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exclusion netting delays and reduces drosophila suzukii (diptera: drosophilidae) infestation in raspberries.drosophila suzukii (matsumura) (diptera: drosophilidae) is a new frugivorous pest of raspberries and other soft fruits in north america, causing infestation of fruit at harvest time. control of this pest has primarily been through the application of broad-spectrum insecticides to prevent oviposition and larval development, and there is an urgent need for alternative approaches. over two growing seasons, we compared d. suzukii control in a research planting with insecticide and exclusion treatmen ...027417641
transfer and mass balance of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols during the processing of red raspberries (rubus idaeus l.) to juice.the putative health benefits of raspberries and raspberry-based products are potentially attributable to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, such as ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols. their content in the products of raspberry processing into juice may be affected by the fruit cultivar, technological process parameters, and the properties of the polyphenolics themselves. the objective of the study was to investigate the composition and quantity of the above polyphenolics ...027292440
field evaluation of an oviposition deterrent for management of spotted-wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii, and potential nontarget effects.spotted-wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii matsumura (diptera: drosophilidae), is a polyphagous, invasive pest of small fruits. current management relies heavily on chemical insecticides, and an effective oviposition deterrent could contribute to alternative management approaches that reduce the need for these chemical insecticides. a novel deployment method for repelling drosophila suzukii, thereby reducing d. suzukii oviposition in fall-bearing red raspberry, was evaluated in the field. infes ...027247303
enzymatic profile of 'willamette' raspberry leaf and fruit affected by prohexadione-ca and young canes removal treatments.the influence of growth regulator prohexadione-ca (proca) concurrently with young canes removal on the modification of photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, pod; catalase, cat; polyphenol oxidase, ppo; superoxide dismutase, sod) activities in leaves and fruits of raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) cultivar 'willamette' was studied. proca increased while canes removal decreased chlorophylls and carotenoids content compared to control. pod, cat, and ppo activities in leaves ...028581737
aphid vectors of european raspberry viruses. 194720341043
[embryology of rubus idaeus and of bastards between rubus caesius and rubus idaeus]. 195313078965
a study of ethylene in apple, red raspberry, and cherry.high ethylene levels were associated with flower abscission in apple (malus sylvestris) and cherry (prunus avium and prunus cerasus), "june drop" of immature cherries, and harvest drop of apple and red raspberry (rubus idaeus). however, an increase in ethylene content was not associated with june drop of apples and harvest drop of cherries. during the period of fruit ripening on the plant, the largest increases in ethylene occurred in apple flesh and red raspberry receptacular tissue. ethylene r ...197216658013
identification of volatile compounds in hybrids between raspberry (rubus idaeus, l.) and arctic bramble (rubus arciticus, l.).the present work is concerned with the aroma of hybrids between raspberry (rubus idaeus, l.) and arctic bramble (rubus arcticus, l.). analyses of the volatiles were performed in three stages. the carbonyl compounds were determined as 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones, the volatile acids and the neutral components separately in a combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometer components separately in a combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer using glass capillary columns. over 70 compounds were ide ...19761007619
patulin production by byssochlamys spp. in fruit juices.ten strains of byssochlamys fulva and three strains of b. nivea were cultured in a laboratory medium and tested for their ability to produce patulin. two strains of b. fulva and all three strains of b. nivea produced the mycotoxin. one strain of b. fulva produced patulin in 11 of 13 processed fruit juices, with greatest amounts being produced in blueberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry juices, whereas no patulin was detected in prune or tomato juices. grown in concord grape juice at 18, 25, 30, ...1977596876
[proteo-polysaccharidic turbidity in depectinized raspberry juice].a revertible turbidity happens in the depectinized red raspberry juice under refrigeration. its analysis is carried out: --chemically: total sugar determination by anthrone methol, galacturonic acid determination by carbazol, total nitrogen determination according to berthelot's coloured reaction (automated analysis) -- physically: calcium, potassium and magnesium determinations by atomic absorption. -- chromatographically: sugar separation and determination by hplc. m. w. determination of the d ...1978754586
soil acidification and vegetation changes in deciduous forest in southern sweden.thirtyfour deciduous forest sites in southern sweden, originally studied in 1949-1970, were resampled in 1984/85. the average ph change in the humus layer was-0.78 and-0.23 in soils originally studied 30-35 and 15-20 years ago, respectively. cover changes in the field layer were measured and related to ph changes. the number of species had increased in spite of ph decreases, reaching a maximum at ph 4.0-5.0, while the total cover of the field layer was unchanged.two groups of species showed no c ...198628311918
daylength and thermal time responses of budburst during dormancy release in some northern deciduous trees.dormancy release and thermal time to budburst as affected by duration of chilling outdoors, followed by different flushing temperatures and daylengths in a phytotron, were studied in cuttings of several northern tree species. in betula pubescens, b. pendula and prunus padus vegetative buds were released from dormancy already in december, in populus tremula in january, whereas in alnus incana and a. glutinosa dormancy was not released until february. thermal time (day degrees >0°c) to budburst de ...199328741760
efficient genetic transformation of red raspberry, rubus ideaus l.we have developed an efficient transformation system for red raspberry (rubus ideaus l.) using agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. using this system we have successfully introduced a gene that encodes an enzyme, s-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (samase), in raspberry cultivars meeker (mk), chilliwack (ch) and canby (cy). leaf and petiole expiants were inoculated with disarmed agrobacterium tumefaciens strain eha 105 carrying either of two binary vectors, pag1452 or pag1552, encoding gene sequenc ...199524185514
carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.the carrier, an athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral british columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. this report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the carrier people. important medicinal plants include: abies lasiocarpa, alnus incana, arctostaphylos uva-ursi, artemisia frigida, fragaria virginiana, juniperus communis, picea glauca, pinus contorta, populus tremuloides, rubus ...19968735452
