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biosynthesis of monoterpenes and norisoprenoids in raspberry fruits (rubus idaeus l.): the role of cytosolic mevalonate and plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathway.the biosynthesis of the monoterpenes (-)-alpha-pinene, linalool, and the norisoprenoids alpha- and beta-ionone in raspberry fruits (rubus idaeus l.) was investigated by in vivo feeding experiments with [5,5-(2)h2]-mevalonic acid lactone and [5,5-(2)h2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose. the volatile compounds were extracted by stirbar sorptive extraction and analyzed using thermal desorption-multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (td-enantio-mdgc-ms). the feeding experiments demonstrate that (-) ...200717907775
inheritance of phytophthora root rot resistance in red raspberry determined by generation means and molecular linkage analysis.classical and molecular methodologies were used to determine the inheritance of phytophthora root rot (prr) resistance in red raspberry. the varieties 'latham' and 'titan,' resistant and susceptible, respectively, were used to create f(1), f(2), b(1), b(2), and s(1) populations for analysis. generational means analysis was used to calculate the components of genetic variation and estimates of narrow and broad sense heritability for the plant disease index and the incidence of petiole lesions. th ...200717592602
temporal sequence of cell wall disassembly events in developing fruits. 1. analysis of raspberry (rubus idaeus).raspberry fruits were harvested at five developmental stages, from green to red ripe, and the changes in cell wall composition, pectin and hemicellulose solubilization, and depolymerization were analyzed. fruit softening at intermediate stages of ripening was associated with increased pectin solubilization, which occurred without depolymerization. arabinose was found to be the most abundant noncellulosic neutral sugar in the cell wall and showed dramatic solubilization late in ripening. no chang ...200717428067
mapping of a1 conferring resistance to the aphid amphorophora idaei and dw (dwarfing habit) in red raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) using aflp and microsatellite markers.raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. the large raspberry aphid, amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. the development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources ...200717374159
optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins in red raspberries and identification of anthocyanins in extract using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.anthocyanins (acys) are naturally occurring compounds that impart color to fruit, vegetables and plants. the extraction of acys from red raspberry (rubus idaeus l. var. heritage) by ultrasound-assisted process (uap) was studied. a central composite rotate design (ccrd) was used to obtain the optimal conditions of ultrasound-assisted extraction (uae), and the effects of operating conditions, such as the ratio of solvents to materials, ultrasonic power and extraction time, on the extraction yield ...200717321780
co-ordinated gene expression during phases of dormancy release in raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) buds.bud break in raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) is often poor and uneven, with many of the subapical buds remaining in a dormant state. in order to determine the dormancy status of raspberry buds, an empirical measure of bud burst in a growth-permissive environment following exposure to chilling (4 degrees c cold storage) was developed. for cv. glen ample, percentage bud burst in intact canes and isolated nodes was recorded after 14 d. isolated nodes (a measure of endodormancy) achieved 100% bud burst ...200717244630
radical scavenging activity and composition of raspberry (rubus idaeus) leaves from different locations in lithuania.raspberry (rubus idaeus) leaves, collected in different locations of lithuania were extracted with ethanol and the extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity (aa) by using abts(.)(+) decolourisation and dpph(.) scavenging methods. all extracts were active, with radical scavenging capacity at the used concentrations from 20.5 to 82.5% in dpph(.) reaction system and from 8.0 to 42.7% in abts(.)(+) reaction. the total amount of phenolic compounds in the leaves varied from 4.8 to 12.0 mg of ...200717215088
'cyanidin volumetric index' and 'chromaticity coordinates ratio' to characterize red raspberry (rubus idaeus).the object of this work is presented in a larger research project concerning 'new indexes to evidence the nutritional quality of small fruits' in progress at the analytical food research laboratories, university of milan. the present paper contains data that contribute to the analytical characterization of 12 varieties of red raspberry through the high-performance liquid chromatography determination of the aglycon 'cyanidin' derived from chemical hydrolysis of berries. even more interesting resu ...201617135027
interrelationship between the raspberry cane midge, resseliella theobaldi (diptera: cecidomyiidae) and its parasitoid, aprostocetus epicharmus (hymenoptera: eulophidae).the raspberry cane midge resseliella theobaldi (barnes) is one of the most important pests of cultivated red raspberry rubus idaeus l. throughout europe. for the last 50 years several studies have been made on the biology, life cycle and control of the pest. some data can also be found on its natural enemies, but among these species only the chalcidoid tetrastichus inunctus nees turned out to be important in controlling raspberry cane midge populations. however, this species name is now ambiguou ...200616923204
identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry.in this paper we review the current literature on antioxidants from fruit of red raspberry (rubus idaeus) and place these in context concerning what is known from other food species. the review concentrates on the methods of antioxidant testing, the diversity of antioxidants in raspberry, effects of ripeness, cultivar, storage and processing techniques, and the bioavailability of raspberry antioxidants in humans after eating the fruit. it is clear that raspberry, like several other fruits and ve ...200516498206
antioxidants in raspberry: on-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites.the presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. in this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. both developmental and genetic factors were assessed by comparing fruits from a single cultivar of different ripening stages and by comparing ripe fruits of 14 raspberry cultivars, respectively. the hplc- ...200515853365
cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot tips of raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) by encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration.the first efficient cryopreservation procedure for in vitro-grown shoot tips of raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) has been developed based on encapsulation-vitrification (envi) and encapsulation-dehydration (ende). envi resulted in higher survival (85%) and regrowth (75%) of cryopreserved shoot tips than ende (65 and 50%, respectively). in both cryogenic procedures, shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips without intermediary callus formation. histological studies showed that a much larger nu ...200515834570
fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of cold-pressed marionberry, boysenberry, red raspberry, and blueberry seed oils.cold-pressed marionberry, boysenberry, red raspberry, and blueberry seed oils were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, carotenoid content, tocopherol profile, total phenolic content (tpc), oxidative stability index (osi), peroxide value, and antioxidant properties. all tested seed oils contained significant levels of alpha-linolenic acid ranging from 19.6 to 32.4 g per 100 g of oil, along with a low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids (1.64-3.99). the total carotenoid content ranged from 12.5 t ...200515686403
chemical composition of caneberry (rubus spp.) seeds and oils and their antioxidant potential.caneberries (rubus spp. l.) are grown primarily throughout the pacific northwestern united states and canada. processing of caneberry fruit typically removes the seed, and the development of a value-added use of seeds could expand the market for caneberries and the profit margins for growers. an initial step toward the use of the seeds is a characterization of seed and oil. our investigation has described compositional characteristics for seeds of five commonly grown caneberry species: red raspb ...200415612785
identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berries of fragaria and rubus species (family rosaceae).high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection was used to study soluble and insoluble forms of phenolic compounds in strawberries, raspberries (red and yellow cultivated and red wild), arctic bramble, and cloudberries. hydroxycinnamic acids were present as free forms in cloudberries and mainly as sugar esters in the other berries. quercetin 3-glucuronide was the typical flavonol glycoside in all of the berries studied. t ...200415453684
aroma extract dilution analysis of cv. meeker (rubus idaeus l.) red raspberries from oregon and washington.the aromas of cultivar meeker red raspberry from oregon and washington were analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. seventy-five aromas were identified [some tentatively (superscript t)] by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-retention index; 53 were common to both, and 22 have not been previously reported in red raspberry. twenty-one compounds had an equivalent odor impact in both: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2h)-furanone, hexanal, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one, (e ...200415291490
the construction of a genetic linkage map of red raspberry (rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus) based on aflps, genomic-ssr and est-ssr markers.breeding in raspberry is time-consuming due to the highly heterozygous nature of this perennial fruit crop, coupled with relatively long periods of juvenility. the speed and precision of raspberry breeding can be improved by genetic linkage maps, thus facilitating the development of diagnostic markers for polygenic traits and the identification of genes controlling complex phenotypes. a genetic linkage map (789 cm) of the red raspberry rubus idaeus has been constructed from a cross between two p ...200415127204
kaempferol and quercetin glycosides from rubus idaeus l. leaves.quercetin 3-0-beta-d-glucoside (i), quercetin and kaempferol 3-0-beta-d-galactosides (ii, iii), kaempferol 3-0-beta-l-arabinopyranoside (iv), kaempferol 3-0-beta-d-(6''-e-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside (tiliroside) (v) and methyl gallate (vi) were isolated from rubus idaeus l. subspecies culture of norna leaves and fully characterized.201314714861
analysis of ellagitannins and conjugates of ellagic acid and quercetin in raspberry fruits by lc-msn.the use of gradient reversed phase hplc with diode array and ms(n) detection for the analysis of ellagitannins, ellagic acid conjugates and quercetin conjugates in raspberries (rubus idaeus l.) is described. ms(n) is a particularly powerful tool for the analysis of trace levels of natural products in impure extracts as interpretation of fragmentation patterns, coupled in some instances with knowledge of hplc retention properties, can facilitate the partial identification of components when refer ...200312943785
