PMID(sorted ascending)
a new high-performance heterologous fungal expression system based on regulatory elements from the aspergillus terreus terrein gene cluster.recently, the aspergillus terreus terrein gene cluster was identified and selected for development of a new heterologous expression system. the cluster encodes the specific transcription factor terr that is indispensable for terrein cluster induction. to identify terr binding sites, different recombinant versions of the terr dna-binding domain were analyzed for specific motif recognition. the high affinity consensus motif tcgghhwyhcggh was identified from genes required for terrein production an ...201525852654
biodegradation of pesticides using fungi species found in the aquatic environment.relatively limited attention has been given to the presence of fungi in the aquatic environment compared to their occurrence in other matrices. taking advantage and recognizing the biodegradable capabilities of fungi is important, since these organisms may produce many potent enzymes capable of degrading toxic pollutants. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential ability of some species of filamentous fungi that occur in the aquatic environment to degrade pesticides in untre ...201525860553
lovastatin production: from molecular basis to industrial process optimization.lovastatin, composed of secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, is the most frequently used drug for hypercholesterolemia treatment due to the fact that lovastatin is a competitive inhibitor of hmg-coa reductase. moreover, recent studies have shown several important applications for lovastatin including antimicrobial agents and treatments for cancers and bone diseases. studies regarding the lovastatin biosynthetic pathway have also demonstrated that lovastatin is synthesized from tw ...201525868803
blocking hsp70 enhances the efficiency of amphotericin b treatment against resistant aspergillus terreus strains.the polyene antifungal amphotericin b (amb) is widely used to treat life-threatening fungal infections. even though amb resistance is exceptionally rare in fungi, most aspergillus terreus isolates exhibit an intrinsic resistance against the drug in vivo and in vitro. heat shock proteins perform a fundamental protective role against a multitude of stress responses, thereby maintaining protein homeostasis in the organism. in this study, we elucidated the role of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) famil ...201525870060
new meroterpenoids from aspergillus terreus with inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression.two novel meroterpenoids, yaminterritrems a (1) and b (2), were isolated from aspergillus terreus collected from hot spring zones in yang-ming mountain, taiwan, and cultured at 40 °c. the structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by nmr, ms spectral and x-ray crystallographic analyses. the biosynthetic route for 1 and 2 involving the conversion of the sesquiterpene with phenyl-α-pyrone is proposed. besides, 2 exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cox-2 expression in lps-stimulated raw264.7 ...201525915447
fungal artificial chromosomes for mining of the fungal secondary metabolome.with thousands of fungal genomes being sequenced, each genome containing up to 70 secondary metabolite (sm) clusters 30-80 kb in size, breakthrough techniques are needed to characterize this sm wealth.201525925221
filamentous fungal endophthalmitis: results of combination therapy with intravitreal amphotericin b and report outcomes of exogenous fungal endophthalmitis treated with combination of intravitreal antifungal agents.201525926714
a new citrinin dimer isolated from aspergillus terreus strain zdf21.dicitrinin e (1), a new citrinin dimer, together with the known metabolites, dicitrinin a (2), citrinin (3), and fumitremorgin c (4), were isolated from the broth culture of aspergillus terreus strain zdf21. the structure of dicitrinin e (1) was elucidated through detailed analysis of 1d and 2d nmr experiments, cd and mass spectra the cytotoxicity of 1 was tested against larvae of artemia salina.201525973492
experimental efficacy of anidulafungin against aspergillus terreus species complex.whereas echinocandins are alternatives for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, the efficacy of anidulafungin (afg) against aspergillus terreus infection has not yet been explored. we have evaluated the in vitro activity, as well as the in vivo efficacy of afg in neutropenic mice infected by a. terreus species complex. time-kill studies showed in vitro fungistatic activity of afg against two strains. afg at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg/day significantly reduced the fungal load in kidney of mice, ...201525980004
combating drug resistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical infections, with silver oxide nanoparticles.the antibiogram study of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates revealed 100% resistance to vancomycin, bacitracin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. eight isolates (53.3%) showed resistance to co-trimoxazole and one isolate to rifampicin, which was the drug of choice. an effort was made to evaluate the antimethicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus activity of silver oxide (ag2o) nanoparticles synthesized from aspergillus terreus vit 2013. production of ag2o nanopar ...201726009646
amphotericin b resistance in aspergillus terreus is overpowered by coapplication of pro-oxidants.invasive fungal infections have significantly increased over the past decades in immunocompromised individuals and high-risk patients. amphotericin b (amb) exerts a powerful and broad activity against a vast array of fungi and has a remarkably low rate of microbial resistance. however, most isolates of aspergillus terreus developed an intrinsic resistance against amb, and during this study, we characterized the mode of action of this polyene antifungal drug in more detail in resistant (atr) and ...201526054424
a deficiency of manganese ions in the presence of high sugar concentrations is the critical parameter for achieving high yields of itaconic acid by aspergillus terreus.itaconic acid (ia), an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid with a high potential as a platform for chemicals derived from sugars, is industrially produced by large-scale submerged fermentation by aspergillus terreus. although the biochemical pathway and the physiology leading to ia is almost the same as that leading to citric acid production in aspergillus niger, published data for the volumetric (g l(-1)) and the specific yield (mol/mol carbon source) of ia are significantly lower than for citric aci ...201526078111
metabolic engineering of corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of itaconate.the capability of corynebacterium glutamicum for glucose-based synthesis of itaconate was explored, which can serve as building block for production of polymers, chemicals, and fuels. c. glutamicum was highly tolerant to itaconate and did not metabolize it. expression of the aspergillus terreus cad1 gene encoding cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cad) in strain atcc13032 led to the production of 1.4mm itaconate in the stationary growth phase. fusion of cad with the escherichia coli maltose-binding pr ...201526100077