aromatic polyketide synthases (purification, characterization, and antibody development to benzalacetone synthase from raspberry fruits).p-hydroxyphenylbutan-2-one, the characteristic aroma compound of raspberries (rubus idaeus l.), is synthesized from p-coumaryl-coenzyme a and malonyl-coenzyme a in a two-step reaction sequence that is catalyzed by benzalacetone synthase and benzalacetone reductase (w. borejsza-wysocki and g. hrazdina [1994] phytochemistry 35: 623-628). benzalacetone synthase condenses one malonate with p-coumarate to form the pathway intermediate p-hydroxyphenylbut-3-ene-2-one (p-hydroxybenzalacetone) in a react ...199612226219
the isolation of rna from raspberry (rubus idaeus) fruit.previous attempts to extract high-quality, total rna from raspberry (rubus idaeus) fruits using published protocols have proven to be unsuccessful. even the use of protocols developed for the extraction of rna from other fruit tissue has resulted in low yields (1) or the isolation of degraded rna (2). here, we report on the development of a quick and simple method of extracting total rna from raspberry fruit. using this method, high yields of good quality, undegraded rna were obtained from fruit ...19979438256
antioxidant capacity, vitamin c, phenolics, and anthocyanins after fresh storage of small fruits.fresh strawberries (fragaria x ananassa duch.), raspberries (rubus idaeus michx.), highbush blueberries (vaccinium corymbosum l.), and lowbush blueberries (vaccinium angustifolium aiton) were stored at 0, 10, 20, and 30 degrees c for up to 8 days to determine the effects of storage temperature on whole fruit antioxidant capacity (as measured by the oxygen radical absorbing capacity assay, cao et al., clin. chem. 1995, 41, 1738-1744) and total phenolic, anthocyanin, and ascorbate content. the fou ...199910552863
scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen.the antioxidant activities against superoxide radicals (o(2)(*)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)), hydroxyl radicals (oh(*)), and singlet oxygen ('o(2)) was evaluated in fruit juice from different cultivars of thornless blackberries (rubus sp.), blueberries (vaccinium spp.), cranberries (vaccinium macrocarpon aiton), raspberries (rubus idaeus l. and rubus occidentalis l.), and strawberries (fragaria x ananassa duch.). among the different cultivars, juice of 'hull thornless' blackberry, 'earliglo ...200011087538
antimicrobial effects of finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds.plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. the tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (aspergillus niger, bacillus subtilis, candida albicans, escherichia coli, micrococcus luteus, pseu ...200010857921
molecular evidence for multiple infections of a new subgroup of wolbachia in the european raspberry beetle byturus tomentosus.wolbachia, a group of maternally inherited intracellular parasitic bacteria, alter host reproduction, including the induction of thelytokous parthenogenesis, feminization of genetic males, son killing and, most commonly, the induction of cytoplasmic incompatibility (ci), in a diverse array of arthropods. ci can result in infertility and has attracted attention because of its potential in biological control and as an agent in speciation. although there has been some analysis of overall infection ...200010652077
a comparison of the composition of epicuticular wax from red raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) and hawthorn (crataegus monogyna jacq.) flowers.epicuticular waxes have been characterised from the flowers of raspberry and hawthorn, on both of which adult raspberry beetles (byturus tomentosus) can feed. the flower wax from both species had similar alkane profiles and also contained long-chain alcohols, aldehydes and fatty acids. the range of the carbon numbers detected for these classes of compounds was broadly similar in both but the relative amounts of each differed between species. raspberry flower wax also contained fatty acid methyl ...200011065285
profiling of changes in gene expression during raspberry (rubus idaeus) fruit ripening by application of rna fingerprinting techniques.processes that contribute to the overall phenomenon of fruit ripening are not well understood for many soft fruit species, including raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) recent biochemical data implicate ethylene and a range of cell wall hydrolases in ripening processes. however, the genes encoding these activities, and others related to ripening, remain to be characterised. with the advent of high-throughput rna-fingerprinting techniques it is possible to characterise rapidly the changes in gene express ...200011089684
influence of domestic processing and storage on flavonol contents in berries.effects of domestic processing and storage on the flavonols quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol in five berries were studied using an optimized rp-hplc method with uv and diode array detection after an acid hydrolysis of the corresponding glycosides. in fresh berries, the total content of flavonols was highest in lingonberry (169 mg/kg) and black currant (157 mg/kg), intermediate in bilberry (41 mg/kg) and strawberry (17 mg/kg), and lowest in red raspberry (9.5 mg/kg). cooking strawberries with ...200011032486
antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage.fruits and leaves from different cultivars of thornless blackberry (rubus sp.), red raspberry (rubus idaeus l.), black raspberry (rubus occidentalis l.), and strawberry (fragaria x ananassa d.) plants were analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, orac) and total phenolic content. in addition, fruits were analyzed for total anthocyanin content. blackberries and strawberries had the highest orac values during the green stages, whereas red raspberries had the hig ...200010691606
berry phenolics and their antioxidant activity.phenolic profiles of a total of 26 berry samples, together with 2 apple samples, were analyzed without hydrolysis of glycosides with hplc. the phenolic contents among different berry genera varied considerably. anthocyanins were the main phenolic constituents in bilberry, bog-whortleberry, and cranberry, but in cowberries, belonging also to the family ericaceae genus vaccinium, flavanols and procyanidins predominated. in the family rosaceae genus rubus (cloudberry and red raspberry), the main ph ...200111513713
effect of processing and storage on the antioxidant ellagic acid derivatives and flavonoids of red raspberry (rubus idaeus) jams.from red raspberries, ellagic acid, its 4-arabinoside, its 4' (4' '-acetyl) arabinoside, and its 4' (4' '-acetyl)xyloside, as well as quercetin and kaempferol 3-glucosides, were identified. in addition, two unidentified ellagic acid derivatives were detected. the free radical scavenging activity of the ellagic acid derivatives was evaluated by using the dpph method and compared to that of trolox. all of the isolated compounds showed antioxidant activity. the effect of processing to obtain jams o ...200111513642
