antioxidant activity of isolated ellagitannins from red raspberries and cloudberries.ellagitannins from red raspberries (rubus idaeus) and cloudberries (rubus chamaemorus) were isolated by using column chromatography and preparative hplc. the berry phenolic isolates consisted of 80% (cloudberry) and of 60% (raspberry) of ellagitannins, with raspberries also containing anthocyanins. the main ellagitannins of both raspberries and cloudberries were identified by esi-ms to consist of the dimeric sanguiin h-6 and the trimeric lambertianin c. monomeric ellagitannins such as casuaricti ...201222229937
annual and perennial alleyway cover crops vary in their effects on pratylenchus penetrans in pacific northwest red raspberry (rubus idaeus).cover crops can provide many benefits to agroecosystems, such as lessening soil erosion and increasing water infiltration. however, cover crop use is not common in established red raspberry (rubus idaeus) fields in the pacific northwest. raspberry growers are concerned about resource competition between the cover crop and raspberry crop, as well as increasing population densities of the plant-parasitic nematode pratylenchus penetrans, which has a wide host range and has been shown to reduce rasp ...201729353934
an exploratory study of red raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) (poly)phenols/metabolites in human biological raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) contains a variety of polyphenols including anthocyanins and ellagitannins. red raspberry polyphenols absorbed in different forms (parent compounds, degradants or microbial metabolites) are subject to xenobiotic metabolism in the intestine, liver, and/or kidney, forming methylate, glucuronide, and sulfate conjugated metabolites. upon acute exposure, (poly)phenol/metabolite presence in the blood depends mainly on intestinal absorption, enterohepatic circulation, an ...201829344587
urolithins attenuate lps-induced neuroinflammation in bv2microglia via mapk, akt, and nf-κb signaling pathways.emerging data suggest that urolithins, gut microbiota metabolites of ellagitannins, contribute toward multiple health benefits attributed to ellagitannin-rich foods, including walnuts, red raspberry, strawberry, and pomegranate. however, there is limited data on whether the potential neuroprotective effects of these ellagitannin-rich foods are mediated by urolithins. herein, we evaluated the potential mechanisms of antineuroinflammatory effects of urolithins (urolithins a, b, and c; 8-methyl-o-u ...201829336147
a study on residue levels of fungicides and insecticides applied according to the program of raspberry protection.this paper presents surveys on residue levels of fungicides and insecticides applied according to the raspberry protection program. the field trials were conducted in 2013-2014 on a plantation of raspberry of the laszka variety dessert raspberry very popular in poland. laboratory samples were collected starting from a day of the first fruit picking to the end of harvest. the highest mean residue levels were found for boscalid and pyraclostrobin (2.395 mg/kg and 0.732 mg/kg, respectively), in bot ...201829305808
raspberry ketone protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.the cardioprotective role of raspberry ketone (rk) against isoproterenol (iso)-induced myocardial infarction (mi) in rats was assessed.201729225109
neuroprotective effects of 1,2-diarylpropane type phenylpropanoid enantiomers from red raspberry against h2o2-induced oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma sh-sy5y raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) is an edible fruit-producing species belonging to the rosaceae family. in our search for the health-promoting constituents from this fruit, four pairs of enantiomeric phenylpropanoids (1a/1b-4a/4b), including three new compounds (1a and 2a/2b), were isolated from red raspberry. their structures were elucidated by a combination of the extensive nmr spectroscopic data analyses, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and comparison between the expe ...201829215880
red raspberries suppress nlrp3 inflammasome and attenuate metabolic abnormalities in diet-induced obese mice.the nlr family pyrin domain containing 3 (nlrp3) inflammasome plays a critical role in insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. red raspberry (rb) contains high amounts of dietary fibers and polyphenolic compounds, which are known for their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. this study evaluated the preventive effects of rb supplementation on the nlrp3 inflammasome activation and associated metabolic abnormalities induced by high fat diet (hfd). wild-type male mice ...201729202274
inhibitory activity of chokeberry, bilberry, raspberry and cranberry polyphenol-rich extract towards adipogenesis and oxidative stress in differentiated 3t3-l1 adipose cells.berries are a rich source of antioxidants and phytochemicals that have received considerable interest for their possible relations to human health. in this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of polyphenol-rich extract obtained from chokeberry aronia melanocarpa (michx.) elliot, raspberry rubus idaeus l., bilberry vaccinium myrtillus l. and cranberry vaccinium macrocarpon aiton fruits and its underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated in differentiated 3t3-l1 adipose cells. treatment with t ...201729182628
statistical optimization of an rp-hplc method for the determination of selected flavonoids in berry juices and evaluation of their antioxidant isocratic rp-hplc method for the separation and identification of selected flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, luteolin-7-o-glucoside, kaempferol and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside) in commercial berry juices (blackcurrant, blueberry, red raspberry and cherry) was developed with the aid of central composite design and response surface methodology. the optimal separation conditions were a mobile phase of 85:15 (% v/v) water-acetonitrile, ph 2.8 (adjusted with formic acid), flow rate 0.5 ml min-1 and colum ...201729166540
dietary red raspberries attenuate dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis.persistent intestinal inflammation severely impairs intestinal integrity resulting in inflammatory bowel disease. red raspberries (rb) are a rich source of bioactive compounds; their beneficial effect on the colitis protection was evaluated in the current study using a dextran sulfate sodium (dss)-induced acute colitis mouse model. six-week-old mice were fed a standard rodent research diet supplemented with rb (0 or 5% w/w, n=20 each group) for 6 weeks. at the 4th week of dietary treatment, appr ...201829091813
robust manipulations of pest insect behavior using repellents and practical application for integrated pest agricultural settings, examples of effective control strategies using repellent chemicals in integrated pest management (ipm) are relatively scarce compared to those using attractants. this may be partly due to a poor understanding of how repellents affect insect behavior once they are deployed. here we attempt to identify potential hallmarks of repellent stimuli that are robust enough for practical use in the field. we explore the literature for success stories using repellents in ipm and we ...201728981656
