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green synthesis of nanosilver particles by aspergillus terreus ha1n and penicillium expansum ha2n and its antifungal activity against mycotoxigenic fungi.the aim of this study was to synthesize silver nanoparticles (agnps) by an eco-friendly and low-cost method using the fungi aspergillus terreus ha1n and penicillium expansum ha2n as an alternative to chemical procedures mostly requiring drastic experimental conditions emitting toxic chemical byproducts. also, this study has been extended to evaluate the effect of agnps on the growth of some mycotoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin a (ota) produced by aspergillus ochraceus.201627002915
role of nutrients and illuminance in predicting the fate of fungal mediated petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and biomass production.biodegradation and biomass production are affected by numerous environmental factors including ph, oxygen availability and presence of pollutants. the present study, for the first time, elucidated the effects of nutrients and light on mycodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel oil. seven fungal strains (aspergillus terreus fa3, aspergillus niger fa5, aspergillus terreus fa6, penicillium chrysogenum fp4, aspergillus terreus fp6, aspergillus flavus fp10, and candida sp. fg1) were used for ...201627039364
occurrence of moulds from bee pollen in central italy--a preliminary study.the present study aimed to preliminary evaluate the occurrence of fungi in 40 specimens of trapped pollen collected from april-september 2015 in 40 apiaries from tuscany (central italy). cultural and microscopical examinations allowed the recognition of cladosporium sp., alternaria sp., humicola sp. mucoraceae and acremonium sp. penicillium brevicompactum, penicillium chrysogenum, aspergillus flavus , aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus were also identified. yeasts an ...201627010410
the glycolytic enzyme enolase represents a plasminogen-binding protein on the surface of a wide variety of medically important fungal species.allergies are an increasing issue in human health and can, eventually, cause severe anaphylactic shock. aspergillus fumigatus and candida albicans are leading causes of life-threatening invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, but can also cause severe allergic responses in otherwise healthy individuals. the glycolytic enzyme enolase is known as a major allergen despite its function in intracellular metabolism. therefore, its presentation on surfaces of different fungal species ...201626679571
causative agents of aspergillosis including cryptic aspergillus species and a. fumigatus.aspergillosis is an important deep mycosis. the causative agents are aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, and aspergillus terreus, of which a. fumigatus is the most prevalent. cryptic aspergillus spp., which morphologically resemble representative species of each aspergillus section, also cause aspergillosis. most of the cryptic species reveal different susceptibility patterns and/or different secondary metabolite profiles, also called exometabolome in this manuscript, f ...201627904060
discrimination of aspergillosis, mucormycosis, fusariosis, and scedosporiosis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens by use of multiple real-time quantitative pcr assays.in a retrospective multicenter study, 102 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (ffpe) tissue specimens with histopathology results were tested. two 4- to 5-μm ffpe tissue sections from each specimen were digested with proteinase k, followed by automated nucleic acid extraction. multiple real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) assays targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) region of ribosomal dna, using fluorescently labeled primers, was performed to identify clinically important genera and spec ...201627605714
activity of a long-acting echinocandin, cd101, determined using clsi and eucast reference methods, against candida and aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates.the objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of cd101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of candida and aspergillus spp. isolates.201627287236
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of voriconazole against candida spp. and aspergillus spp. in children, adolescents and adults by monte carlo simulation.the objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative fraction of response of various voriconazole dosing regimens against six candida and six aspergillus spp. in immunocompromised children, immunocompromised adolescents, and adults. using pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic data, 5000-subject monte carlo simulations (mcss) were conducted to evaluate the ability of simulated dosing strategies in terms of fauc/mic targets of voriconazole. according to the results of the mcss, c ...201627179818
high cell density cultivation of six fungal strains efficient in azo dye bioremediation.this work aims at optimizing the high cell density fungal cultivation for producing large quantities of fungal biomass to be used in azo dye residues bioremediation. in our previous studies the efficacy of using certain fungal strains to decolorize a range of commercial textile dyes of different structures (azo, disazo) were investigated. several promising fungal strains belonging to aspergillus tubigenesis, aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, and aspergillus fumigates demonstrated high capa ...201628352548
agents that activate the high osmolarity glycerol pathway as a means to combat pathogenic molds.treatment of invasive fungal infections often fails due to the limited number of therapeutic options. in this study, we have analyzed the impact of agents activating the high osmolarity glycerol (hog) pathway on molds that cause infections in humans and livestock. we found that agents like fludioxonil and iprodione, have a clear anti-fungal activity against pathogenic aspergillus, lichtheimia, rhizopus and scedosporium species. only a. terreus turned out to be resistant to fludioxonil, even thou ...201627713026
comparative performance evaluation of multi-metal resistant fungal strains for simultaneous removal of multiple hazardous metals.in the present study, five fungal strains viz., aspergillus terreus aml02, paecilomyces fumosoroseus 4099, beauveria bassiana 4580, aspergillus terreus pd-17, aspergillus fumigatus pd-18, were screened for simultaneous multimetal removal. highest metal tolerance index for each individual metal viz., cd, cr, cu, ni, pb and zn (500mg/l) was recorded for a. fumigatus for the metals (cd, 0.72; cu, 0.72; pb, 1.02; zn, 0.94) followed by b. bassiana for the metals (cd, 0.56; cu, 0.14; ni, 0.29; zn, 0.8 ...201627497228