host plant-mediated interactions between tetranychus urticae and eotetranychus carpini borealis (acari: tetranychidae).competitive interactions between tetranychus urticae and eotetranychus carpini borealis were investigated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. when placed first to colonize red raspberry leaves, t. urticae caused extinction of e. carpini borealis populations. e. carpini borealis had detrimental effects on t. urticae but did not cause t. urticae population extinction. the area used by e. carpini borealis for egg deposition decreased with an increase in the number of t. urticae eggs. red ra ...200111508526
phylogeny of raspberry beetles and other byturidae (coleoptera).nuclear ribosomal its2 and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase dna sequences were analysed from the byturidae (coleoptera), which includes the raspberry beetles. the secondary structure of its2 was plotted and interspecific changes analysed. evidence for selection on simple sequence repeats within the its2 was found. phylogenetic trees based on the mitochondrial and ribosomal sequences were compared. they were in parity, indicating they reflect the true evolutionary histories of these insects. ther ...200111437920
molecular and biochemical characterization of three aromatic polyketide synthase genes from rubus idaeus.three polyketide synthase genes (pks1, pks2, pks3) from cell suspension cultures of raspberry (rubus idaeus l. cv. royalty) were characterized. they showed high similarity in both their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences. all three proteins contain the amino acid residues identified in previous work as essential for chalcone synthase (chs) function. enzyme activities were investigated after heterologous expression in escherichia coli. ripks1 is a typical naringenin chs that synthesizes ...200111437245
cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries.anthocyanins from tart cherries, prunus cerasus l. (rosaceae) cv. balaton and montmorency; sweet cherries, prunus avium l. (rosaceae); bilberries, vaccinum myrtillus l. (ericaceae); blackberries, rubus sp. (rosaceae); blueberries var. jersey, vaccinium corymbosum l. (ericaceae); cranberries var. early black, vaccinium macrocarpon ait. (ericaceae); elderberries, sambucus canadensis (caprifoliaceae); raspberries, rubus idaeus (rosaceae); and strawberries var. honeoye, fragaria x ananassa duch. (ro ...200111695879
the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family in raspberry. structure, expression, and evolution.in raspberry (rubus idaeus), development of fruit color and flavor are critically dependent on products of the phenylpropanoid pathway. to determine how these metabolic functions are integrated with the fruit ripening program, we are examining the properties and expression of key genes in the pathway. here, we report that l- phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal) is encoded in raspberry by a family of two genes (ripal1 and ripal2). ripal1 shares 88% amino acid sequence similarity to ripal2, but phylo ...200111553751
relaxant activity of raspberry (rubus idaeus) leaf extract in guinea-pig ileum in vitro.tea made from the leaves of rubus idaeus l. (raspberry) has been used for centuries as a folk medicine to treat wounds, diarrhoea, colic pain and as a uterine relaxant. extracts of dried raspberry leaves prepared with different solvents, (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol) were tested in vitro for relaxant activity on transmurally stimulated guinea-pig ileum. the methanol (meoh) extract exhibited the largest response and also indicated that the active compounds are of a relatively ...200212410549
ellagitannins, flavonoids, and other phenolics in red raspberries and their contribution to antioxidant capacity and vasorelaxation properties.analysis of extracts of glen ample raspberries (rubus idaeus l.) by gradient, reverse phase hplc with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry identified eleven anthocyanins, including cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-(2(g)-glucosylrutinoside), cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-sophoroside, pelargonidin-3-(2(g)-glucosylrutinoside), and pelargonidin-3-glucoside. significant quantities of an ellagitannin, sanguiin h-6, with an m(r) of 1870 were detected along with lower ...200212188628
quality characteristics of red raspberry fruit spread made with four sweeteners.red raspberry fruit spreads sweetened with sugar (s) or raspberry, red grape, or apple juice concentrates were processed by inversion and analyzed for chemical, physical, and sensory properties at 1, 12, and 24 weeks. all ph values were between 3.0 and 3.5 while all aw were above 0.81. samples were dark red but became duller over time. viscosities and total solids were lower (p < 0.05) in juice sweetened products than in s. sensory evaluations improved over time for all samples, but were always ...200212602940
antioxidant activity and phenolic content of oregon caneberries.five types of caneberries [evergreen blackberries (rubus laciniatus), marionberries (rubus ursinus), boysenberries (rubus ursinus x idaeus), red raspberries (rubus idaeus), and black raspberries (rubus occidentalis)] were analyzed for antioxidant activity by measuring their oxygen radical absorbance capacity (orac). in addition, the berries were analyzed for total phenolics, anthocyanins, procyanidins, and ellagic acid content. all of the berries had high orac activity ranging from 24 to 77.2 mi ...200212033817
a neutrophil multitarget functional bioassay to detect anti-inflammatory natural products.a multitarget functional bioassay was optimized as a method for detecting substances interacting with the inflammatory process of activated neutrophil granulocytes, mainly to release elastase detected by p-nitroanilide (pna) formation. using this bioassay, 100 fractionated extracts of 96 plants were screened, with results presented in a manner that links recorded biological activity to phylogenetic information. the plants were selected to represent a major part of the angiosperms, with emphasis ...200211809061
predatory role of neoseiulus fallacis (acari: phytoseiidae): spatial and temporal dynamics in washington red raspberry fields.the seasonal abundance of spider mites and their predator neoseiulus fallacis (garman) (acari: phytoseiidae) was determined during three consecutive years in washington state red raspberry fields. tetranychus urticae koch (acari: tetranychidae), eotetranychus carpini borealis (ewing) (acari: tetranychidae), and n. fallacis were commonly found in skagit and whatcom counties. e. carpini borealis colonized the fruiting canes earlier in the season than t. urticae. the two phytophages overlapped in m ...200212539824
rapid characterization of anthocyanins in red raspberry fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to single quadrupole mass spectrometry.anthocyanins from red raspberries were extracted from the fruit by homogenizing in acidified methanol. the methanolic extract was centrifuged and the supernatant analyzed by reversed-phase hplc. the eluent was monitored at 371 and 520 nm before being introduced into a single quadrupole mass spectrometer through an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization probe operating in positive ion mode. this method allowed the identification of eight anthocyanins. in the absence of readily available referen ...200212214705
