ecology and conservation of the crowned lemur, lemur coronatus, at ankarana, n. madagascar. with notes on sanford's lemur, other sympatrics and subfossil lemurs.forests of ankarana limestone massif in northern madagascar support one of the largest and least disturbed populations of crowned lemurs, lemur coronatus. this paper reports a preliminary study of the ecology of this species in the ankarana special reserve conducted at the end of the dry season in 1986, with additional information collected a year later. crowned lemurs occur in very high densities in the semi-deciduous canopy forest and this probably represents a dry season refuge for the specie ...19892807091
modified subfossil aye-aye incisors from southwestern madagascar: species allocation and paleoecological significance.two of the three drilled aye-aye incisors collected in 1901 by grandidier at the subfossil site of lamboharana were recently rediscovered in uncatalogued collections of the institut de paléontologie in paris. these teeth are not much wider or thicker than those of the extant aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis), but their arc of curvature is noticeably greater. these facts indicate that the teeth probably belong to d. robusta, a large extinct aye-aye whose dentition is otherwise unknown. no ot ...19883254846
the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) found in the eastern rainforest of the course of a study on the ecology of nocturnal lemurs several aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) were seen in the eastern rainforest of madagascar near perinet. these observations of the aye-aye in a forest of higher altitude suggest a still much wider distribution of this species than previously thought.19863804102
[a new species of nematode of the genus lemuricola parasite of daubentonia madagascariensis gmelin and observations on the genus lemuricola]. 19724674341
[notes on new psoroptid parasitic of the aye-aye, daubentonia madagascariensis (gmelin) (sarcoptiformes: psoroptidae)]. 19725053129
cyto- and myeloarchitectural studies on the lateral tuberal nucleus in simian callithricidae and prosimiae.the cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture of the lateral tuberal nucleus (ltn) were examined in five species of callithricidae and in 21 species of prosimiae. in this study, the ltn of the callithricidae is described in detail and the ltn of prosimian lemuriformes is clearly demonstrated for the first time. the ltn could not be detected in other prosimians, lorisiformes, tarsiformes and tupaiiformes. in coronal sections, the ltn of callithricidae is a round nucleus embedded within the longitudi ...19826817585
evidence on primate phylogeny from epsilon-globin gene sequences and flanking regions.phylogenetic relationships among various primate groups were examined based on sequences of epsilon-globin genes. epsilon-globin genes were sequenced from five species of strepsirhine primates. these sequences were aligned and compared with other known primate epsilon-globin sequences, including data from two additional strepsirhine species, one species of tarsier, 19 species of new world monkeys (representing all extant genera), and five species of catarrhines. in addition, a 2-kb segment upstr ...19957714911
evolution of the primate cytochrome c oxidase subunit ii gene.we examined the nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit ii (coii) gene from 25 primates (4 hominoids, 8 old world monkeys, 2 new world monkeys, 2 tarsiers, 7 lemuriforms, 2 lorisiforms). marginal support was found for three phylogenetic conclusions: (1) sister-group relationship between tarsiers and a monkey/ape clade, (2) placement of the aye-aye (daubentonia) sister to all other strepsirhine primates, and (3) rejection of a sister-group relationship of ...19948006990
characterization and evolution of major histocompatibility complex class ii genes in the aye-aye, daubentonia madagascariensis.major histocompatibility complex genes (mhc-dqb and mhc-drb) were sequenced in seven aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariecsis), which is an endemic and endangered species in madagascar. an aye-aye from a north-eastern population showed genetic relatedness to individuals of a north-western population and had a somewhat different repertoire from another north-eastern individual. these observations suggest that the extent of genetic variation in mhc genes is not excessively small in the aye-aye in sp ...200515322927
evidence of early butchery of giant lemurs in madagascar.we report here definitive evidence of butchery, most probably associated with hunting, of giant extinct lemurs by early human settlers in madagascar. specimens of palaeopropithecus ingens and pachylemur insignis from two sites in southwestern madagascar, taolambiby and tsirave, show classic signs of butchering. we compared these to the bones (also from taolambiby) of butchered propithecus verreauxi, a lemur still living in the region. the characteristics of the tool-induced extinct-lemur bone al ...200516225904
spacing system of the mysore slender loris (loris lydekkerianus lydekkerianus).loris lydekkerianus lydekkerianus has been shown to have a promiscuous copulatory pattern, to maintain social networks via frequent loud calls, to interact socially throughout the night with all age classes, and to sleep socially. though these behaviors point towards a multimale social system, no study of their spacing system has yet been provided to support this view. from october 1997-august 1998, i conducted a study of the mysore slender loris in ayyalur, india. during 1,400 field hours, data ...200312687587