assessment of relevant fungal species in clinical solid wastes.the study aimed to determine the fungal diversity in clinical waste samples from a healthcare facility in penang malaysia. different fungi species were detected in 83.75 % of the 92 clinical waste samples that were screened from different sections of the healthcare facility. one hundred fifty fungal isolates comprising of 8 genera and 36 species were obtained. they were purified by using single spore isolation technique. subsequently, the isolates were identified by phenotypic method based on mo ...201627417327
microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the united states and implications for human health.an occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (dwtps) in the united states. water samples were analyzed for the protozoa giardia and cryptosporidium (epa method 1623); the fungi aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus (quantitative pcr [qpcr]); and the bacteria legionella pneumophila (qpcr), mycobacterium avium, m. avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and mycobacterium intrace ...201627260619
a non-canonical melanin biosynthesis pathway protects aspergillus terreus conidia from environmental stress.melanins are ubiquitous pigments found in all kingdoms of life. most organisms use them for protection from environmental stress, although some fungi employ melanins as virulence determinants. the human pathogenic fungus aspergillus fumigatus and related ascomycetes produce dihydroxynaphthalene- (dhn) melanin in their spores, the conidia, and use it to inhibit phagolysosome acidification. however, biosynthetic origin of melanin in a related fungus, aspergillus terreus, has remained a mystery bec ...201627133313
stimulation with lysates of aspergillus terreus, candida krusei and rhizopus oryzae maximizes cross-reactivity of anti-fungal t cells.invasive fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi and yeasts are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed hematology patients. we previously published a method to expand aspergillus fumigatus-specific t cells for clinical cell therapy. in the present study, we investigated expansion of t cells specific for other fungal pathogens and creation of a broadly reactive panfungal t-cell product.201626552765
pseudallescheria boydii with aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus in a critically ill hematopoietic stem cell recipient with ards.pseudallescheria boydii is a fungal organism known to affect immunocompromised patients. this organism is known to cause, in severe cases, invasive infection of various organs such as the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. we report an unusual case of pulmonary p. boydii pneumonia in an immunocompromised critically ill patient with a co-infection of aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus with ards. this case highlights the importance of a high index of suspicion for ...201626455910
biosynthetic pathway of the reduced polyketide product citreoviridin in aspergillus terreus var. aureus revealed by heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans.citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of f1-atpase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. these potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. the identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans are reported. two intermediates were isolated that allowed the propos ...201626954888
phylogenetic and structural analysis of polyketide synthases in aspergilli.polyketide synthases (pkss) of aspergillus species are multidomain and multifunctional megaenzymes that play an important role in the synthesis of diverse polyketide compounds. putative pks protein sequences from aspergillus species representing medically, agriculturally, and industrially important aspergillus species were chosen and screened for in silico studies. six candidate aspergillus species, aspergillus fumigatus af293, aspergillus flavus nrrl3357, aspergillus niger cbs 513.88, aspergill ...201627199544
glycoside hydrolase production by aspergillus terreus cm20 using mixture design approach for enhanced enzymatic saccharification of alkali pretreated paddy straw.a successful lignocellulosic ethanol production process needs to address the technological impediments such as cost-competitiveness and sustainability of the process. effective biomass utilization requires a repertoire of enzymes including various accessory enzymes. developing an enzyme preparation with defined hydrolytic activities can circumvent the need for supplementing cellulases with accessory enzymes for enhanced hydrolysis. with this objective, mixture design approach was used in the pre ...201628577515
[one-step fermentation for producing simvastatin via rnai silencing of lovf gene in aspergillus terreus].simvastatin is one of the important prescription drugs for hypercholesterolemia. monacolin j is a key intermediate during simvastatin synthesis, and also an intermediate of lovastatin biosynthesis. in this work, we construct a monacolin j producing strain via rna interference to achieve one-step fermentation to obtain simvastatin. the lovf gene silencing plasmid pmhj137 was constructed and transformed into aspergillus terreus by agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation method. precursor ...201628853269
mycosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles: optimization, characterization and antimicrobial activity against human pathogens.this study was aimed to isolate soil fungi from kolli and yercaud hills, south india with the ultimate objective of producing antimicrobial nanoparticles. among 65 fungi tested, the isolate, bios ptk 6 extracellularly synthesized both silver and gold nanoparticles with good monodispersity. under optimized reaction conditions, the strain bios ptk 6 identified as aspergillus terreus has produced extremely stable nanoparticles within 12h. these nanoparticles were characterized by uv-vis. spectropho ...201626686609
a case of bilateral otomycosis associated with aspergillus flavus and a. terreus in taiwan.otitis externa caused by fungi (otomycosis) occurs more commonly in tropical areas with high moisture than in temperate regions. bilateral otomycosis is, however, rarely reported. in a case of bilateral otitis externa in a 56-year-old male patient in taiwan, direct microscopic examination of the cerumen as well as isolation of strains indicated the presence of two aspergillus species being different in each of both ears. the species were identified by dna sequence comparisons and additional morp ...201728501466