analysis of ellagitannins and conjugates of ellagic acid and quercetin in raspberry fruits by lc-msn.the use of gradient reversed phase hplc with diode array and ms(n) detection for the analysis of ellagitannins, ellagic acid conjugates and quercetin conjugates in raspberries (rubus idaeus l.) is described. ms(n) is a particularly powerful tool for the analysis of trace levels of natural products in impure extracts as interpretation of fragmentation patterns, coupled in some instances with knowledge of hplc retention properties, can facilitate the partial identification of components when refer ...200312943785
a family of polyketide synthase genes expressed in ripening rubus fruits.quality traits of raspberry fruits such as aroma and color derive in part from the polyketide derivatives, benzalacetone and dihydrochalcone, respectively. the formation of these metabolites during fruit ripening is the result of the activity of polyketide synthases (pks), benzalcetone synthase and chalcone synthase (chs), during fruit development. to gain an understanding of the regulation of these multiple pkss during fruit ripening, we have characterized the repertoire of rubus pks genes and ...200312620364
4-coumarate:coa ligase gene family in rubus idaeus: cdna structures, evolution, and expression.the enzyme 4-coumarate:coa ligase (4cl) activates cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives by forming the corresponding coa thioesters. these serve as substrates for biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived end-products that are important determinants of fruit quality in raspberry (rubus idaeus l.). in higher plants, 4cl is typically encoded by a gene family. to investigate the participation of distinct 4cl genes in the process of fruit ripening, we have characterized this gene family in ra ...200312602864
chemical composition of caneberry (rubus spp.) seeds and oils and their antioxidant potential.caneberries (rubus spp. l.) are grown primarily throughout the pacific northwestern united states and canada. processing of caneberry fruit typically removes the seed, and the development of a value-added use of seeds could expand the market for caneberries and the profit margins for growers. an initial step toward the use of the seeds is a characterization of seed and oil. our investigation has described compositional characteristics for seeds of five commonly grown caneberry species: red raspb ...200415612785
identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berries of fragaria and rubus species (family rosaceae).high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection was used to study soluble and insoluble forms of phenolic compounds in strawberries, raspberries (red and yellow cultivated and red wild), arctic bramble, and cloudberries. hydroxycinnamic acids were present as free forms in cloudberries and mainly as sugar esters in the other berries. quercetin 3-glucuronide was the typical flavonol glycoside in all of the berries studied. t ...200415453684
aroma extract dilution analysis of cv. meeker (rubus idaeus l.) red raspberries from oregon and washington.the aromas of cultivar meeker red raspberry from oregon and washington were analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. seventy-five aromas were identified [some tentatively (superscript t)] by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-retention index; 53 were common to both, and 22 have not been previously reported in red raspberry. twenty-one compounds had an equivalent odor impact in both: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2h)-furanone, hexanal, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one, (e ...200415291490
the construction of a genetic linkage map of red raspberry (rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus) based on aflps, genomic-ssr and est-ssr markers.breeding in raspberry is time-consuming due to the highly heterozygous nature of this perennial fruit crop, coupled with relatively long periods of juvenility. the speed and precision of raspberry breeding can be improved by genetic linkage maps, thus facilitating the development of diagnostic markers for polygenic traits and the identification of genes controlling complex phenotypes. a genetic linkage map (789 cm) of the red raspberry rubus idaeus has been constructed from a cross between two p ...200415127204
strawberry necrotic shock virus is a distinct virus and not a strain of tobacco streak virus.fragaria (strawberry) and rubus species (blackberry, wild blackberry, red raspberry and black raspberry) were thought to be infected with distinct isolates of tobacco streak virus (tsv). employing serology and nucleic acid hybridization it has been shown that these isolates form a cluster distinct from other strains of tsv. in this study we have cloned and sequenced the complete rna 3 of an isolate of tsv from strawberry (fragaria) as well as the coat protein (cp) gene of 14 additional isolates ...200415669110
avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors.the bark beetle, pityogenes bidentatus (coleoptera: scolytidae), searches in mixed conifer and deciduous forests of northern europe for suitable branches of its host, scots pine ( pinus sylvestris). we tested whether odors from several diverse nonhost trees and plants common in the habitat (e.g., mountain ash, sorbus aucuparia; oak, quercus robur; alder buckthorn, frangula alnus; blueberry, vaccinium myrtillus; raspberry, rubus idaeus; and grass, deschampsia flexuosa) would reduce the attraction ...200415146267
the defh9-iaam auxin-synthesizing gene increases plant fecundity and fruit production in strawberry and raspberry.the defh9-iaam gene fusion which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis confers parthenocarpic fruit development to eggplant, tomato and tobacco. transgenic defh9-iaam eggplants and tomatoes show increased fruit production due mainly to an improved fruit set. however, the weight of the fruits is also frequently increased.200415113427
inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation in liposomes by berry phenolics.the antioxidant activity of berry phenolics (at concentrations of 1.4, 4.2, and 8.4 mug of purified extracts/ml of liposome sample) such as anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins from raspberry (rubus idaeus), bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (vaccinium vitis-idaea), and black currant (ribes nigrum) was investigated in a lactalbumin-liposome system. the extent of protein oxidation was measured by determining the loss of tryptophan fluorescence and formation of protein carb ...200415563229
isolation of high molecular weight dna suitable for bac library construction from woody perennial soft-fruit species.we have developed a novel nuclei extraction method that allows for the extraction of high molecular weight dna from leaves of woody perennial soft-fruit species that contain high levels of carbohydrates and polyphenolics. the method utilizes a modified buffer system including 4% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp)-10 and a combination of nylon filters and percoll gradients to purify nuclei extracts prior to embedding in agarose plugs. the effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on leaves of re ...200515679088
characterization of a cdna encoding metallothionein 3 from cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.).a cdna encoding metallothionein (mt) was isolated from a library constructed with poly a(+) rna purified from 48 h etiolated cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) cotyledons. this cdna encodes a deduced protein with 63 residues and a molecular weight of 6.3 kda. the protein has 10 cysteines of which 4 are within the cxxcxcxxxxxc amino-terminus motif and six are within the cxcxxxcxcxxcxc carboxyl-terminus motif characteristic of the type iii mt (mt3). the cotton mt3 protein sequence is 76.2, 69.8, 66.7, ...200516147860