a family of polyketide synthase genes expressed in ripening rubus fruits.quality traits of raspberry fruits such as aroma and color derive in part from the polyketide derivatives, benzalacetone and dihydrochalcone, respectively. the formation of these metabolites during fruit ripening is the result of the activity of polyketide synthases (pks), benzalcetone synthase and chalcone synthase (chs), during fruit development. to gain an understanding of the regulation of these multiple pkss during fruit ripening, we have characterized the repertoire of rubus pks genes and ...200312620364
quality characteristics of red raspberry fruit spread made with four sweeteners.red raspberry fruit spreads sweetened with sugar (s) or raspberry, red grape, or apple juice concentrates were processed by inversion and analyzed for chemical, physical, and sensory properties at 1, 12, and 24 weeks. all ph values were between 3.0 and 3.5 while all aw were above 0.81. samples were dark red but became duller over time. viscosities and total solids were lower (p < 0.05) in juice sweetened products than in s. sensory evaluations improved over time for all samples, but were always ...200212602940
4-coumarate:coa ligase gene family in rubus idaeus: cdna structures, evolution, and expression.the enzyme 4-coumarate:coa ligase (4cl) activates cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives by forming the corresponding coa thioesters. these serve as substrates for biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived end-products that are important determinants of fruit quality in raspberry (rubus idaeus l.). in higher plants, 4cl is typically encoded by a gene family. to investigate the participation of distinct 4cl genes in the process of fruit ripening, we have characterized this gene family in ra ...200312602864
predatory role of neoseiulus fallacis (acari: phytoseiidae): spatial and temporal dynamics in washington red raspberry fields.the seasonal abundance of spider mites and their predator neoseiulus fallacis (garman) (acari: phytoseiidae) was determined during three consecutive years in washington state red raspberry fields. tetranychus urticae koch (acari: tetranychidae), eotetranychus carpini borealis (ewing) (acari: tetranychidae), and n. fallacis were commonly found in skagit and whatcom counties. e. carpini borealis colonized the fruiting canes earlier in the season than t. urticae. the two phytophages overlapped in m ...200212539824
rapid characterization of anthocyanins in red raspberry fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to single quadrupole mass spectrometry.anthocyanins from red raspberries were extracted from the fruit by homogenizing in acidified methanol. the methanolic extract was centrifuged and the supernatant analyzed by reversed-phase hplc. the eluent was monitored at 371 and 520 nm before being introduced into a single quadrupole mass spectrometer through an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization probe operating in positive ion mode. this method allowed the identification of eight anthocyanins. in the absence of readily available referen ...200212214705
antioxidant activity and phenolic content of oregon caneberries.five types of caneberries [evergreen blackberries (rubus laciniatus), marionberries (rubus ursinus), boysenberries (rubus ursinus x idaeus), red raspberries (rubus idaeus), and black raspberries (rubus occidentalis)] were analyzed for antioxidant activity by measuring their oxygen radical absorbance capacity (orac). in addition, the berries were analyzed for total phenolics, anthocyanins, procyanidins, and ellagic acid content. all of the berries had high orac activity ranging from 24 to 77.2 mi ...200212033817
a neutrophil multitarget functional bioassay to detect anti-inflammatory natural products.a multitarget functional bioassay was optimized as a method for detecting substances interacting with the inflammatory process of activated neutrophil granulocytes, mainly to release elastase detected by p-nitroanilide (pna) formation. using this bioassay, 100 fractionated extracts of 96 plants were screened, with results presented in a manner that links recorded biological activity to phylogenetic information. the plants were selected to represent a major part of the angiosperms, with emphasis ...200211809061
berry phenolics and their antioxidant activity.phenolic profiles of a total of 26 berry samples, together with 2 apple samples, were analyzed without hydrolysis of glycosides with hplc. the phenolic contents among different berry genera varied considerably. anthocyanins were the main phenolic constituents in bilberry, bog-whortleberry, and cranberry, but in cowberries, belonging also to the family ericaceae genus vaccinium, flavanols and procyanidins predominated. in the family rosaceae genus rubus (cloudberry and red raspberry), the main ph ...200111513713
effect of processing and storage on the antioxidant ellagic acid derivatives and flavonoids of red raspberry (rubus idaeus) jams.from red raspberries, ellagic acid, its 4-arabinoside, its 4' (4' '-acetyl) arabinoside, and its 4' (4' '-acetyl)xyloside, as well as quercetin and kaempferol 3-glucosides, were identified. in addition, two unidentified ellagic acid derivatives were detected. the free radical scavenging activity of the ellagic acid derivatives was evaluated by using the dpph method and compared to that of trolox. all of the isolated compounds showed antioxidant activity. the effect of processing to obtain jams o ...200111513642
host plant-mediated interactions between tetranychus urticae and eotetranychus carpini borealis (acari: tetranychidae).competitive interactions between tetranychus urticae and eotetranychus carpini borealis were investigated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. when placed first to colonize red raspberry leaves, t. urticae caused extinction of e. carpini borealis populations. e. carpini borealis had detrimental effects on t. urticae but did not cause t. urticae population extinction. the area used by e. carpini borealis for egg deposition decreased with an increase in the number of t. urticae eggs. red ra ...200111508526