galleria mellonella as a host model to study aspergillus terreus virulence and amphotericin b resistance.the aim of this study was to investigate if the alternative in vivo model galleria mellonella can be used (i) to determine differences in pathogenicity of amphotericin b (amb) resistant and susceptible a. terreus isolates, (ii) to evaluate amb efficacy in vivo (iii) and to correlate outcome to in vitro susceptibility data. larvae were infected with 2 a. terreus amb resistant (atr) and 3 amb susceptible (ats) isolates and survival rates were correlated to physiological attributes and killing abil ...201526107350
insecticidal potency of aspergillus terreus against larvae and pupae of three mosquito species anopheles stephensi, culex quinquefasciatus, and aedes aegypti.microbial control agents offer alternatives to chemical pest control, as they can be more selective than chemical insecticides. the present study evaluates the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal potential of fungus mycelia using ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts produced by aspergillus terreus against anopheles stephensi, culex quinquefasciatus, and aedes aegypti. the a. terreus mycelia were extracted after 15 days from sabouraud dextrose broth medium. the ethyl acetate extracts showed ...201526139412
expression, purification, crystallization and crystallographic study of the aspergillus terreus aromatic prenyltransferase atapt.prenylated aromatics are produced by aromatic prenyltransferases during the secondary metabolism of bacteria, fungi and plants. the prenylation of nonprenylated precursors can lead to great chemical diversity and extensive biological properties. aspergillus terreus aromatic prenyltransferase (atapt), which has recently been discovered and characterized, is such an enzyme and is responsible for the prenylation of various aromatic compounds. here, recombinant atapt was overexpressed in escherichia ...201526144234
improvement of halophilic cellulase production from locally isolated fungal strain.halophilic cellulases from the newly isolated fungus, aspergillus terreus unimap aa-6 were found to be useful for in situ saccharification of ionic liquids treated lignocelluloses. efforts have been taken to improve the enzyme production through statistical optimization approach namely plackett-burman design and the face centered central composite design (fcccd). plackett-burman experimental design was used to screen the medium components and process conditions. it was found that carboxymethylce ...201526150755
phytotoxin production in aspergillus terreus is regulated by independent environmental signals.secondary metabolites have a great potential as pharmaceuticals, but there are only a few examples where regulation of gene cluster expression has been correlated with ecological and physiological relevance for the producer. here, signals, mediators, and biological effects of terrein production were studied in the fungus aspergillus terreus to elucidate the contribution of terrein to ecological competition. terrein causes fruit surface lesions and inhibits plant seed germination. additionally, t ...201526173180
challenges in the production of itaconic acid by metabolically engineered escherichia coli.metabolic engineering allows the production of a variety of high-value chemicals in heterologous hosts. for example, itaconic acid (ia) has been produced in several microorganisms, such as escherichia coli, aspergillus niger, and synechocystis sp. through the expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cad) from aspergillus terreus. recently, we showed that inactivation of the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene and overexpression of the aconitase gene dramatically enhanced the production levels o ...201526176321
antifouling compounds from the marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus scsgaf0162.a new cyclic tetrapeptide, asperterrestide b (1), and 11 known compounds (2-12) were isolated from a marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus scsgaf0162. the structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by mosher ester and marfey's methods. compounds 4, 6, and 8 had potent antifouling activity against larvae of the barnacle balanus amphitrite, with ec50 values of 17.1 ± 1.2, 11.6 ± 0.6, and 17.1 ± 0.8 μg x ml(-1), respectively.201526197544
regulating pyruvate carboxylase in the living culture of aspergillus terreus nrrl 1960 by l-aspartate for enhanced itaconic acid production.aspergillus terreus was reported as the promising fungal strain for itaconic acid; however, the commercial production suffers from the low yield. low production yield was claimed as the result of completing the tricarboxylic acid (tca) cycle towards biomass synthesis while under limiting phosphate and nitrogen; tca cycle was somewhat shunted and consequently, the metabolite fluxes move towards itaconic acid production route. by regulating enzymes in tca cycle, it is believed that itaconic acid p ...201526208692
crystallographic analysis of fad-dependent glucose fad-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) from aspergillus terreus was purified and crystallized at 293 k using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. a data set was collected to a resolution of 1.6 å from a single crystal at 100 k using a rotating-anode x-ray source. the crystal belonged to space group p21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.56, b = 135.74, c = 74.13 å, β = 90.37°. the asymmetric unit contained two molecules of gdh. the matthews coefficient was calculated to be 2.2 å(3) da( ...201526249692
pcr-rflp on β-tubulin gene for rapid identification of the most clinically important species of aspergillus.aspergillus species are important agents of life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. proper speciation in the aspergilli has been justified based on varied fungal virulence, clinical presentations, and antifungal resistance. accurate identification of aspergillus species usually relies on fungal dna sequencing but this requires expensive equipment that is not available in most clinical laboratories. we developed and validated a discriminative low-cost pcr-based test to discrimin ...201526264625
expression of feruloyl esterase a from aspergillus terreus and its application in biomass degradation.feruloyl esterases (faes) are key enzymes involved in the complete biodegradation of lignocelluloses, which could hydrolyze the ester bonds between hemicellulose and lignin. the coding sequence of a feruloyl esterase a (atfaea) was cloned from aspergillus terreus and the recombinant atfaea was constitutively expressed in pichia pastoris. the sds-page analysis of purified atfaea showed two protein bands owing to the different extent of glycosylation, and the recombinant atfaea had an optimum temp ...201526282562
