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babesia and plasmodia increase host erythrocyte permeability through distinct mechanisms.human erythrocytes infected with plasmodium falciparum have markedly increased permeability to diverse solutes, many of which may be mediated by an unusual small conductance ion channel, the plasmodial surface anion channel (psac). because these increases may be essential for parasite survival in the bloodstream, an important question is whether other intraerythrocytic parasites induce similar ion channels. here, we examined this question using human erythrocytes infected with babesia divergens, ...200717087736
phylogenetic and biologic evidence that babesia divergens is not endemic in the united states.the causative agent of human babesiosis in a kentucky case, which was first identified as babesia divergens, is identical to a parasite of eastern cottontail rabbits on nantucket island, massachusetts based on piroplasm size, morphology, and ribosomal rna sequence analysis. studies showing differential infectivity for cattle, host erythrocyte specificity in vitro, parasite size and morphology in vitro, and ribosomal rna sequences clearly demonstrate that the parasite from the rabbit (conspecific ...200617135561
babesia divergens becoming extinct in cattle of northeast hungary: new data on the past and present situation.previously unpublished data from 1958 to 1967 attest the occurrence of babesia divergens in cattle in several endemic foci of northeast hungary. during that period the number of clinical cases showed fluctuation with intervals of 4-5 years and monophasic seasonality (peaking in june). in order to assess the current status of bovine babesiosis in that region, blood samples were collected from 654 cattle on 44 farms of 36 settlements in or near the endemic area during 2005, and serum levels of igg ...200617278721
inhibition of human erythrocyte invasion by babesia divergens using serine protease inhibitors. 200717320984
first case of human babesiosis in germany - clinical presentation and molecular characterisation of the pathogen.babesiosis is a common infection of animals and is gaining increasing attention as an emerging tick-borne zoonosis of humans in europe. here we report on the first case of human babesiosis in germany in a 63-year-old splenectomised german patient with a relapse of nodular lymphocyte-predominant hodgkin's lymphoma. after treatment with a chimeric anti-cd20 antibody preparation (rituximab), the patient was hospitalised because of anaemia and dark urine from haemoglobinuria. presumptive diagnosis o ...200717350888
babesiosis in free-ranging chamois (rupicapra r. rupicapra) from switzerland.pathological examination of five adult chamois (rupicapra r. rupicapra) found dead in two different regions from the swiss alps revealed pale mucous membranes and musculature, swollen spleen and haemoglobinuria. histologically, haemosiderosis in the spleen and centrilobular hepatic necrosis were the predominant findings. on blood smears, small (approximately 0.84-1.47 microm), round to pyriform, peripherally located inclusions were present in the erythrocytes. pcr followed by sequencing of dna e ...200717689015
human babesiosis, an emerging zoonosis.data of human babesiosis are shortly reviewed with particular emphasis to europe. in europe, most cases of human babesiosis are caused by babesia divergens. although both phenotypic and genotypic features suggest that zoonotic b. microti may occur in europe, convincing medical evidence is lacking. recently a non-babesia divergens organism causing zoonotic infection has been found in italy and austria. overall, the seroprevalence against both b. microti and b. divergens microrganisms in human ran ...200717691604
ticks and associated pathogens collected from domestic animals in the netherlands.following an outbreak of autochthonous canine babesiosis in the netherlands, a request made to veterinarians and the public to collect ticks from companion animals resulted in 4298 ticks submitted between july 2005 and october 2006 to our center. ticks were identified as ixodes ricinus adults (2907/4298, 67.6%), ixodes sp. nymphs (529/4298, 12.3%) and ixodes sp. larvae (385/4298, 9.0%), i. hexagonus adults (328/4298, 7.6%), dermacentor reticulatus (72/4298, 1.7%), and several other exotic tick s ...200717979540
the solution structure of the adhesion protein bd37 from babesia divergens reveals structural homology with eukaryotic proteins involved in membrane trafficking.babesia divergens is the apicomplexa agent of the bovine babesiosis in europe: this infection leads to growth and lactation decrease, so that economical losses due to this parasite are sufficient to require the development of a vaccine. the major surface antigen of b. divergens has been described as a 37 kda protein glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (gpi)-anchored at the surface of the merozoite. the immuno-prophylactic potential of bd37 has been demonstrated, and we present here the high-resolutio ...200818035372
[babesiosis, a little known zoonosis].babesiosis is an emerging tick borne zoonotic disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia. babesiosis is one of the most common infections of free-living animals worldwide but is perhaps most prevalent in rodents, carnivores, and cattle. this fact increases the concern about the emerging zoonosis. like the malaria agent plasmodium, the parasite babesia attacks and damages the host's red cells. babesia microti and babesia divergens cause human infections. in the usa, an end ...200718072299
morphology and genetics of a babesia isolate from capreolus capreolus.a babesia isolate that was morphologically distinct from babesia capreoli and very similar to b. divergens was found in the blood of a roe deer (capreolus capreolus) found dead in central italy. sequences corresponding to the full coding region of the 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene were identical to a sequence reported for babesia divergens from a reindeer (rangifer tarandus) and 99.9% and 99.8% similar to those reported for b. capreoli and bovine origin b. divergens, respectively.200818263834
babesia divergens: identification and characterization of bdhsp-20, a small heat shock protein.this study describes the identification and characterization of the babesia divergens alpha-crystallin/small heat shock protein 20 (bdhsp-20). bdhsp-20 was recognized by the dg7 monoclonal antibody (dg7 mab) originally produced by precigout et al. [precigout, e., valentin, a., carcy, b., gorenflot, a., nakamura, k., aikawa, m., schrevel, j. 1993. babesia divergens: characterization of a 17-kda merozoite membrane protein. experimental parasitology 77, 425-434] against b. divergens merozoites. we ...200818346739
babesia divergens-like organisms from free-ranging chamois (rupicapra r. rupicapra) and roe deer (capreolus c. capreolus) are distinct from b. divergens of cattle origin - an epidemiological and molecular genetic investigation.in 2005 and 2006, three adult female chamois (rupicapra r. rupicapra) were found dead with signs of acute babesial infection in the eastern swiss alps. pcr on dna extracted from blood or spleen of the carcasses revealed sequence identity of the amplified part of the 18s rrna gene with genbank entries attributed to babesia divergens of cattle origin or b. capreoli of wild ruminant origin which have never been described before in this region. examination of 424 blood samples from 314 head of cattl ...200818400402
