TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
influence of oxygen on lovastatin biosynthesis by aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 quantitatively studied on the level of individual pellets.despite oxygen is believed to be the most important environmental factor for any aerobic microbial process, the quantitative studies of its influence on growth and metabolite formation on the level of individual pellets formed by filamentous fungi were seldom performed. never was it made for lovastatin producer aspergillus terreus atcc20542. thus, this work is a quantitative study of oxygen transfer into a. terreus pellets during lovastatin biosynthesis in the shake flask culture. the basic meas ...201525627471
subcutaneous mycoses: an aetiological study of 15 cases in a tertiary care hospital at dibrugarh, assam, northeast india.subcutaneous mycoses are a group of fungal infections of dermis and subcutaneous tissue which consist of sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, hyalohyphomycosis, mycetoma, subcutaneous zygomycosis, rhinosporidiosis, lobomycosis and disseminated penicilliosis. a total of 46 consecutive patients with clinically suspected subcutaneous mycoses attending various departments of assam medical college and hospital were included in this prospective study to know the prevalence of subcut ...201525596859
(+)‑terrein inhibits human hepatoma bel‑7402 proliferation through cell cycle arrest.hepatoma is a common malignant tumor. thus, the development of a high‑efficacy therapeutic drug for hepatoma is required. in this study, (+)‑terrein isolated from the marine sponge‑derived aspergillus terreus pf‑26 against cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle were assessed by mtt and flow cytometry. mrna array containing 73 cell cycle‑related genes and three cell morphology‑related genes was generated and its performance evaluated. the cell cycle pathway map was created using the pathview packa ...201525592371
onychomycosis in israel: epidemiological aspects.onychomycosis is a fungal infection treated orally for prolonged periods of treatment, caused primarily by dermatophytes, candida species and non-dermatophyte moulds (ndms). the prevalence of specific aetiology may differ in dependence of environmental, geographic and demographic factors, and may affect management of the infection. the objective of this survey was to analyse epidemiologic parameters of onychomycosis in israel. data of a cohort of 27,093 patients were collected from six centres d ...201525590832
anticancer activity of fungal l-asparaginase conjugated with zinc oxide nanoparticles.demand for developing novel delivery system for cancer treatment has increased due to the side effects present in intravenous injection of l-asparaginase. nanoparticles are used for delivering the drugs to its destination in cancer cure. nanobiocomposite of zinc oxide nanoparticles conjugated with l-asparaginase was produced by aspergillus terreus and was confirmed using maximum uv-vis absorption at 340 nm in the present work. the presence of functional groups like oh, c-h, -c=n and c=o on the s ...201525589205
cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and phytotoxicity of tannery effluent discharged into palar river basin, tamil nadu, india.ambur, a town located on the banks of palar river, is considered one of the most polluted areas in india and occupied by hundreds of tanneries and leather product units. the present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of discharged tannery effluent (te) on model agricultural crops, ecofriendly microorganisms, and human blood cells. the phytotoxic effects of te tested on allium cepa and lemna minor revealed inhibition of root growth and significant reduction in number of fronds, prote ...201526839546
antifungal activity of compounds targeting the hsp90-calcineurin pathway against various mould species.invasive mould infections are associated with a high mortality rate and the emergence of mdr moulds is of particular concern. calcineurin and its chaperone, the heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), represent an important pathway for fungal virulence that can be targeted at different levels. we investigated the antifungal activity of compounds directly or indirectly targeting the hsp90-calcineurin axis against different mould species.201525558076
production of itaconic acid in escherichia coli expressing recombinant α-amylase using starch as substrate.several studies on fermentative production of a vinyl monomer itaconic acid from hydrolyzed starch using aspergillus terreus have been reported. herein, we report itaconic acid production by escherichia coli expressing recombinant α-amylase, using soluble starch as its sole carbon source. to express α-amylase in e. coli, we first constructed recombinant plasmids expressing α-amylases by using cell surface display technology derived from two amylolytic bacteria, bacillus amyloliquefaciens nbrc 15 ...201525468427
aspergillus citrinoterreus, a new species of section terrei isolated from samples of patients with nonhematological predisposing conditions.the use of molecular identification techniques has revealed an increasing number of new species within aspergillus section terrei. we phenotyped a set of 26 clinical isolates that showed genetic differences from aspergillus terreus sensu stricto by analyzing sequences from pcr-amplified β-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the internal transcribed spacer region. since the isolates were phylogenetically and morphologically different from all of the members of aspergillus section terrei, they are de ...201525502530
immobilization of aspergillus terreus lipase in self-assembled hollow nanospheres for enantioselective hydrolysis of ketoprofen vinyl ester.the aim of this study was to improve the ability of aspergillus terreus lipase to separate the racemic ketoprofen vinyl ester into individual enantiomers using hollow self-assembly alginate-graft-poly(ethylene glycol)/α-cyclodextrins (alg-g-peg/α-cd) spheres as enzyme immobilization carriers. the morphology and size of the alg-g-peg/α-cd particles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (tem) and were found to be nanoscale. to facilitate recycling, calcium alginate (ca) beads were ...201525483320
the overproduction of 2,4-dtbp accompanying to the lack of available form of phosphorus during the biodegradative utilization of aminophosphonates by aspergillus terreus.although information about the ability of some filamentous fungi to biodegrade organophosphonates is available, the knowledge about accompanying changes in fungal metabolism is very limited. the aim of our study was to determine the utilization of the chosen, structurally diverse aminophosphonates by aspergillus terreus (thom), in the context of the behaviour of this fungus while growing in unfavourable conditions, namely the lack of easily available phosphates. we found that all the studied com ...201525385070
aspergillus terreus infection in a sutureless self-sealing incision made during cataract, we describe a case of keratitis caused by aspergillus terreus in an 80-year-old immunocompetent woman 1 month after uneventful cataract surgery. the patient presented with decreased visual acuity (20/50) and severe pain in her right eye. examination revealed a 3.5 × 4.5 mm white-colored deep stromal infiltration located on the temporal corneal tunnel incision. corneal scraping samples were obtained for cytological and culture examinations. the cinnamon-brown colonies consisting of a dense ...201525362536