anti-obese action of raspberry ketone.raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one; rk) is a major aromatic compound of red raspberry (rubus idaeus). the structure of rk is similar to the structures of capsaicin and synephrine, compounds known to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism. the present study was performed to clarify whether rk helps prevent obesity and activate lipid metabolism in rodents. to test the effect on obesity, our group designed the following in vivo experiments: 1) mice were fed a high-fa ...200515862604
identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry.in this paper we review the current literature on antioxidants from fruit of red raspberry (rubus idaeus) and place these in context concerning what is known from other food species. the review concentrates on the methods of antioxidant testing, the diversity of antioxidants in raspberry, effects of ripeness, cultivar, storage and processing techniques, and the bioavailability of raspberry antioxidants in humans after eating the fruit. it is clear that raspberry, like several other fruits and ve ...200516498206
antioxidants in raspberry: on-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites.the presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. in this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. both developmental and genetic factors were assessed by comparing fruits from a single cultivar of different ripening stages and by comparing ripe fruits of 14 raspberry cultivars, respectively. the hplc- ...200515853365
cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot tips of raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) by encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration.the first efficient cryopreservation procedure for in vitro-grown shoot tips of raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) has been developed based on encapsulation-vitrification (envi) and encapsulation-dehydration (ende). envi resulted in higher survival (85%) and regrowth (75%) of cryopreserved shoot tips than ende (65 and 50%, respectively). in both cryogenic procedures, shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips without intermediary callus formation. histological studies showed that a much larger nu ...200515834570
fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of cold-pressed marionberry, boysenberry, red raspberry, and blueberry seed oils.cold-pressed marionberry, boysenberry, red raspberry, and blueberry seed oils were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, carotenoid content, tocopherol profile, total phenolic content (tpc), oxidative stability index (osi), peroxide value, and antioxidant properties. all tested seed oils contained significant levels of alpha-linolenic acid ranging from 19.6 to 32.4 g per 100 g of oil, along with a low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids (1.64-3.99). the total carotenoid content ranged from 12.5 t ...200515686403
interrelationship between the raspberry cane midge, resseliella theobaldi (diptera: cecidomyiidae) and its parasitoid, aprostocetus epicharmus (hymenoptera: eulophidae).the raspberry cane midge resseliella theobaldi (barnes) is one of the most important pests of cultivated red raspberry rubus idaeus l. throughout europe. for the last 50 years several studies have been made on the biology, life cycle and control of the pest. some data can also be found on its natural enemies, but among these species only the chalcidoid tetrastichus inunctus nees turned out to be important in controlling raspberry cane midge populations. however, this species name is now ambiguou ...200616923204
blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro.berry fruits are widely consumed in our diet and have attracted much attention due to their potential human health benefits. berries contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-neurodegerative, and anti-inflammatory activities. in the current study, extracts of six popularly consumed berries--blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry and strawberry--were evaluated for their phenolic constituents using high perf ...200617147415
in-vitro mutagenic potential and effect on permeability of co-administered drugs across caco-2 cell monolayers of rubus idaeus and its fortified fractions.this study investigated the mutagenic, anti-mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of acetone extract of raspberry, rubus idaeus l. (v. ottawa) rosaceae, and the isolated and characterized ellagitannin and anthocyanin fractions thereof, suitable for food applications. the studied raspberry extract and fractions did not show any mutagenic effects determined in the miniaturized ames test and were not cytotoxic to caco-2 cells at the used concentrations. however, the anti-mutagenic properties were changed ...200617132218
transgenic peas (pisum sativum) expressing polygalacturonase inhibiting protein from raspberry (rubus idaeus) and stilbene synthase from grape (vitis vinifera).the pea (pisum sativum l.) varieties baroness (united kingdome) and baccara (france) were transformed via agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer with pgptv binary vectors containing the bar gene in combination with two different antifungal genes coding for polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip) from raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) driven by a double 35s promoter, or the stilbene synthase (vst1) from grape (vitis vinifera l.) driven by its own elicitor-inducible promoter. transgenic li ...200616802117
chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours.seed flours from black raspberry, red raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, pinot noir grape, and chardonnay grape were examined for their total fat content, fatty acid composition, total phenolic content (tpc), total anthocyanin content (tac), radical scavenging capacities against the peroxyl (orac) and stable dpph radicals, chelating capacity against fe(2+), and antiproliferative activities using the ht-29 colon cancer cell line. significant levels of fat were detected in the fruit seed flours and ...200616719495
[antibacterial activity of polyphenolic compounds isolated from plants of geraniaceae and rosaceae families].polyphenolic compounds present in extracts of plants belonging to the families geraniaceae (blood-red cranesbill, wood cranesbill, meadow cranesbill, and alfilaria) and rosaceae (red raspberry, european dewberry, and tormentil) have been tested for their activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria of the genera azotobacter, bacillus, and pseudomonas. the bacteriostatic activity exhibited some species-related features and depended on the polarity of the extracting agent. the bacteri ...200718173115
acarological diagnostic research at the diagnostic centre for plants during the period 2004-2006.during the period 2004-2006, 1691 samples of different origin were examined at the diagnostic centre for plants. we received 1046 samples of imported plant material for detection and identification of quarantine organisms. more than 200 samples were checked on mites and insects to get a phytosanitary certificate for export and 391 samples were investigated for diagnostic reason. the berlese-funnel and dissecting microscopy technique were used to separate mites from the samples. for identificatio ...200718399474