babesia species occurring in austrian ixodes ricinus ticks.babesiosis is a tick-transmitted disease of veterinary and medical importance. the first austrian case of human babesiosis was recently recorded. in the current study, ticks at all life cycle stages (instars), including 853 ixodes ricinus and 11 haemaphysalis concinna ticks, from sampling sites throughout austria were examined for the presence of babesia spp. by using 18s rrna gene pcr and sequencing, and the overall mean infection rate was 51.04%. the infection rates for sampling sites were hig ...200818539787
individual heterogeneity in erythrocyte susceptibility to babesia divergens is a critical factor for the outcome of experimental spleen-intact sheep infections.susceptibility of sheep erythrocytes to babesia divergens was investigated in vitro and a high inter-individual variability in their ability to support parasite population development was demonstrated, with some individuals having refractory red blood cells (rbc). as neither changes in growth conditions nor the use of different b. divergens strains influenced the level of susceptibility, the main factor postulated for this variability is the erythrocyte itself. sheep therefore represent an excel ...200919245784
babesia divergens apical membrane antigen 1 and its interaction with the human red blood cell.multiple parasite ligand-erythrocyte receptor interactions must occur for successful babesia and plasmodium invasion of the human red cell. one such parasite ligand is the apical membrane antigen 1 (ama1) which is a conserved apicomplexan protein present in the micronemes and then secreted onto the surface of the merozoite. much evidence exists for a vital role for ama1 in host cell invasion; however, its interaction with the host erythrocyte has remained controversial. in this paper, we present ...200919720759
redescription of babesia capreoli (enigk and friedhoff, 1962) from roe deer (capreolus capreolus): isolation, cultivation, host specificity, molecular characterisation and differentiation from babesia divergens.the recent use of the sole molecular identification of babesia infecting european cervids has led to confusion between the closely related babesia divergens and babesia capreoli, and to their grouping together as "b. divergens-like". in order to clarify this taxonomic confusion, babesia from roe deer, cattle and human blood were isolated, cultured and their biological as well as molecular characteristics compared. on this basis, we conclude that: (i) the parasites isolated from roe deer blood ar ...201019733572
babesia divergens experimental infection of spleen-intact sheep results in long-lasting parasitemia despite a strong humoral response: preliminary results.babesia divergens is an intraerythrocytic apicomplexa and the main agent of bovine babesiosis in europe. the infection in cattle develops in 2 phases: an acute phase with hemolytic anemia and a chronic phase with asymptomatic persistence of the parasite for several years. the acute phase of b. divergens infection can be studied using the gerbil (meriones unguiculatus) as a laboratory model but unlike cattle, this animal rapidly eliminates the parasite. an experimental model to study the chronic ...200919765903
the first detection of babesia eu1 and babesia canis canis in ixodes ricinus ticks (acari, ixodidae) collected in urban and rural areas in northern poland.ixodes ricinus, the most commonly observed tick species in poland, is a known vector of such pathogenic microorganisms as tbe viruses, borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato, anaplasma phagocytophilum, rickettsia helvetica, babesia divergens and b. microti in our country. our study aimed to find out whether this tick can also transmit other babesiae of medical and veterinary importance. dna extracts of 1392 ticks (314 nymphs, 552 male and 526 female ticks) collected in urban and rural areas in the pomer ...200919899616
course of infection by babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) and b. divergens in sheep depends on the production of ifngamma and il10.ovine babesiosis is an important disease in china and responsible for economic losses. several babesia strains are involved, but babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) and babesia sp. bq1 (ningxian) are particularly prevalent in the guansu region. babesia divergens, in contrast, can experimentally infect spleen-intact sheep, but does not induce clinical signs. the immune response of spleen-intact sheep to babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) and to b. divergens was therefore compared to identify the immune mechanisms inv ...201020070828
one health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report.abstract: background: babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the united states. a collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the one health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in april 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. the impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as texas cattle fever, ...201020377902
coexistence of borrelia spp. and babesia spp. in ixodes ricinus ticks in middle germany.altogether, 430 nymphs and 570 adult ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in 2006 (n = 506) and 2007 (n = 494) from a forest area in middle germany (thuringia). single ticks were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism or sequencing for borrelia spp. (ospa gene) and babesia spp. (18s rrna gene). overall, 27.0% (270/1000) were infected with borrelia species. out of these, borrelia garinii was detected most frequently (133/270)-especially, ospa serotyp ...201020420533
molecular survey of babesia microti in wild rodents in central croatia.babesia divergens and b. divergens-like organisms are the main causative agents of human babesiosis in europe. recently, the first case of human infection with babesia microti was confirmed in germany, implicating the presence of zoonotic isolates. to estimate the presence of zoonotic b. microti in croatia we analyzed 120 small wild mammals that serve as its reservoir by polymerase chain reaction. yellow-necked mice (apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (myodes glareolus) were both found to be i ...201120553109
fatal babesiosis in man, finland, 2004.we report an unusual case of human babesiosis in finland in a 53-year-old man with no history of splenectomy. he had a rudimentary spleen, coexisting lyme borreliosis, exceptional dark streaks on his extremities, and subsequent disseminated aspergillosis. he was infected with babesia divergens, which usually causes bovine babesiosis in finland.201020587183