rubus idaeus inhibits migration and invasion of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by suppression of mmp-2 through modulation of the erk1/2 pathway.nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) is characterized by a high incidence of metastasis in the neck lymph nodes, resulting in a poor prognosis and posing challenges for treatment. in this study, we investigated the in vitro antimetastatic properties of rubus idaeus extract (rie) on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. hone-1, npc-39 and npc-bm cells were subjected to rie treatment, and effects on the migration and invasion of tumor cells were analyzed. the results showed that rie suppressed the migra ...201728946771
measurement of ripening of raspberries (rubus idaeus l) by near infrared and colorimetric imaging techniques.this work includes the evaluation of 168 samples of raspberries 'glen lyon', representing whole maturation period, by colorimetric and near infrared imaging techniques, as well as the quantification of total phenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by chemical methods. samples showed significant differences depending on the maturation stage using cielab colour parameters and total anthocyanins content. the application of partial least squares regression allowed predicting the chemica ...201728928519
the composition of potentially bioactive triterpenoid glycosides in red raspberry is influenced by tissue, extraction procedure and genotype.the beneficial effects of consumption of berry fruits on a range of chronic diseases has been attributed (at least in part) to the presence of unique phytochemicals. recently, we identified novel ursolic acid-based triterpenoid glycosides (ttpns) in raspberry fruit and demonstrated their survival in human ileal fluids after feeding which confirmed their colon-availability in vivo. in this paper, in vitro digestion studies demonstrated that certain ttpns were stable under gastrointestinal conditi ...201728884768
evaluating a push-pull strategy for management of drosophila suzukii matsumura in red raspberry.drosophila suzukii matsumura is a serious pest of small fruits that lays its eggs in growing fruit. current management strategies rely on an unsustainable schedule of foliar applications of chemical insecticides. alternative approaches to suppressing oviposition are under investigation, such as attract-and-kill and the use of oviposition deterrents. here, we evaluated two behavioral control approaches in combination as a push-pull strategy using laboratory and field assays.201828714131
persistent negative temperature response of mesophyll conductance in red raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) leaves under both high and low vapour pressure deficits: a role for abscisic acid?the temperature dependence of mesophyll conductance (gm ) was measured in well-watered red raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) plants acclimated to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (vpdl) daytime differentials of contrasting amplitude, keeping a fixed diurnal leaf temperature (tleaf ) rise from 20 to 35 °c. contrary to the great majority of gm temperature responses published to date, we found a pronounced reduction of gm with increasing tleaf irrespective of leaf chamber o2 level and diurnal vpdl reg ...201728620951
heme oxygenase-1 mediates anti-adipogenesis effect of raspberry ketone in 3t3-l1 cells.obesity is caused by excessive accumulation of body fat and is closely related to complex metabolic diseases. raspberry ketone (rk), a major aromatic compound in red raspberry, was recently reported to possess anti-obesity effects. however, its mechanisms are unclear.201728606512
ellagitannins from rubus idaeus l. exert geno- and cytotoxic effects against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line caco-2.ellagitannins possess several biological activities, including anticancer properties. the goal of the present study was to investigate the cyto- and genotoxic activities of a red raspberry ellagitannin preparation (rep) in the concentration range of 2.5-160 μg/ml, as well as that of the main individual raspberry ellagitannins, sanguiin h-6 (sh-6, 12.8-256 μm) and lambertianin c (lc, 9.3-378 μm), against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line caco-2. the ellagitannin concentrations used in the stud ...201728301143
red raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) intake decreases oxidative stress in obese diabetic (db/db) raspberry fruit intake was investigated on obese diabetic (db/db) mice for 8weeks. animals fed isocaloric diets (5.3% freeze-dried raspberry, or control) were assessed for obesity-diabetes-disease risk biomarkers. results showed that raspberry intake improved antioxidant status and lessened plasma interleukin (il)-6 (0.3-fold of control, p<0.1); most likely through enhancing glutathione peroxidase (gpx) activity in liver (4.3-fold of control), and in blood (2.1-fold of control). other diseas ...201728274436
mitigation by sodium nitroprusside of the effects of salinity on the morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of rubus idaeus under in vitro conditions.this study examined the changes brought about by sodium nitroprusside (snp) in the effects of salinity on the morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of rubus idaeus var. danehdrosht. raspberry shoot-tip explants were cultured on murashige and skoog medium supplemented with a growth regulator that combined benzyleadenine (1 mg/l), indol-3-butyric acetic acid (0.2 mg/l), snp (0, 50 and 100 µm) and sodium chloride (0, 50 and 100 mm). the results showed that salinity stress significant ...201728250585
red raspberry decreases heart biomarkers of cardiac remodeling associated with oxidative and inflammatory stress in obese diabetic db/db mice.early diagnosis of risks of heart disease can be critical to fight cardiovascular diseases (cvd) associated with obesity and diabetes and for the implementation of nutritional interventions. the objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of red raspberry consumption in the obese diabetic (db/db) mice using proteomic analysis as a tool. hearts harvested from db/db mice fed an isocaloric diet (ain-93g, control group) or ain-93g supplemented with freeze-dried raspberry ...201627841417
does the slow-growth, high-mortality hypothesis apply below ground?belowground tri-trophic study systems present a challenging environment in which to study plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions. for this reason, belowground examples are rarely available for testing general ecological theories. to redress this imbalance, we present, for the first time, data on a belowground tri-trophic system to test the slow growth, high mortality hypothesis. we investigated whether the differing performance of entomopathogenic nematodes (epns) in controlling the common p ...201627571368
discovery of a-type procyanidin dimers in yellow raspberries by untargeted metabolomics and correlation based data analysis.raspberries are becoming increasingly popular due to their reported health beneficial properties. despite the presence of only trace amounts of anthocyanins, yellow varieties seems to show similar or better effects in comparison to conventional raspberries.201627547172
ellagitannins from raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) fruit as natural inhibitors of geotrichum candidum.the paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against geotrichum candidum łock 0511. the study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration of 86% w/w, as well as pure lambertianin c and sanguiin h-6. the ellagitannin preparation was obtained by extracting raspberry press cake and purifying the extract using amberlite xad resin, ...201627420041