emergence of persistent aspergillus terreus colonisation in a child with cystic fibrosis. 201526288746
terrenolide s, a new antileishmanial butenolide from the endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus.terrenolide s, a new butenolide derivative (6), together with six known compounds: (22e,24r)-stigmasta-5,7,22-trien-3-β-ol (1), stigmast-4-ene-3-one (2), stigmasta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), terretonin a (4), terretonin (5) and butyrolactone vi (7) have been isolated from the endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus isolated from the roots of carthamus lanatus (asteraceae). their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses (1d, 2d nmr and hresims), as well as optical rotati ...201626299734
in vitro interactions of antifungal agents and tacrolimus against aspergillus biofilms.aspergillus biofilms were prepared from aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus terreus via a 96-well plate-based method, and the combined antifungal activity of tacrolimus with azoles or amphotericin b against aspergillus biofilms was investigated via a broth microdilution checkerboard technique system. our results suggest that combinations of tacrolimus with voriconazole or amphotericin b have synergistic inhibitory activity against aspergillus biofilms. however, combination ...201526303797
[using galleria mellonella as an in vivo model to study the virulence of some bacterial and fungal agents].non-vertebrate hosts, such as galleria mellonella, namely wax moth, have been used to study microbial virulence and host defense. this organism has advantages as it is economical, ethically expedient and easy to handle. here we describe an experimental in vivo study using the larvae of galleria mellonella infected with some bacterial and fungal pathogens. in this study, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) producing and non-producing escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae and pseudomonas aer ...201526313278
how to trigger a fungal weapon.a fungus called aspergillus terreus produces a secondary metabolite in response to various environmental signals to give it an advantage over its competitors.201526327696
bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand.three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. these organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, aspergillus niger atcc 1015, as well as two newly isolated fungi: an aspergillus terreus strain ml3-1 and a paecilomyces spp. strain we3-f. although monazite also contains the radioactive element thorium, bioleachi ...201626332985
multifocal bone aspergillosis by aspergillus terreus in an apparently immunocompetent patient. 201526337362
chronological aging in conidia of pathogenic aspergillus: comparison between species.aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus and aspergillus niger are common airborne fungi, and the most frequent causative agents of human fungal infections. however, the resistance and lifetime persistence of these fungi in the atmosphere, and the mechanism of aging of aspergillus conidia are unknown.with this work, we intended to study the processes underlying conidial aging of these four relevant and pathogenic aspergillus species. chronological aging was therefore evalua ...201526341609
heterologous expression of mus musculus immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1) in escherichia coli results in itaconate production.itaconic acid, a c5-dicarboxylic acid, is a potential biobased building block for the polymer industry. it is obtained from the citric acid cycle by decarboxylation of cis-aconitic acid. this reaction is catalyzed by cada in the native itaconic acid producer aspergillus terreus. recently, another enzyme encoded by the mammalian immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1), was found to decarboxylate cis-aconitate to itaconate in vitro. we show that heterologous expression of irg1 enabled itaconate production ...201526347730
modification of artificial sea water for the mass production of (+)-terrein by aspergillus terreus strain pf26 derived from marine sponge phakellia fusca.(+)-terrein shows multiple bioactivities, however, its mass production is a big challenge. aspergillus terreus strain pf26 derived from south china sea sponge phakellia fusca has been cultured to produce (+)-terrein successfully, but artificial sea water (asw) of high salinity used in the fermentation medium may cause the corrosion risk of metal bioreactor, which limits the fermentation on a large scale. in this study, we modified the components of asw by removing nacl and cacl2 from the origina ...201526394071
optimization of fermentation conditions of pectin production from aspergillus terreus and its partial characterization.figures of persimmons for the world's top ten persimmon producing countries are about 4000,000 tons in 2011 and are increasing every year according to fao statistics. however, there is not any report on pectin production by microbial with persimmon peel as the source. optimization of fermentation conditions of pectin production from aspergillus terreus in submerged culture and partial characterization of pectin were carried out in the work. an optimum fermentation condition for pectin production ...201526428166
xylan-degrading enzymes from aspergillus terreus: physicochemical features and functional studies on hydrolysis of cellulose pulp.two endo-β-1,4-xylanases named xylt1 and xylt2, previously purified from aspergillus terreus, were structurally investigated by fluorescence quenching and characterized with respect to their binding properties with phenolic compounds. neutral and charged quenchers had access to both enzymes in neutral and alkaline phs. the greatest access was noted for the negative quencher, possibly due to positive amino acid residues in the vicinity of tryptophan. these tryptophan environments may partially ex ...201526428175
pseudallescheria boydii with aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus in a critically ill hematopoietic stem cell recipient with ards.pseudallescheria boydii is a fungal organism known to affect immunocompromised patients. this organism is known to cause, in severe cases, invasive infection of various organs such as the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. we report an unusual case of pulmonary p. boydii pneumonia in an immunocompromised critically ill patient with a co-infection of aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus with ards. this case highlights the importance of a high index of suspicion for ...201626455910
comparison of 10,11-dehydrocurvularin polyketide synthases from alternaria cinerariae and aspergillus terreus highlights key structural motifs.iterative type i polyketide synthases (pkss) from fungi are multifunctional enzymes that use their active sites repeatedly in a highly ordered sequence to assemble complex natural products. a phytotoxic macrolide with anticancer properties, 10,11-dehydrocurvularin (dhc), is produced by cooperation of a highly reducing (hr) iterative pks and a non-reducing (nr) iterative pks. we have identified the dhc gene cluster in alternaria cinerariae, heterologously expressed the active hr pks (dhc3) and nr ...201526493380