fungal production of single cell oil using untreated copra cake and evaluation of its fuel properties for biodiesel.this study evaluated the microbial conversion of coconut oil waste, a major agro-residue in tropical countries, into single cell oil (sco) feedstock for biodiesel production. copra cake was used as a low-cost renewable substrate without any prior chemical or enzymatic pretreatment for submerged growth of an oleaginous tropical mangrove fungus, aspergillus terreus ibb m1. the sco extracted from fermented biomass was converted into fatty acid methyl esters (fames) by transesterification and evalua ...201525341469
expression, characterization and mutagenesis of an fad-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from aspergillus fad-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (fad-gdh) from aspergillus terreus nih2624 was expressed in escherichia coli with a yield of 228±16u/l of culture. co-expression with chaperones dnak/dnaj/grpe and osmotic stress induced by simple carbon sources enhanced productivity significantly, improving the yield to 23883±563u/l after optimization. fad-gdh was purified in two steps with the specific activity of 604u/mg. using d-glucose as substrate, the optimal ph and temperature for fad-gdh were deter ...201525435504
metabolic engineering of itaconate production in escherichia coli.interest in sustainable development has led to efforts to replace petrochemical-based monomers with biomass-based ones. itaconic acid, a c5-dicarboxylic acid, is a potential monomer for the chemical industry with many prospective applications. cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cada) is the key enzyme of itaconate production, converting the citric acid cycle intermediate cis-aconitate into itaconate. heterologous expression of cada from aspergillus terreus in escherichia coli resulted in low cada acti ...201525277412
optimization of β-glucosidase production by aspergillus terreus strain emoo 6-4 using response surface methodology under solid-state fermentation.forty-two morphologically different fungal strains were isolated from different soil samples and agricultural wastes and screened for β-glucosidase activity under solid-state fermentation. eight species were chosen as the most active β-glucosidase producers and were subjected to primary morphological identification. β-glucosidase was highly produced by aspergillus terreus, which showed the highest activity, and was subjected to full identification using scanning electron microscopy and molecular ...201525036937
fermentative production and optimization of mevastatin in submerged fermentation using aspergillus terreus.the main objective of the study is to enhance the mevastatin production using plackett-burman (pb) and central composite design (ccd) by aspergillus terreus in submerged fermentation (smf). eight nutrients were chosen for a pb design with 12 experimental runs. a maximum mevastatin production of 170.4 mg l(-1) was obtained in pb design. response surface methodology (rsm) is a sequential procedure with an initial objective to lead the experimenter rapidly and efficiently along a path of improvemen ...201528435810
efficient expression, purification, and characterization of a novel fad-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from aspergillus terreus in pichia pastoris.flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (fad-gdh) can utilize a variety of external electron acceptors and also has stricter substrate specificity than any other glucose oxidoreductases, which makes it the ideal diagnostic enzyme in the field of glucose biosensors. a gene coding for a hypothetical protein, similar to glucose oxidase and derived from aspergillus terreus nih2624, was overexpressed in pichia pastoris gs115 under the control of an aox1 promoter with a level of 26 ...201425022525
characterization of the co-purified invertase and β-glucosidase of a multifunctional extract from aspergillus terreus.the filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus secretes both invertase and β-glucosidase when grown under submerged fermentation containing rye flour as the carbon source. the aim of this study was to characterize the co-purified fraction, especially the invertase activity. an invertase and a β-glucosidase were co-purified by two chromatographic steps, and the isolated enzymatic fraction was 139-fold enriched in invertase activity. sds-page analysis of the co-purified enzymes suggests that the prote ...201424307498
cloning, characterization and application of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter from aspergillus is important to develop native and highly efficient promoters for effective genetic engineering of filamentous fungi. although aspergillus terreus is an important industrial fungus for the production of itaconic acid and lovastatin, the available genetic toolbox for this microorganism is still rather limited. we have cloned the 5' upstream region of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd; 2,150 bp from the start codon) from a. terreus cicc 40205 and subsequently confirmed its ...201424306453
potential halophilic cellulases for in situ enzymatic saccharification of ionic liquids pretreated lignocelluloses.ionic liquids (ils) have been used as an alternative green solvent for lignocelluloses pretreatment. however, being a salt, ils exhibit an inhibitory effect on cellulases activity, thus making the subsequent saccharification inefficient. the aim of the present study is to produce salt-tolerant cellulases, with the rationale that the enzyme also tolerant to the presence of ils. the enzyme was produced from a locally isolated halophilic strain and was characterized and assessed for its tolerance t ...201424457303
purification and characterization of a hydrolysis-resistant lipase from aspergillus terreus.lipase from aspergillus terreus was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatographies with q-sepharose and sephacryl s-200. it showed a single band on sds-page and ief-page with a relative molecular mass of 37.2 kda and pi of 3.2. its glycoprotein nature was confirmed with the percentage of saccharides of 5.02% and 3.88% determined by the phenol/sulfuric acid and anthrone/ sulfuric acid methods, respectively. the lipase hydrolyzed both plant oils and animal oils, ...201423855368
aryl-aldehyde formation in fungal polyketides: discovery and characterization of a distinct biosynthetic mechanism.aryl-aldehydes are a common feature in fungal polyketides, which are considered to be exclusively generated by the r domain of nonreducing polyketide synthases (nr-pkss). however, by cloning and heterologous expression of both cryptic nr-pks and nonribosomal peptide synthase (nrps)-like genes from aspergillus terreus in saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified a distinct mechanism for aryl-aldehyde formation in which a nrps-like protein activates and reduces an aryl-acid produced by the accompany ...201424412543
does a rhizospheric microorganism enhance k⁺ availability in agricultural soils?the potassium solubilizing microorganisms (ksms) are a rhizospheric microorganism which solubilizes the insoluble potassium (k) to soluble forms of k for plant growth and yield. k-solubilization is carried out by a large number of saprophytic bacteria (bacillus mucilaginosus, bacillus edaphicus, bacillus circulans, acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans, paenibacillus spp.) and fungal strains (aspergillus spp. and aspergillus terreus). major amounts of k containing minerals (muscovite, orthoclase, bioti ...201424315210