root herbivores drive changes to plant primary chemistry, but root loss is mitigated under elevated atmospheric co2.above- and belowground herbivory represents a major challenge to crop productivity and sustainable agriculture worldwide. how this threat from multiple herbivore pests will change under anthropogenic climate change, via altered trophic interactions and plant response traits, is key to understanding future crop resistance to herbivory. in this study, we hypothesized that atmospheric carbon enrichment would increase the amount (biomass) and quality (c:n ratio) of crop plant resources for above- an ...201627379129
rubus idaeus extract suppresses migration and invasion of human oral cancer by inhibiting mmp-2 through modulation of the erk1/2 signaling pathway.raspberries (rubus idaeus l.) have been extensively studies worldwide because of their beneficial effects on health. recently reports indicate that crude extracts of rubus idaeus (rie) have antioxidant and anticancer ability. the aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of its antimetastatic ability in oral cancer cells. in this study, scc-9 and sas oral cancer cells were subjected to a treatment with rie and then analyzed the effect of rie on migration and invasion. the addition of rie i ...201727322511
abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin c contents in raspberries.abscisic acid (aba) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. aba and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive aba agonist) effects on red raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. application of aba and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin a (carotenoids) nor vita ...201626948608
rapid identification of flavonoid constituents directly from ptp1b inhibitive extract of raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) leaves by hplc-esi-qtof-ms-ms.many potential health benefits of raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) leaves were attributed to polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids. in this study, the methanol extract of r. idaeus leaves showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase-1b (ptp1b) inhibitory activity with ic50 value of 3.41 ± 0.01 µg ml(-1) meanwhile, a rapid and reliable method, employed high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, was establis ...201726896347
two-dimensional liquid chromatography (lc) of phenolic compounds from the shoots of rubus idaeus 'glen ample' cultivar this study the application of two-dimensional lc (2d lc) for qualitative analysis of polyphenols and simple phenols in the shoots of rubus idaeus 'glen ample' variety is presented. in the preliminary analysis, the methanol extract of the shoots was analyzed by one-dimensional lc. one-dimensional lc separation profiles of phenolics from r. idaeus 'glen ample' shoots were dependent on column type, mobile phase composition and gradient program used. two-dimensional lc system was built from conne ...201626799975
red raspberries and their bioactive polyphenols: cardiometabolic and neuronal health is an essential factor that affects the risk of modern-day metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and alzheimer disease. the potential ability of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to reverse or prevent the progression of the pathogenic processes that underlie these diseases has attracted research attention. red raspberries (rubus idaeus l.) are unique berries with a rich history and nutrient and bioactive composition. they possess several ...201626773014
inhibition of a2780 human ovarian carcinoma cell proliferation by a rubus component, sanguiin h-6.the effects of a red raspberry component, sanguiin h-6 (sh-6), on the induction of apoptosis and the related signaling pathways in a2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells were investigated. sh-6 caused an antiproliferative effect and a severe morphological change resembling that of apoptotic cell death but no effect on the cancer cell cycle arrest. in addition, sh-6 induced an early apoptotic effect and activation of caspases as well as the cleavage of parp, which is a hallmark of apoptosis. the ear ...201626725849
red raspberry phenols inhibit angiogenesis: a morphological and subcellular analysis upon human endothelial cells.polyphenols are a class of natural compounds whose potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenesis has been reported in many pathological conditions. red raspberry extract, rich in polyphenols, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects and prevent cell proliferation in distinct animal models. however, the signaling pathways involved remain unknown. herein, we used human microvascular endothelial cells (hmvecs) to determine the influence of red raspberry phenolic com ...201626590362
comparison of antioxidant activity of the fruits derived from in vitro propagated and traditionally cultivated tayberry plants.tayberry is a hybrid between rubus fruticosus l. and rubus idaeus l. these fruits contain valuable vitamins and antioxidants. an effective protocol for micropropagation of tayberry plants is here described. different concentrations of cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, zeatin, and 6-(γ,γ-dimethylallylamino)purine) were added in murashige and skoog, 1962 (ms) medium to micropropagation using stem tip and nodal explants.201626564552
developing expressed sequence tag libraries and the discovery of simple sequence repeat markers for two species of raspberry (rubus l.).due to a relatively high level of codominant inheritance and transferability within and among taxonomic groups, simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers are important elements in comparative mapping and delineation of genomic regions associated with traits of economic importance. expressed sequence tags (ests) are a source of ssrs that can be used to develop markers to facilitate plant breeding and for more basic research across genera and higher plant orders.201526499487
new insights into the bioavailability of red raspberry anthocyanins and raspberries, containing ellagitannins and cyanidin-based anthocyanins, were fed to volunteers and metabolites appearing in plasma and urine were analysed by uhplc-ms. anthocyanins were not absorbed to any extent with sub nmol/l concentrations of cyanidin-3-o-glucoside and a cyanidin-o-glucuronide appearing transiently in plasma. anthocyanins excreted in urine corresponded to 0.007% of intake. more substantial amounts of phase ii metabolites of ferulic acid and isoferulic acid, along with 4'- ...201526475039
the chilean wild raspberry (rubus geoides sm.) increases intracellular gsh content and protects against h2o2 and methylglyoxal-induced damage in ags cells.the chilean raspberry rubus geoides sm. (rosaceae) is a native species occurring in the patagonia. five r. geoides samples were assessed for phenolic content and composition, antioxidant activity, effect on total reduced glutathione (gsh) synthesis and protective effect against h2o2 and methylglyoxal (mgo)-induced stress in epithelial gastric ags cells. the hplc-dad/esi-ms profiles allowed the tentative identification of 39 phenolics including flavonol glycosides and tannins. r. geoides presente ...201626471634