[seroprevalance of babesia microti in humans living in rural areas of the sinop region.].babesia species are blood parasites which transmitted by ticks and located in erythrocytes. babesia divergens in europe and babesia microti in america are the most significant etiologic agents of human babesiosis cases. the aim of this study was to determine serologically whether people living in sinop where ixodes ricinus ticks are commonly seen have been exposed to b. microti or not. for this purpose, during may and june of 2006-2007, blood specimens were obtained from 273 individuals who live ...201020597050
identification of three ccp genes in babesia divergens: novel markers for sexual stages parasites.babesia divergens, a tick-borne protozoan parasite of red blood cells, is the main agent of bovine and human babesiosis in europe. very few data are available concerning its life cycle and sexual reproduction inside the tick vector, ixodes ricinus. the aim of this study was to define some markers of the b.divergens sexual stage. an in silico post-genomic approach was used to analyze genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data and to select specific sexual stage proteins of the related apicomplexa ...201020603159
established and emerging pathogens in ixodes ricinus ticks collected from birds on a conservation island in the baltic sea.tick-borne pathogens such as lyme borreliosis spirochaetes, anaplasma phagocytophilum, rickettsia spp. and babesia spp. cause a great variety of diseases in animals and humans. although their importance with respect to emerging human diseases is increasing, many issues about their ecology are still unclear. in spring 2007, 191 ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) ticks were collected from 99 birds of 11 species on a bird conservation island in the baltic sea in order to test them for borrelia spp., ...201020868431
detection of babesia divergens in southern norway by using an immunofluorescence antibody test in cow sera.the incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by babesia divergens (apicomplexa: piroplasmida) has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. this is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of b. divergens.201020925923
detection of babesia and theileria species infection in cattle from portugal using a reverse line blotting method.babesiosis and theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. in portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of babesia and theileria sp. identified: rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, ixodes ricinus and haemaphysalis punctata. all these potential babesia and theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in portugal, although they are predominant in the sout ...201021036481
anti-babesia microti antibodies in foresters highly exposed to tick bites in poland.human babesiosis caused by babesia microti and babesia divergens parasites is an emerging tick-borne disease worldwide. the prevalence of infection and frequency of the disease caused by b. microti in europe is not well known. the aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of anti-b. microti antibodies in the serum of forest employees (a population highly exposed to tick bites) from 2 different regions of poland.201021142620
babesiosis in immunocompetent patients, europe.we report 2 cases of babesiosis in immunocompetent patients in france. a severe influenza-like disease developed in both patients 2 weeks after they had been bitten by ticks. diagnosis was obtained from blood smears, and babesia divergens was identified by pcr in 1 case. babesiosis in europe occurs in healthy patients, not only in splenectomized patients.201121192869
molecular cloning and genetic polymorphism of babesia capreoli gene bcp37/41, an ortholog of babesia divergens merozoite surface antigen bd37.babesia divergens and babesia capreoli are closely related species with distinct host ranges, a zoonotic feature being described only for b. divergens. the two species are 99.8% similar in the 18s rdna gene sequence and indistinguishable by morphological or serological means, leading to confusion as to their species status. the phylogenetic relatedness between the two species, and the frequent involvement of surface components in serological cross-reactions led us to postulate that an ortholog o ...201021251759
babesias of red deer (cervus elaphus) in ireland.abstract: blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (cervus elaphus) at two sites in ireland and subjected to pcr analysis of the 18s rrna gene followed by sequencing. two fragments of the 18s rrna gene were generated by two different pcr protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. additionall ...201121314977
detection and characterization of babesia species in ixodes ticks in estonia.the presence of babesia spp. was studied in 2603 ixodes ricinus and ixodes persulcatus ticks collected at seven sites in estonia. by reverse line blot screening, babesia spp. was detected in 36 (1.4%) ticks, among them 18 (0.7%) were further recognized by a babesia microti probe, 3 (0.1%) by a babesia divergens probe, and the other 15 (0.6%) were recognized only by the universal babesia spp. "catch all" probe. sequence analyses of 6 of these 15 samples revealed that all of them belonged to babes ...201121395407
prevalence of three zoonotic babesia species in ixodes ricinus (linn+®, 1758) nymphs in a suburban forest in switzerland.the tick ixodes ricinus (linn+®, 1758) is known as the vector of various babesia spp. pathogenic for humans. in switzerland, three of them, babesia divergens, babesia venatorum (also known as babesia eu1), and babesia microti, have been reported in i. ricinus ticks from various areas. the aim here was to determine how frequently these species infect i. ricinus nymphs in a suburban forest and to determine their prevalence over 3 years along a pathway delimited in four different sections. babesia ...201121395425
detection of babesia divergens using molecular methods in anemic patients in shandong province, china.babesiosis (piroplasmosis) is a zoonotic disease caused by an intraerythrocytic protozoan transmitted by ixodes ticks. the aim of this study was to detect babesia spp. infection using molecular methods in 377 blood samples from anemic patients. sequence analysis showed that the 18s rrna gene was 439 bases long by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification and that the pcr products from the samples had an identical sequence (named taian china, hm355854). blast search showed that the sequence w ...201121503639
novel diamidines with activity against babesia divergens in vitro and babesia microti in vivo.dicationic diamidines, such as diminazene and pentamidine, are well-studied chemotherapeutic agents with significant activity against parasitic diseases. the in vitro activity of novel diamidine compounds was investigated against the babesia divergens strains 1903b and 4201. the most potent compound, a diphenyl furan, had an ic(50) of 1.5 ng/ml. in a murine model, several test compounds were effective enough to cure mice infected with babesia microti at a dose of 12.5 and/or 25 mg/kg of body wei ...201121537025