development of behaviour in a young aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) in captivity.this paper provides descriptive and quantitative information on the development of a young aye-aye in captivity during its first 10 months of life. the mother's behaviour was observed to provide an adult standard against which to evaluate the young male's development. early development of the young aye-aye (including early vocalizations, locomotion and manipulation, acquisition of independence from the mother, threat/defence and alarm) is described in qualitative terms. quantitative data on a nu ...19947721214
infant development in a captive-bred aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) over the first year of adult wild-caught female aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) and her captive-bred offspring were studied for 2 weeks pre partum and 52 weeks post partum. data on activity, substrate use, approach-leave interactions and social interactions were recorded in 30-min samples. observations on the mother were started 10 days pre partum, and 2 h of data were collected on each of 9 days up to birth. observations in each week were split evenly over 5 days and between two 4-hour blocks of time during ...19947721212
maintenance and breeding of aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) in captivity: a review.the husbandry practices of the 3 institutions currently holding captive aye-ayes outside madagascar (jersey wildlife preservation trust, duke university primate center and paris zoo) are reviewed. information on housing, diet, oestrous cycles and infant rearing is included. aye-ayes are active, nocturnal animals that are mainly solitary in the wild. they need large cages that are well furnished with arboreal substrates. captive diet consists of fruit, nuts, insects and a pellet- or cereal-based ...19947721209
evidence for nonseasonal reproduction in wild aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).the lemurs of madagascar typically exhibit a strictly seasonal pattern of breeding, with a limited number of successive estrous cycles occurring at a particular time of the year, which varies from species to species. previous reports indicated that aye-ayes also exhibit such a strictly seasonal polyestrous pattern. data from the author's 2-year field study of aye-ayes on the island of nosy mangabe, combined with information from recently initiated captive breeding programs, now indicate that thi ...19947721208
ecoethological study of free-ranging aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) in ecoethological study was undertaken on the activity rhythms, diet, ranging and social behavior of 3 aye-ayes. preliminary information on reproduction and mother-infant relations are given. the study included research into the different habitat types in which the aye-aye was found within the biosphere reserve at mananara-nord. in addition, the impact of habitat degradation on aye-aye ecology was investigated. the aye-ayes spent the majority of time in locomotion; resting accounted for a surpri ...19947721207
field observations of aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) in are presented from a field study of aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) in an area of degraded secondary forest in northeast madagascar. animals were followed by radiotelemetry for 3 months during the cool dry season, when productivity of the forest is at a minimum. population density was variable. male home ranges were larger and overlapped the range of at least 1 female. male ranges also overlapped, and areas of overlap could be occupied by 2 animals simultaneously. most of the partie ...19947721206
vocalizations of aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) in captivity. 19947721203
dietary intake, food composition and nutrient intake in wild and captive populations of daubentonia are presented on dietary and nutrient intake in a wild population of aye-ayes. study animals ate 4 main food types: seeds, nectar, fungus and insect larvae. calculated calorie intake was slightly lower during the cold season than during the hot, wet and the hot, dry seasons. total intakes almost doubled to compensate for the lower energy content of the diet during the cold season. comparison of natural and captive diets suggests that maintenance and even growth requirements of aye-ayes can ...19947721197
morphometrics and growth in captive aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis). 19947721196
anatomy of the hand and arm in daubentonia madagascariensis : a functional and phylogenetic outlook.the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) is easily the most enigmatic of living primates. it sports a unique combination of derived characters, including continuously growing incisors, functional claws, the largest hand of any primate and a highly modified middle finger. the specialised middle finger is no longer used in locomotion and serves as a probe-like instrument for investigating, locating and extracting xylophagous (wood-boring) larvae as well as other food items. its phalanges can be ...200616230860
the first endogenous herpesvirus, identified in the tarsier genome, and novel sequences from primate rhadinoviruses and lymphocryptoviruses.herpesviridae is a diverse family of large and complex pathogens whose genomes are extremely difficult to sequence. this is particularly true for clinical samples, and if the virus, host, or both genomes are being sequenced for the first time. although herpesviruses are known to occasionally integrate in host genomes, and can also be inherited in a mendelian fashion, they are notably absent from the genomic fossil record comprised of endogenous viral elements (eves). here, we combine paleovirolo ...201424945689
