypothesis was formulated that as the biosynthesis of lovastatin requires a high throughput of coenzymes in the cells, the application of its precursors in the form of b-group vitamins might positively influence the process. in a nitrogen-deficient medium the b-group vitamins, both single, especially nicotinamide, p ...200716887228
metal complexes of schiff base derived from sulphametrole and o-vanilin. synthesis, spectral, thermal characterization and biological activity.metal complexes of schiff base derived from condensation of o-vanilin (3-methoxysalicylaldehyde) and sulfametrole [n(1)-(4-methoxy-1,2,5-thiadiazole-3-yl)sulfanilamide] (h2l) are reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, ir, 1h nmr, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance, mass spectra, uv-vis and thermal analysis (tga). from the elemental analyses data, the complexes were proposed to have the general formulae [m2x3(hl)(h2o)5].yh2o (where m=mn(ii), co(ii), ni(ii), cu( ...200716891151
susceptibility of fungi isolated from the respiratory tract of falcons to amphotericin b, itraconazole and voriconazole.the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of fungi isolated from the air sacs of falcons before (group 1), and during antifungal treatment with amphotericin b nebulisation and oral itraconazole or voriconazole (group 2), or with itraconazole alone (group 3) or voriconazole alone (group 4) were determined. before treatment, 95 per cent of the isolates, including aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus, were susceptible to voriconazole at mics up to ...200616946311
enzymatic characteristics of ligninperoxidases from penicillium citrinum, fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus terreus using n-propanol as substrate.the activities of ligninperoxidases from penicillium citrinum mtcc 3565, fusarium oxysporum mtcc 3379 and aspergillus terreus mtcc 3374 have been assayed and the enzymatic characteristics like km, ph and temperature optima using n-propanol as the substrate have been reported. the results suggest that n-propanol can substitute veratryl alcohol as substrate for assaying ligninperoxidase activities from different fungal strains, without affecting the enzymatic characteristics. the above strains wer ...200616955752
antifungal efficacy and pharmacodynamics of posaconazole in experimental models of invasive fungal infections.posaconazole is a novel lipophilic antifungal triazole with potent and broad-spectrum activity against opportunistic, endemic and dermatophytic fungi. this activity extends to organisms that are often refractory to existing triazoles, amphotericin b or echinocandins such as candida glabrata, candida krusei, aspergillus terreus, fusarium spp. and the zygomycetes. a large number of experimental animal models of invasive fungal infections has demonstrated the potent and broad-spectrum efficacy of p ...200616961576
analysis of subunit interactions in the iterative type i polyketide synthase atx from aspergillus terreus. 200617004275
efficacy of caspofungin against aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, and aspergillus nidulans.the echinocandin caspofungin is a potent inhibitor of the activity of 1,3-beta-d-glucan synthase from aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, and aspergillus nidulans. in murine models of disseminated infection, caspofungin prolonged survival and reduced the kidney fungal burden. caspofungin was at least as effective as amphotericin b against these filamentous fungi in vivo.200617015628
early detection of aspergillus terreus in a tenckhoff catheter. 200617047247
antifungal interactions within the triple combination of amphotericin b, caspofungin and voriconazole against aspergillus species.the in vitro effects of caspofungin combined with voriconazole and amphotericin b were tested in triplicate experiments against nine clinical isolates of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus and aspergillus terreus.200617071635
processing of soybean products by semipurified plant and microbial alpha-galactosidases.galactooligosaccharides (go) are responsible for intestinal disturbances following ingestion of legume-derived products. enzymatic reduction of go level in these products is highly desirable to improve their acceptance. for this purpose, plant and microbial semipurified alpha-galactosidases were used for go hydrolysis in soybean flour and soy molasses. alpha-galactosidases from soybean germinating seeds, aspergillus terreus, and penicillium griseoroseum presented maximal activities at ph 4.0-5.0 ...200617177558
use of high inoculum for early metabolic signalling and rapid susceptibility testing of aspergillus develop and evaluate a new method for rapid susceptibility testing of aspergillus spp. based on early metabolic signalling of high-inoculum biomass.200717185296
in-vitro susceptibility testing by agar dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of amphotericin b, fluconazole and ketoconazole against ocular fungal standardize in-vitro antifungal susceptibility testing by agar dilution method to find out the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of amphotericin b, fluconazole and ketoconazole on ocular fungal isolates.200617185846