proteomics as a tool to identify new targets against aspergillus and scedosporium in the context of cystic fibrosis.cystic fibrosis (cf) is a genetic disorder that increases the risk of suffering microbial, including fungal, infections. in this paper, proteomics-based information was collated relating to secreted and cell wall proteins with potential medical applications from the most common filamentous fungi in cf, i.e., aspergillus and scedosporium/lomentospora species. among the aspergillus fumigatus secreted allergens, β-1,3-endoglucanase, the alkaline protease 1 (alp1/oryzin), asp f 2, asp f 13/15, chiti ...201728484941
notable fibrolytic enzyme production by aspergillus spp. isolates from the gastrointestinal tract of beef cattle fed in lignified pastures.fungi have the ability to degrade vegetal cell wall carbohydrates, and their presence in the digestive tract of ruminants can minimize the effects of lignified forage on ruminal fermentation. here, we evaluated enzyme production by aspergillus spp. isolates from the digestive tracts of cattle grazed in tropical pastures during the dry season. filamentous fungi were isolated from rumen and feces by culture in cellulose-based medium. ninety fungal strains were isolated and identified by rdna seque ...201728850605
a comparative study on the activity of fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases for the depolymerization of cellulose in soybean spent flakes.lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos) are copper-dependent enzymes capable of the oxidative breakdown of polysaccharides. they are of industrial interest due to their ability to enhance the enzymatic depolymerization of recalcitrant substrates by glycoside hydrolases. in this paper, twenty-four lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos) expressed in trichoderma reesei were evaluated for their ability to oxidize the complex polysaccharides in soybean spent flakes, an abundant and industria ...201728750348
repurposing antipsychotic drugs into antifungal agents: synergistic combinations of azoles and bromperidol derivatives in the treatment of various fungal infections.as the number of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients continues to rise, invasive fungal infections, such as invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis, threaten the life of millions of patients every year. the azole antifungals are currently the most prescribed drugs clinically that display broad-spectrum antifungal activity and excellent oral bioavailability. yet, the azole antifungals have their own limitations and are unable to meet the challenges associated with increasing fungal infecti ...201728797882
comparative study of the production of extracellular β-glucosidase by four different strains of aspergillus using submerged fermentation.four strains of aspergillus (aspergillus niger cdbb-h-176, a. niger cdbb-h-175, a. niger atcc 9642, and aspergillus terreus cdbb-h-194) were used to produce extracellular β-glucosidase. using an orthogonal experimental design (l9), we optimized the parameters of culture medium to maximize the activity of β-glucosidase. the optimal conditions (same for the four strains) were as follows: temperature, 30°c; ph, 6.0; orbital agitation, 200 rpm; concentration of sucrose, 0.5% (w/v). the most producti ...201728631979
gentamicin degradation and changes in fungal diversity and physicochemical properties during composting of gentamicin production residue.an indoor co-composting of gentamicin fermentation residues (gfr) and lovastatin fermentation residues (lfr) inoculated with gentamicin-degrading aspergillus terreus fzc3 was conducted to remove gentamicin residues. the results showed that treatment mfzc3, consisting of a 10:1 blend of gfr and lfr (w/w), had the longest thermophilic phase (7days), quickest gentamicin degradation (t½=4.4days), and relatively higher gentamicin degradation percentage (96.7%) at the end of composting. addition of as ...201728847079
periprosthetic hip joint infection with aspergillus terreus: a clinical case and a review of the literature.fungal periprosthetic joint infections due to aspergillus species are rare but are associated with significant cost and morbidity. we present a case of asperigillus terreus prosthetic joint infection of the hip. the patient was successfully treated with a prolonged course of systemic antifungals along with surgical management.201728808616
optimization of submerged fermentation medium for matrine production by aspergillus terreus, an endophytic fungus harboring seeds of sophora flavescens, using response surface methodology.different endophytes isolated from the seeds of sophora flavescens were tested for their ability to produce matrine production. response surface methodology (rsm) was applied to optimize the medium components for the endophytic fungus. results indicated that endophyte aspergillus terreus had the ability to produce matrine. the single factor tests demonstrated that potato starch was the best carbon source and the combination of peptone and nh4no3 was the optimal nitrogen source for a. terreus. th ...201728781541
microbial transformation of artemisinin by aspergillus terreus.artemisinin (1) and its derivatives are now being widely used as antimalarial drugs, and they also exhibited good antitumor activities. so there has been much interest in the structural modification of artemisinin and its derivatives because of their effective bioactivities. the microbial transformation is a promising route to obtain artemisinin derivatives. the present study focuses on the microbial transformation of artemisinin by aspergillus terreus.201728775933
oxidative stress response tips the balance in aspergillus terreus amb resistance.in this study we characterize the impact of antioxidative enzymes in amb resistant (atr) and rare susceptible (ats) clinical a. terreus isolates. we elucidate the expression profiles of superoxide dismutases (sods) and catalases (cats) encoding genes, enzymatic activity of sods, superoxide anion production and signaling pathways involved in oxidative stress response (osr) under amb treatment in ats and atr strains. we show that atr possess almost doubled basal sod activity compared to ats and th ...201728739793
successful medical treatment of an aspergillus terreus mycetoma of the nostril/lip in a 16-year-old fjord pony gelding with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.mycetoma is a chronic, proliferative lesion of cutaneous/subcutaneous tissue characterized by draining tracts and granules in the discharge caused by actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) or filamentous fungi (eumycotic mycetoma).201728736852