a new lumazine peptide penilumamide e from the fungus aspergillus terreus.a new rare lumazine peptide, penilumamide e (1), together with 13 known compounds (2-14) were isolated from the fungus aspergillus terreus. their structures were identified by spectroscopic techniques. the relative configuration of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. compound 10 exhibited antimalarial activity against plasmodium falciparum with ic50 values of 2.83 μg/ml. compounds 4 and 6 showed weak cytotoxicity against cholangiocarcinoma (cca) cell lines. in addition, ...201626518160
stimulation with lysates of aspergillus terreus, candida krusei and rhizopus oryzae maximizes cross-reactivity of anti-fungal t cells.invasive fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi and yeasts are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed hematology patients. we previously published a method to expand aspergillus fumigatus-specific t cells for clinical cell therapy. in the present study, we investigated expansion of t cells specific for other fungal pathogens and creation of a broadly reactive panfungal t-cell product.201626552765
α-glucosidase inhibitors from the fungus aspergillus terreus new diketopiperazine alkaloid amauromine b (1), along with three known meroterpenoids, austalide b (2), austalides n and o (3 and 4), and two known steroids (5 and 6), was isolated and identified from the culture broth of the fungus aspergillus terreus 3.05358. their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 2d-nmr and ms analysis, the absolute configuration of 1 was unambiguously established by single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. all the isolates wer ...201526567949
geographically predominant genotypes of aspergillus terreus species complex in austria: s microsatellite typing study.aspergillus terreus species complex is recognized as a frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis in tyrol. the reason for this specific epidemiological situation is unclear. aspergillus terreus strains isolated from environmental and clinical sources were genotyped using a novel panel of short tandem repeats and were evaluated for virulence. three major endemic genotypes collected from the inn region and its side valleys were found to cause the majority of invasive a. terreus infections. all of t ...201626577144
induction of secondary metabolism of aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 in the batch bioreactor cultures.cultivation of aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 in a stirred tank bioreactor was performed to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and provide the bioprocess-related insights into the metabolic capabilities of the investigated strain. the activation of biosynthetic routes was attempted by the diversification of process conditions and growth media. several strategies were tested, including the addition of rapeseed oil or inulin, changing the concentration of nitrogen source, reduction o ...201626603760
replacement of two amino acids of 9r-dioxygenase-allene oxide synthase of aspergillus niger inverts the chirality of the hydroperoxide and the allene oxide.the genome of aspergillus niger codes for a fusion protein (eha25900), which can be aligned with ~50% sequence identity to 9s-dioxygenase (dox)-allene oxide synthase (aos) of fusarium oxysporum, homologues of the fusarium and colletotrichum complexes and with over 62% sequence identity to homologues of aspergilli, including (dox)-9r-aos of aspergillus terreus. the aims were to characterize the enzymatic activities of eha25900 and to identify crucial amino acids for the stereospecificity. recombi ...201626603902
effect of gamma radiation on zinc tolerance efficiency of aspergillus terreus thorn.the present study emphasizes the potential of gamma radiation in enhancing zinc tolerance of aspergillus terreus. gamma-exposed a. terreus could tolerate 1.13 times more zn, reflecting higher growth (in terms of cfu) under zn stress and enhanced zn removal efficacies than their unirradiated counterparts. radiation-induced upregulation of antioxidative system (sod, cat, gsh and mt) of a. terreus is responsible for radiation-induced enhancement of zn tolerance. ftir spectra reveals the involvement ...201626612034
physico-chemical pretreatment and fungal biotreatment for park wastes and cattle dung for biogas production.with the rising demand for renewable energy and environmental protection, anaerobic digestion of biogas technology has attracted considerable attention within the scientific community. the effect of physico-chemical pretreatment on cellulose degradation followed by fungal treatment by aspergillus terreus and trichoderma viride to treat cellulosic biomass for enhancing its digestibility was investigated. the tested substrate was digested with and without physical, chemical, and biological treatme ...201526618101
[the mycobiota in studying the resistance of gypsum plasterboard to microscopic fungi].the resistance of two types of gypsum plasterboard: ordinary and water-resistant to microscopic fungi was studied. it was found that under conditions of high relative humidity and direct influence of water at constant temperature (29 ± 2) degrees c all samples of plasterboard were not resistant to fungi. furthermore, the contaminating mycobiota of uninfected fragments of plasterboard was revealed under these conditions. it was discovered that the test cultures aspergillus terreus and trichoderma ...201526638485
ustilago maydis produces itaconic acid via the unusual intermediate trans-aconitate.itaconic acid is an important biomass-derived chemical building block but has also recently been identified as a metabolite produced in mammals, which has antimicrobial activity. the biosynthetic pathway of itaconic acid has been elucidated in the ascomycetous fungus aspergillus terreus and in human macrophages. in both organisms itaconic acid is generated by decarboxylation of the tricarboxylic acid (tca) cycle intermediate cis-aconitate. here, we show that the basidiomycetous fungus ustilago m ...201526639528
aspergillus terreus meningitis in immunocompetent patient: a case report.we present a description of a rare but dangerous case of fungal meningitis caused by aspergillus terreus in an immunocompetent patient with a history of sinus disease.201526648927
genetic diversity of aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.thirteen aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as aspergillus spp. (aspergillus sydowii [n=4], aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], aspergillus terreus [n=2], aspergillus flavus [n=1], aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and aspergillus unguis [n=1]). isolates of a. terreus, a. flavus, and a. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/i ...201626658315