phylogeny of raspberry beetles and other byturidae (coleoptera).nuclear ribosomal its2 and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase dna sequences were analysed from the byturidae (coleoptera), which includes the raspberry beetles. the secondary structure of its2 was plotted and interspecific changes analysed. evidence for selection on simple sequence repeats within the its2 was found. phylogenetic trees based on the mitochondrial and ribosomal sequences were compared. they were in parity, indicating they reflect the true evolutionary histories of these insects. ther ...200111437920
profiling of changes in gene expression during raspberry (rubus idaeus) fruit ripening by application of rna fingerprinting techniques.processes that contribute to the overall phenomenon of fruit ripening are not well understood for many soft fruit species, including raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) recent biochemical data implicate ethylene and a range of cell wall hydrolases in ripening processes. however, the genes encoding these activities, and others related to ripening, remain to be characterised. with the advent of high-throughput rna-fingerprinting techniques it is possible to characterise rapidly the changes in gene express ...200011089684
influence of domestic processing and storage on flavonol contents in berries.effects of domestic processing and storage on the flavonols quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol in five berries were studied using an optimized rp-hplc method with uv and diode array detection after an acid hydrolysis of the corresponding glycosides. in fresh berries, the total content of flavonols was highest in lingonberry (169 mg/kg) and black currant (157 mg/kg), intermediate in bilberry (41 mg/kg) and strawberry (17 mg/kg), and lowest in red raspberry (9.5 mg/kg). cooking strawberries with ...200011032486
production and elicitation of benzalacetone and the raspberry ketone in cell suspension cultures of rubus idaeus.production levels of p-coumaric acid (p-ca), p-hydroxyphenylbut-3-ene-2-one (benzalacetone), and p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone (raspberry ketone) were measured in raspberry cell suspension cultures to investigate metabolite dynamics in a short (two-step) pathway. intracellular concentrations of benzalacetone and the raspberry ketone fluctuated during the time course of a normal batch culture cycle but showed higher levels during periods of rapid growth. cells elicited with the signal coupler methyl ...201610835233
a national survey of herbal preparation use by nurse-midwives for labor stimulation. review of the literature and recommendations for practice.to document the use of herbal preparations for cervical ripening, induction, and augmentation of labor by certified nurse-midwives (cnms) and nurse-midwifery education programs, a national survey of 500 members of the american college of nurse-midwives was conducted. forty eight nurse-midwifery education programs were also surveyed to determine whether they were formally or informally educating students in the use of herbal preparations for cervical ripening, induction, or augmentation of labor. ...201510380441
the isolation of rna from raspberry (rubus idaeus) fruit.previous attempts to extract high-quality, total rna from raspberry (rubus idaeus) fruits using published protocols have proven to be unsuccessful. even the use of protocols developed for the extraction of rna from other fruit tissue has resulted in low yields (1) or the isolation of degraded rna (2). here, we report on the development of a quick and simple method of extracting total rna from raspberry fruit. using this method, high yields of good quality, undegraded rna were obtained from fruit ...19979438256
daylength and thermal time responses of budburst during dormancy release in some northern deciduous trees.dormancy release and thermal time to budburst as affected by duration of chilling outdoors, followed by different flushing temperatures and daylengths in a phytotron, were studied in cuttings of several northern tree species. in betula pubescens, b. pendula and prunus padus vegetative buds were released from dormancy already in december, in populus tremula in january, whereas in alnus incana and a. glutinosa dormancy was not released until february. thermal time (day degrees >0°c) to budburst de ...199328741760
patulin production by byssochlamys spp. in fruit juices.ten strains of byssochlamys fulva and three strains of b. nivea were cultured in a laboratory medium and tested for their ability to produce patulin. two strains of b. fulva and all three strains of b. nivea produced the mycotoxin. one strain of b. fulva produced patulin in 11 of 13 processed fruit juices, with greatest amounts being produced in blueberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry juices, whereas no patulin was detected in prune or tomato juices. grown in concord grape juice at 18, 25, 30, ...1977596876
identification of volatile compounds in hybrids between raspberry (rubus idaeus, l.) and arctic bramble (rubus arciticus, l.).the present work is concerned with the aroma of hybrids between raspberry (rubus idaeus, l.) and arctic bramble (rubus arcticus, l.). analyses of the volatiles were performed in three stages. the carbonyl compounds were determined as 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones, the volatile acids and the neutral components separately in a combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometer components separately in a combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer using glass capillary columns. over 70 compounds were ide ...19761007619
[embryology of rubus idaeus and of bastards between rubus caesius and rubus idaeus]. 195313078965
aphid vectors of european raspberry viruses. 194720341043
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