analytical fingerprint and chemometrics as phytochemical composition control tools in food supplement analysis: characterization of raspberry bud preparations of different cultivars.the raspberry, rubus idaeus l., provides several plant parts (as buds) used for food supplements. the aim of this research was to establish a technique for chemical composition control of r. idaeus herbal preparations, using chromatographic methods. these methods allowed us to identify and quantify the main phytochemicals, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint (phytocomplex). combined with two different chemometric methods - clustering analysis and principal component analysis - the ras ...201626459916
sensory characteristics and antioxidant capacity of red raspberry extract as a preservative in fruity flavoured beverages.sensory evaluation is a critical process in product development and consumer research. it is a fastly growing field due to innovation of novel techniques. the objective of this study was determination of sensory properties of red raspberry extract in fruity flavoured beverages comparison to the synthetic preservatives. for this purpose, an organoleptic stability study on fruity flavoured beverages was conducted storing them at several temperatures (room temperature, 2 ± 2 °c and 40 ± 2 °c) in th ...201526396417
characterization and biological activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) fruits.a water-soluble polysaccharide namely rcp-ii from raspberry fruits was obtained by complex enzyme method followed by successive purification using macroporous resin d4020 and sephadex g-100 columns. rcp-ii was an acidic heteropolysaccharide and the characteristic structure of polysaccharide was determined. the carbohydrate of rcp-ii was composed with galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:0.55:1.19:0.52:0.44:1.90 and the average molecular w ...201526256339
identification of a botanical inhibitor of intestinal diacylglyceride acyltransferase 1 activity via in vitro screening and a parallel, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.diacylglyceride acyltransferase 1 (dgat1) is the enzyme that adds the final fatty acid on to a diacylglyceride during triglyceride (tg) synthesis. dgat1 plays a key role in the repackaging of dietary tg into circulating tg rich chylomicrons. a growing amount of research has indicated that an exaggerated postprandial circulating tg level is a risk indicator for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. the aim of this research was to identify a botanical extract that inhibits intestinal dgat1 activ ...201526246845
towards an understanding of the control of 'crumbly' fruit in red raspberry.the genetic disorder known as 'crumbly' fruit is becoming a serious problem in the european raspberry industry. the study set out to examine the crumbly phenotype in a red raspberry mapping population under two environments (field and polytunnel) across six seasons in an effort to understand variability of the syndrome and to examine whether genetic factors were important and if so, whether qtl associated with the phenotype could be identified. this highlighted that seasonal, environmental (fiel ...201526020022
behavioral response of spotted-wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii matsumura, to aversive odors and a potential oviposition deterrent in the field.drosophilia suzukii matsumura is an invasive pest insect that lays its eggs in the fruit of several commercially grown crops. an effective oviposition deterrent could contribute to its management. repellant odors were evaluated in the laboratory and in the field.201625973596
an oil-soluble extract of rubus idaeus cells enhances hydration and water homeostasis in skin cells.raspberry plants, belonging to the species of rubus idaeus, are known for their excellent therapeutic properties as they are particularly rich in compounds with strong antioxidant activity, which promote health and well-being of human cells. besides their high content of phenolic compounds, rubus plants are rich in oil-soluble compounds, which are also primary components of the hydrolipidic film barrier of the skin. as plant cell cultures represented a valuable system to produce interesting comp ...201525940647
differential expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes in drupelets and receptacle of raspberry (rubus idaeus).red raspberry (rubus idaeus) is traditionally classified as non-climacteric, and the role of ethylene in fruit ripening is not clear. the available information indicates that the receptacle, a modified stem that supports the drupelets, is involved in ethylene production of ripe fruits. in this study, we report receptacle-related ethylene biosynthesis during the ripening of fruits of cv. heritage. in addition, the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis transcripts was evaluated during the ri ...201525847526
volatile compounds of raspberry fruit: from analytical methods to biological role and sensory impact.volatile compounds play a key role in the formation of the well-recognized and widely appreciated raspberry aroma. studies on the isolation and identification of volatile compounds in raspberry fruit (rubus idaeus l.) are reviewed with a focus on aroma-related compounds. a table is drawn up containing a comprehensive list of the volatile compounds identified so far in raspberry along with main references and quantitative data where available. two additional tables report the glycosidic bond and ...201525647579
a variant of rubus yellow net virus with altered genomic organization.rubus yellow net virus (rynv) is a member of the genus badnavirus (family: caulimoviridae). rynv infects rubus species causing chlorosis of the tissue along the leaf veins, giving an unevenly distributed netted symptom in some cultivars of red and black raspberry. recently, a strain of rynv was sequenced from a rubus idaeus plant in alberta, canada, exhibiting such symptoms. the viral genome contained seven open reading frames (orfs) with five of them in the sense-strand, including a large polyp ...201525480633
raspberry ketone, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, inhibits adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3t3-l1 adipocytes.raspberry ketone (rk) is a natural phenolic compound of red raspberry. the dietary intake of rk has been reported to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism in vivo and human studies.201525429790
anti-inflammatory activity of fruit fractions in vitro, mediated through toll-like receptor 4 and 2 in the context of inflammatory bowel disease.pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) and 4 (tlr4) are important in detecting and responding to stress and bacterial stimuli. defect or damage in the tlr2 and tlr4 pathways can lead to sustained inflammation, characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). the goal of this study was to identify fruit fractions that can be tested further to develop them as complementary therapies for ibd. in order to do this, we identified fruit fractions that mediate their anti-in ...201425415606
chemical characterization of a red raspberry fruit extract and evaluation of its pharmacological effects in experimental models of acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis.berries are an important dietary source of fibres, vitamins, minerals and some biologically active non-nutrients. a red raspberry fruit extract was characterized in terms of phenolic content and the anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects were evaluated in two experimental models of inflammation. the antioxidant potential of the extract, the cellular antioxidant activity and the effects over neutrophils' oxidative burst were also studied to provide a mechanistic insight for the anti- ...201425322288