absence of subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity of rice koji with aspergillus terreus.koji products have been considered as an effective fermented food consumed in east asia with many health benefits. particularly, rice koji with aspergillus terreus (rat) has been reported to be able to prevent hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis through regulating cholesterol synthesis. despite its biological activities, there is a lack of comprehensive information to give an assurance of its safety. therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a series of toxicological studies (repeat ...201728802559
key role of alternative oxidase in lovastatin solid-state fermentation.lovastatin is a commercially important secondary metabolite produced by aspergillus terreus, either by solid-state fermentation or by submerged fermentation. in a previous work, we showed that reactive oxygen species (ros) accumulation in idiophase positively regulates lovastatin biosynthetic genes. in addition, it has been found that lovastatin-specific production decreases with aeration in solid-state fermentation (ssf). to study this phenomenon, we determined ros accumulation during lovastati ...201728791446
isolation and characterization of "terrein" an antimicrobial and antitumor compound from endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus (jas-2) associated from achyranthus aspera varanasi, india.the present study aimed at characterizing biological potentials of endophyte aspergillus terreus jas-2 isolated from achyranthus aspera. crude extracted from endophytic fungus jas-2 was purified and chemically characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic studies respectively. spectral assignment of nmr (nuclear magnetic resonance) data, (1)h proton and (13)c carbon analysis along with ftir data elucidated the structure of compound as 4,5-dihydroxy-3-(1-propenyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-one. after ...201728790982
luliconazole, an alternative antifungal agent against aspergillus terreus.aspergillus terreus is the fourth leading cause of invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis and one of the causative agents of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised and high-risk patients. a. terreus appears to have increased as a cause of opportunistic fungal infections from superficial to serious invasive infections. although, invasive aspergillosis is often treated empirically with amphotericin b, most a. terreus isolates are resistant both in vivo and in vitro to some antifungal dru ...201728483449
melanisation of aspergillus terreus-is butyrolactone i involved in the regulation of both dopa and dhn types of pigments in submerged culture?pigments and melanins of fungal spores have been investigated for decades, revealing important roles in the survival of the fungus in hostile environments. the key genes and the encoded enzymes for pigment and melanin biosynthesis have recently been found in ascomycota, including aspergillus spp. in aspergillus terreus, the pigmentation has remained mysterious with only one class of melanin biogenesis being found. in this study, we examined an intriguing, partially annotated gene cluster of a. t ...201728471414
terrein performs antitumor functions on esophageal cancer cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and synergistic interaction with cisplatin.terrein is a bioactive fungal metabolite isolated from aspergillus terreus. besides being a melanogenesis inhibitor, previous studies have revealed that terrein has antiproliferative effects on a number of types of cancer tumors. in the present study, the inhibitory effect of terrein on esophageal cancer was evaluated and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated. the results revealed that terrein inhibited the proliferation of eca109 esophageal cancer cells in a dose- and time-depend ...201728454470
process relevant screening of cellulolytic organisms for consolidated bioprocessing.although the biocatalytic conversion of cellulosic biomass could replace fossil oil for the production of various compounds, it is often not economically viable due to the high costs of cellulolytic enzymes. one possibility to reduce costs is consolidated bioprocessing (cbp), integrating cellulase production, hydrolysis of cellulose, and the fermentation of the released sugars to the desired product into one process step. to establish such a process, the most suitable cellulase-producing organis ...201728450887
production of itaconic acid from pentose sugars by aspergillus terreus.itaconic acid (ia), an unsaturated 5-carbon dicarboxylic acid, is a building block platform chemical that is currently produced industrially from glucose by fermentation with aspergillus terreus. however, lignocellulosic biomass has potential to serve as low-cost source of sugars for production of ia. research needs to be performed to find a suitable a. terreus strain that can use lignocellulose-derived pentose sugars and produce ia. one hundred a. terreus strains were evaluated for the first ti ...201728440059
new approaches for itaconic acid production: bottlenecks and possible remedies.currently, growing attention is being devoted to the conversion of biomass into value-added products, such as itaconic acid (ia), which is considered as the cleanest alternative to petroleum-based acrylic acid. ia is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid that is used as a building block chemical for the production of several value-added products such as poly-itaconic acid. ia and its derivatives have a wide range of potential applications in textile, paint, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. pre ...201728425297
a new approach to models of the 4,5-dihydroxycyclopentenone core of the kodaistatins a-d: elucidation of the diol configuration in kodaistatin a.the kodaistatins a-d are strongly anti-diabetic natural products from aspergillus terreus that hold some promise of a novel diabetes cure. however, considerations of that kind face two drawbacks: 1) the kodaistatins a-d contain a heavily substituted pulvinone/cyclopentenone combination; 2) they are 1,2-diols, the 3d structures of which have not been assigned yet. however, we can exclude two of the four possible stereostructures. we conclude that kodaistatin a is a trans-, not a cis-diol from nmr ...201728421637
a prospective international aspergillus terreus survey: an efisg, isham and ecmm joint study.a prospective international multicentre surveillance study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and amphotericin b susceptibility of aspergillus terreus species complex infections.201728412383
production of itaconic acid by biotransformation of wheat bran hydrolysate with aspergillus terreus cicc40205 mutant.the replacement of the carbon source in the microbial production of itaconic acid (ia) with economic alternatives has attracted significant attention. in this study, an aspergillus terreus cicc40205 mutant was used to increase the ia titer and decrease the citric acid titer in the wheat bran hydrolysate compared with the parental strain. the results showed that the ia titer was increased by 33.4%, whereas the citric acid titer was decreased by 75.8%, and were in accordance with those of the impr ...201728550772