the invasion process of bovine erythrocyte by babesia divergens: knowledge from an in vitro assay.abstract: babesia divergens is a tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasite for which asexual multiplication in its vertebrate hosts is restricted to erythrocytes. current knowledge of invasion of these target cells is limited. an efficient in vitro invasion assay was set up to gain access to this information. parasites prepared from infected rbc, lysed by electroporation, and mixed with bovine rbc in a selected synthetic medium (rpmi 1640 supplemented with calcium) were able to establish subsequent ...201121569363
fosmidomycin uptake into plasmodium and babesia-infected erythrocytes is facilitated by parasite-induced new permeability pathways.highly charged compounds typically suffer from low membrane permeability and thus are generally regarded as sub-optimal drug candidates. nonetheless, the highly charged drug fosmidomycin and its more active methyl-derivative fr900098 have proven parasiticidal activity against erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite plasmodium falciparum. both compounds target the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway present in bacteria and plastid-bearing organisms, like apicomplexan parasites. surprisingly, the ...201121573242
natural history of zoonotic babesia: role of wildlife reservoirs.babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease on all inhabited continents and various wildlife species are the principal reservoir hosts for zoonotic babesia species. the primary vectors of babesia are ixodid ticks, with the majority of zoonotic species being transmitted by species in the genus ixodes. species of babesia vary in their infectivity, virulence and pathogenicity for people. various factors (e.g., increased interactions between people and the environment, increased immunosuppression, ch ...201224533312
wild cervids are host for tick vectors of babesia species with zoonotic capability in belgium.babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by different species of intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites within the genus babesia. different species of babesia are described as potentially zoonotic and cause a malaria-like disease mainly in immunocompromised humans. interest in the zoonotic potential of babesia is growing and babesiosis has been described by some authors as an emergent zoonotic disease. the role of cervids to maintain tick populations and act as a reservoir host for some babesia ...201222214270
ixodes ricinus and its transmitted pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas in europe: new hazards and relevance for public health.tick-borne diseases represent major public and animal health issues worldwide. ixodes ricinus, primarily associated with deciduous and mixed forests, is the principal vector of causative agents of viral, bacterial, and protozoan zoonotic diseases in europe. recently, abundant tick populations have been observed in european urban green areas, which are of public health relevance due to the exposure of humans and domesticated animals to potentially infected ticks. in urban habitats, small and medi ...201425520947
high-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in europe.due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout europe. therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. to accurately screen tick-borne pathogens (tbps), a large scale epidemiological study was conducted on 7050 ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from france, denmark, and the netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. this advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detect ...201425120960
molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in humans with tick bites and erythema migrans, in the netherlands.tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in europe. knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated.201627706159
retrospective study of hemoparasites in cattle in southern italy by reverse line blot hybridization.tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. in order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization. the study had been carried out in three regions of southern italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. rlb showed that ...201424614604
re-emergence of bovine piroplasmosis in hungary: has the etiological role of babesia divergens been taken over by b. major and theileria buffeli?the prevalence of bovine babesiosis caused by babesia divergens has been declining during the past decades in northeastern hungary, and no cases have been observed since 2008. infections of cattle with b. major and theileria buffeli were hitherto reported in southern and western europe. in other parts of the globe, there is evidence of emergence and a growing clinical importance of t. buffeli and closely related genotypes of the t. orientalis complex.201425212410
changing incidence of bovine babesiosis in ireland.in ireland bovine babesiosis is caused by the tick-borne blood parasite, babesia divergens. a survey of veterinary practitioners and farmers in the 1980's revealed an annual incidence of 1.7% associated with considerable economic losses. however, two subsequent surveys in the 1990's indicated a decline in clinical babesiosis. recent evidence from continental europe suggests that, probably due to climate change, the distribution of the tick vector of b. divergens, ixodes ricinus is extending to m ...201425276345
stimulation and quantification of babesia divergens gametocytogenesis.babesia divergens is the most common blood parasite in europe causing babesiosis, a tick-borne malaria-like disease. despite an increasing focus on b. divergens, especially regarding veterinary and human medicine, the sexual development of babesia is poorly understood. development of babesia sexual stages in the host blood (gametocytes) plays a decisive role in parasite acquisition by the tick vector. however, the exact mechanism of gametocytogenesis is still unexplained.201627502772
sika deer carrying babesia parasites closely related to b. divergens, japan. 025061853
transmission differentials for multiple pathogens as inferred from their prevalence in larva, nymph and adult of ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae).ixodes ricinus serves as vector for a range of microorganisms capable of causing clinical illness in humans. the microorganisms occur in the same vector populations and are generally affected by the same tick-host interactions. still, the instars have different host preferences which should manifest in different transmission patterns for various microorganisms in the tick populations, i.e., most microorganisms increase in prevalence rate from larvae to nymphs because their reservoirs are among s ...201728255923
molecular survey on the presence of zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens in wild red deer (cervus elaphus).to estimate the prevalence of some zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in red deer (cervus elaphus) living in italian areas with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 60 red deer were tested by pcr for a. phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi s.l., coxiella burnetii, francisella tularensis, and piroplasms. thirty-four (56.67%) animals resulted positive for one or more pathogens. in particular, 24 (40%) red deer were positive for a. phagocytophilum, 16 (26.67%) for babesia divergens, 6 (1 ...201627477510