elevated atmospheric co2 impairs aphid escape responses to predators and conspecific alarm signals.research into the impact of atmospheric change on predator-prey interactions has mainly focused on density dependent responses and trophic linkages. as yet, the chemical ecology underpinning predator-prey interactions has received little attention in environmental change research. group living animals have evolved behavioral mechanisms to escape predation, including chemical alarm signalling. chemical alarm signalling between conspecific prey could be susceptible to environmental change if the p ...201425273846
hepatoprotective effect of schisandra chinensis (turcz.) baill. lignans and its formula with rubus idaeus on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.this study aimed to investigate the liver protection effect of schisandra chinensis (turcz.) baill. (sc) lignans and its combination with rubus idaeus (ri) on chronic alcohol-induced mice. a low level of sc lignans (sl) was prepared from the clear juice of sarcocarp. lignans were further extracted from the sc seeds and added to the sl to form high-level sc lignans (sh). moreover, ri clear juice lyophilized powder was mixed with sl (sr), and the liver protection effects of sl, sh and sr were inve ...201425255087
sorbitol, rubus fruit, and is unclear how the misunderstanding that rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the united states. in reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 ot ...201525053101
bioactivity of meeker and willamette raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) pomace extracts.taking into account the substantial potential of raspberry processing by-products, pomace extracts from two raspberry cultivars, meeker and willamette, were investigated. total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were determined. willamette pomace extract (ec₅₀=0.042 mg/ml) demonstrated stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl dpph radical-scavenging activity than did meeker pomace extract (ec₅₀=0.072 mg/ml). the most pronounced cell growth inhibition effect was obtained in the breast ade ...201525053074
cd39/ntpdase-1 expression and activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells are differentially regulated by leaf extracts from rubus caesius and rubus idaeus.many experimental studies have demonstrated the favorable biological activities of plants belonging to the genus rubus, but little is known of the role of rubus leaf extracts in the modulation of the surface membrane expression and activity of endothelial apyrase. the aim of this study was to assess the influence of 1-15 μg/ml rubus extracts on cd39 expression and enzymatic activity, and on the activation (icam-1 expression) and viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvec). the po ...201425034034
rna-seq analysis of rubus idaeus cv. nova: transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly for subsequent functional genomics approaches.using illumina sequencing technology, we have generated the large-scale transcriptome sequencing data containing abundant information on genes involved in the metabolic pathways in r. idaeus cv. nova fruits. rubus idaeus (red raspberry) is one of the important economical crops that possess numerous nutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals with essential health benefits to human. the molecular mechanism underlying the ripening process and phytochemical biosynthesis in red raspberry is attribu ...201425023872
quality and chemical composition of ten red raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) genotypes during three harvest seasons.colour and chemical composition of fruits of 10 red raspberry genotypes grown in nordic climate during three harvest seasons were studied. the main phenolic compounds in the fruits were ellagitannins and anthocyanins, contributing 57% and 42% to the quantified phenolic compounds, respectively. cyanidin-3-sophoroside was the most abundant anthocyanin (61%). all quality parameters were significantly affected by genotype. the genotypes could be categorised into three groups. 'veten' and 'ru984 0603 ...201424799233
effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.the mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. a raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (ea); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. the aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of r ...201424699912
evaluation of the jelly processing potential of raspberries adapted in brazil.generally raspberry products as jams, jellies, and preserves are made with red raspberry, however, yellow raspberry and especially black raspberry are also fruits adapted in brazil, presenting even better productivity and quality. thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the processing potential of other varieties of raspberry, but the red, in the preparation of jellies through mixture design and response surface methodology (rsm). these techniques were used to optimize the following 3 variab ...201424467459
anthocyanin profiles and biological properties of caneberry (rubus spp.) press residues.the global interest in natural food colours shows increasing attention towards new product development to replace synthetic colourants, because of the strengthening of legislative rules and consumer awareness of synthetic additives and chemicals in food. this study was designed to evaluate anthocyanin content and biological activities of press residues from four caneberries: two raspberry (rubus idaeus, cv. 'meeker' (rm) and 'willamette' (rw)) and two blackberry (rubus fruticosus, cv. 'thornfree ...201424407975
raspberry ketone promotes the differentiation of c3h10t1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts.the decrease in the bone mass associated with osteoporosis caused by ovariectomy, aging, and other conditions is accompanied by an increase in bone marrow adipose tissue. the balance between osteoblasts and adipocytes is influenced by a reciprocal relationship. the development of modalities to promote local/systemic bone formation by inhibiting bone marrow adipose tissue is important in the treatment of fractures or metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. in this study, we examined whether ...201424404978
rubus idaeus l inhibits invasion potential of human a549 lung cancer cells by suppression epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and akt pathway in vitro and reduces tumor growth in vivo.the metastasis of lung cancer is the most prevalent cause of patient death. various treatment strategies have targeted the prevention of the occurrence of metastasis. the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (emt) in lung cancer cells is considered a prerequisite to acquire the invasive/migratory phenotype and to subsequently achieve metastasis. however, the effects ofrubus idaeuson cancer invasion and the emt of the human lung carcinoma remain unclear. in this article, we test the hypothesis thatr ...201424335666
rubus idaeus l. reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and suppresses cell invasion and protease activities by targeting erk1/2 and fak pathways in human lung cancer cells.epithelial to mesenchymal transition (emt) has been considered essential for cancer metastasis, a multistep complicated process including local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. herein we provided molecular evidence associated with the antimetastatic effect of rubus idaeus l. extracts (rie) by showing a nearly complete inhibition on the invasion (p<0.001) of highly metastatic a549 cells via reduced activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (mmp-2) and uro ...201324161487