the glycolytic enzyme enolase represents a plasminogen-binding protein on the surface of a wide variety of medically important fungal species.allergies are an increasing issue in human health and can, eventually, cause severe anaphylactic shock. aspergillus fumigatus and candida albicans are leading causes of life-threatening invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, but can also cause severe allergic responses in otherwise healthy individuals. the glycolytic enzyme enolase is known as a major allergen despite its function in intracellular metabolism. therefore, its presentation on surfaces of different fungal species ...201626679571
mycosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles: optimization, characterization and antimicrobial activity against human pathogens.this study was aimed to isolate soil fungi from kolli and yercaud hills, south india with the ultimate objective of producing antimicrobial nanoparticles. among 65 fungi tested, the isolate, bios ptk 6 extracellularly synthesized both silver and gold nanoparticles with good monodispersity. under optimized reaction conditions, the strain bios ptk 6 identified as aspergillus terreus has produced extremely stable nanoparticles within 12h. these nanoparticles were characterized by uv-vis. spectropho ...201626686609
enhanced alkaline cellulases production by the thermohalophilic aspergillus terreus aumc 10138 mutated by physical and chemical mutagens using corn stover as substrate.a thermohalophilic fungus, aspergillus terreus aumc 10138, isolated from the wadi el-natrun soda lakes in northern egypt was exposed successively to gamma and uv-radiation (physical mutagens) and ethyl methan-sulfonate (ems; chemical mutagen) to enhance alkaline cellulase production under solid state fermentation (ssf) conditions. the effects of different carbon sources, initial moisture, incubation temperature, initial ph, incubation period, inoculum levels and different concentrations of nacl ...201726691490
itaconic acid production from glycerol using escherichia coli harboring a random synonymous codon-substituted 5'-coding region variant of the cada gene.aspergillus terreus cada, encoding cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is an essential gene for itaconic acid (ia) biosynthesis, but it is primarily expressed as insoluble aggregates in most industrial hosts. this has been a hurdle for the development of recombinant strategies for ia production. here, we created a library of synonymous codon variants (scv) of the cada gene containing synonymous codons in the first 10 codons (except atg) and screened it in escherichia coli. among positive clones, e. col ...201626704570
fumigaclavine i, a new alkaloid isolated from endophyte aspergillus terreus.the present study was designed to isolate and purify chemical constituents from solid culture of endophyte aspergillus terreus lq, using silica gel column chromatography, gel filtration with sephadex lh-20, and hplc. fumigaclavine i (1), a new alkaloid, was obtained, along with seven known compounds, including fumigaclavine c (2), rhizoctonic acid (3), monomethylsulochrin (4), chaetominine (5), spirotryprostatin a (6), asperfumoid (7), and lumichrome (8). the structure of compound 1 was elucidat ...201526721713
[identification of target extracellular proteases--activators of proteins of haemostasis system produced by micromycetes aspergillus ochraceus and aspergillus terreus].effects of extracellular proteases of aspergillus ochraceus and aspergillus terreus on plasma hemostasis proteins, consist of initiating the activation of prothrombin complex proteins, was detected. was discovered, that a. ochraceus proteases have a direct influence on protein c and coagulation factor x, and a. terreus proteases causes their activation indirectly through kallikrein system stimulation. the ability of extracellular proteases of micromycetes activate prekallikrein in human blood pl ...201626762093
escherichia coli n-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (glmu) inhibitory activity of terreic acid isolated from aspergillus terreus.secondary metabolite of aspergillus terreus, terreic acid, is a reported potent antibacterial that was identified more than 60 years ago, but its cellular target(s) are still unknown. here we screen its activity against the acetyltransferase domain of a bifunctional enzyme, escherichia coli n-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (glmu). an absorbance-based assay was used to screen terreic acid against the acetyltransferase activity of e. coli ...201626762501
effects of lovastatin on mda-mb-231 breast cancer cells: an antibody microarray analysis.despite the tremendous improvement in cancer therapeutics, treatment of late-stage breast cancer remains a challenge for both basic scientists and clinicians. lovastatin, a natural product derived from aspergillus terreus or monascus ruber, has been widely used as cholesterol-lowing drug in the clinic. it also has anti-cancer properties through poorly defined molecular mechanisms. in the present study, we employed a novel antibody microarray technology to investigate the molecular mechanisms thr ...201626819643
cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and phytotoxicity of tannery effluent discharged into palar river basin, tamil nadu, india.ambur, a town located on the banks of palar river, is considered one of the most polluted areas in india and occupied by hundreds of tanneries and leather product units. the present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of discharged tannery effluent (te) on model agricultural crops, ecofriendly microorganisms, and human blood cells. the phytotoxic effects of te tested on allium cepa and lemna minor revealed inhibition of root growth and significant reduction in number of fronds, prote ...201526839546
exploring the fungal protein cadre in the biosynthesis of pbse quantum dots.while a large number of microbial sources have recently emerged as potent sources for biosynthesis of chalcogenide quantum dots (qds), studies regarding their biomimetic strategies that initiate qd biosynthesis are scarce. the present study describes several mechanistic aspects of pbse qd biosynthesis using marine aspergillus terreus. scanning electron microscopic (sem) studies indicated distinctive morphological features such as abrasion and agglomeration on the fungal biomass after the biosynt ...201726849922
characterization of the product of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (nrps-like) gene using the doxycycline dependent tet-on system in aspergillus terreus.genome sequencing of the fungus aspergillus terreus uncovered a number of silent core structural biosynthetic genes encoding enzymes presumed to be involved in the production of cryptic secondary metabolites. there are five nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps)-like genes with the predicted a-t-te domain architecture within the a. terreus genome. among the five genes, only the product of pgna remains unknown. the tet-on system is an inducible, tunable and metabolism-independent expression syste ...201626851300