molecular analysis of anaplasma phagocytophilum and babesia divergens in red deer (cervus elaphus) in western austria.wild ungulates may act as reservoirs of various vector borne pathogens that can infect humans and domestic animals. in the present study, blood samples from 196 red deer (cervus elaphus) from western austria (vorarlberg, tyrol and salzburg) were collected on filter paper and tested for anaplasmataceae, piroplasmida, rickettsia and filarioid helminths using molecular tools. babesia divergens was detected in ten (5.1%) and anaplasma phagocytophilum in three (1.5%) of the 196 samples. filarioid hel ...201727417532
seroprevalence of seven pathogens transmitted by the ixodes ricinus tick in forestry workers in france.in order to assess the level of occupational exposure to the main pathogens transmitted by the ixodes ricinus tick, a seroprevalence study was performed on serum samples collected in 2003 from 2975 forestry workers of northeastern france. the global seroprevalence estimated for the seven pathogens studied was 14.1% (419/2975) for borrelia burgdorferi sl, 5.7% (164/2908) for francisella tularensis, 2.3% (68/2941) for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 1.7% (50/2908) for anaplasma phagocytophilum and ...201627237545
seasonal activity and tick-borne pathogen infection rates of ixodes ricinus ticks in hungary.ixodes ricinus is the most important tick species in europe as it is most widely distributed and transmits the majority of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. as limited data are available for hungary, the aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal timing of questing by i. ricinus and the infection rate of this tick species with all major tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. monthly collections of i. ricinus were carried out over 3 consecutive years by dragging a blanket in 6 biotopes represe ...201222445929
the parasitic fauna of the european bison (bison bonasus) (linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. part 1. the summarising list of parasites noted.during the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in bison bonasus. these are 22 species of protozoa (trypanosoma wrublewskii, t. theileri, giardia sp., sarcocystis cruzi, s. hirsuta, s. hominis, s. fusiformis, neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium sp., eimeria cylindrica, e. subspherica, e. bovis, e. zuernii, e. canadensis, e. ellipsoidalis, e. alabamensis, e. bukidnonensis, e. auburnensis, e. pellita, e. brasiliensis, babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species ...201425119348
molecular and parasitological survey of bovine piroplasms in the black sea region, including the first report of babesiosis associated with babesia divergens in turkey.clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine babesia and theileria parasites was determined in cattle. blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. in addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. dna isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for babesia and theileri ...201526336265
molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in nigerian ticks.a molecular epidemiology investigation was undertaken in two nigerian states (plateau and nassarawa) to determine the prevalence of pathogens of veterinary and public health importance associated with ticks collected from cattle and dogs using pcr, cloning and sequencing or reverse line blot techniques. a total of 218 tick samples, amblyomma variegatum (n=153), rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus (n=45), and rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=20) were sampled. pathogens identified in ticks included p ...201222326937
hepatic tissue damage induced in meriones ungliculatus due to infection with babesia divergens-infected erythrocytes.babesia divergens is an intraerythrocytic parasite which is capable of infecting a wide range of vertebrates causing huge economic losses. histopathological, hematological and biochemical changes during b. divergens infection in female meriones ungliculatus were reported. animals were challenged with 5 × 10(6) b. divergens-infected erythrocytes. parasitemia were maximum at day 5 postinfection where all gerbils died. infection of gerbils with babesia induced a significant decrease in erythrocytic ...201023961068
babesia divergens apical membrane antigen-1 (bdama-1): a poorly polymorphic protein that induces a weak and late immune response.babesiosis is an important veterinary and zoonotic tick borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan babesia spp. which infects red blood cell of its vertebrate host. in order to control the infection, vaccination that targets molecules involved in the invasion process of red blood cells could provide a good alternative to chemotherapy. among these molecules, apical membrane antigen-1 (ama-1) has been described as an excellent vaccine candidate in plasmodium spp. in this paper, we have investigated ...201525956948
babesia spp. in ticks and wildlife in different habitat types of slovakia.babesiosis is an emerging and potentially zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne piroplasmids of the babesia genus. new genetic variants of piroplasmids with unknown associations to vectors and hosts are recognized. data on the occurrence of babesia spp. in ticks and wildlife widen the knowledge on the geographical distribution and circulation of piroplasmids in natural foci. questing and rodent-attached ticks, rodents, and birds were screened for the presence of babesia-specific dna using molecu ...201627207099
the effect of babesia divergens infection on the spleen of mongolian gerbils.babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites transmitted by ticks and affects a wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally humans. the current study aimed to investigate the effect of b. divergens infected erythrocytes on spleen histopathology, cell cycle alteration, and the presence of oxidative stress. mongolian gerbils were challenged with 5 × 10(6)  babesia divergens infected erythrocytes. parasitemia reached approximately 77% at day 5 postinfection. infection ...201425136591
a retrospective serological survey on human babesiosis in belgium.in europe, most clinical babesiosis cases in humans have been attributed to babesia divergens and babesia sp. eu1. babesia microti infection of humans occurs mainly in the united states; although a case of autochthonous b. microti infection and serological evidence of infection have been reported in europe. the indirect fluorescent antibody test was used to screen sera from 199 anonymous belgian patients with history of tick bite and clinical symptoms compatible with a tick-borne disease. the se ...201525636942