enhancement of in vitro high-density polyethylene (hdpe) degradation by physical, chemical, and biological treatments.partially degraded high-density polyethylene (hdpe) was collected from plastic waste dump yard for biodegradation using fungi. of various fungi screened, strain mf12 was found efficient in degrading hdpe by weight loss and fourier transform infrared (ft-ir) spectrophotometric analysis. strain mf12 was selected as efficient hdpe degraders for further studies, and their growth medium composition was optimized. among those different media used, basal minimal medium (bmm) was suitable for the hdpe d ...201424946709
invasion of solanum tuberosum l. by aspergillus terreus: a microscopic and proteomics insight on pathogenicity.aspergillus terreus is one of the most harmful filamentous fungal pathogen of humans, animals and plants. recently, researchers have discovered that a. terreus can cause foliar blight disease in potato (solanum tuberosum l.). we used light and scanning electron microscopy, and performed proteomics analysis in an attempt to dissect the invasion process of a. terreus in this important crop.201424917207
molecular characterization and expression of a novel alcohol oxidase from aspergillus terreus mtcc6324.the alcohol oxidase (aox) cdna from aspergillus terreus mtcc6324 with an open reading frame (orf) of 2001 bp was constructed from n-hexadecane induced cells and expressed in escherichia coli with a yield of ∼4.2 mg protein g-1 wet cell. the deduced amino acid sequences of recombinant raox showed maximum structural homology with the chain b of aryl aox from pleurotus eryngii. a functionally active aox was achieved by incubating the apo-aox with flavin adenine dinucleotide (fad) for ∼80 h at 16°c ...201424752075
filamentous fungi in microtiter plates-an easy way to optimize itaconic acid production with aspergillus terreus.itaconic acid is an important industrial building block and is produced by the filamentous fungi aspergillus terreus. to make the optimization process more efficient, a scale-down from shake flasks to microtiter plates was performed. this resulted in comparable product formations, and 87.7 g/l itaconic acid was formed after 10 days of cultivation in the microtiter plate. the components of the minimal medium were varied independently for a media optimization. this resulted in an increase of the i ...201424737061
dissimilatory nitrate reduction by aspergillus terreus isolated from the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the arabian sea.a wealth of microbial eukaryotes is adapted to life in oxygen-deficient marine environments. evidence is accumulating that some of these eukaryotes survive anoxia by employing dissimilatory nitrate reduction, a strategy that otherwise is widespread in prokaryotes. here, we report on the anaerobic nitrate metabolism of the fungus aspergillus terreus (isolate an-4) that was obtained from sediment in the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the arabian sea, a globally important site of oceanic nitrogen ...201424517718
optimization of inulinase production from low cost substrates using plackett-burman and taguchi methods.four marine-derived fungal isolates were screened for the production of inulinase enzyme from low cost substrates under solid state fermentation (ssf), one of them identified as aspergillus terreus showed the highest inulinase activity using artichoke leaves as a solid substrate. sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental designs was employed to optimize the composition of the medium, including plackett-burman and taguchi's (l9 3(4)) orthogonal array designs. under the o ...201424507281
biodegradation of a mixture of pahs by non-ligninolytic fungal strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil.nine native non-ligninolytic fungal strains were isolated from maya crude oil-contaminated soil and selected based on their ability to grow and use crude oil and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) as carbon source, for their application to pah removal in soil. the fungi were identified by pcr amplification of intergenic transcribed sequences regions and microbiological techniques, and results showed them to be part of the genera fusarium, neurospora, aspergillus, scedosporium, penic ...201424132496
rapid determination of lovastatin in the fermentation broth of aspergillus terreus using dual-wavelength uv spectrophotometry.lovastatin, a hypocholesterolemic drug, is produced by submerged fermentation of aspergillus terreus thom (trichocomaceae). high performance liquid chromatography is usually used to determine lovastatin in samples of the fermentation broth. however, this method is inconvenient and costly, especially in the context of high-throughput sample analysis.201424093797
molecular genetic characterization of terreic acid pathway in aspergillus terreus.terreic acid is a natural product derived from 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-msa). a compact gene cluster for its biosynthesis was characterized. isolation of the intermediates and shunt products from the mutant strains, combined with bioinformatic analyses, allowed for the proposition of a biosynthetic pathway for terreic acid.201425265334
territrem and butyrolactone derivatives from a marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus.seventeen lactones including eight territrem derivatives (1-8) and nine butyrolactone derivatives (9-17) were isolated from a marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus scsgaf0162 under solid-state fermentation of rice. compounds 1-3 and 9-10 were new, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and antiviral activity of compounds 1-17 were evaluated. among them, compounds 1 and 2 showed strong inhibitory activity against acetylchol ...201425522319
culture-based and sequence-based insights into biosynthesis of secondary metabolites by aspergillus terreus atcc 20542.aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 was cultivated in various culture media in order to activate its genome-encoded biosynthetic pathways and explore the secondary metabolic repertoire. in addition to mevinolinic acid (lovastatin) and its precursor monacolin l, a number of other secondary metabolites were found in the analyzed cultures, namely terreic acid, citrinin, (+)-geodin, terrein, and dehydrocurvularin. in contrast to previously described gene clusters responsible for production of lovastatin, ...201424534845
aspergillus terreus recovered from a corneal scraping.a 52 year old, healthy male presented to his optometrist complaining of redness and irritation in the right eye. a foreign body was removed from the eye. the patient was started on ophthalmic solutions of vigamox and systane. at 48 hours, the patient reported increased redness, limited vision, and yellow discharge from the eye. the patient was referred to an ophthalmologist for further evaluation. physical assessment revealed a superlative central infiltrate (extreme, centrally located injury th ...201425000648