estimation of antifungal activity of mevastatin produced by aspergillus terreus gcbl-03 on pretreated substrate in solid state fermentation.this project was planned to study the production of cholesterol lowering drug mevastatin by aspergillus terreus gcbl-03 on pretreated substrate bagasse in solid state fermentation. bagasse was pretreated by potassium hydroxide to delignify the substrate to readily become available to microorganism. it was noticed that pretreated bagasse exhibited 13.69±0.64 mg/100ml yield of mevastatin and 6.63±0.48 g dry cell mass as compared to nontreated substrate that showed 7.04±0.81 mg/100 ml and 6.04±0.24 ...201626873078
characterizing mtta as a mitochondrial cis-aconitic acid transporter by metabolic engineering.the mitochondrial carrier protein mtta is involved in the biosynthesis of itaconic acid in aspergillus terreus. in this paper, the transport specificity of mtta is analyzed making use of different metabolically engineered aspergillus niger strains. furthermore, the mitochondrial localization of this protein is confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. it was found that mtta preferentially transports cis-aconitic acid over citric acid and does not transport itaconic acid. the expression of mtta in ...201626875555
bioprospecting chemical diversity and bioactivity in a marine derived aspergillus terreus.a comparative metabolomic study of a marine derived fungus (aspergillus terreus) grown under various culture conditions is presented. the fungus was grown in eleven different culture conditions using solid agar, broth cultures, or grain based media (osmac). multivariate analysis of lc/ms data from the organic extracts revealed drastic differences in the metabolic profiles and guided our subsequent isolation efforts. the compound 7-desmethylcitreoviridin was isolated and identified, and is fully ...201626880440
nanosilver-marine fungal chitosan as antibiotic synergizers against sepsis fish bacteria.mortality is highly variable within population of cultured fish due to virulent bacteria causing fish septicemia. the use of nano-silver marine fungal chitosan as antibiotic synergisers could be an alternative in the treatment of sepsis fish pathogens.201526885333
characterization of biotechnologically relevant extracellular lipase produced by aspergillus terreus ncft 4269.10.enzyme production by aspergillus terreus ncft 4269.10 was studied under liquid static surface and solid-state fermentation using mustard oil cake as a substrate. the maximum lipase biosynthesis was observed after incubation at 30°c for 96h. among the domestic oils tested, the maximum lipase biosynthesis was achieved using palm oil. the crude lipase was purified 2.56-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity, with a yield of 8.44%, and the protein had a molecular weight of 46.3kda as determined by sds- ...201726887237
effect of fungal mycelia on the hplc-uv and uv-vis spectrophotometric assessment of mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolase using glycidyl phenyl ether.the use of mycelia as biocatalysts has technical and economic advantages. however, there are several difficulties in obtaining accurate results in mycelium-catalysed reactions. firstly, sample extraction, indispensable because of the presence of mycelia, can bring into the extract components with a similar structure to that of the analyte of interest; secondly, mycelia can influence the recovery of the analyte. we prepared calibration standards of 3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol (ppd) in the pure solv ...201626902669
microbes associated with freshly prepared juices of citrus and carrots.fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. they contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. in the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. a total of 30 juice s ...201426904628
aspterpenacids a and b, two sesterterpenoids from a mangrove endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus h010.two new sesterterpenoids, aspterpenacids a (1) and b (2), with an unusual carbon skeleton of a 5/3/7/6/5 ring system were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus h010. their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis, and electronic circular dichroism calculations. a biogenetic pathway for 1 and 2 is proposed. both 1 and 2 showed no significant antibacterial activity or cytotoxicity at 50 μm.201626938636
enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of mild alkali pre-treated rice straw at high-solid loadings using in-house cellulases in a bench scale the present study, scale-up systems for cellulase production and enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated rice straw at high-solid loadings were designed, fabricated and tested in the laboratory. cellulase production was carried out using tray fermentation at 45 °c by aspergillus terreus in a temperature-controlled humidity chamber. enzymatic hydrolysis studies were performed in a horizontal rotary drum reactor at 50 °c with 25 % (w/v) solid loading and 9 fpu g(-1) substrate enzyme load using in-h ...201626941245
biosynthetic pathway of the reduced polyketide product citreoviridin in aspergillus terreus var. aureus revealed by heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans.citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of f1-atpase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. these potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. the identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans are reported. two intermediates were isolated that allowed the propos ...201626954888
biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from red sea coast of saudi arabia.mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the red sea coast of saudi arabia. forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. the isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (its) rdna sequence analysis. the fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without ...201626981002
mechanism of germacradien-4-ol synthase-controlled water capture.the sesquiterpene synthase germacradiene-4-ol synthase (gdols) from streptomyces citricolor is one of only a few known high-fidelity terpene synthases that convert farnesyl diphosphate (fdp) into a single hydroxylated product. crystals of unliganded gdols-e248a diffracted to 1.50 å and revealed a typical class 1 sesquiterpene synthase fold with the active site in an open conformation. the metal binding motifs were identified as d(80)dqfd and n(218)dvrsfaqe. some bound water molecules were eviden ...201626998816
green synthesis of nanosilver particles by aspergillus terreus ha1n and penicillium expansum ha2n and its antifungal activity against mycotoxigenic fungi.the aim of this study was to synthesize silver nanoparticles (agnps) by an eco-friendly and low-cost method using the fungi aspergillus terreus ha1n and penicillium expansum ha2n as an alternative to chemical procedures mostly requiring drastic experimental conditions emitting toxic chemical byproducts. also, this study has been extended to evaluate the effect of agnps on the growth of some mycotoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin a (ota) produced by aspergillus ochraceus.201627002915