susceptibility of environmental versus clinical strains of pathogenic aspergillus.the objective of this study was to compare the antifungal susceptibility profiles of 307 environmental strains and 139 clinical isolates of aspergillus belonging to six different species. clinical and environmental strains with minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) or minimal effective concentrations >or=4microg/ml to amphotericin b (amb), itraconazole (itc), voriconazole and caspofungin were seldom detected. however, the susceptibility profile of environmental aspergillus non-fumigatus strai ...200717189101
syntheses of conjugated pyrones for the enzymatic assay of lovastatin nonaketide synthase, an iterative polyketide synthase.[reaction: see text] lovastatin nonaketide synthase (lovb, lnks) is an iterative type i polyketide synthase (pks) from aspergillus terreus that produces dihydromonacolin l (2), the biosynthetic precursor of lovastatin (1), from acetyl coa, malonyl coa, and s-adenosylmethionine (sam) if the accessory protein lovc is present. in the absence of lovc, lnks forms the conjugated pyrones 3 and 4 as truncated pks products. short syntheses of these pyrones provide material for the assay of lnks activity ...200717192110
risk factors for pulmonary aspergillus terreus infection in patients with positive culture for filamentous fungi.invasive aspergillosis (ia) is a common fungal infection in immunocompromised patients and has a high mortality rate. among patients with ia, aspergillus terreus infections have become a growing concern in the past few years.200717218581
modification of the x-ray and ultraviolet induced mutation rate in aspergillus terreus by pretreatment with near infrared radiation. 194817247289
broad substrate cytochrome p450 monooxygenase activity in the cells of aspergillus terreus mtcc 6324.cytochrome p450 (cyp) monooxygenase activities with different category of substrates namely, alkanes, alkane derivatives, alcohols, aromatic compounds, organic solvents, and steroids were detected in the cells of aspergillus terreus. high cyp specific activity was observed when methanol (5.6+/-0.017 u mg(-1)), acetone (7.76+/-0.02 u mg(-1)), dimethylsulphoxide (dmso) (9.70+/-0.005 u mg(-1)), n-hexadecane (4.39+/-0.02 u mg(-1)), or n-octadecane (4.23+/-0.01 u mg(-1)) were used as substrates. sign ...200817251009
development of novel real-time pcr assays for detection and differentiation of eleven medically important aspergillus and candida species in clinical the present study, novel real-time pcr assays targeting the fungal its2 region were developed for the detection and differentiation of medically important aspergillus species (aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger, and aspergillus terreus) and candida species (candida albicans, candida dubliniensis, candida glabrata, candida krusei, candida parapsilosis, and candida tropicalis) using a lightcycler instrument. the combination of a group-specific and ...200717251398
involvement of tetrahymena pyriformis and selected fungi in the elimination of anthracene, and toxicity assessment of the biotransformation products.anthracene (ac) is a non-mutagenic and non-carcinogenic, low-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon present in the environment. its toxicity can be dramatically increased after solar-light exposure. biotransformation capacities of ac by tetrahymena pyriformis and a selection of eight micromycetes were studied, and the ability of these microorganisms to detoxify the polluted ecosystems was assessed. we showed that t. pyriformis was able to accumulate high amounts of ac without any trans ...200817257678
x-ray crystal structure of aristolochene synthase from aspergillus terreus and evolution of templates for the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate.aristolochene synthase from aspergillus terreus catalyzes the cyclization of the universal sesquiterpene precursor, farnesyl diphosphate, to form the bicyclic hydrocarbon aristolochene. the 2.2 a resolution x-ray crystal structure of aristolochene synthase reveals a tetrameric quaternary structure in which each subunit adopts the alpha-helical class i terpene synthase fold with the active site in the "open", solvent-exposed conformation. intriguingly, the 2.15 a resolution crystal structure of t ...200717261032
posttraumatic aspergillus terreus endophthalmitis masquerading as dispersed lens fragments.a 20-year-old man developed increasing inflammation with a hypopyon 3 weeks after primary repair of a corneal laceration. an occult anterior capsule puncture was suspected as the stimulus for the inflammation. when aspiration of the suspected hydrated lens material was not curative, a vitrectomy with injection of intravitreal antibiotic agents including amphotericin (0.0125 mg) was done the following day; the culture failed to grow fungal organisms. a repeat vitrectomy was performed 1 week later ...200717397754
a comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents.the antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial potentials of volatile oils and oleoresin of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume (leaf and bark) were investigated in the present study. the oleoresins have shown excellent activity for the inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products in mustard oil added at the concentration of 0.02% which were evaluated using peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, p-anisidine and carbonyl values. moreover, it was further supported by other complementary antioxidant assay ...200717408833