babesia spp. in questing ticks from eastern poland: prevalence and species diversity.a total of 853 questing ixodes ricinus males, females, and nymphs and of 582 questing dermacentor reticulatus males and females were collected from vegetation on the territory of the lublin province (eastern poland). the ticks were examined for the presence of babesia by pcr detecting part of 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene and nuclear small subunit rrna (ss-rdna) for determining of babesia spp. and babesia microti, respectively. the overall incidence of babesia strains in i. ricinus ticks was 4.6 ...201525976982
molecular detection and characterization of zoonotic and veterinary pathogens in ticks from northeastern china.tick-borne diseases are considered as emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals in china. in this study, ixodes persulcatus (n = 1699), haemaphysalis concinna (n = 412), haemaphysalis longicornis (n = 390), dermacentor nuttalli (n = 253), and dermacentor silvarum (n = 204) ticks were collected by flagging from northeastern china, and detected for infection with anaplasma, ehrlichia, babesia, and hepatozoon spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays and sequencing analysis. an ...201627965644
a highly sensitive dna bead-based suspension array for the detection and species identification of bovine piroplasms.piroplasms are among the most harmful tick-borne pathogens for livestock and sensitive and specific diagnostic methods for rapid detection and identification of the different species are needed for effective control. reverse line blot has been the molecular technique of choice but it is laborious, time-consuming and highly susceptible to subjective variation in the interpretation of the hybridisation signal. here, an oligonucleotide multiplex suspension microarray (luminex® microsphere system) w ...201122233830
Longitudinal field study on bovine Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections during a grazing season in Belgium.Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are major tick-borne diseases with a high economic impact but are also a public health concern. Blood samples collected in the spring, summer, and autumn of 2010 from 65 cows in seven different farms in Belgium were monitored with an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test to assess seroprevalence against these pathogens. Seroprevalences to Babesia spp. were measured as 10.7%, 20%, and 12.3% in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively, whereas seroprevalences to Ana ...201121947341
identification and characterization of the rouenbd1987 babesia divergens rhopty-associated protein 1.human babesiosis is caused by one of several babesial species transmitted by ixodid ticks that have distinct geographical distributions based on the presence of competent animal hosts. the pathology of babesiosis, like malaria, is a consequence of the parasitaemia which develops through the cyclical replication of babesia parasites in a patient's red blood cells, though symptoms typically are nonspecific. we have identified the gene encoding rhoptry-associated protein -1 (rap-1) from a human iso ...201425226276
a vegetation index qualifying pasture edges is related to ixodes ricinus density and to babesia divergens seroprevalence in dairy cattle herds.babesia divergens, transmitted by the tick ixodes ricinus, is the main agent of bovine piroplasmosis in france. this apicomplexa often is present in asymptomatic carriers; however, clinical cases are rare. while numerous factors are known to influence tick density, no risk factor of contact with b. divergens has been identified for cattle. our study aimed to explore whether a vegetation index could serve as an indirect indicator of within-herd b. divergens seroprevalence. in february 2007, blood ...201122079425
development of culture-based serological assays to diagnose babesia divergens infections.abstract babesioses are hematic tick-borne diseases that induce malaria-like disorders in domestic, wild animals, and humans. although indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) commercial kits are available to test the presence of antibodies against most babesia species, no kit exists to serologically diagnose the infections due to babesia divergens, one of the most important zoonotic species. to fill this gap and to develop assays to detect animal ...201121995263
the efficacy of the ultraviolet c pathogen inactivation system in the reduction of babesia divergens in pooled buffy coat platelets.babesia spp. is an intraerythrocytic parasite that causes human babesiosis and its transmission by transfusion has been extensively demonstrated. the aim of this study was to ascertain the efficacy of an ultraviolet c (uvc)-based pathogen inactivation system in the reduction of babesia divergens-infected platelet (plt) concentrates and to determine the parasite's ability to survive in plt concentrates stored under blood bank conditions.201424666393
severe babesiosis in immunocompetent man, spain, 2011. 201424656155
identification of binding domains on red blood cell glycophorins for babesia divergens.invasion of red blood cells (rbcs) is one of the critical points in the lifecycle of babesia. the parasite does not invade other host cells. earlier work has shown that gpa and gpb function as putative receptors during parasite invasion. the primary focus of this study was the delineation of parasite-binding domains on gpa and gpb.201423944874
babesia: impact of cold storage on the survival and the viability of parasites in blood bags.babesia represents one of the major infectious threats to the blood supply since clinically silent infections in humans are common and these can be life-threatening in certain recipients. it is important to understand the effect of blood storage conditions on the viability of babesia as this will impact the occurrence and severity of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis.201423888882
New insights into the epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy.Few studies have been published on bovine piroplasmoses in Italy, and therefore a clear picture of the epidemiology of these infections is difficult to obtain. Vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in Central and Northern Regions of Italy were investigated in 2005 and 2006, when microscopy, molecular tools and serological tests were applied to 468 blood samples drawn from cattle in order to evaluate the presence of these protozoa and identify possible risk factors. Ticks were also collected, identif ...201121864982
transport of babesia venatorum-infected ixodes ricinus to norway by northward migrating passerine birds.bovine babesiosis is regarded as a limited health problem for norwegian cows, and the incidence has decreased markedly since the 1930s. rare cases of babesiosis in splenectomised humans from infection with babesia divergens and b.venatorum have been described. the objective of this study was to determine whether birds can introduce babesia-infected ticks. there are between 30 and 85 million passerine birds that migrate to norway every spring.201121699719
babesia divergens and neospora caninum apical membrane antigen 1 structures reveal selectivity and plasticity in apicomplexan parasite host cell invasion.host cell invasion by the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites, including plasmodium (malaria) and toxoplasma (toxoplasmosis), requires a step-wise mechanism unique among known host-pathogen interactions. a key step is the formation of the moving junction (mj) complex, a circumferential constriction between the apical tip of the parasite and the host cell membrane that traverses in a posterior direction to enclose the parasite in a protective vacuole essential for intracellular survival ...201323169033