gene flow analysis demonstrates that phytophthora fragariae var. rubi constitutes a distinct species, phytophthora rubi comb. nov.isozyme analysis and cytochrome oxidase sequences were used to examine whether differentiation of p. fragariae var. fragariae and p. fragariae var. rubi at the variety level is justified. in isozyme studies six strains of both p. fragariae varieties were analyzed with malate dehydrogenase (mdh), glucose phosphate isomerase (gpi), aconitase (aco), isocitrate dehydrogenase (idh) and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (pgd), comprising altogether seven putative loci. five unique alleles (mdh-1(a), mdh- ...200717682774
identification and characterization of raspberry mottle virus, a novel member of the closteroviridae.raspberry mosaic is one of the most important viral diseases of raspberry. four virus and virus-like agents, two of which are poorly characterized, have been implicated in the disease complex based on symptom development in rubus indicators. three novel viruses were identified in a red raspberry plant that caused typical raspberry mosaic symptoms when grafted onto indicators. this communication focuses on one of these viruses, raspberry mottle virus (rmov), a new member of the family closterovir ...200717448559
wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the polish countryside: a review.this paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of poland.200717433114
temporal sequence of cell wall disassembly events in developing fruits. 1. analysis of raspberry (rubus idaeus).raspberry fruits were harvested at five developmental stages, from green to red ripe, and the changes in cell wall composition, pectin and hemicellulose solubilization, and depolymerization were analyzed. fruit softening at intermediate stages of ripening was associated with increased pectin solubilization, which occurred without depolymerization. arabinose was found to be the most abundant noncellulosic neutral sugar in the cell wall and showed dramatic solubilization late in ripening. no chang ...200717428067
mapping of a1 conferring resistance to the aphid amphorophora idaei and dw (dwarfing habit) in red raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) using aflp and microsatellite markers.raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. the large raspberry aphid, amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. the development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources ...200717374159
optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins in red raspberries and identification of anthocyanins in extract using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.anthocyanins (acys) are naturally occurring compounds that impart color to fruit, vegetables and plants. the extraction of acys from red raspberry (rubus idaeus l. var. heritage) by ultrasound-assisted process (uap) was studied. a central composite rotate design (ccrd) was used to obtain the optimal conditions of ultrasound-assisted extraction (uae), and the effects of operating conditions, such as the ratio of solvents to materials, ultrasonic power and extraction time, on the extraction yield ...200717321780
[acceleration of osmotic dehydration process through ohmic heating of foods: raspberries (rubus idaeus)].raspberries (rubus idaeus) were osmotically dehydrated by applying a conventional method under the supposition of a homogeneous solution, all in a 62% glucose solution at 50 degrees c. raspberries (rubus idaeus) were also osmotically dehydrated by using ohmic heating in a 57% glucose solution at a variable voltage (to maintain temperature between 40 and 50 degrees c) and an electric field intensity <100 v/cm. when comparing the results from both experiments it was evident that processing time is ...200717992985
biosynthesis of monoterpenes and norisoprenoids in raspberry fruits (rubus idaeus l.): the role of cytosolic mevalonate and plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathway.the biosynthesis of the monoterpenes (-)-alpha-pinene, linalool, and the norisoprenoids alpha- and beta-ionone in raspberry fruits (rubus idaeus l.) was investigated by in vivo feeding experiments with [5,5-(2)h2]-mevalonic acid lactone and [5,5-(2)h2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose. the volatile compounds were extracted by stirbar sorptive extraction and analyzed using thermal desorption-multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (td-enantio-mdgc-ms). the feeding experiments demonstrate that (-) ...200717907775
inheritance of phytophthora root rot resistance in red raspberry determined by generation means and molecular linkage analysis.classical and molecular methodologies were used to determine the inheritance of phytophthora root rot (prr) resistance in red raspberry. the varieties 'latham' and 'titan,' resistant and susceptible, respectively, were used to create f(1), f(2), b(1), b(2), and s(1) populations for analysis. generational means analysis was used to calculate the components of genetic variation and estimates of narrow and broad sense heritability for the plant disease index and the incidence of petiole lesions. th ...200717592602
co-ordinated gene expression during phases of dormancy release in raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) buds.bud break in raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) is often poor and uneven, with many of the subapical buds remaining in a dormant state. in order to determine the dormancy status of raspberry buds, an empirical measure of bud burst in a growth-permissive environment following exposure to chilling (4 degrees c cold storage) was developed. for cv. glen ample, percentage bud burst in intact canes and isolated nodes was recorded after 14 d. isolated nodes (a measure of endodormancy) achieved 100% bud burst ...200717244630
radical scavenging activity and composition of raspberry (rubus idaeus) leaves from different locations in lithuania.raspberry (rubus idaeus) leaves, collected in different locations of lithuania were extracted with ethanol and the extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity (aa) by using abts(.)(+) decolourisation and dpph(.) scavenging methods. all extracts were active, with radical scavenging capacity at the used concentrations from 20.5 to 82.5% in dpph(.) reaction system and from 8.0 to 42.7% in abts(.)(+) reaction. the total amount of phenolic compounds in the leaves varied from 4.8 to 12.0 mg of ...200717215088
influence of the addition of raspberry seed extract on changes in the volatile pattern of stored model breakfast cereal.laboratory-prepared muesli-type breakfast cereal (mixture of oat flakes, wheat flakes, corn flakes, hazelnuts, raisins, sunflower seeds, and flax seeds) was subjected to accelerated storage test at 60 degrees c with or without the addition of red raspberry seed extract. the oxidative changes in muesli resulting in the formation of secondary oxidation products were evaluated using solid phase microextraction (hs-spme) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (safe) to isolate volatiles and gc-ms a ...200818407655
berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.an overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in north america, include blackberry ( rubus spp.), black raspberry ( rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the american cranberry, vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the european cranbe ...200818211023
molecular and biochemical characterization of benzalacetone synthase and chalcone synthase genes and their proteins from raspberry (rubus idaeus l.).two new members of the polyketide synthase (pks) gene family (ripks4 and ripks5) were cloned from raspberry fruits (rubus idaeus l., cv royalty) and expressed in escherichia coli. characterization of the recombinant enzyme products indicated that ripks4 is a bifunctional polyketide synthase producing both 4-hydroxybenzalacetone and naringenin chalcone. the recombinant ripks4 protein, like the native protein from raspberry fruits [w. borejsza-wysocki, g. hrazdina, plant physiol. 1996;110: 791-799 ...200818068110
a dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependent breast tumors (mcf-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice.avlimil, a dietary supplement advertised to ameliorate female sexual dysfunction, is a mixture of eleven herbal components, and some herbal constituents of avlimil (including black cohosh, licorice, red raspberry, red clover and kudzu) contain phenolic compounds, which are suggested to have estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, or androgenic potential for relieving menopausal symptoms. we hypothesize that avlimil could modulate the growth of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer (mcf-7) cells in ...200817919800
effect of topical application of raspberry ketone on dermal production of insulin-like growth factor-i in mice and on hair growth and skin elasticity in humans.sensory neurons release calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp) on activation. we recently reported that topical application of capsaicin increases facial skin elasticity and promotes hair growth by increasing dermal insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i) production through activation of sensory neurons in mice and humans. raspberry ketone (rk), a major aromatic compound contained in red raspberries (rubus idaeus), has a structure similar to that of capsaicin. thus, it is possible that rk activates ...200818321745
comparison of sugar, acids, and volatile composition in raspberry bushy dwarf virus-resistant transgenic raspberries and the wild type 'meeker' (rubus idaeus l.).raspberry bushy dwarf virus (rbdv) causes a significant reduction in yield and quality in raspberry and raspberry-blackberry hybrid. genetic modifications were made to 'meeker' red raspberries to impart rbdv resistance. the rbdv-resistant transgenic and wild type 'meeker' plants were grown in oregon and washington, and the fruits were harvested in the 2004 and 2005 growing seasons. year-to-year and site-to-site variations were observed for the degrees brix and titratable acidity, with oregon ras ...200818598047
plant phenolics affect oxidation of tryptophan.the effect of berry phenolics such as anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins from raspberry (rubus idaeus), black currant (ribes nigrum), and cranberry (vaccinium oxycoccus) and byproducts of deoiling processes rich in phenolics such as rapeseed (brassica rapa l.), camelina (camelina sativa), and soy (glycine max l.) as well as scots pine bark (pinus sylvestris) was investigated in an h2o2-oxidized tryptophan (trp) solution. the oxidation of trp was analyzed with high-performance liq ...200818646765
combined thermotherapy and cryotherapy for efficient virus eradication: relation of virus distribution, subcellular changes, cell survival and viral rna degradation in shoot tips.accumulation of viruses in vegetatively propagated plants causes heavy yield losses. therefore, supply of virus-free planting materials is pivotal to sustainable crop production. in previous studies, raspberry bushy dwarf virus (rbdv) was difficult to eradicate from raspberry (rubus idaeus) using the conventional means of meristem tip culture. as shown in the present study, it was probably because this pollen-transmitted virus efficiently invades leaf primordia and all meristematic tissues excep ...200818705855
prevention of oxidative dna damage by bioactive berry components.the hormone 17ss-estradiol (e(2)) causes oxidative dna damage via redox cycling of its metabolites such as 4-hydroxy estradiol (4e(2)). in this study, aci rats (8 wk old) were fed either ain-93m diet or diets supplemented with 0.5% each of mixed berries (strawberry, blueberry, blackberry, and red and black raspberry), blueberry alone (bb; 2.5%), or ellagic acid (ea; 400 ppm) from 2 wk prior to and up to 12 wk of e(2) treatment. the liver dna was analyzed for the presence of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguan ...200819003579
dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent oxidative dna damage and modulate expression of dna repair genes.dna damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. in this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative dna damage. ellagic acid was selected based on >95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodg) and other unidentified oxidative dna adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17ss-estradiol and cucl(2) in vitro. inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concent ...200819325752
medicinal plants used in british columbia, canada for reproductive health in pets.in 2003, semi-structured interviews were conducted in british columbia, canada with participants obtained using a purposive sample on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for animals. twenty-nine participants provided the information in this paper on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for reproductive health in dogs and cats. the plants used for pregnancy support and milk production in pets were raspberry-leaf (rubus idaeus), motherwort (leonurus cardiaca), flaxseed (linum usitatissimum) and ginger ...200919482367
antioxidant properties of raspberry seed extracts on micronucleus distribution in peripheral blood lymphocytes.this study addresses in vitro effects of raspberry (rubus idaeus) seed extracts (rse) on the frequency of micronuclei. we evaluated the effects of three different extracts (50%, 80%, and 100% methanol) in doses of 1.4, 4.2, and 8.4 microg/ml, per 5 ml culture using cytochalasin-b micronucleus (cbmn) assay in peripheral human lymphocytes. the frequency of mn was scored in binucleated (bn) cells. the nuclear proliferation index was also calculated. the distribution of polyphenolic compounds in rse ...200919748543
improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (rubus idaeus l.).raspberry bushy dwarf virus (rbdv) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. however, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. in addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. the present study focused towards imp ...200919750241
[technology of production and biological activity of toothpaste from rubus idaeus].composition and the technology of manufacturing of toothpaste from extract of blackberry with anti-inflammatory activity have been developed. toothpaste contains the following ingredients (g): blackberry extract - 3.0 5.0 7.0 aluminum hydroxide - 30,0 glycerin - 10,0 sodim carboxymethylcellulose - 1,5 sodium laurilsulfate - 2,0 calcium glycerophosphate - 1,5 sodium monofluorophosphate - 1.0 titanium dioxide - 1,0 perfume - 1,0 sorbit - 1,0 purified water to 100 ml. toothpaste containing 3%, 5% a ...200919801745