A genome sequence resource for the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a nocturnal lemur from Madagascar.We present a high-coverage, draft genome assembly of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a highly unusual, nocturnal primate from Madagascar. Our assembly totals ~3.0 billion base pairs (3.0 Gb), roughly the size of the human genome, comprised of ~2.6 million scaffolds (N50 scaffold size = 13,597 bp) based on short, paired-end sequencing reads. We compared the aye-aye genome sequence data to the four other published primate genomes (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and rhesus macaque), as w ...201122155688
organization and molecular evolution of cenp-a-associated satellite dna families in a basal primate genome.centromeric regions in many complex eukaryotic species contain highly repetitive satellite dnas. despite the diversity of centromeric dna sequences among species, the functional centromeres in all species studied to date are marked by cenp-a, a centromere-specific histone h3 variant. while it is well established that families of multimeric, higher-order alpha satellite are conserved at the centromeres of human and great ape chromosomes and that diverged monomeric alpha satellite is found in old ...201121828373
[hands and feet of prosimians primates. attempts of morphologic characterization].the length of the carpus and tarsus, the metacarpus and metatarsus, the fingers and toes of 142 prosimian apes was measured. the relationship expressed as a percentage was drawn up for each individual between the length of each osseous part and that of its third metacarpal in order to eliminate the differences related to the size of the rest of the body. this ratio was compared with that of man. the characteristic variations appeared at the level of the subfamilies. concerning the hand: the carp ...200818815065
conservation biology of malagasy strepsirhines: a phylogenetic approach.the phylogenetic diversity of extant lemurs represents one of the most important but least studied aspects of the conservation biology of primates. the phylogenetic diversity of a species is inversely proportional to the relative number and closeness of its phylogenetic relatives. phylogenetic diversity can then be used to determine conservation priorities for specific biogeographic regions. although malagasy strepsirhines represent the highest phylogenetic diversity among primates at the global ...200616365858
chemical differences between voided and bladder urine in the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis): implications for olfactory communication studies.urine serves a communicative function in many mammalian species. in some species, the signaling function of urine can be enhanced by the addition of chemical compounds from glands along the distal portion of the urogenital tract. although urine marking is the main mode of chemical communication in many primate species, there has been no study of the contribution of urogenital secretions to the chemical complexity of primate urine. here, we compared the chemical composition of bladder urine versu ...201323027610
anatomy and adaptations of the chewing muscles in daubentonia (lemuriformes).the extractive foraging behavior in aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) is unique among primates and likely has led to selection for a specialized jaw adductor musculature. although this musculature has previously been examined in a subadult, until now, no one has reported the fascicle length, weight, and physiological cross-sectional area (pcsa) for these muscles in an adult aye-aye specimen. for the present study, we dissected an adult wild-born aye-aye from the tsimbazaza botanical and zo ...201424339191
competition for dead trees between humans and aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) in central eastern madagascar.the destruction and degradation of forest habitats are major threats to the sustainability of lemur populations in madagascar. madagascan landscapes often contain forest fragments that represent refuges for native fauna, while also being used for firewood and timber by local human populations. as undisturbed forest becomes increasingly scarce, understanding resource competition between humans and wildlife in disturbed habitats will be increasingly important. we tested the hypothesis that malagas ...201727848157
an endogenous foamy virus in the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis).we report the discovery and analysis of an endogenous foamy virus (psfvaye) within the genome of the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis), a strepsirrhine primate from madagascar. phylogenetic analyses indicate that psfvaye is divergent from all known simian foamy viruses, suggesting an association between foamy viruses and primates since the haplorrhine-strepsirrhine split. the discovery of psfvaye indicates that primate foamy virus might be more broadly distributed than previously thought.201222573860
morphology of the nasal capsule of primates--with special reference to daubentonia and homo.primitive mammals are considered macrosmatic. they have very large and complicated nasal capsules, nasal cavities with extensive olfactory epithelia, and relatively large olfactory bulbs. the complicated structures of the nasal capsule follow a relatively conservative "bauplan," which is normally easy to see in earlier fetal stages; especially in altricial taxa it differentiates well into postnatal life. as anteriormost part of the chondrocranium, the nasal capsule is at first cartilaginous. mos ...201425312360