proteome profile of aspergillus terreus conidia at germinating stage: identification of probable virulent factors and enzymes from mycotoxin pathways.aspergillus terreus is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. the main risk group of individuals for this organism is leukopenic patients, individuals having cancers, bone marrow transplant persons and those who have immunological disorders. the lack of early diagnostic marker for a. terreus and intrinsic resistance to amphotericin b, further limits the successful therapy of a. terreus-associated infections. the germination ...201728647921
citreoviridin induces triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes through inhibiting ppar-α in vivo and in vitro.citreoviridin (cit) is a mycotoxin produced by penicillum citreonigrum, aspergillus terreus and eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum. cit occurs naturally in moldy rice and corn. cit is associated with the development of atherosclerosis in the general population. alteration in hepatic lipid metabolism is a pathogenic factor in atherosclerosis. however the effect and the underlying mechanism of cit on hepatic lipid metabolism are largely unknown. in this study, we reported that cit induced triglyceride a ...201728645467
improving thermostability of (r)-selective amine transaminase from aspergillus terreus through introduction of disulfide bonds.to improve the thermostability of (r)-selective amine transaminase from aspergillus terreus (at-ata), we used computer software disulfide by design and modelling of disulfide bonds in proteins to identify mutation sites where the disulfide bonds were most likely to form. we obtained three stabilized mutants (n25c-a28c, r131c-d134c, m150c-m280c) from seven candidates by site-directed mutagenesis. compared to the wild type, the best two mutants n25c-a28c and m150c-m280c showed improved thermal sta ...201728639260
comment on: "melanisation of aspergillus terreus-is butyrolactone i involved in the regulation of both dopa and dhn types of pigments in submerged culture? microorganisms 2017, 5, 22".a recent article by palonen et al. describes the effect of butyrolactone i on the expression of a secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster from aspergillus terreus that shows similarities to fusarubin biosynthesis gene clusters from fusarium species. the authors claim that two different types of pigments are formed in aspergillus terreus conidia, whereby one pigment is termed a dopa-type melanin and the second a dhn-type melanin. unfortunately, the terminology of the classification of mela ...201728635676
molecular basis for the unusual ring reconstruction in fungal meroterpenoid biogenesis.trt14 from aspergillus terreus is involved in unusual skeletal reconstruction during the biosynthesis of the fungal meroterpenoid terretonin. detailed in vitro characterization revealed that this novel multifunctional enzyme catalyzes not only the d-ring expansion via intramolecular methoxy rearrangement, but also the hydrolysis of the expanded d-ring. the x-ray crystal structures of trt14, in complex with substrate or product, and two trt14 homologs, aush and prhc from aspergillus nidulans and ...201728759016
evaluation of the in vitro activity of isavuconazole and comparator voriconazole against 2635 contemporary clinical candida and aspergillus isolates.the in vitro activity of isavuconazole was determined for 1677 candida and 958 aspergillus isolates from 2012 to 2014 with voriconazole as comparator.201728373148
progress in definition, prevention and treatment of fungal infections in cystic fibrosis.cystic fibrosis (cf) is a chronic lethal multi-system condition; however, most of the morbidity and mortality is dependent on the status of the respiratory system. progressive respiratory decline is mediated by chronic infection and inflammation, punctuated by important acute events known as pulmonary exacerbations which can lead to accelerated decline. the main bacterial species causing infections include pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, haemophilus influenzae and achromobacter xy ...201728762125
reply to the comment on "melanisation of aspergillus terreus-is butyrolactone i involved in the regulation of both dopa and dhn types of pigments in submerged culture? microorganisms 2017, 5, 22".n/a.201728677647
single-step production of the simvastatin precursor monacolin j by engineering of an industrial strain of aspergillus terreus.monacolin j is a key precursor for the synthesis of simvastatin (zocor), an important drug for treating hypercholesterolemia. industrially, monacolin j is manufactured through alkaline hydrolysis of lovastatin, a fungal polyketide produced by aspergillus terreus. multistep chemical processes for the conversion of lovastatin to simvastatin are laborious, cost expensive and environmentally unfriendly. a biocatalysis process for monacolin j conversion to simvastatin has been developed. however, dir ...201728619444
bio-mining the forest ecosystem of north east india for identification of antimicrobial metabolites from fungi through submerged fermentation.in this study, fungi isolated from less explored forest soil ecosystem of northeast india were studied for the production of potential antimicrobial metabolites (amm). out of the 68 fungi isolated from forest soil of manipur, 7 of them showed ama against the test pathogens. among them, aspergillus terreus (ibsd-f4) showed the most significant activity against staphylococcus aureus (atcc-25923), bacillus anthracis (ibsd-c370), pseudomonas fluorescens (atcc-13525), salmonella typhimurium (atcc-140 ...201728578806
fungal periprosthetic joint infection following total elbow arthroplasty: a case report and review of the literature.with improving surgical techniques for total elbow arthroplasty clinical outcomes have improved and its utilization continues to increase. despite these advances, complication rates remain as high as 24%. of these complications periprosthetic joint infection is one of the most common and morbid. the rheumatoid elbow remains a leading indication for total elbow arthroplasty. patients with this condition frequently require immunosuppressive therapy, which places them at higher risk of both typical ...201728109195
matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of fungal rhinosinusitis pathogens.filamentous fungi are among the most important pathogens, causing fungal rhinosinusitis (frs). current laboratory diagnosis of frs pathogens mainly relies on phenotypic identification by culture and microscopic examination, which is time consuming and expertise dependent. although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (maldi-tof) ms has been employed to identify various fungi, its efficacy in the identification of frs fungi is less clear.201728100314
in vitro and in vivo antifungal profile of a novel and long acting inhaled azole, pc945, on aspergillus fumigatus infection.the profile of pc945, a novel triazole antifungal, designed for administration via inhalation, has been assessed in a range of in vitro and in vivo studies. pc945 was characterized as a potent, tight-binding inhibitor of aspergillus fumigatus sterol 14α-demethylase (cyp51a and cyp51b) activity (ic50, 0.23 μm and 0.22 μm, respectively), with characteristic type ii azole binding spectra. against 96 clinically isolated a. fumigatus strains, the mic values of pc945 ranged from 0.032∼>8 μg/ml, whilst ...201728223388
bactericidal and fungicidal activity of n-chlorotaurine is enhanced in cystic fibrosis sputum medium.lung infections with multiresistant pathogens are a major problem of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (cf). n-chlorotaurine (nct), a microbicidal active chlorine compound with no resistance development, is well tolerated upon inhalation. the aim of this study was to investigate nct on its bactericidal and fungicidal activity in vitro in artificial sputum medium (asm) mimicking the composition of cystic fibrosis mucus.the medium was inoculated with bacteria (staphylococcus aureus including ...201728223376
endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (glycine max l. merr.) and corn (zea mays l.) grown in an agricultural area of argentina.endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. the aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of buenos aires and e ...201727045749
discovery of mcra, a master regulator of aspergillus secondary metabolism.fungal secondary metabolites (sms) are extremely important in medicine and agriculture, but regulation of their biosynthesis is incompletely understood. we have developed a genetic screen in aspergillus nidulans for negative regulators of fungal sm gene clusters and we have used this screen to isolate mutations that upregulate transcription of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene required for nidulanin a biosynthesis. several of these mutations are allelic and we have identified the mutant ...201727775185
cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a non-specific endoglucanase family 12 from aspergillus terreus nih2624.the cellulases from glycoside hydrolyses family 12 (gh12) play an important role in cellulose degradation and plant cell wall deconstruction being widely used in a number of bioindustrial processes. aiming to contribute toward better comprehension of these class of the enzymes, here we describe a high-yield secretion of a endoglucanase gh12 from aspegillus terreus (atgh12), which was cloned and expressed in aspergillus nidulans strain a773. the purified protein was used for complete biochemical ...201728088615
enhanced alkaline cellulases production by the thermohalophilic aspergillus terreus aumc 10138 mutated by physical and chemical mutagens using corn stover as substrate.a thermohalophilic fungus, aspergillus terreus aumc 10138, isolated from the wadi el-natrun soda lakes in northern egypt was exposed successively to gamma and uv-radiation (physical mutagens) and ethyl methan-sulfonate (ems; chemical mutagen) to enhance alkaline cellulase production under solid state fermentation (ssf) conditions. the effects of different carbon sources, initial moisture, incubation temperature, initial ph, incubation period, inoculum levels and different concentrations of nacl ...201726691490
the culturable mycobiota of a mediterranean marine site after an oil spill: isolation, identification and potential application in bioremediation.bioremediation of marine environment could be the response to oil spills threats. in the present study the fungal community from a mediterranean marine site chronically interested by oil spills was investigated. sixty-seven taxa were isolated from water sample and 17 from sediments; for many of the identified species is the first report in seawater and sediments, respectively. the growth of 25% of the fungal isolates was stimulated by crude oil as sole carbon source. four strains were selected t ...201727788446
collagenase produced from aspergillus sp. (ucp 1276) using chicken feather industrial residue.an extracellular collagenolytic serine protease was purified from aspergillus sp., isolated from the caatinga biome in northeast brazil by a two-step chromatographic procedure, using an anion-exchanger and gel filtration. the enzyme was produced by submerged fermentation of feather residue as a substrate. the purified collagenase showed a 2.09-fold increase in specific activity and 22.85% yield. the enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 28.7 kda, estimated by an sds-page and ak ...201727808430
isolation and identification of phase i metabolites of butyrolactone i in rats.1. butyrolactone i (bl-i), one of the major secondary metabolites of fungus aspergillus terreus, is a selective cdc2 kinase inhibitor. in the present study, the metabolism of bl-i in male wistar rats was investigated by characterizing metabolites excreted into feces. 2. following an oral dose of 40 mg/kg bl-i, 10 phase i metabolites were isolated from the feces of rats, and their structures were identified on the basis of a range of spectroscopic data and icd analysis. these metabolites were ful ...201727604497
exploring the fungal protein cadre in the biosynthesis of pbse quantum dots.while a large number of microbial sources have recently emerged as potent sources for biosynthesis of chalcogenide quantum dots (qds), studies regarding their biomimetic strategies that initiate qd biosynthesis are scarce. the present study describes several mechanistic aspects of pbse qd biosynthesis using marine aspergillus terreus. scanning electron microscopic (sem) studies indicated distinctive morphological features such as abrasion and agglomeration on the fungal biomass after the biosynt ...201726849922
combating drug resistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical infections, with silver oxide nanoparticles.the antibiogram study of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates revealed 100% resistance to vancomycin, bacitracin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. eight isolates (53.3%) showed resistance to co-trimoxazole and one isolate to rifampicin, which was the drug of choice. an effort was made to evaluate the antimethicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus activity of silver oxide (ag2o) nanoparticles synthesized from aspergillus terreus vit 2013. production of ag2o nanopar ...201726009646