promiscuity breeds diversity: the role of polyketide synthase in natural product biosynthesis.secondary metabolites are often highly biologically active molecules and are widely used from antibacterial to anticancer drugs. in this issue of chemistry and biology, zaehle and coworkers describe the gene cluster and biosynthesis of the polyketide terrein, a secondary metabolite produced by the soil-borne fungus aspergillus terreus.201424950100
successful surgical treatment of rare aspergillus terreus prosthetic valve endocarditis complicated by intracranial and mesenteric artery mycotic aneurysms. 201425156465
synthetic (+)-terrein suppresses interleukin-6/soluble interleukin-6 receptor induced-secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in human gingival fibroblasts.interleukin (il)-6 is a proinflammatory cytokine that performs a wide variety of biological functions, including important roles in the progression of chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontal disease. (+)-terrein, a secondary bioactive fungal metabolite isolated from aspergillus terreus, has various biological activities; however, its anti-inflammatory effects are still unknown. the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of synthetic (+)-terrein on il-6 signaling and related pr ...201425151086
cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from thermophilic aspergillus terreus rwy.thermophilic aspergillus terreus rwy produced cellulases and xylanases in optimal concentrations at 45 °c in solid state fermentation process, though enzyme production was also observed at 50 and 55 °c. filter paper cellulase (fp), endoglucanase (eg), β-glucosidase (bgl), cellobiohydrolase (cbh), xylanase, β-xylosidase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase and xylan esterase activities for a. terreus rwy at 45 °c in 72 h were 11.3 ± 0.65, 103 ± 6.4, 122.5 ± 8.7, 10.3 ± 0.66, 872 ± 22.5, 22.1 ± 0.75, 126.4 ±  ...201425047723
butyrolactone i quantification from lovastatin producing aspergillus terreus using tandem mass spectrometry-evidence of signalling functions.aspergillus terreus is an industrially important filamentous fungus producing a wide spectrum of secondary metabolites, including lovastatin and itaconic acid. it also produces butyrolactone i which has shown potential as an antitumour agent. additionally, butyrolactone i has been implicated to have a regulating role in the secondary metabolism and morphology of a. terreus. in this study, a quantitative time-course liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-esi-ms ...201427682234
new rubrolides from the marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus oucmdz-1925.two new rubrolides, rubrolides r (1) and s (2), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus oucmdz-1925. their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and x-ray single crystal diffraction. compound 1 showed comparable or superior antioxidation against 2,2'-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (abts) radicals to those of trolox and ascorbic acid with an ic₅₀ value of 1.33 mm. compound 2 showed comparable or superi ...201424326339
functional analysis of cis-aconitate decarboxylase and trans-aconitate metabolism in riboflavin-producing filamentous ashbya ashbya gossypii, isocitrate lyase (icl1) is a very crucial enzyme for riboflavin production. itaconate, the inhibitor of icl1, has been used as an antimetabolite for mutagenic studies in a. gossypii. it has been reported that itaconate is produced from cis-aconitate by cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cad1) in aspergillus terreus. in this study, identification of cad1 gene and determination of the presence of itaconate in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway in a. gossypii were carried out to conf ...201424315530
aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis: report of a case and review of literature.we report a rare case of aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient with subretinal abscess and also review the reported cases. a 50-year-old healthy male presented with sudden painful loss of vision in right eye. he was diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis and underwent urgent vitrectomy. aspergillus terreus growth was obtained in culture. at final follow-up, there was complete resolution of the infection but visual acuity was poor due to macular scar. asp ...201425230968
influence of the ph on the itaconic acid production with aspergillus terreus.itaconic acid is mainly produced with the filamentous fungi aspergillus terreus. an increase in the ph during the production phase of the cultivation resulted in an increase in the itaconic acid concentration. the ph was raised by a single ph shift ranging from ph 4 to 6 or by a ph control to ph 3. different lyes can be used for the ph shift, but ammonia solution has proven to be the best, because here the productivity does not drop after the ph shift. the highest itaconic acid concentration of ...201425213913
treatment of aspergillus terreus infections: a clinical problem not yet resolved.despite the use of recommended therapies, invasive infections by aspergillus terreus show a poor response. for years, investigative studies on the failure of therapy of fungal infections have focused on in vitro susceptibility data. however, it is well known that low minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) are not always predictive of response to therapy despite a correct dosage schedule. many experimental and clinical studies have tried to establish a relationship between mics and outcome in s ...201425190543
improving itaconic acid production through genetic engineering of an industrial aspergillus terreus strain.itaconic acid, which has been declared to be one of the most promising and flexible building blocks, is currently used as monomer or co-monomer in the polymer industry, and produced commercially by aspergillus terreus. however, the production level of itaconic acid hasn't been improved in the past 40 years, and mutagenesis is still the main strategy to improve itaconate productivity. the genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial a. terreus strains to increase itaconic acid p ...201425162789
direct production of itaconic acid from liquefied corn starch by genetically engineered aspergillus terreus.itaconic acid is on the doe (department of energy) top 12 list of biotechnologically produced building block chemicals and is produced commercially by aspergillus terreus. however, the production cost of itaconic acid is too high to be economically competitive with the petrochemical-based products. itaconic acid is generally produced from raw corn starch, including three steps: enzymatic hydrolysis of corn starch into a glucose-rich syrup by α-amylase and glucoamylase, fermentation, and recovery ...201425162619
relationship between morphology and itaconic acid production by aspergillus terreus.the morphology of filamentous fungi closely correlates with the productivity in submerged culture. using itaconic acid (ia) production by aspergillus terreus as a research model, the quantitative relationship between the growth form of a. terreus and ia production was investigated. ia fermentation was scaled up from shake flasks to a 7 l stirred tank bioreactor based on the quantitative relationship. our results demonstrated the following: (1) three morphologies of a. terreus were formed by chan ...201424169454