the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) and aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).to determine the minimum alveolar concentration (mac) of sevoflurane for ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) and aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).201625929742
alcohol discrimination and preferences in two species of nectar-feeding primate.recent reports suggest that dietary ethanol, or alcohol, is a supplemental source of calories for some primates. for example, slow lorises (nycticebus coucang) consume fermented nectars with a mean alcohol concentration of 0.6% (range: 0.0-3.8%). a similar behaviour is hypothesized for aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) based on a single point mutation (a294v) in the gene that encodes alcohol dehydrogenase class iv (adh4), the first enzyme to catabolize alcohol during digestion. the mutatio ...201627493777
aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) feeding strategies at ranomafana national park, madagascar: an indirect sampling this research, we focused on aye-aye populations in ranomafana national park, madagascar. from august to december 2008, we tested how aye-aye feeding was influenced by presence/absence of both fruiting and non-fruiting canarium trees. deadwood feeding traces were used as a proxy for evidence of canarium feeding. we enumerated deadwood feeding traces in 20 locations, 10 with canarium, 10 without. each location contained two transects (80 m l × 20 m w) for a total area of 5.6 ha. feeding trace ...201222627178
why aye-ayes see blue.the capacity for cone-mediated color vision varies among nocturnal primates. some species are colorblind, having lost the functionality of their short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (sws1) opsin pigment gene. in other species, such as the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis), the sws1 gene remains intact. recent studies focused on aye-ayes indicate that this gene has been maintained by natural selection and that the pigment has a peak sensitivity (lambda(max)) of 406 nm, which is -20 nm closer to the ...201224006536
structural characterization of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides in the milks of strepsirrhine primates: greater galago, aye-aye, coquerel's sifaka and mongoose lemur.the structures of milk oligosaccharides were characterized for four strepsirrhine primates to examine the extent to which they resemble milk oligosaccharides in other primates. neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from milk of the greater galago (galagidae: otolemur crassicaudatus), aye-aye (daubentoniidae: daubentonia madagascariensis), coquerel's sifaka (indriidae: propithecus coquereli) and mongoose lemur (lemuridae: eulemur mongoz), and their chemical structures were characteriz ...201222311613
comparing aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) presence and distribution between degraded and non-degraded forest within ranomafana national park, madagascar.the aye-aye is considered the most widely distributed lemur in madagascar; however, the effect of forest quality on aye-aye abundance is unknown. we compared aye-aye presence across degraded and non-degraded forest at ranomafana national park, madagascar. we used secondary signs (feeding sites, high activity sites) as indirect cues of aye-aye presence and canarium trees as an indicator of resource availability. all 3 measured variables indicated higher aye-aye abundance within non-degraded fores ...201121822021
preliminary observations on hand preference for tapping, digit-feeding and food-holding in captive aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).aye-ayes possess highly adapted hands, using their specialized third digits to investigate potential food sources by tapping and the third or fourth digits to transfer food to the mouth. observations were conducted on 11 captive aye-ayes (10 wild-caught; 1 captive-bred) following presentation of food or novel objects, and hand use for holding, tapping and digit-feeding was scored. eight of the individuals showed significant hand preferences for one or more of the 3 measures, although there was n ...19947721199
comparing the use of live trees and deadwood for larval foraging by aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) at kianjavato and torotorofotsy, madagascar.aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) feeding behavior has become synonymous with deadwood foraging. however, deadwood is not always the most frequently used substrate, as some aye-ayes use live trees more often to access invertebrates. we sought to compare the frequency of aye-aye invertebrate foraging in deadwood and live trees to better understand their feeding behaviors. we followed two male aye-ayes at kianjavato, a heavily disturbed habitat in southeastern madagascar, from october 2013 to ...201728597332
the influence of stimulus valence on confirmation bias in children.the aim of the present study was to replicate our previous study and to further examine the relation between fear and positive and negative confirmation bias in children.201727423221
evolutionary analysis of selective constraints identifies ameloblastin (ambn) as a potential candidate for amelogenesis imperfecta.ameloblastin (ambn) is a phosphorylated, proline/glutamine-rich protein secreted during enamel formation. previous studies have revealed that this enamel matrix protein was present early in vertebrate evolution and certainly plays important roles during enamel formation although its precise functions remain unclear. we performed evolutionary analyses of ambn in order to (i) identify residues and motifs important for the protein function, (ii) predict mutations responsible for genetic diseases, a ...201526223266