characterization of biotechnologically relevant extracellular lipase produced by aspergillus terreus ncft 4269.10.enzyme production by aspergillus terreus ncft 4269.10 was studied under liquid static surface and solid-state fermentation using mustard oil cake as a substrate. the maximum lipase biosynthesis was observed after incubation at 30°c for 96h. among the domestic oils tested, the maximum lipase biosynthesis was achieved using palm oil. the crude lipase was purified 2.56-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity, with a yield of 8.44%, and the protein had a molecular weight of 46.3kda as determined by sds- ...201726887237
environmental cues that induce the physiology of solid medium: a study on lovastatin production by aspergillus terreus.the aim of this work was to identify the main environmental factors that induce the special physiology displayed by fungi growing in solid culture-that is, higher secondary metabolite (sm) production-compared with those in submerged culture.201728032938
gem-diprenylation of acylphloroglucinols by a fungal prenyltransferase of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase superfamily.aspergillus terreus aromatic prenyltransferase (atapt) catalyzes predominantly c-monoprenylation of acylphloroglucinols in the presence of different prenyl diphosphates. with dimethylallyl diphosphate (dmapp) as prenyl donor, gem-diprenylated products 1d3, 2d3, and 3d3 were also detected. high conversion of 1d1 to 1d3, 2d1 to 2d3, and 3d1 to 3d3 was demonstrated by incubation with atapt and dmapp. the first example of gem-diprenylation by a member of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase superfam ...201728029789
engineering thermostable (r)-selective amine transaminase from aspergillus terreus through in silico design employing b-factor and folding free energy calculations.amine transaminases have recently gained a lot of attention for the synthesis of chiral amines. using (r)-selective amine transaminase from aspergillus terreus (at-ata) as a transaminase model, in silico design was applied employing b-factor and folding free energy (δδg(fold)) calculations. mutation sites were selected by targeting flexible regions with the greatest b-factors, and were substituted with amino acids that were determined by folding free energy calculations (δδg(fold) < 0) to be mor ...201728017723
a case report of intravenous posaconazole in hepatic and renal impairment patient with invasive aspergillus terreus infection: safety and role of therapeutic drug monitoring.invasive aspergillosis (ia) is a fatal infectious complication among immunocompromised patients. aspergillus terreus, the fourth common species can be difficult to treat due to a unique resistance pattern. to date, there has been no report on safety and dose adjustment when intravenous posaconazole is selected in hepatic and renal impairment patient. we present a rare case of intravenous posaconazole use in a hepatic and renal impairment patient with invasive a. terreus pulmonary infection. to o ...201728143591
evaluating bionanoparticle infused fungal metabolites as a novel antimicrobial agent.therapeutic properties of fungal metabolites and silver nanoparticles have been well documented. while fungal metabolites have been used for centuries as medicinal drugs, potential of biogenic silver nanoparticles has recently received attention. we have evaluated the antimicrobial potential of aspergillus terreus crude extract, silver nanoparticles and an amalgamation of both against four pathogenic bacterial strains. antimicrobial activity of the following was evaluated - a. terreus extract, b ...201727429931
bimolecular rate constants for fad-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from aspergillus terreus and organic electron acceptors.the flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (fad-gdh) from aspergillus species require suitable redox mediators to transfer electrons from the enzyme to the electrode surface for the application of bioelectrical devices. although several mediators for fad-gdh are already in use, they are still far from optimum in view of potential, kinetics, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. herein, we investigated the efficiency of various phenothiazines and quinones in the electrochem ...201728287419
production of itaconate by whole-cell bioconversion of citrate mediated by expression of multiple cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cada) genes in escherichia coli.itaconate, a c5 unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, is an important chemical building block that is used in manufacturing high-value products, such as latex and superabsorbent polymers. itaconate is produced by fermentation of sugars by the filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus. however, fermentation by a. terreus involves a long fermentation period and the formation of various byproducts, resulting in high production costs. e. coli has been developed as an alternative for producing itaconate. howev ...201728051098
aspergillus terreus brain abscess complicated by tension pneumocephalus in a patient with angiosarcoma.background aspergillus terreus is an evolving opportunistic pathogen, and patients with a. terreus often have poor outcomes due to its intrinsic resistance to several systemic antifungal agents. here we present a unique case of intracranial abscesses of a. terreus in a patient with recurrent angiosarcoma, complicated by development of tension pneumocephalus. case report a 67-year old gentleman with history of scalp angiosarcoma with wide excision two years prior presented to the hospital for lef ...201728070116
molecular insights into the enzyme promiscuity of an aromatic prenyltransferase.aromatic prenyltransferases (aptases) transfer prenyl moieties from isoprenoid donors to various aromatic acceptors, some of which have the rare property of extreme enzymatic promiscuity toward both a variety of prenyl donors and a large diversity of acceptors. in this study, we discovered a new aptase, atapt, from aspergillus terreus that exhibits unprecedented promiscuity toward diverse aromatic acceptors and prenyl donors and also yields products with a range of prenylation patterns. systemat ...201727992881
enhanced production of itaconic acid through development of transformed fungal strains of aspergillus terreus.metabolic engineering with a high-yielding mutant, a. terreus an37, was performed to enhance the production of itaconic acid (ia). reportedly, the gene cluster for ia biosynthesis is composed of four genes: reg (regulator), mtt (mitochondrial transporter), cad (cis-aconitate decarboxylase), and mfs (membrane transporter). by overexpressing each gene of the ia gene cluster in a. terreus an37 transformed by the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method, several transformants showing high prod ...201727974733