[reaction of microorganisms to the digestive fluid of the earthworms].the reaction of soil bacteria and fungi to the digestive fluid of the earthworm aporrectodea caliginosa was studied. the fluid was obtained by centrifugation of the native enzymes of the digestive tract. the inhibition of growth of certain bacteria, spores, and fungal hyphae under the effect of extracts from the anterior and middle sections of the digestive tract of a. caliginosa was discovered for the first time. in bacteria, microcolony formation was inhibited as early as 20-30 s after the app ...200717410875
itaconic acid production using sago starch hydrolysate by aspergillus terreus tn484-m1.sago starch was hydrolyzed using either chemical agents, or enzymes at various ph and concentrations. hydrolysis using 5000 aun/ml (0.5%, w/v) glucoamylase exhibited the highest itaconic acid yield up to 0.36 g/g sago starch, whereas hydrolysis using nitric acid at ph 2.0 yielded 0.35 g/g sago starch. the medium was optimized and the composition was (g/l) 140 sago starch, 1.8 corn steep liquor, 1.2 mgso(4).7h(2)o and 2.9 nh(4)no(3). when the optimal conditions of hydrolysis and medium compositio ...200717451943
in vitro determination of phagocytosis and intracellular killing of aspergillus species by mononuclear phagocytes.we investigated phagocytosis and intracellular killing of clinical and environmental isolates of aspergillus spp. by human monocyte-derived macrophages (mdms). serial pathogens such as aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus and aspergillus terreus were examined with a microbiological assay. phagocytosis for resting conidia of aspergillus spp. was similar for all isolates tested. during 30 min of incubation phagocytosis ranged from 49.9% to 85.5% for clinical isolates and from 40.3% to 87.1% f ...200717458710
biochemical characterization of the minimal polyketide synthase domains in the lovastatin nonaketide synthase lovb.the biosynthesis of lovastatin in aspergillus terreus requires two megasynthases. the lovastatin nonaketide synthase, lovb, synthesizes the intermediate dihydromonacolin l using nine malonyl-coenzyme a molecules, and is a reducing, iterative type i polyketide synthase. the iterative type i polyketide synthase is mechanistically different from bacterial type i polyketide synthases and animal fatty acid synthases. we have cloned the minimal polyketide synthase domains of lovb as standalone protein ...200717466016
influence of amphotericin b and amphotericin b colloidal dispersion on the functions of human phagocytes in defence against aspergillus species.this study investigated the in vitro effects of amphotericin b and amphotericin b colloidal dispersion (abcd) on phagocytosis and inhibition of germination of clinical isolates of aspergillus spp. by monocyte-derived macrophages (mdms). both amphotericin b and abcd caused significant reductions in uptake of conidia of aspergillus spp. by mdms (p < 0.01). the inhibition of germination was superior with conidia of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus isolates. aspergill ...200717486378
a colorimetric and spectrophotometric method for in vitro susceptibility testing of aspergillus species against caspofungin.the in vitro susceptibility of 45 aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus and aspergillus terreus isolates against caspofungin (cas) was assessed by the clsi reference method with spectrophotometric reading and by a colorimetric method that employed the dye mtt. perfect agreement was found between the minimal effective concentrations (mecs) and the mic-2 values (50% growth reduction) obtained by the mtt method. the agreement found between the mics obtained by the clsi and the mtt method was de ...200717510858
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with hematological malignancy caused by aspergillus terreus and in vitro susceptibility of a. terreus isolate to micafungin.a 35-year-old man developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (ipa) with severe neutropenia after umbilical cord stem cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia. filamentous fungus isolated from his sputum was identified as aspergillus terreus. despite systemic amphotericin b (amph) administration, ipa progressed. however, intravenous administration of micafungin (mcfg) and oral itraconazole improved clinical data and symptoms, although he later died of massive hemoptysis. examination ...200717541234
[construction of a double functional recombinant strain of pichia pastoris co-expressing phytase and mannanase and the enzymatic analyses].co-expression of phytase and mannanase in pichia pastoris is a useful way to reduce the production cost in feedstuff industry. based on the published dna sequences of phytase gene and mannanase gene, primers were designed and genes phya and man were cloned by pcr from aspergillus terreus and the plasmid phbm1201, respectively. then the two fragments were treated and inserted into the same expression vector phbm907c, which contains both the methanol-inducible promoter and the transcription termin ...200717552235