tap-scanning and extractive foraging in aye-ayes, daubentonia madagascariensis.the trees on which aye-ayes forage contain complex communities of organisms. aye-ayes appear to use tap-scanning behaviour, in combination with complex perceptual and inferential capabilities, to exploit these communities as a source of food. in doing so, they alter them, perhaps to their own advantage.19947721198
independent digit control in foraging by the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis). 19911937286
molecular evolutionary characterization of a v1r subfamily unique to strepsirrhine primates.vomeronasal receptor genes have frequently been invoked as integral to the establishment and maintenance of species boundaries among mammals due to the elaborate one-to-one correspondence between semiochemical signals and neuronal sensory inputs. here, we report the most extensive sample of vomeronasal receptor class 1 (v1r) sequences ever generated for a diverse yet phylogenetically coherent group of mammals, the tooth-combed primates (suborder strepsirrhini). phylogenetic analysis confirms our ...201424398377
nails and claws in primate evolution.the issue of whether nails or claws were present on the digits of the last common ancestor of living primates is central to the understanding of the ecological context in which the order originated. two lines of evidence are available, the shape (claw, nail, toilet-claw) and the histological structure (one or two horny strata). here we review the existing data regarding the shape and histological structure of cheirideal appendages in primates and present new information from a wide range of livi ...19999924135
specialized use of two fingers in free-ranging aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) possesses a highly specialized hand with two fingers, the third and the fourth, being used in a way unparalleled by any other primate. we observed the use of the third and the fourth fingers in various activities in four free-ranging aye-ayes. we found that the thin third finger was used exclusively or preferably for tapping, inserting into the mouth (probably for cleaning the teeth) and probing for nectar, kernels and insects in bamboo, twigs and live ...200818473358
characterization of chromosomes and localization of the rdna locus in the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis).the karyotype of a prosimian primate, the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis), is described. results from a variety of staining methods (q-, r-, g-, and c-banding, distamycin a/dapi and methyl-green/dapi) are reported. sites of methylation were visualized using antibodies against 5-methylcytosine. digestion of aye-aye fixed metaphase chromosomes with the restriction endonuclease haeiii produced g-banding. no other restriction enzymes tested produced clear g- or c-banding patterns. ag-staining ...19901701113
preliminary study of the sexual behaviour of three aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) in captivity.this paper deals with the process of mating among captive aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis). data on sexual behaviour of 3 wild-caught aye-ayes were collected over a period of 3 years (1986-1989). the group of 2 adult females and a young male was housed at the vincennes zoo, paris. the seasonal poly-oestrous sexual cycle was found to be marked by four clear phases of the females' vulval tumescence and coincided with sexual interest shown by both sexes. the external genitalia of the females ...19947721211
receiver bias and the acoustic ecology of aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).the aye-aye is a rare lemur from madagascar that uses its highly specialized middle digit for percussive foraging. this acoustic behavior, also termed tap-scanning, produces dominant frequencies between 6 and 15 khz. an enhanced auditory sensitivity to these frequencies raises the possibility that the acoustic and auditory specializations of aye-ayes have imposed constraints on the evolution of their vocal signals, especially their primary long-distance vocalization, the screech. here we explore ...201223739157
haematology and serum biochemistry values in aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) at the duke university primate center. 19947721205
aye-ayes: out of the dark and into the light? 19947721210
the giant aye-aye daubentonia robusta.subfossils of a giant form of aye-aye are found at scattered sites in the south and southwest of the island of madagascar, outside the known distribution of the living, or common, aye-aye. the subfossil aye-aye, named daubentonia robusta, has massive, robust limb bones implying a species with a body weight 2.5-5 times as great as that of the living species. a mystery exists regarding how a species this large with the same specializations of teeth and manus as the living species could have existe ...19947721200
the arrangement of prisms in the enamel of the anterior teeth of the aye-aye. 1979118519
the aye-aye or cheiromys of madagascar. 188117791380
responses of captive aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) to the scent of conspecifics: a preliminary investigation.the ability of 6 captive aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) to discriminate scents from conspecifics of different age-sex classes was tested. the animals were presented with either unscented logs or logs that had been placed in: (1) their own cage, (2) the cages of adult males or (3) the cages of adult females with female offspring. responses to the logs, measured by approaching, proximity, tapping, gnawing, sniffing, scent marking and vocalizations, were recorded for 30 min following prese ...19947721204