berries and human health: research highlights from the fifth biennial berry health benefits symposium.the fifth biennial berry health benefits symposium showcased recent research supporting the positive effects of berry consumption on human health and disease. remarkably, the vast majority of oral papers covered data accumulated from in vivo studies, which underscores how berry health research has advanced since the inception of this symposium in 2005. similar to the past, research presented at this meeting was primarily focused on the major commercially cultivated berries in north america, name ...201424148006
plants used for making recreational tea in europe: a review based on specific research sites.this paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. the reviewed 29 areas are located across europe, covering the post-soviet countries, eastern and mediterranean europe. altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. the most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were lamiaceae and astera ...201323941692
reciprocal feeding facilitation between above- and below-ground herbivores.interspecific interactions between insect herbivores predominantly involve asymmetric competition. by contrast, facilitation, whereby herbivory by one insect benefits another via induced plant susceptibility, is uncommon. positive reciprocal interactions between insect herbivores are even rarer. here, we reveal a novel case of reciprocal feeding facilitation between above-ground aphids (amphorophora idaei) and root-feeding vine weevil larvae (otiorhynchus sulcatus), attacking red raspberry (rubu ...201323883576
isolation of the four methyl jasmonate stereoisomers and their effects on selected chiral volatile compounds in red raspberries.the four stereoisomers present in a commercial sample of methyl jasmonate (mj) were isolated at semi-preparative scale by hplc, using a permethylated β-cyclodextrin column. this allowed the baseline resolution and collection of both major (methyl jasmonates) and minor (epi-methyl jasmonates) stereoisomers. when 1.5 ml of a 5mg per ml mj solution were injected, isolated amounts were 3.56 mg for (-) and (+)-methyl jasmonates, with respective purities of 96.1% and 99.9%, and 0.18 mg for (-)- and (+ ...201323871049
a targeted metabolomics approach to understand differences in flavonoid biosynthesis in red and yellow raspberries.phenolic compounds account for the most important class of secondary metabolites in raspberries and fulfill a broad range of biological functions in plants. due to their presence in fruits they are also considered as important bioactive compounds in human nutrition and are closely related to fruit quality. in the present study a targeted uplc-ms/ms method was used to screen various phenolic compounds in fruits of red and yellow raspberry cultivars. in total 50 phenolic compounds were detected ab ...201323622736
effects of gamma radiation on raspberries: safety and quality issues.there is an ever-increasing global demand from consumers for high-quality foods with major emphasis placed on quality and safety attributes. one of the main demands that consumers display is for minimally processed, high-nutrition/low-energy natural foods with no or minimal chemical preservatives. the nutritional value of raspberry fruit is widely recognized. in particular, red raspberries are known to demonstrate a strong antioxidant capacity that might prove beneficial to human health by preve ...201323514071
effect of ultrasound frequency on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of red raspberry puree.ultrasound in the 20-1000 khz range show unique propagation characteristics in fluid media and possess energy that can break down fruit matrices to facilitate the extraction of valuable bioactive compounds. red raspberries carry significant amounts of specific antioxidants, including ellagitannins and anthocyanins that are important for human health. the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ultrasound frequencies associated with cavitation (20 khz) and microstreaming (490 an ...201323507361
morphological and molecular identification to secure cultivar maintenance and management of self-sterile rubus arcticus.preservation of cultivar purity creates a particular challenge for plants that are self-incompatible, require insects for cross-pollination, and have easily germinating seeds and vigorously spreading rhizomes. as the fields must be planted with mixed populations, and a balance must be maintained between the cultivars to achieve effective pollination, methods for field monitoring of the relative density of different cultivars must be practical. furthermore, a dna-based method is needed for cultiv ...201323456688
effect of berry extracts and bioactive compounds on fulvestrant (ici 182,780) sensitive and resistant cell lines.fulvestrant (ici 182,780; ici) is approved for the treatment of advanced metastatic breast cancer that is unresponsive to other endocrine therapies. berries are frequently consumed for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer potential. in this study, we tested the efficacy of two berry extracts (jamun-ejae and red raspberry-rre) and their bioactive compounds (delphinidin-del and ellagic acid-ea) to inhibit cell proliferation with or without a sublethal dose of ici in various breast ...201223346406
saturated linkage map construction in rubus idaeus using genotyping by sequencing and genome-independent imputation.rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as rubus idaeus (red raspberry). recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of i ...201323324311
qtl involved in the modification of cyanidin compounds in black and red raspberry fruit.fruit from rubus species are highly valued for their flavor and nutritive qualities. anthocyanin content contributes to these qualities, and although many studies have been conducted to identify and quantify the major anthocyanin compounds from various rubus species, the genetic control of the accumulation of these complex traits in rubus is not yet well understood. the identification of the regions of the genome involved in the production of anthocyanins is an important first step in identifyin ...201323224381
juice, pulp and seeds fractionated from dry climate primocane raspberry cultivars (rubus idaeus) have significantly different antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin content and color.raspberries contain flavonoid antioxidants whose relative concentrations may vary between the juice, pulp, and seed fractions. oxygen radical absorbance capacity (orac), total anthocyanin content, and berry color were determined for six cultivars of primocane raspberries grown in a dry climate (utah, usa). significant orac differences were found between juice (18.4 ± 0.39 μmol te/g), pulp (24.45 ± 0.43), and seeds (273.27 ± 11.15) with all utah cultivars combined. a significantly higher concentr ...201223132011
a comparison of fruit chemical characteristics of two wild grown rubus species from different locations of croatia.the main focus of our study was to investigate differences in nutritional (dry matter, soluble solids content, total acidity and ph value) and bioactive values (ascorbic acid, total anthocyanins, total phenols, and non-flavonoids content) of wild grown raspberry (rubus idaeus) and blackberry (rubus discolor) genotypes harvested from native populations in croatia. the average total acidity ranged from 0.93 to 1.72% in r. discolor and 1.57 to 1.91% in r. idaeus. ascorbic acid was found between 22. ...201222936111