invasive aspergillosis caused by aspergillus terreus: an emerging opportunistic infection with poor outcome independent of azole therapy.invasive aspergillosis (ia) caused by aspergillus terreus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancy (hm). very few data are available in this patient population to differentiate ia patients with a. terreus from those with non-terreus species of aspergillus to compare outcomes. we retrospectively investigated 513 hm patients who were treated for either definite or probable ia between june 1993 and august 2012 in a cancer centre.201425006241
upstream and downstream processing of lovastatin by aspergillus terreus.the present study describes the enhanced production and purification of lovastatin by aspergillus terreus in submerged batch fermentation. the enhancement of lovastatin production from a. terreus was attempted by random mutagenesis using ultraviolet radiations and nitrous acid. uv mutants exhibited increased efficiency for lovastatin production as compared with nitrous acid mutants. among all the mutants developed, a. terreus uv-4 was found to be the hyper producer of lovastatin. this mutant gav ...201424671671
expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of aspergillus terreus endo-β-1,4-glucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12.endoglucanases are important enzymes that are involved in the modification and degradation of cellulose. filamentous fungi such as aspergillus terreus are effective biomass degraders in nature owing to their capacity to produce an enzymatic arsenal of glycoside hydrolases, including endoglucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12 (gh12). the a. terreus gh12 endoglucanase was cloned and overexpressed in a. nidulans, purified and crystallized. a single crystal was obtained from a solution consist ...201424637772
the marine-derived fungal metabolite, terrein, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest in human ovarian cancer cells.the difficulties faced in the effective treatment of ovarian cancer are multifactorial, but are mainly associated with relapse and drug resistance. cancer stem-like cells have been reported to be an important contributor to these hindering factors. in this study, we aimed to investigate the anticancer activities of a bioactive fungal metabolite, namely terrein, against the human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line, skov3, primary human ovarian cancer cells and ovarian cancer stem-like cells. ter ...201425318762
reactive oxygen species regulate lovastatin biosynthesis in aspergillus terreus during submerged and solid-state a previous work we detected an important increase in reactive oxygen species (ros) concentrations during idiophase in lovastatin fermentations. hence, the objective of the present work was to determine if ros contributes to the regulation of lovastatin biosynthesis. exogenous antioxidants were used to reduce ros accumulation. the addition of n-acetyl-l-cysteine (nac) decreased ros accumulation and concurrent lovastatin production. in solid-state fermentation (ssf), the addition of 100 mm of n ...201425457945
recent advances in genome mining of secondary metabolites in aspergillus terreus.filamentous fungi are rich resources of secondary metabolites (sms) with a variety of interesting biological activities. recent advances in genome sequencing and techniques in genetic manipulation have enabled researchers to study the biosynthetic genes of these sms. aspergillus terreus is the well-known producer of lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. this fungus also produces other sms, including acetylaranotin, butyrolactones, and territram, with interesting bioactivities. this review wil ...201425566227
[superficial mycoses in patients from anzoátegui state, venezuela, period 2002-2012].superficial fungal diseases that affect the skin and its appendages are frequently seen in basic triage and in dermatology services. these diseases are distributed in venezuela with an incidence of 92.9%. the aim of this study was to determine the genera and species that cause dermatomycoses in residents of anzoátegui state, venezuela, during the period 2002-2012. a total of 4257 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycoses were studied, with ages from 7 months to 79 years. the o ...201425558751
filamentous fungal diversity and community structure associated with the solid state fermentation of chinese maotai-flavor liquor.maotai-flavor liquor is produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (ssf) process under solid state conditions, including daqu (starter) making, stacking fermentation and alcohol fermentation stages. filamentous fungi produce many enzymes to degrade the starch material into fermentable sugar during liquor fermentation. this study investigated the filamentous fungal community associated with liquor making process. eight and seven different fungal species were identified by using cu ...201424742997
production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus under ssf of banana peels.filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (cwde), in solid state fermentations. in this study, two fungal strains aspergillus niger ms23 and aspergillus terreus ms105 were screened for plant cwde such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase) using a novel substrate, banana peels (bp) for ssf process. this is the first study, to the best of our kn ...201425763058
novel and sensitive qpcr assays for the detection and identification of aspergillosis causing species.despite concerted efforts, diagnosis of aspergillosis is still a great challenge to clinical microbiology laboratories. along with the requirement for high sensitivity and specificity, species-specific identification is important. we developed rapid, sensitive and species-specific qpcr assays using the taqman technology for the detection and identification of aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus. the assays were designed to target orthologs of the streptomyces factor c gene that are onl ...201425261942
novel fungal consortium for bioremediation of metals and dyes from mixed waste stream.the present study is targeted towards development of a three member fungal consortium for effective removal of metals [cr(6+) and cu(2+)] and dyes [ab and po] from mixed waste streams. initial studies using individual fungal strain showed that aspergillus lentulus was best for cu(2+) and ab removal, aspergillus terreus for cr(6+) removal whereas, rhizopus oryzae was best for po removal. based on the complementary pollutant affinities and positive interactions, a consortium comprising all three s ...201425203229
optimization of xylanase production by filamentous fungi in solid-state fermentation and scale-up to horizontal tube bioreactor.five microorganisms, namely aspergillus niger cect 2700, a. niger cect 2915, a. niger cect 2088, aspergillus terreus cect 2808, and rhizopus stolonifer cect 2344, were grown on corncob to produce cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, mainly xylanases, by solid-state fermentation (ssf). a. niger cect 2700 produced the highest amount of xylanases of 504 ± 7 u/g dry corncob (dcc) after 3 days of fermentation. the optimization of the culture broth (5.0 g/l nano3, 1.3 g/l (nh4)2so4, 4.5 g/l kh2 ...201424728763