positional behaviour in captive aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).the aye-aye shows numerous special features in its postcranial skeleton, partly in association with its unusual feeding habits and partly in association with locomotor specialisation connected with the possession of claws. this study examined the positional behaviour of 3 captive adult aye-ayes in order to throw light on these morphological specialisations. locomotion was dominated by quadrupedal walking and climbing. given the relatively large body size of aye-ayes, an unexpectedly high frequen ...19947721202
aye-ayes: specialists on structurally defended resources.during the course of a 2-year field study on aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis), data were collected on dietary composition, food acquisition and structural properties of food resources. aye-ayes in this study sampled remarkably few species from a variety of food types. a majority of these resources were heavily structurally defended and therefore difficult of access for other mammals. aye-ayes used their modified finger and anterior teeth to harvest most of these resources.19947721201
testing convergent evolution in auditory processing genes between echolocating mammals and the aye-aye, a percussive-foraging primate.several taxonomically distinct mammalian groups-certain microbats and cetaceans (e.g., dolphins)-share both morphological adaptations related to echolocation behavior and strong signatures of convergent evolution at the amino acid level across seven genes related to auditory processing. aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) are nocturnal lemurs with a specialized auditory processing system. aye-ayes tap rapidly along the surfaces of trees, listening to reverberations to identify the mines of w ...201728810710
evolution of microrna in primates.microrna play an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of most transcripts in the human genome, but their evolution across the primate lineage is largely uncharacterized. a particular mirna can have one to thousands of messenger rna targets, establishing the potential for a small change in sequence or overall mirna structure to have profound phenotypic effects. however, the majority of non-human primate mirna is predicted solely by homology to the human genome and lacks experimental ...201728640911
hand and foot pressures in the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) reveal novel biomechanical trade-offs required for walking on gracile digits.arboreal animals with prehensile hands must balance the complex demands of bone strength, grasping and manipulation. an informative example of this problem is that of the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis), a rare lemuriform primate that is unusual in having exceptionally long, gracile fingers specialized for foraging. in addition, they are among the largest primates to engage in head-first descent on arboreal supports, a posture that should increase loads on their gracile digits. we test th ...201020400640
signatures of functional constraint at aye-aye opsin genes: the potential of adaptive color vision in a nocturnal primate.while color vision perception is thought to be adaptively correlated with foraging efficiency for diurnal mammals, those that forage exclusively at night may not need color vision nor have the capacity for it. indeed, although the basic condition for mammals is dichromacy, diverse nocturnal mammals have only monochromatic vision, resulting from functional loss of the short-wavelength sensitive opsin gene. however, many nocturnal primates maintain intact two opsin genes and thus have dichromatic ...200717575304
anatomical analysis of an aye-aye brain (daubentonia madagascariensis, primates: prosimii) combining histology, structural magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion-tensor imaging.this report presents initial results of a multimodal analysis of tissue volume and microstructure in the brain of an aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis). the left hemisphere of an aye-aye brain was scanned using t2-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (mri) and diffusion-tensor imaging (dti) prior to histological processing and staining for nissl substance and myelinated fibers. the objectives of the experiment were to estimate the volume of gross brain regions for comparison with p ...200516211637
phylogenetic relationships among lemuridae (primates): evidence from mtdna.the family lemuridae includes four genera: eulemur, hapalemur, lemur,varecia. taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships between l. catta, eulemur and hapalemur, and of varecia to these other lemurids, continue to be hotly debated. nodal relationships among the five eulemur species also remain contentious. a mitochondrial dna sequence dataset from the nd 3, nd 4 l, nd 4 genes and five trnas (gly, arg, his, ser, leu) was generated to try to clarify phylogenetic relationships w ithin the lemuridae. s ...200212393004
hand and body position during locomotor behavior in the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis).aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) have unique hands among primates, with extraordinarily long fingers in relation to body size. these long digits may be vulnerable to damage from forces during locomotion, particularly during head-first descent-a locomotor mode that the aye-aye utilizes frequently. previous behavioral studies of aye-aye locomotion reported that daubentonia must curl its fingers during horizontal quadrupedalism and/or descent to reduce potential stresses on its long fingers. ...200212111677