occurrence of moulds from bee pollen in central italy--a preliminary study.the present study aimed to preliminary evaluate the occurrence of fungi in 40 specimens of trapped pollen collected from april-september 2015 in 40 apiaries from tuscany (central italy). cultural and microscopical examinations allowed the recognition of cladosporium sp., alternaria sp., humicola sp. mucoraceae and acremonium sp. penicillium brevicompactum, penicillium chrysogenum, aspergillus flavus , aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus were also identified. yeasts an ...201627010410
spondylodiscitis due to aspergillus terreus in an immunocompetent host: case report and literature review.aspergillus terreus, a saprophytic fungus, is recognized as an emerging pathogen responsible for various infections in human beings. however, bone and joint involvement is uncommon. we report a rare case of a. terreus spondylodiscitis in a 20-year-old male with a past history of recurrent, incompletely treated pulmonary tuberculosis. clinical signs at the time of admission included cough, low-grade fever, general weakness and left-sided back pain. histological examination of spinal biopsy sample ...201627038797
improving the yield of (+)-terrein from the salt-tolerant aspergillus terreus pt06-2.(+)-terrein has a potential application for drug discovery. to improve the yield of (+)-terrein, two-level plackett-burman design and response surface methodology methods were used to optimize the condition of a salt-tolerant fungus, aspergillus terreus pt06-2. as a result, the yield of (+)-terrein reached 8.20 ± 0.072 g/l in a 500-ml flask containing 150 ml optimal medium consisted of 13.1 % nacl, 3.6 % starch, 2 % sodium glutamate, 0.05 % kcl, 3 % inoculum size, adjusting initial ph value to 5 ...201627038947
role of nutrients and illuminance in predicting the fate of fungal mediated petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and biomass production.biodegradation and biomass production are affected by numerous environmental factors including ph, oxygen availability and presence of pollutants. the present study, for the first time, elucidated the effects of nutrients and light on mycodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel oil. seven fungal strains (aspergillus terreus fa3, aspergillus niger fa5, aspergillus terreus fa6, penicillium chrysogenum fp4, aspergillus terreus fp6, aspergillus flavus fp10, and candida sp. fg1) were used for ...201627039364
endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (glycine max l. merr.) and corn (zea mays l.) grown in an agricultural area of argentina.endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. the aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of buenos aires and e ...201727045749
highly active and stable large catalase isolated from a hydrocarbon degrading aspergillus terreus mtcc 6324.a hydrocarbon degrading aspergillus terreus mtcc 6324 produces a high level of extremely active and stable cellular large catalase (cat) during growth on n-hexadecane to combat the oxidative stress caused by the hydrocarbon degrading metabolic machinery inside the cell. a 160-fold purification with specific activity of around 66 × 10(5) u mg(-1) protein was achieved. the native protein molecular mass was 368 ± 5 kda with subunit molecular mass of nearly 90 kda, which indicates that the native ca ...201627057351
heterologous expression of aspergillus terreus fructosyltransferase in kluyveromyces lactis.fructo-oligosaccharides are prebiotic and hypocaloric sweeteners that are usually extracted from chicory. they can also be produced from sucrose using fructosyltransferases, but the only commercial enzyme suitable for this purpose is pectinex ultra, which is produced with aspergillus aculeatus. here we used the yeast kluyveromyces lactis to express a secreted recombinant fructosyltransferase from the inulin-producing fungus aspergillus terreus. a synthetic codon-optimised version of the putative ...201627084521
identification of an itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing aspergillus terreus.itaconic acid, one of the most promising and flexible bio-based chemicals, is mainly produced by aspergillus terreus. previous studies to improve itaconic acid production in a. terreus through metabolic engineering were mainly focused on its biosynthesis pathway, while the itaconic acid-degrading pathway has largely been ignored. in this study, we used transcriptomic, proteomic, bioinformatic, and in vitro enzymatic analyses to identify three key enzymes, itaconyl-coa transferase (icta), itacony ...201627102125
[suppression of three soil-borne diseases of cucumber by a rhizosphere fungal strain].to understand the effect of rhizosphere fungi on soil-borne diseases of cucumber, 16 fungal, strains from rhizosphere soil were investigated for the antagonistic activity to three soilborne pathogenic fungi with dual culture method and for suppression of cucumber diseases caused by the pathogens in pot experiments. four strains showed antagonism to one or more pathogenic fungi tested. the strain jcl143, identified as aspergillus terreus, showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogeni ...201527112016
a non-canonical melanin biosynthesis pathway protects aspergillus terreus conidia from environmental stress.melanins are ubiquitous pigments found in all kingdoms of life. most organisms use them for protection from environmental stress, although some fungi employ melanins as virulence determinants. the human pathogenic fungus aspergillus fumigatus and related ascomycetes produce dihydroxynaphthalene- (dhn) melanin in their spores, the conidia, and use it to inhibit phagolysosome acidification. however, biosynthetic origin of melanin in a related fungus, aspergillus terreus, has remained a mystery bec ...201627133313
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of voriconazole against candida spp. and aspergillus spp. in children, adolescents and adults by monte carlo simulation.the objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative fraction of response of various voriconazole dosing regimens against six candida and six aspergillus spp. in immunocompromised children, immunocompromised adolescents, and adults. using pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic data, 5000-subject monte carlo simulations (mcss) were conducted to evaluate the ability of simulated dosing strategies in terms of fauc/mic targets of voriconazole. according to the results of the mcss, c ...201627179818
phylogenetic and structural analysis of polyketide synthases in aspergilli.polyketide synthases (pkss) of aspergillus species are multidomain and multifunctional megaenzymes that play an important role in the synthesis of diverse polyketide compounds. putative pks protein sequences from aspergillus species representing medically, agriculturally, and industrially important aspergillus species were chosen and screened for in silico studies. six candidate aspergillus species, aspergillus fumigatus af293, aspergillus flavus nrrl3357, aspergillus niger cbs 513.88, aspergill ...201627199544