effect of mineral constituents in the bioleaching of uranium from uraniferous sedimentary rock samples, southwestern sinai, egypt.bioleaching, like biotechnology uses microorganisms to extract metals from their ore materials, whereas microbial activity has an appreciable effect on the dissolution of toxic metals and radionuclides. bioleaching of uranium was carried out with isolated fungi from uraniferous sedimentary rocks from southwestern sinai, egypt. eight fungal species were isolated from different grades of uraniferous samples. the bio-dissolution experiments showed that aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus exhi ...201424682031
astpt catalyses both reverse n1- and regular c2 prenylation of a methylated bisindolyl benzoquinone.prenylated bisindolyl benzoquinones exhibit interesting biological activities, such as antidiabetic or anti-hiv activities. a number of these compounds, including asterriquinones, have been isolated from aspergillus terreus. in this study, we identified two putative genes by genome mining, ateg_09980 and ateg_00702, which share high sequence similarity with the known bisindolyl benzoquinone prenyltransferase tdib from aspergillus nidulans. the coding sequences were cloned and overexpressed in e. ...201424302698
comparative study of toxicity of azo dye procion red mx-5b following biosorption and biodegradation treatments with the fungi aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus.azo dyes are an important class of environmental contaminants and are characterized by the presence of one or more azo bonds (-n=n-) in their molecular structure. effluents containing these compounds resist many types of treatments due to their molecular complexity. therefore, alternative treatments, such as biosorption and biodegradation, have been widely studied to solve the problems caused by these substances, such as their harmful effects on the environment and organisms. the aim of the pres ...201425048922
altering the activation mechanism in thermomyces lanuginosus is shown by rational site-directed mutagenesis of the lid region in thermomyces lanuginosus lipase that it is possible to generate lipase variants with attractive features, e.g., high lipase activity, fast activation at the lipid interface, ability to act on water-soluble substrates, and enhanced calcium independence. the rational design was based on the lid residue composition in aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase (faea). five constructs included lipase variants containing the full faea ...201424870718
terrein biosynthesis in aspergillus terreus and its impact on phytotoxicity.terrein is a fungal metabolite with ecological, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and antioxidative activities. although it is produced by aspergillus terreus as one of its major secondary metabolites, not much is known about its biosynthetic pathway. here, we describe an unexpected discovery of the terrein biosynthesis gene locus made while we were looking for a pks gene involved in production of conidia coloration pigments common for aspergilli. the gene, ateg_00145, here named tera, is essent ...201424816227
expression of the aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in aspergillus niger.aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. the metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in aspergillus niger. however, a key enzyme in a. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. the introduction of the a. terreus cada gene in a. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production ...201424438100
different colonization patterns of aspergillus terreus in patients with cystic fibrosis.aspergillus terreus is a common soil saprophyte. after aspergillus fumigatus and scedosporium apiospermum it ranks third amongst the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis. in this context, the clinical presentation of a. terreus infection mainly corresponds to allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis. in the work presented here, we studied colonization patterns of a. terreus in cf patients by genotyping using nine short tandem repeat markers. a total of 115 cl ...201423927682
active site model of (r)-selective ω-transaminase and its application to the production of d-amino acids.ω-transaminase (ω-ta) is one of the important biocatalytic toolkits owing to its unique enzyme property which enables the transfer of an amino group between primary amines and carbonyl compounds. in addition to preparation of chiral amines, ω-ta reactions have been exploited for the asymmetric synthesis of l-amino acids using (s)-selective ω-tas. however, despite the availability of (r)-selective ω-tas, catalytic utility of the ω-tas has not been explored for the production of d-amino acids. her ...201423576035
does fungicide application in vineyards induce resistance to medical azoles in aspergillus species?this study assessed if the use of sterol demethylase inhibitor fungicides in vineyard production can induce resistance to azoles in aspergillus strains and if it can induce selection of resistant species. we also tried to identify the aspergillus species most prevalent in the vineyards. two vineyards from northern portugal were selected from "vinhos verdes" and "douro" regions. the vineyards were divided into plots that were treated or not with penconazole (pen). in each vineyard, air, soil, and ...201424833021
an efficient tool for random insertional mutagenesis: agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus.agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) has been widely used in various organisms. in the current study, we developed a simple and efficient system for genetic transformation of the filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus using atmt. the transformation protocol was optimized for certain parameters to rapidly generate a library of transferred dna (t-dna) insertion mutants of a. terreus. the presence of mitotically stable hygromycin resistance gene (hph) integration in the genome w ...201424462974
a case of dual infection in a paediatric trauma victim of primary cutaneous aspergillosis caused by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus terreus.aspergillus spp. are widely distributed throughout the environment. they are opportunistic pathogens causing infection at various sites in the body such as lungs, sinuses, eyes, skin, central nervous system etc., primary cutaneous aspergillosis is an uncommon disease entity. primary infections usually occur at sites having disruption of the skin and usually occur in burn patients, trauma and surgical patients. a 4-year-old girl who was run over by a truck and suffered extensive de-gloving injury ...201423867682
in vitro combination of isavuconazole with micafungin or amphotericin b deoxycholate against medically important molds.whether isavuconazole, an extended-spectrum triazole, possesses synergistic activity in combination therapy with echinocandins or amphotericin b for the treatment of invasive molds infections has not been studied. our in vitro combination studies showed that isavuconazole and micafungin are synergistically active against aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, and cunninghamella bertholletiae. these results suggest that isavuconazole, in combination with micafungin, may h ...201425136021
screening of indigenously isolated fungi for lovastatin production and its in vivo indigenously isolated fungal strains (aspergillus niger, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, penicillium citrinum, penicillium notatum, pleurotus ostreatus and trichoderma viradae) were tested for their potential to produce cholesterol lowering drug lovastatin by using different agro-industrial wastes (corn cobs, corn stover, banana stalk, wheat straw, wheat bran, bagasse) in submerged as well as solid state fermentation. aspergillus terreus showed maximum production of 18.74 mg/100 m ...201424894549