chromosomal localization of 18s rdna and telomere sequence in the aye-aye, daubentonia madagascariensis.chromosomal localization of 18s rdna and telomere sequence was attempted on the chromosomes of the aye-aye (2n = 30) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) and primed in situ labeling (prins), respectively. the rdna was localized at the tip or whole of the short arm of acrocentric chromosomes 13 and 14 in all spreads observed. however, post-fish silver-nitrate (ag) staining showed that transcriptional activity of the rrna genes was variable, particularly in chromosome 14, which was most ...200011245223
fear-related confirmation bias in children: a comparison between neutral- and dangerous-looking animals.the purpose of this study was to examine confirmation bias in children without explicitly inducing fear. eighty non-clinical children (7-13 years) were shown pictures of a neutral animal (quokka) and two dangerous-looking animals (aye aye and possum). for each animal, levels of perceived fear, threat and request for additional threatening or non-threatening information were obtained. a behavioral approach test (bat) was included as behavioral measure of fear. the results indicated that the aye a ...201525096507
discovery of prosimian and afrotherian foamy viruses and potential cross species transmissions amidst stable and ancient mammalian co-evolution.foamy viruses (fvs) are a unique subfamily of retroviruses that are widely distributed in mammals. owing to the availability of sequences from diverse mammals coupled with their pattern of codivergence with their hosts, fvs have one of the best-understood viral evolutionary histories ever documented, estimated to have an ancient origin. nonetheless, our knowledge of some parts of fv evolution, notably that of prosimian and afrotherian fvs, is far from complete due to the lack of sequence data.201425091111
the aye-ayes, daubentonia madagascariensis, at the paris zoological garden: maintenance and preliminary behavioural observations.the history of the aye-aye in captivity outside madagascar is briefly reviewed. maintenance conditions of the 3 animals currently housed at the paris zoo are described. in addition to providing information on the diet and feeding behaviour of the animals, details of enclosure size, humidity level, temperature, cage furniture and light cycle are provided. preliminary behavioural observations on mother-infant relationships, grooming, nest building and play are also included.19892515128
chromosomal evolution of malagasy lemurs. xi. phylogenetic position of daubentonia madagascariensis. 19883148528
[particularities in facial muscles of daubentonia madagascariensis (gmelin 1788) (author's transl)]. 19744435667
djebelemur, a tiny pre-tooth-combed primate from the eocene of tunisia: a glimpse into the origin of crown strepsirhines.molecular clock estimates of crown strepsirhine origins generally advocate an ancient antiquity for malagasy lemuriforms and afro-asian lorisiforms, near the onset of the tertiary but most often extending back to the late cretaceous. despite their inferred early origin, the subsequent evolutionary histories of both groups (except for the malagasy aye-aye lineage) exhibit a vacuum of lineage diversification during most part of the eocene, followed by a relative acceleration in diversification fro ...201324324627
aye-aye population genomic analyses highlight an important center of endemism in northern madagascar.we performed a population genomics study of the aye-aye, a highly specialized nocturnal lemur from madagascar. aye-ayes have low population densities and extensive range requirements that could make this flagship species particularly susceptible to extinction. therefore, knowledge of genetic diversity and differentiation among aye-aye populations is critical for conservation planning. such information may also advance our general understanding of malagasy biogeography, as aye-ayes have the large ...201323530231
an alu-based phylogeny of lemurs (infraorder: lemuriformes).lemurs (infraorder: lemuriformes) are a radiation of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of madagascar. as of 2012, 101 lemur species, divided among five families, have been described. genetic and morphological evidence indicates all species are descended from a common ancestor that arrived in madagascar ∼55-60 million years ago (mya). phylogenetic relationships in this species-rich infraorder have been the subject of debate. here we use alu elements, a family of primate-specific short ...201222937148
anatomy is important, but need not be destiny: novel uses of the thumb in aye-ayes compared to other lemurs.aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascerensis) have highly specialized hands with long digits, especially the thin middle one (d3), which is used for extracting food, such as beetle larvae, under bark. due to the elongation of their fingers, including the thumb, it is presumed that aye-ayes have a rather limited capacity for delicate manipulation of objects. however, studies have reported independent movement of digits d3 and d4, and one report noted a seemingly independent thumb (d1) movement in holdin ...201221924295
spectral tuning and evolution of primate short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments.the peak sensitivities (λ(max)) of the short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (sws1) pigments in mammals range from the ultraviolet (uv) (360-400 nm) to the violet (400-450 nm) regions of the spectrum. in most cases, a uv or violet peak is determined by the residue present at site 86, with phe conferring uv sensitivity (uvs) and either ser, tyr or val causing a shift to violet wavelengths. in primates, however, the tuning mechanism of violet-sensitive (vs) pigments would appear to differ. in this study, w ...201221697177