[abundance of larvae and nymphs of the taiga tick ixodes persuicatus (acari: ixodidae) on small mammals in the cut-over lands of the middle taiga subzone of karelia].data of long-term investigations (1998-2004) on the abundance of the taiga tick larvae and nymphs in the cut-over lands of different age in the middle taiga subzone of karelia (62 degrees 04's; 33 degrees 55'w) are presented. the investigation was carried out on three model cut-over lands of different age: 1) "young" cut-over land; age of cut-over in the beginning of investigation is 7 years; betula-deschampsia cespitosa-agrostis tenuis; 2) "middle" cut-over land; age of cut-over is 12 years; sa ...200919807045
[evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from siberian plants].experimental investigations have shown that water-alcohol extracts from plants containing alkaloids (aconitum baikalense, aconitum septentrionale, delphinium elatum l., conium maculatum) and salicylic acid (filipendula ulmaria, salix viminalis, fragaria vesca, rubus idaeus) inhibited the development of main symptoms of inflammation, viz. exudation, pain, fever, to the same extent as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. the substances studied in this work may be used to develop new efficient p ...200920017405
characterization of red raspberry (rubus idaeus l.) genotypes for their physicochemical properties.the worldwide tendency for growing more small fruits, including raspberries, shows permanent increase because this group of fruits has a relatively higher content of bioactive nutrients. to study the health benefits of red raspberry fruits, 11 preselected wild-grown and 1 well-known cultivar, heritage, were evaluated for some of their physicochemical properties such as fruit weight, total antioxidant capacity (measured by beta-carotene bleaching and frap assays), total phenolics, ascorbic acid, ...200919895463
the use of collagenase to improve the detection of plant viruses in vector nematodes by rt-pcr.tomato ringspot virus (torsv), tobacco ringspot virus (trsv) and tobacco rattle virus (trv) are transmitted to healthy plants by viruliferous nematodes in the soil. a method was developed for extraction of genomic viral rna from virus particles carried within nematodes and a sensitive nested rt-pcr detection assay. the procedure has been adapted to microscale for handling multiple samples. this assay is effective for detection of torsv or trsv in xiphinema americanum or trv in paratrichodorus al ...200918992280
environmental and seasonal influences on red raspberry anthocyanin antioxidant contents and identification of quantitative traits loci (qtl).consumption of raspberries promotes human health through intake of pharmaceutically active antioxidants, including cyanidin and pelargonidin anthocyanins; products of flavonoid metabolism and also pigments conferring colour to fruit. raspberry anthocyanin contents could be enhanced for nutritional health and quality benefits utilising dna polymorphisms in modern marker assisted breeding. the objective was to elucidate factors determining anthocyanin production in these fruits. hplc quantified ei ...200919156716
evaluation of colour parameters and antioxidant activities of fruit wines.the evaluation of oenological colorimetric indexes, cielab parameters, total phenols and antioxidant activities has been studied in different fruit wines made from black mulberry, blackberry, quince, apple, apricot, melon, red raspberry, bilberry, sour cherry and strawberry. the highest value of antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents were determined in bilberry, blackberry and black mulberry wines (61.80%, 1161 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; 60.00%, 1232 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; ...200916849114
raspberry leaf--should it be recommended to pregnant women?this review evaluates the safety and efficacy of raspberry leaf (rubus idaeus) in pregnancy. the electronic databases pubmed, isi web of science, amed, embase, natural medicines comprehensive database and cochrane library were searched. altogether 12 original publications with focus on safety or efficacy during pregnancy, pharmacology and in vitro tests explaining mode of action or constituents in rubus idaeus were reviewed. limited documentation exists and part of it is 50 years old or older. o ...200919880082
[determination of anti-oxidative activity of different fractions of xinjiang red raspberry fruits extract].to determination total phenolics content of raspberry different polar solvent extracts was measured by folin-ciocalteu method.200919877525
investigation of volatile compounds in two raspberry cultivars by two headspace techniques: solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (spme/gc-ms) and proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (ptr-ms).the volatile compounds emitted by two raspberry varieties ( rubus idaeus , cv. polka and tulameen) were analyzed, in both the case of fresh fruits and juices, by two headspace methods that are rapid, solvent-free, and with reduced or no sample pretreatment: solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (spme/gc-ms) and proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (ptr-ms). multivariate analysis of the spme/gc-ms results allows for an unambiguous sample discrimination for both ma ...200919348421
mapping qtls for developmental traits in raspberry from bud break to ripe fruit.protected cropping systems have been adopted by the uk industry to improve fruit quality and extend the current season. further manipulation of season, alongside consideration of climate change scenarios, requires an understanding of the processes controlling fruit ripening. ripening stages were scored from may to july across different years and environments from a raspberry mapping population. here the interest was in identifying qtls for the overall ripening process as well as for the time to ...200919183857
(s)-2-acetoxy-5-undecanone, female sex pheromone of the raspberry cane midge, resseliella theobaldi (barnes).the raspberry cane midge, resseliella theobaldi, is a widespread pest of cultivated red raspberry in europe. pheromone-baited traps could provide a much-needed, accurate means to monitor the pest. volatiles collected separately from virgin female and male midges were analyzed by gas chromatography (gc) coupled to mass spectrometry (ms) to reveal four female-specific components. in analyses by gc coupled to electroantennographic (eag) recording from the antennae of a male midge, at least three of ...200919169750
hplc analysis of polyphenols in the fruits of rubus idaeus l. (rosaceae).the separation of anthocyanins present in the fruits of 11 varieties of red raspberries (rubus idaeus l.) was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with a diode-array detector and evaporative light scattering detection (elsd). the elsd parameters--drift tube temperature, nebulising gas flow rate and gain value--were optimised to get the best detection and identification of the anthocyanins. the varieties heritage and willamette had the simplest anthocyanin sets consisting of ...201021104526
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