production of α-amylase by aspergillus terreus ncft 4269.10 using pearl millet and its structural this investigation, aspergillus terreus ncft4269.10 was employed in liquid static surface (lssf) and solid state (ssf) fermentation to assess the optimal conditions for α-amylase biosynthesis. one-variable-at-a-time approach (quasi-optimum protocol) was primarily used to investigate the effect of each parameter on production of amylase. the maximum amylase production was achieved using pearl millet (pm) as substrate by ssf (19.19 ± 0.9 ug(-1)) and also in presence of 1 mm magnesium sulfate, 0 ...201627242841
the functional properties of a xyloglucanase (gh12) of aspergillus terreus expressed in aspergillus nidulans may increase performance of biomass degradation.filamentous fungi are attractive hosts for heterologous protein expression due to their capacity to secrete large amounts of enzymes into the extracellular medium. xyloglucanases, which specifically hydrolyze xyloglucan, have been recently applied in lignocellulosic biomass degradation and conversion in many other industrial processes. in this context, this work aimed to clone, express, and determine the functional properties of a recombinant xyloglucanase (atxeg12) from aspergillus terreus, and ...201627245677
characterization of β-glucosidase from aspergillus terreus and its application in the hydrolysis of soybean extracellular β-glucosidase produced by aspergillus terreus was identified, purified, characterized and was tested for the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with tandem time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof/tof ms) revealed the protein to be a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 3 with an apparent molecular mass of about 120 kda. the purified β-glucosidase showed optimal activity at ph 5.0 and 65 °c and was very stable at 50 ...201627256679
microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the united states and implications for human occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (dwtps) in the united states. water samples were analyzed for the protozoa giardia and cryptosporidium (epa method 1623); the fungi aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus (quantitative pcr [qpcr]); and the bacteria legionella pneumophila (qpcr), mycobacterium avium, m. avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and mycobacterium intrace ...201627260619
establishing an efficient gene-targeting system in an itaconic-acid producing aspergillus terreus develop an efficient gene-targeting platform in an excellent itaconic acid producing strain aspergillus terreus cicc40205.201627262296
identification of 6-hydroxymellein synthase and accessory genes in the lichen cladonia uncialis.a transcribed polyketide synthase (pks) gene has been identified in the lichen cladonia uncialis. the complete nucleotide sequence of this pks was determined from the amplified cdna, and an assignment of individual domains was accomplished by homology searching using antismash. a scan of the complete genome sequence of c. uncialis revealed the accessory genes associated with this pks gene. a homology search has identified that several genes in this cluster are similar to genes responsible for th ...201627264554
[biodegradation of cellulose-containing substrates by micromycetes followed by bioconversion into biogas].the ability of micromycetes trichoderma viride and aspergillus terreus to decompose the cellulose-containing substrates was studied. office paper and cardboard, as well as a paper mixture, were found to be the most hydrolyzable. the cellulolytic activity of t. viride was 2-3 times higher than that of a. terreus; the highest values of 0.80 and 0.73 u/mlwere obtained from office paper and the paper mixture, respectively. the micromycete cultivation conditions (composition of culture medium, sucros ...201627266249
model-based metabolic engineering enables high yield itaconic acid production by escherichia coli.itaconic acid is a high potential platform chemical which is currently industrially produced by aspergillus terreus. heterologous production of itaconic acid with escherichia coli could help to overcome limitations of a. terreus regarding slow growth and high sensitivity to oxygen supply. however, the performance achieved so far with e. coli strains is still low. we introduced a plasmid (pcadcs) carrying genes for itaconic acid production into e. coli and applied a model-based approach to constr ...201627269589
production of phenolic compounds by aspergillus s-4 in sake cake medium and identification of terrein.high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) analysis of the culture filtrate of an isolated mold, aspergillus terreus s-4, showed a larger peak of a terrein-like substance than those of gallic acid and protocatechuic acid. the chemical structure of this substance was investigated and identified as terrein, 4,5-dihydroxy-3-propenyl- 2-cyclopenten-1-one. we also examined some culture conditions for the production of terrein using a sake cake medium for strain s-4.199327281008
complete genome sequence of soil fungus aspergillus terreus (km017963), a potent lovastatin producer.we report the complete genome of aspergillus terreus (km017963), a tropical soil isolate. the genome sequence is 29 mb, with a g+c content of 51.12%. the genome sequence of a. terreus shows the presence of the complete gene cluster responsible for lovastatin (an anti-cholesterol drug) production in a single scaffold (1.16).201627284150
activity of a long-acting echinocandin, cd101, determined using clsi and eucast reference methods, against candida and aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates.the objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of cd101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of candida and aspergillus spp. isolates.201627287236
itaconic and fumaric acid production from biomass hydrolysates by aspergillus strains.itaconic acid (ia) is a dicarboxylic acid included in the us department of energy's (doe) 2004 list of the most promising chemical platforms derived from sugars. ia is produced industrially using liquid-state fermentation (lsf) by aspergillus terreus with glucose as the carbon source. to utilize ia production in renewable resource-based biorefinery, the present study investigated the use of lignocellulosic biomass as a carbon source for lsf. we also investigated the production of fumaric acid (f ...201627291673
onychomycosis caused by aspergillus terreus. 201627348329
butenolide derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus.three new butenolides containing 5-hydroxyfuran-2(5h)-one core, asperteretal a (1), asperteretal b (2), and asperteretal c (3), together with seven known butenolides (4-10), were obtained from an endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus pr-p-2 isolated from the plant camellia sinensis var. assamica. the structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis including uv, ir, hresims, 1d and 2d nmr, and ecd spectra. compounds 1, 3, 5 and 6-8 showed potent inhibit ...201627370101
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