fermented whey as poultry feed additive to prevent fungal contamination.fungal contamination of poultry feed causes economic losses to industry and represents a potential risk to animal health. the aim of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of whey fermented with kefir grains as additive to reduce fungal incidence, thus improving feed safety.201424652751
susceptibility breakpoints for amphotericin b and aspergillus species in an in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model simulating free-drug concentrations in human serum.although conventional amphotericin b was for many years the drug of choice and remains an important agent against invasive aspergillosis, reliable susceptibility breakpoints are lacking. three clinical aspergillus isolates (aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus terreus) were tested in an in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model simulating the biphasic 24-h time-concentration profile of free amphotericin b concentrations in human serum with free peak concentrations (fcm ...201424514094
microbes associated with freshly prepared juices of citrus and carrots.fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. they contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. in the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. a total of 30 juice s ...201426904628
2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for candida and aspergillus species.the amino acid derivative 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (hica) is a nutritional additive used to increase muscle mass. low levels can be detected in human plasma as a result of leucine metabolism. it has broad antibacterial activity but its efficacy against pathogenic fungi is not known. the aim was to test the efficacy of hica against candida and aspergillus species. efficacy of hica against 19 clinical and reference isolates representing five candida and three aspergillus species with variable azol ...201424125484
[aspergillus species in hospital environments with pediatric patients in critical condition].aspergillus is a group of opportunistic fungi that cause infections, with high morbimortality in immunosuppressed patients. aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent species in these infections, although the incidence of other species has increased in the last few years.201424120420
aspergillus fumigatus and related species.the genus aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. the clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. among the pathogenic aspergilli, aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section fumigati that morphologically resemble a. fumigatus. patients that a ...201425377144
identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production.spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, ph, ethanol and other preservatives is needed. using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854 ...201424997272
crystal structure of an (r)-selective ω-transaminase from aspergillus terreus.chiral amines are important building blocks for the synthesis of pharmaceutical products, fine chemicals, and agrochemicals. ω-transaminases are able to directly synthesize enantiopure chiral amines by catalysing the transfer of an amino group from a primary amino donor to a carbonyl acceptor with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (plp) as cofactor. in nature, (s)-selective amine transaminases are more abundant than the (r)-selective enzymes, and therefore more information concerning their structures is av ...201424498081
biological interactions between soil saprotrophic fungi and ascaris suum eggs.the in vitro effect of saprotrophic soil fungi on the embryonic development of ascaris suum was evaluated. the fungi tested were aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, penicillium citrinum, penicillium expansum, fusarium oxysporum and trichothecium roseum, isolated from children's recreation areas in the city of lodz (poland). each species was co-cultured with a. suum egg suspension (6 × 10(3)eggs/ml) at 25 ± 2°c for 60 days. each day, 100 eggs were randomly collected and their developmenta ...201323534981
biochemistry of microbial itaconic acid production.itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarbonic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block, because it can be used as a monomer for the production of a plethora of products including resins, plastics, paints, and synthetic fibers. some aspergillus species, like a. itaconicus and a. terreus, show the ability to synthesize this organic acid and a. terreus can secrete significant amounts to the media (>80 g/l). however, compared with the citric acid production process (titers >200 g ...201323420787
differential antibacterial properties of the mura inhibitors terreic acid and fosfomycin.terreic acid is a metabolite with antibiotic properties produced by the fungus aspergillus terreus, but its cellular target remains unknown. we recently reported that terreic acid inactivates the bacterial cell wall biosynthetic enzyme mura in vitro by covalent reaction with residue cys115 in a similar manner as the mura-specific antibiotic fosfomycin. to address if terreic acid also targets mura in vivo, we conducted antibacterial studies using selected e. coli strains in parallel with fosfomyc ...201323686727
biochemical characterization of a gh53 endo-β-1,4-galactanase and a gh35 exo-β-1,4-galactanase from penicillium endo-β-1,4-galactanase (pcgal1) and an exo-β-1,4-galactanase (pcgalx35c) were purified from the culture filtrate of penicillium chrysogenum 31b. pcgal1 and pcgalx35c cdnas encoding pcgal1 and pcgalx35c were isolated by in vitro cloning. the deduced amino acid sequences of pcgal1 and pcgalx35c are highly similar to a putative endo-β-1,4-galactanase of aspergillus terreus (70% amino acid identity) and a putative β-galactosidase of neosartorya fischeri (72%), respectively. pfam analysis revealed ...201322584433
primary cutaneous aspergillosis due to aspergillus tamarii in an immunocompetent host.primary cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare disease usually caused by aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus and aspergillus ustus. it is usually seen in immunocompromised hosts, though some cases are also reported in immunocompetent hosts. we present a case of an immunocompetent farmer who presented with generalised nodules and plaques, mimicking erythema nodosum leprosum but turned out to be cutaneous aspergillosis caused by aspergillus tamarii. the characteristic ascospo ...201323970496
determination of isavuconazole susceptibility of aspergillus and candida species by the eucast method.isavuconazole is a novel expanded-spectrum triazole, which has recently been approved by the fda as an orphan drug to treat invasive aspergillosis and is currently being studied in phase iii clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. the susceptibility of relatively few clinical isolates has been reported. in this study, the isavuconazole susceptibilities of 1,237 aspergillus and 2,010 candida geographically diverse clinical isolates were determined by eucast methodology at four european mycology ...201323959309