pesticide residues in raspberries (rubus idaeus l.) and dietary risk assessment.the aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of 140 pesticides in raspberries from north-eastern poland (2005-2010). gas chromatography with electron capture detector (gc-ecd) and nitrogen phosphorous detector (gc-npd) was used. among the 128 samples, 66 (51.6%) were found to detect residues: 14.1% contained one pesticide and around 38% multiple pesticide residues. the most frequently detected were pyrimethanil residues (36.0%). twenty-seven (21.1%) raspberry samples exceeded the maximum r ...201224779781
location of the mechanism of resistance to amphorophora agathonica (hemiptera: aphididae) in red raspberry.the aphid amphorophora agathonica hottes (hemiptera: aphididae) is an important virus vector in red (rubus idaeus l.) and black (rubus occidentalis l.) raspberries in north america. raspberry resistance to a. agathonica in the form of a single dominant gene named ag1 has been relied upon to help control aphid-transmitted plant viruses; however, the mechanism of resistance to the insect is poorly understood. aphid feeding was monitored using an electrical penetration graph on the resistant red ra ...201222928330
environmental and seasonal influences on red raspberry flavour volatiles and identification of quantitative trait loci (qtl) and candidate genes.raspberry volatiles are important for perceptions of sensory quality, mould resistance and some have nutraceutical activities. twelve raspberry character volatiles were quantified, 11 of them in fruit from two seasons, from plants from the glen moy × latham mapping population growing in both open field and under cover (polytunnels). effects of season and environment were examined for their impact on the content of α-ionone, α-ionol, β-ionone, β-damascenone, linalool, geraniol, benzyl alcohol, (z ...201322890807
over-seasons analysis of quantitative trait loci affecting phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in raspberry.this study examined the total phenol content (tpc) and total anthocyanin content (tac) in ripe fruit of progeny of a mapping population generated from a cross between the european red raspberry cv. glen moy ( rubus ideaus var. idaeus) and the north american red raspberry cv. latham ( rubus ideaus var. strigosus) over five seasons in two different growing environments. measurements of antioxidant capacity (frap and teac) were also carried out. tpc was highly correlated with teac and frap across t ...201222583495
the impact of anthocyanin-rich red raspberry extract (arre) on the properties of edible soy protein isolate (spi) modify the properties of edible soy protein isolate (spi) films, 0.5% anthocyanin-rich red raspberry (rubus strigosus) extract (arre) (0.5 g raspberry powder in 95% ethyl alcohol/water/85% lactic acid [80:19:1. v/v/v]) was incorporated into film-forming solutions. arre resulted in an spi film having significantly enhanced tensile strength (p < 0.05) and % elongation at break (p < 0.05), as well as increased water swelling ratio (p < 0.05) and in vitro pepsin digestibility (p < 0.05). the resu ...201222515242
effects of raspberry phytochemical extract on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and serum proteomics in a rat model.the red raspberry extract possesses potent antioxidant capacity and anticancerous activity in vitro and in vivo. the objective of this study was to determine whether red raspberry extract affected the cell cycle, angiogenesis, and apoptosis in hepatic lesion tissues from a rat model induced by diethylnitrosamine (den) as well as changes of serum proteomics. rats were treated with red raspberry extract (0.75, 1.5, or 3.0 g/kg of body weight) by gavage starting 2 h after den administration and con ...201122417609
changes of hydrogen peroxide and radical-scavenging activity of raspberry during osmotic, convective, and freeze-drying.this study was conducted to investigate the influence of different drying treatments on antioxidant (ao) activity and phenolic content of raspberry (rubus idaeus), cultivar willamette. whole raspberry fruits were dried convectively (air-drying), osmotically, and freeze-dried. acetone-water extracts of fresh and dried raspberries were assessed for total phenolic content by standard folin-ciocalteau method. two ao assays were applied, a recently developed direct current (dc) polarographic assay ba ...201122417351
pomological features, nutritional quality, polyphenol content analysis, and antioxidant properties of domesticated and 3 wild ecotype forms of raspberries (rubus idaeus l.).the raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) is an economically important berry crop that contains many phenolic compounds with potential health benefits. in this study, important pomological features, including nutrient content and antioxidant properties, of a domesticated and 3 wild (yayla, yavuzlar, and yedigöl) raspberry fruits were evaluated. also, the amount of total phenolics and flavonoids in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were calculated as gallic ...201122417339
effect of mixing time, freeze-drying and baking on phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of raspberry juice during processing of muffins.consumption of baked products constitutes an important part of a daily breakfast considering that people are continually grabbing meals on the go. among baked products, muffins rank third in breakfast products and attract a broad range of consumers. incorporation of red raspberry juice into muffins can add value to the product while preserving health benefits to the consumer. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixing time, freeze-drying and baking on the phenolic and anthocy ...201222228299
comparison of flavonoid composition of red raspberries ( rubus idaeus l.) grown in the southern united states.raspberry flavonoid compounds have significant antioxidant activities, and regular consumption may help prevent and/or moderate chronic diseases. targeted metabolite profiling is useful to identify compounds contributing to these antioxidant properties and health benefits and for tailored breeding for functional foods. in this study, metabolomic variation was determined among three fall-fruiting red raspberry cultivars ('autumn britten', 'caroline', 'nantahala') grown at three north carolina loc ...201222128912
characterization of raspberry ketone/zingerone synthase, catalyzing the alpha, beta-hydrogenation of phenylbutenones in raspberry fruits.phenylbutanone raspberry ketone, accumulating in the mature fruits of raspberry (rubus idaeus), imparts the characteristic aroma to the fruits. here we describe the isolation and characterization of raspberry ketone/zingerone synthase 1 (rzs1), which catalyzed the nadph-dependent reduction of 4-hydroxybenzalacetone and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzalacetone to raspberry ketone and zingerone (the latter not found in raspberry), respectively. its apparent k(m) values for 4-hydroxybenzalacetone and nadph ...201121802408