diagnostic value of dna, (1-3)-beta-d-glucan, and galactomannan detection in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage of mice experimentally infected with aspergillus terreus.the aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of aspergillus terreus-specific dna, (1-3)-beta-d-glucan (bdg), and galactomannan (gm) in immunosuppressed mice infected intravenously with a. terreus conidia and sacrificed in groups of 12 each on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. a. terreus-specific dna, bdg, and gm in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr), fungitell kit (associates of cape cod, e. falmouth, ma), and aspergillus platelia ...200717574786
molecular typing of aspergillus terreus isolates collected in houston, texas, and innsbruck, austria: evidence of great genetic diversity.aspergillus terreus isolates collected from patients at the m. d. anderson cancer center in houston, tx, and at the university hospital of innsbruck, austria, were analyzed using random amplification of polymorphic dna-pcr with three different primers. no strain similarity in either institution was detected, indicating great genetic diversity of a. terreus.200717581930
[aspergillus terreus infection in copd patients receiving corticoids. a report of three cases]. 200717583657
a macrokinetic modelling of the biosynthesis of lovastatin by aspergillus this work a simple kinetic model to describe the biosynthesis of lovastatin by aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 was proposed. several series of experiments were conducted at different media compositions. the concentrations of c- and n-sources were changed over a wide range and so were the initial biomass concentrations. from these runs the relationships ruling the substrates uptake, biomass and product formation were learnt. lovastatin biosynthesis appeared to be partly growth associated. the i ...200717602773
discovery of six families of fungal defensin-like peptides provides insights into origin and evolution of the csalphabeta defensins.the defensins with a conserved cysteine-stabilized alpha-helix and beta-sheet (csalphabeta) structural motif are a group of unique antimicrobial polypeptides widely distributed in plants and animals. recently, one defensin-like peptide (dlp) with high degree of sequence and structural similarity to defensins from ancient arthropods and molluscs has been identified in a saprophytic fungus [mygind, p.h., fischer, r.l., schnorr, k.m., hansen, m.t., sönksen, c.p., ludvigsen, s., raventós, d., buskov ...200817675235
simultaneous biosynthesis of (+)-geodin by a lovastatin-producing fungus aspergillus terreus.the simultaneous biosynthesis of lovastatin (mevinolinic acid) and (+)-geodin by aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 with regard to the medium composition, i.e. the concentrations of carbon and nitrogen source, was described in this paper. a. terreus is a lovastatin producer but the formation of lovastatin was accompanied by the significant amounts of (+)-geodin, when the elevated concentration of carbon source (lactose) was still present in the medium in the idiophase and nitrogen source (yeast extr ...200717689800
effects of lactose and glucose on production of itaconic acid and lovastatin by aspergillus terreus atcc 20542.fermentation products of aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 (a parent strain for lovastatin production) were collected, and the coexistence of itaconic acid (ia) with lovastatin was confirmed in this study. using a lactose-based medium (lbm), lovastatin production was 873 mg/l on day 10, but ia production was only 22-28 mg/l during the cultures. when lactose in lbm was simply replaced with glucose, ia production was markedly enhanced by 20-fold (491 mg/l on day 5), which showed a growth-associated p ...200717697977
dna microarray-based detection and identification of fungal pathogens in clinical samples from neutropenic patients.the increasing incidence of invasive fungal infections (ifi) in immunocompromised patients emphasizes the need to improve diagnostic tools. we established a dna microarray to detect and identify dna from 14 fungal pathogens (aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, candida albicans, candida dubliniensis, candida glabrata, candida lusitaniae, candida tropicalis, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, mucor racemosus, rhizopus microsporus, scedosporium prolificans, and trichos ...200717715373
changing epidemiology of rare mould infections: implications for therapy.there has been an increase in rare mould infections in recent decades. these infections have been reported primarily in severely immunocompromised patients. the emergence of these organisms is multifactorial and can be related to more intense immunosuppression, the prolonged survival of patients who have what were previously fatal diseases, and the selective pressure of broad spectrum antifungal agents used for prophylaxis or therapy. among these rare mould infections, the zygomycetes are the mo ...200717722951
the pan-ac assay: a single-reaction real-time pcr test for quantitative detection of a broad range of aspergillus and candida view of the growing incidence and the high mortality of invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis, adequate diagnostic techniques permitting timely onset of treatment are of paramount importance. more than 90 % of all invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised individuals can be attributed to candida and aspergillus species. to date, standardized techniques permitting rapid, sensitive and, no less importantly, economic screening for the clinically most relevant fungi are lacking. in the pre ...200717761478