photochemical and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticle-encapsulated chitosan functionalized with photoactive groups.chitosan was functionalized with 4-((e)-2-(3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)diazen-1-yl)benzoic acid by the coupling of the hydroxyl functional groups of chitosan with carboxylic acid group of the dye by dcc coupling method. the silver nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method of nanoparticle synthesis. silver nanoparticle-encapsulated functionalized chitosan was prepared by the phase transfer method. the products were characterized by ftir, uv-vis, fluorescence and nmr spectroscopic methods and by ...201323910360
effects of sugar and amino acid supplementation on aureobasidium pullulans nrrl 58536 antifungal activity against four aspergillus species.cultured cell extracts from ten tropical strains of aureobasidium pullulans were screened for antifungal activity against four pathogenic aspergillus species (aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus fumigatus, and aspergillus terreus) using the well diffusion and conidial germination inhibition assays. the crude cell extract from a. pullulans nrrl 58536 resulted in the greatest fungicidal activity against all four aspergillus species and so was selected for further investigation into ...201323828601
in vitro activity of a new oral glucan synthase inhibitor (mk-3118) tested against aspergillus spp. by clsi and eucast broth microdilution, a glucan synthase inhibitor derived from enfumafungin, and comparator agents were tested against 71 aspergillus spp., including itraconazole-resistant strains (mic, ≥ 4 μg/ml), using clsi and eucast reference broth microdilution methods. the clsi 90% minimum effective concentration (mec(90))/mic(90) values (μg/ml) for mk-3118, amphotericin b, and caspofungin, respectively, were as follows: 0.12, 2, and 0.03 for aspergillus flavus species complex (sc); 0.25, 2, and 0.06 for aspergillus f ...201323229479
fatal-mixed cutaneous zygomycosis-aspergillosis: a case report.mucorales and aspergillus are molds responsible for infections in immunocompromised patients. in this report, we describe a case of a rare extensively mixed cutaneous infection caused by lichtheimia ramosa, aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus in a neutropenic patient suffering from an acute leukemia. the fatal outcome of this patient can be attributed to its hematologic malignancy, the extensive nature of the lesions and the resistance of the strains to antifungals.201324085614
identification of ochratoxin a producing fungi associated with fresh and dry liquorice.the presence of fungi on liquorice could contaminate the crop and result in elevated levels of mycotoxin. in this study, the mycobiota associated with fresh and dry liquorice was investigated in 3 producing regions of china. potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin a (ota) and aflatoxin b1 (afb1) production using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and rna polymerase ii second largest subu ...201324205182
targeting enzymes to the right compartment: metabolic engineering for itaconic acid production by aspergillus niger.itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block. it can be microbially produced from some aspergillus species, such as aspergillus itaconicus and aspergillus terreus. however, the achieved titers are significantly lower as compared to the citric acid production by a. niger. heterologous expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase in a. niger leads to the accumulation of small amounts of itaconic acid. additional expression of aconitase, ...201323727192
reduced by-product formation and modified oxygen availability improve itaconic acid production in aspergillus niger.aspergillus niger has an extraordinary potential to produce organic acids as proven by its application in industrial citric acid production. previously, it was shown that expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cada) from aspergillus terreus converted a. niger into an itaconic acid producer (li et al., fungal genet bio 48: 602-611, 2011). after some initial steps in production optimization in the previous research (li et al., bmc biotechnol 12: 57, 2012), this research aims at modify ...201323397482
six novel constitutive promoters for metabolic engineering of aspergillus niger.genetic tools for the fine-tuning of gene expression levels are a prerequisite for rational strain optimization through metabolic engineering. while aspergillus niger is an industrially important fungus, widely used for production of organic acids and heterologous proteins, the available genetic tool box for this organism is still rather limited. here, we characterize six novel constitutive promoters of a. niger providing different expression levels. the selection of the promoters was based on p ...201322707054
heterologous reconstitution of the intact geodin gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans through a simple and versatile pcr based approach.fungal natural products are a rich resource for bioactive molecules. to fully exploit this potential it is necessary to link genes to metabolites. genetic information for numerous putative biosynthetic pathways has become available in recent years through genome sequencing. however, the lack of solid methodology for genetic manipulation of most species severely hampers pathway characterization. here we present a simple pcr based approach for heterologous reconstitution of intact gene clusters. s ...201324009710
an efficient system for heterologous expression of secondary metabolite genes in aspergillus nidulans.fungal secondary metabolites (sms) are an important source of medically valuable compounds. genome projects have revealed that fungi have many sm biosynthetic gene clusters that are not normally expressed. to access these potentially valuable, cryptic clusters, we have developed a heterologous expression system in aspergillus nidulans . we have developed an efficient system for amplifying genes from a target fungus, placing them under control of a regulatable promoter, transferring them into a. ...201323621425
free chlorine inactivation of fungi in drinking water sources.the effectiveness of free chlorine for the inactivation of fungi present in settled surface water was tested. in addition, free chlorine inactivation rate constants of cladosporium tenuissimum, cladosporium cladosporioides, phoma glomerata, aspergillus terreus, aspergillus fumigatus, penicillium griseofulvum, and penicillium citrinum that were found to occur in different source waters were determined in different water matrices (laboratory grade water and settled water). the effect of using diff ...201323164218
activity of antifungal combinations against aspergillus species evaluated by isothermal microcalorimetry.we evaluated the activity of antifungals alone or in combination against aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus by real-time measurement of fungal growth-related heat production. amphotericin b, voriconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin were tested alone or in combination. heat production was measured in sabouraud dextrose broth containing 10(5)aspergillus conidia/ml for 48 h at 37 °c. antifungal activity was evaluated by measuring the heat detection time relative to the growth control ...201323871413
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