vine trimming shoots as substrate for ferulic acid esterases production.ferulic acid esterases (fae) possess a large variety of biotechnological applications mainly based on their ability to release ferulic acid from lignocellulosic matrixes. the use of vine trimming shoots (vts), an agricultural waste, as substrate for the generation of this kind of esterases represents an attractive alternative to change the consideration of vts from residue to resource. furthermore, xylanase, cellobiase, and cellulase activities were quantified. six microorganisms were screened f ...201727682859
transcriptomic complexity of aspergillus terreus velvet gene family under the influence of butyrolactone i.filamentous fungi of the ascomycota phylum are known to contain a family of conserved conidiation regulating proteins with distinctive velvet domains. in aspergilli, this velvet family includes four proteins, vea, velb, velc and vosa, and is involved in conidiation and secondary metabolism along with a global regulator laea. in a. terreus, the overexpression of laea has been observed to increase the biogenesis of the pharmaceutically-important secondary metabolite, lovastatin, while the role of ...201728335447
bioactive compounds of aspergillus terreus-f7, an endophytic fungus from hyptis suaveolens (l.) poit.the compounds terrein (1), butyrolactone i (2), and butyrolactone v (3) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract (etoac) of the endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus-f7 obtained from hyptis suaveolens (l.) poit. the extract and the compounds presented schistosomicidal activity against schistosoma mansoni; at 100 µg/ml for etoac extract, 1297.3 µm for compound 1, 235.6 µm for compound 2, and 454.1 µm for compound 3, they killed 100% of the parasites after 72 h of treatment. compounds 1, 2, an ...201728243983
enhancing the thermostability of α-l-rhamnosidase from aspergillus terreus and the enzymatic conversion of rutin to isoquercitrin by adding sorbitol.thermally stable α-l-rhamnosidase with cleaving terminal α-l-rhamnose activity has great potential in industrial application. therefore, it is necessary to find a proper method to improve the thermal stability of α-l-rhamnosidase.201728241810
process development of itaconic acid production by a natural wild type strain of aspergillus terreus to reach industrially relevant final titers.itaconic acid is a promising organic acid and is commercially produced by submerged fermentation of aspergillus terreus. the cultivation process of the sensitive filamentous fungus has been studied intensively since 1932, with respect to fermentation media components, oxygen supply, shearing rate, ph value, or culture method. whereas increased final titers were achieved over the years, the productivity has so far remained quite low. in this study, the impact of the ph on the itaconic acid produc ...201728235991
pgas, a low-ph-induced promoter, as a tool for dynamic control of gene expression for metabolic engineering of aspergillus niger.the dynamic control of gene expression is important for adjusting fluxes in order to obtain desired products and achieve appropriate cell growth, particularly when the synthesis of a desired product drains metabolites required for cell growth. for dynamic gene expression, a promoter responsive to a particular environmental stressor is vital. here, we report a low-ph-inducible promoter, pgas, which promotes minimal gene expression at ph values above 5.0 but functions efficiently at low phs, such ...201728087530
production of lovastatin and itaconic acid by aspergillus terreus: a comparative perspective.aspergillus terreus is a textbook example of an industrially relevant filamentous fungus. it is used for the biotechnological production of two valuable metabolites, namely itaconic acid and lovastatin. itaconic acid serves as a precursor in polymer industry, whereas lovastatin found its place in the pharmaceutical market as a cholesterol-lowering statin drug and a precursor for semisynthetic statins. interestingly, their biosynthetic gene clusters were shown to reside in the common genetic neig ...201728102516
amhezole, a novel fungal secondary metabolite from aspergillus terreus for treatment of microbial mouth infection.bio-guided fractionation of aspergillus terreus extract leads to isolation of a novel terpenoidal secondary metabolite. the isolated compound and the total alcoholic extract of aspergillus terreus showed a remarkable activity against microbial mouth infections; namely, candida albicans, lactobacillus acidophilus, streptococcus gordonii, and s. mutan. moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentration of the isolated compound was determined and showed low values. the combination of each of the alcoho ...201728083890
pathway transfer in fungi.itaconic acid is an important building block for the chemical industry. currently, aspergillus terreus is the main organism used for itaconic acid production. due to the enormous citric acid production capacity of aspergillus niger, this host is investigated as a potential itaconic acid production host. several strategies have been tried so far: fermentation optimization, expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cada) alone and in combination with aconitase targeted to the same compartment, ch ...201725482236
emerging biotechnologies for production of itaconic acid and its applications as a platform chemical.recently, itaconic acid (ia), an unsaturated c5-dicarboxylic acid, has attracted much attention as a biobased building block chemical. it is produced industrially (>80 g l(-1)) from glucose by fermentation with aspergillus terreus. the titer is low compared with citric acid production (>200 g l(-1)). this review summarizes the latest progress on enhancing the yield and productivity of ia production. ia biosynthesis involves the decarboxylation of the tca cycle intermediate cis-aconitate through ...201727933436
phytotoxic, antifungal and immunosuppressive metabolites from aspergillus terreus qt122 isolated from the gut of dragonfly.insect gut microbes have been considered as a resource for bioactive metabolites. the aim of this study was to characterize the compounds of a fungus aspergillus terreus qt122 associated with the gut of dragonfly. five main phytotoxic, antifungal, and immunosuppressive substances were isolated from the fungus qt122. the structures of such compounds were identified as emodin (1), 1-methyl emodin (2), terrein (3), methyl 6-acetyl-4-methoxy-7,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylate (4), and dihydrogeo ...201727844127
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