validation of bdccp2 as a marker for babesia divergens sexual stages in ticks.babesiosis is a tick-transmitted disease of mammalian hosts, caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus babesia. transmission of babesia parasites from the vertebrate host to the tick is mediated by sexual stages, the gametocytes which are the only intraerythrocytic stages that survive and develop inside the vector. very few data are available concerning these parasite stages and some markers are needed in order to refine our knowledge of babesia life cycle inside the tick ...201323103717
¹h, ¹⁵n and ¹³c backbone resonance assignments of a conformational mutant of the adhesion protein ∆-bd37 from babesia divergens.we report here the resonance assignment of edk-∆-bd37, conformational mutant potentially displaying the "open" conformation of bd37, a 25 kda surface protein from the apicomplexa parasite babesia divergens that could undergo drastic conformational changes during erythrocyte invasion.201322899250
babesia divergens builds a complex population structure composed of specific ratios of infected cells to ensure a prompt response to changing environmental conditions.babesia parasites cause a malaria-like febrile illness by infection of red blood cells (rbcs). despite the growing importance of this tick-borne infection, its basic biology has been neglected. using novel synchronization tools, the sequence of intra-erythrocytic events was followed from invasion through development and differentiation to egress. the dynamics of the parasite population were studied in culture, revealing for the first time, the complete array of morphological forms in a precursor ...201626663747
monoclonal antibodies that recognize the alkylation signature of antimalarial ozonides oz277 (arterolane) and oz439 (artefenomel).the singular structure of artemisinin, with its embedded 1,2,4-trioxane heterocycle, has inspired the discovery of numerous semisynthetic artemisinin and structurally diverse synthetic peroxide antimalarials, including ozonides oz277 (arterolane) and oz439 (artefenomel). despite the critical importance of artemisinin combination therapies (acts), the precise mode of action of peroxidic antimalarials is not fully understood. however, it has long been proposed that the peroxide bond in artemisinin ...201626819968
identification and characterization of the rhoptry neck protein 2 in babesia divergens and b. microti.apicomplexan parasites include those of the genera plasmodium, cryptosporidium, and toxoplasma and those of the relatively understudied zoonotic genus babesia in humans, babesiosis, particularly transfusion-transmitted babesiosis, has been emerging as a major threat to public health. like malaria, the disease pathology is a consequence of the parasitemia which develops through cyclical replication of babesia parasites in host erythrocytes. however, there are no exoerythrocytic stages in babesia, ...201626953328
ultrastructure of the babesia divergens free merozoite.the invasive form of the apicomplexan parasite babesia divergens, the free merozoite, invades the erythrocytes of host vertebrates, leading to significant pathology. although invasion is an active process critical for parasite survival, it is not yet entirely understood. using techniques to isolate the viable free merozoite, as well as electron microscopy, we undertook a detailed morphological study and explored the sub-cellular structure of the invasive b. divergens free merozoite after it had ...201627430965
prevalence and distribution of borrelia and babesia species in ticks feeding on dogs in the u.k.ticks were collected during march-july 2015 from dogs by veterinarians throughout the u.k. and used to estimate current prevalences and distributions of pathogens. dna was extracted from 4750 ticks and subjected to polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis to identify borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) and babesia (piroplasmida: babesiidae) species. of 4737 ticks [predominantly ixodes ricinus linneaus (ixodida: ixodidae)], b. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in ...201728846148
large-scale drug screening against babesia divergens parasite using a fluorescence-based high-throughput screening assay.the validation of a fluorescence-based high-throughput screening (hts) assay for determining the efficacies of large chemical libraries against babesia divergens (bovine strain) in in vitro cultures was evaluated in this study. hematocrits (hcts) of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% were used for the in vitro culture at 1% parasitemia without daily replacement of the medium. linearity and hts assay results revealed that the best hcts were 5% and 10%. the obtained ic50 values of diminazene aceturate, either by f ...201627523944
molecular evidence of a new babesia sp. in goats.in this study, a novel babesia sp. infecting goats was detected and its phylogenetic relationship to related species was determined. a total of 200 blood samples collected from sheep (n=78) and goats (n=122) were examined in the study. the v4 hypervariable region of the 18s rrna gene of the novel babesia sp. was amplified by pcr and analysed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay adapted for small ruminants. samples from seven goats hybridized to theileria/babesia catch-all and babesia ca ...201728043378
a novel flow cytometric application discriminates among the effects of chemical inhibitors on various phases of babesia divergens intraerythrocytic cycle.human babesiosis is a global emerging infectious disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia. its biology has remained largely unexplored due to a lack of critical tools and techniques required to define the various stages and phases of the parasite's cycle in its host rbc and the interplay between host and parasite. this article presents a powerful set of tools combining stage synchronization of the parasite with a platform that encompasses both a flow cytometric evaluati ...201728207983
splenic dysfunction from celiac disease resulting in severe babesiosis.we describe a 79-year-old irish man who, because he had hyposplenism and splenic atrophy due to adult celiac disease, became critically ill from a severe babesia divergens infection. greater awareness of the possible consequences of splenic dysfunction from adult celiac disease, such as serious pneumococcal infections and babesiosis, is warranted.201728286145
possible transfusion-transmitted babesia divergens-like/mo-1 in an arkansas patient.a patient with asplenia and multiple red blood cell transfusions acquired babesiosis infection with babesia divergens-like/mo-1 and not babesia microti, the common united states species. he had no known tick exposure. this is believed to be the first transfusion-transmitted case and the fifth documented case of babesia divergens-like/mo-1.201728329282