towards an understanding of the nature of resistance to phytophthora root rot in red raspberry.a mapping population segregating for root rot resistance was screened under both field and glasshouse conditions over a number of seasons. few correlations between field and glasshouse scores were significant. final root rot scores were significantly negatively correlated with measures of root vigour. two qtl associated with resistance were identified as were overlapping qtl for root vigour assessments. markers significantly associated with the traits were used to identify bac clones, which were ...201121573956
hplc analysis of polyphenols in the fruits of rubus idaeus l. (rosaceae).the separation of anthocyanins present in the fruits of 11 varieties of red raspberries (rubus idaeus l.) was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with a diode-array detector and evaporative light scattering detection (elsd). the elsd parameters--drift tube temperature, nebulising gas flow rate and gain value--were optimised to get the best detection and identification of the anthocyanins. the varieties heritage and willamette had the simplest anthocyanin sets consisting of ...201021104526
(+)-methyl jasmonate-induced bioformation of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol in red raspberries.the effect of postharvest treatment with enantiomers of methyl jasmonate (mj) in conjunction with ethanol on bioformation of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol in red raspberry was studied. for comparison, postharvest treatment with the commercial stereoisomeric mixture of mj in conjunction with ethanol was simultaneously accomplished. the levels obtained were contrasted with those determined in untreated (control) samples. exogenous (+)-mj induced an enhancement in the levels of myricetin, que ...201021043497
influence of postflowering temperature on fruit size and chemical composition of glen ample raspberry (rubus idaeus l.).the effects of postflowering temperature on the fruit chemical composition of glen ample raspberries were studied under controlled environment conditions. the berry weight decreased significantly with increasing temperature (12, 18, and 24 °c) and with progress of the harvest period. because the moisture content increased in parallel with the berry weight, the antioxidant capacity (aoc) and the concentration of a range of bioactive compounds decreased with decreasing temperature and progress of ...201023654237
genetic and environmental effects influencing fruit colour and qtl analysis in raspberry.raspberry (rubus idaeus) fruit colour was assessed in the latham x glen moy mapping population using a colour meter and visual scores over three seasons and three environments. the colour measurements were found to be significantly associated with pigment content, have high heritability, and stable qtl were identified across environments and seasons. anthocyanin content has previously been shown to be the major contributor to fruit colour in red raspberry. major structural genes (f3'h, fls, dfr, ...201020419285
distribution of volatile composition in 'marion' ( rubus species hyb) blackberry pedigree.the distribution of volatile constituents in ancestral genotypes of 'marion' blackberry's pedigree was investigated over two growing seasons. each genotype in the pedigree had a specific volatile composition. red raspberry was dominated by norisoprenoids, lactones, and acids. 'logan' and 'olallie' also had a norisoprenoid dominance but at much lower concentrations. the concentration of norisoprenoids in other blackberry genotypes was significantly lower. terpenes and furanones were predominant i ...201020055446
raspberry leaf--should it be recommended to pregnant women?this review evaluates the safety and efficacy of raspberry leaf (rubus idaeus) in pregnancy. the electronic databases pubmed, isi web of science, amed, embase, natural medicines comprehensive database and cochrane library were searched. altogether 12 original publications with focus on safety or efficacy during pregnancy, pharmacology and in vitro tests explaining mode of action or constituents in rubus idaeus were reviewed. limited documentation exists and part of it is 50 years old or older. o ...200919880082
[determination of anti-oxidative activity of different fractions of xinjiang red raspberry fruits extract].to determination total phenolics content of raspberry different polar solvent extracts was measured by folin-ciocalteu method.200919877525
investigation of volatile compounds in two raspberry cultivars by two headspace techniques: solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (spme/gc-ms) and proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (ptr-ms).the volatile compounds emitted by two raspberry varieties ( rubus idaeus , cv. polka and tulameen) were analyzed, in both the case of fresh fruits and juices, by two headspace methods that are rapid, solvent-free, and with reduced or no sample pretreatment: solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (spme/gc-ms) and proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (ptr-ms). multivariate analysis of the spme/gc-ms results allows for an unambiguous sample discrimination for both ma ...200919348421
mapping qtls for developmental traits in raspberry from bud break to ripe fruit.protected cropping systems have been adopted by the uk industry to improve fruit quality and extend the current season. further manipulation of season, alongside consideration of climate change scenarios, requires an understanding of the processes controlling fruit ripening. ripening stages were scored from may to july across different years and environments from a raspberry mapping population. here the interest was in identifying qtls for the overall ripening process as well as for the time to ...200919183857
(s)-2-acetoxy-5-undecanone, female sex pheromone of the raspberry cane midge, resseliella theobaldi (barnes).the raspberry cane midge, resseliella theobaldi, is a widespread pest of cultivated red raspberry in europe. pheromone-baited traps could provide a much-needed, accurate means to monitor the pest. volatiles collected separately from virgin female and male midges were analyzed by gas chromatography (gc) coupled to mass spectrometry (ms) to reveal four female-specific components. in analyses by gc coupled to electroantennographic (eag) recording from the antennae of a male midge, at least three of ...200919169750
influence of the addition of raspberry seed extract on changes in the volatile pattern of stored model breakfast cereal.laboratory-prepared muesli-type breakfast cereal (mixture of oat flakes, wheat flakes, corn flakes, hazelnuts, raisins, sunflower seeds, and flax seeds) was subjected to accelerated storage test at 60 degrees c with or without the addition of red raspberry seed extract. the oxidative changes in muesli resulting in the formation of secondary oxidation products were evaluated using solid phase microextraction (hs-spme) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (safe) to isolate volatiles and gc-ms a ...200818407655
[acceleration of osmotic dehydration process through ohmic heating of foods: raspberries (rubus idaeus)].raspberries (rubus idaeus) were osmotically dehydrated by applying a conventional method under the supposition of a homogeneous solution, all in a 62% glucose solution at 50 degrees c. raspberries (rubus idaeus) were also osmotically dehydrated by using ohmic heating in a 57% glucose solution at a variable voltage (to maintain temperature between 40 and 50 degrees c) and an electric field intensity <100 v/cm. when comparing the results from both experiments it was evident that processing time is ...200717992985
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