effect of caspofungin on metabolite profiles of aspergillus species determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.invasive aspergillosis remains a potentially life-threatening infection, the incidence of which is increasing. current methods used to determine the susceptibilities of aspergillus strains to antifungal drugs are often unreliable. nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy can identify the metabolic complement of microorganisms while monitoring nutrient utilization from the incubation medium. we used 600-mhz (1)h nmr spectroscopy to monitor the metabolic responses of five aspergillus species ...200717785514
[the role of voriconazole in the treatment of emerging mycoses].voriconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug belonging to triazoles class. recently, it has been recommended for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in non neutropenic patients. in addition, this drug has showed clinical efficacy in the treatment of fungal infections caused by candida species other than candida albicans, and also in several other infections caused by less common fungi, such as aspergillus terreus, fusarium and scedosporium.200717874861
opportunistic aspergillus pathogens measured in home and hospital tap water by quantitative pcr (qpcr).opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. the goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative pcr (qpcr) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, aspergillus fumigatus, a. flavus, a. terreus and a. niger, in home tap water and a hospital water supply. water samples were taken from the kitchen tap in the homes of 60 patients who were diagnosed with legionellosis. water samples were ...200717878557
biodegradation of crude oil and n-alkanes by fungi isolated from oman.ten fungal species isolated from tar balls collected from the beaches of oman were tested for their abilities to grow and degrade n-alkanes and crude oil. the abilities of aspergillus niger, a. ochraceus and penicillium chrysogenum to degrade n-alkanes (c13-c18), crude oil were compared and their mycelial biomass was measured. significant differences were found in the utilization of c15, c16, c17 and c18 by the three fungi. similarly, significant differences we found in the amount of biomass pro ...200717904586
a 7-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase from aspergillus fumigatus: overproduction, purification and biochemical characterization.a putative prenyltransferase gene, afu3g12930, was identified in the genome sequence of aspergillus fumigatus. eal92290, encoded by afu3g12930, consists of 472 aa, with a molecular mass of about 53 kda. the coding sequence of afu3g12930 was cloned in pqe60, and overexpressed in escherichia coli. the soluble his(6)-fusion protein was purified to apparent homogeneity, and characterized biochemically. the enzyme was found to catalyse the prenylation of trp at the c-7 position of the indole moiety, ...200717906140
hyphal growth patterns and recurrence of fungal keratitis after lamellar evaluate growth patterns of fungal pathogens in corneas and recurrence of fungal keratitis after lamellar keratoplasty (lk).200817919731
secondary sternal aspergillus osteomyelitis in a diabetic hemodialysis patient with previous allograft rejection.a 29-year-old diabetic woman who had a previously failed renal allograft on maintenance hemodialysis developed sternal aspergillosis with aspergillus terreus following a pericardiectomy. she was successfully treated with surgical debridement and a combination of antifungal agents including amphotericin b, caspofungin, and voriconizole. the diagnostic difficulties and management are discussed.200717922735
purification and characterization of a novel endo-beta-1,4-glucanase from the thermoacidophilic aspergillus endo-beta-1,4-glucanase from a thermoacidophilic fungus, aspergillus terreus m11, was purified 18-fold with 14% yield and a specific activity of 67 u mg(-1) protein. the optimal ph was 2 and the cellulase was stable from ph 2 to 5. the cellulase had a temperature optimum of 60 degrees c measured over 30 min and retained more than 60% of its activity after heating at 70 degrees c for 1 h. the molecular mass of the cellulase was about 25 kda. its activity was inhibited by 77% by hg(2+) (2 mm) a ...200817928959
in vitro susceptibilities of aspergillus spp. causing otomycosis to amphotericin b, voriconazole and itraconazole.otomycosis is worldwide in distribution and most commonly caused by aspergillus species. amphotericin b, itraconazole and voriconazole are used for the treatment of aspergillosis, but recently an increase in resistance to these agents has been reported. we aimed at investigating the in vitro activities of amphotericin b, voriconazole and itraconazole against aspergillus isolates causing otomycosis. mycological analysis of samples from the ear canals of patients was performed by culturing onto sa ...200717944704
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