structural and functional characterization of bc28.1, major erythrocyte-binding protein from babesia canis merozoite surface.babesiosis (formerly known as piroplasmosis) is a tick-borne disease caused by the intraerythrocytic development of protozoa parasites from the genus babesia. like plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malaria, or toxoplasma gondii, responsible for human toxoplasmosis, babesia belongs to the apicomplexa family. babesia canis is the agent of the canine babesiosis in europe. clinical manifestations of this disease range from mild to severe and possibly lead to death by multiple organ failure. the id ...201222294693
human exposure to piroplasms in central and northern italy.ta serosurvey has been conducted in northern and central italy to investigate the presence in humans of antibodies against zoonotic babesia and theileria species. the study focused on a total of 432 volunteers, of which 290 were persistently exposed to tick bites because of their jobs (forester employees, livestock keepers, veterinary practitioners, farmers and hunters) and 142 resident in the same area less frequently exposed. an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for humans was used to ...201424715592
monitoring piroplasms infection in three cattle farms in minorca (balearic islands, spain) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis.bovine piroplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases caused by parasites of the genera theileria and babesia. three friesian cattle farms (f1-f3) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis were selected in minorca (balearic islands, spain). blood samples were collected from 8 to 11 animals every two months throughout a year and, a newly developed multiplex dna bead-based suspension array based on the luminex(®) xmap technology was used to monitor for the presence of piroplasms. the assay i ...201222884914
vaccines against bovine babesiosis: where we are now and possible roads ahead.summary bovine babesiosis caused by the tick-transmitted haemoprotozoans babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and babesia divergens commonly results in substantial cattle morbidity and mortality in vast world areas. although existing live vaccines confer protection, they have considerable disadvantages. therefore, particularly in countries where large numbers of cattle are at risk, important research is directed towards improved vaccination strategies. here a comprehensive overview of currently used ...201425068315
a case of severe babesiosis treated successfully with exchange transfusion.babesiosis is a zoonotic disease that may be asymptomatic or result in severe clinical conditions, with severe hemolysis, hepatic, and renal failure, in humans. clinical symptoms depend on the species and immune status of the host. the disease is especially severe in those of advanced age, those with an immune deficiency, and the splenectomized. a severe case of babesiosis that developed in a splenectomy patient is presented here; the patient was admitted from a rural region with severe anemia a ...201526232090
morphological and molecular descriptors of the developmental cycle of babesia divergens parasites in human erythrocytes.human babesiosis, especially caused by the cattle derived babesia divergens parasite, is on the increase, resulting in renewed attentiveness to this potentially life threatening emerging zoonotic disease. the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and intra-erythrocytic development of these parasites are poorly understood. this impedes concerted efforts aimed at the discovery of novel anti-babesiacidal agents. by applying sensitive cell biological and molecular functional genomics t ...201525955414
first report of babesia divergens infection in an hiv patient.human babesiosis is a zoonosis primarily transmitted through ixodes ticks and alternatively by routes such as blood transfusions from asymptomatic donors. we report the first case of human babesiosis caused by babesia divergens in a patient with hiv. this study also focuses on elucidating the possible transmission route of infection in this patient, who received numerous blood transfusions but showed patent symptoms only after splenectomy. a battery of detection tools along with a novel western- ...201525686807
the apicomplexan parasite babesia divergens internalizes band 3, glycophorin a and spectrin during invasion of human red blood cells.plasmodium falciparum invades human red blood cells (rbc), while babesia divergens infects bovine and, occasionally, human rbc. the mammalian rbc is normally unable to endocytose or phagocytose and the events leading to invasion are incompletely understood. initially, both parasites are surrounded by the rbc plasma membrane-derived parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (pvm) that is formed during invasion. in p. falciparum-infected rbc, the pvm persists at least until parasite replication is complet ...201525628009
severe human babesia divergens infection in norway.human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in norway. we report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in norway in 2007. the patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. he was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of norway. the patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasita ...201525541295
genetic variability of babesia parasites in haemaphysalis spp. and ixodes persulcatus ticks in the baikal region and far east of russia.to study babesia diversity in ixodid ticks in russia, ixodes persulcatus, haemaphysalis japonica, haemaphysalisconcinna, dermacentor silvarum, and dermacentor nuttalli ticks collected in the far east and baikal region were assayed for the presence of babesia spp. using nested pcr. in total, babesia dna was detected in 30 of the 1125 (2.7%) i. persulcatus, 17 of the 573 (3.0%) h. concinna, and 12 of the 543 (2.2%) h. japonica but was undetectable in any of the 294 analyzed dermacentor spp. partia ...201425460820
high-quality draft genome sequence of babesia divergens, the etiological agent of cattle and human babesiosis.babesia divergens causes significant morbidity and mortality in cattle and splenectomized or immunocompromised individuals. here, we present a 10.7-mb high-quality draft genome of this parasite close to chromosome resolution that will enable comparative genome analyses and synteny studies among related parasites.201425395649
new insight into the mechanism of accumulation and intraerythrocytic compartmentation of albitiazolium, a new type of antimalarial.bis-thiazolium salts constitute a new class of antihematozoan drugs that inhibit parasite phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. they specifically accumulate in plasmodium- and babesia-infected red blood cells (irbc). here, we provide new insight into the choline analogue albitiazolium, which is currently being clinically tested against severe malaria. concentration-dependent accumulation in p. falciparum-infected erythrocytes reached steady state after 90 to 120 min and was massive throughout the bl ...201425001307
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