variation in predicted covid-19 risk among lemurs and lorises.the novel coronavirus sars-cov-2, which in humans leads to the disease covid-19, has caused global disruption and more than 2 million fatalities since it first emerged in late 2019. as we write, infection rates are at their highest point globally and are rising extremely rapidly in some areas due to more infectious variants. the primary target of sars-cov-2 is the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ace2). recent sequence analyses of the ace2 gene predict that many nonhuman primat ...202133792947
tool use, aye-ayes, and sensorimotor intelligence.humans, chimpanzees, capuchins and aye-ayes all display an unusually high degree of encephalization and diverse omnivorous extractive foraging. it has been suggested that the high degree of encephalization in aye-ayes may be the result of their diverse, omnivorous extractive foraging behaviors. in combination with certain forms of tool use, omnivorous extractive foraging has been hypothesized to be linked to higher levels of sensorimotor intelligence (stages 5 or 6). although free-ranging aye-ay ...200710050062
population viability and harvest sustainability for madagascar lemurs.subsistence hunting presents a conservation challenge by which biodiversity preservation must be balanced with safeguarding of human livelihoods. globally, subsistence hunting threatens primate populations, including madagascar's endemic lemurs. we used population viability analysis to assess the sustainability of lemur hunting in makira natural park, madagascar. we identified trends in seasonal hunting of 11 makira lemur species from household interview data, estimated local lemur densities in ...201929896899
navigation strategies in three nocturnal lemur species: diet predicts heuristic use and degree of exploratory behavior.humans generally solve multi-destination routes with simple rules-of-thumb. animals may do the same, but strong evidence is limited to a few species. we examined whether strepsirrhines, who diverged from haplorhines more than 58 mya, would demonstrate the use of three heuristics used by humans and supported in vervets, the nearest neighbor rule, the convex hull, and a cluster strategy, when solving a multi-destination route. we hypothesized that the evolution of these strategies may depend on a ...201930758804
[persistence of ovogenesis phenomena in the adult form of daubentonia madagascariensis (prosimii, lemuriformes)]. 19655892446
[observations on the falx cerebri of the prosimian daubentonia madagascariensis e. geoffroy]. 195514376911
pterygodermatites nycticebi infections in golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) and aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) from a german a golden lion tamarin (leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) colony kept indoors in a german zoo, two animals presented a sudden onset of reduced general condition, lethargy, and diarrhea. at animal capture for clinical examination, adult nematode stages were observed after stress-induced defecation. despite treatment, two golden lion tamarins died in the following 2 days. at necropsy, spirurid stages were found in the lungs and intestine. additionally, adult pterygodermatites spp. were identified ...202033135172
variation in predicted covid-19 risk among lemurs and lorises.the novel coronavirus sars-cov-2, which in humans leads to the disease covid-19, has caused global disruption and more than 1.5 million fatalities since it first emerged in late 2019. as we write, infection rates are currently at their highest point globally and are rising extremely rapidly in some areas due to more infectious variants. the primary viral target is the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ace2). recent sequence analyses of the ace2 gene predicts that many nonhuman p ...202133564767
craniomandibular variation in phalangeriform marsupials: functional comparisons with primates.phalangeriform marsupials have often been compared with primates because of similarity in the range of external morphology, ecological niches, and body size between the two radiations. we explore morphological convergence in the masticatory anatomy of strepsirrhine primates and phalangeriforms, through osteological measurements of the mandible and facial skeleton, and through dissection of the masticatory musculature, presenting new data on the arrangement and proportions of jaw adductors in pha ...201829330956
mechanical significance of morphological variation in diprotodont incisors.all rodents possess a single pair of enlarged incisors that grow throughout life. this condition (diprotodonty) is characteristic of rodentia, but is also found in other mammals such as lagomorphs, hyraxes, the aye-aye and common wombat. this study surveyed lower incisor morphology across extant diprotodonts to examine shape variation within and between rodents and other diprotodonts, and to determine if tooth shape varies in a manner predictable from mechanics. six linear and area variables wer ...201931031997
do muscles constrain skull shape evolution in strepsirrhines?despite great interest and decades of research, the musculoskeletal relationships of the masticatory system in primates are still not fully understood. however, without a clear understanding of the interplay between muscles and bones it remains difficult to understand the functional significance of morphological traits of the skeleton. here, we aim to study the impacts of the masticatory muscles on the shape of the cranium and the mandible as well as their co-variation in strepsirrhine primates. ...201829330958
effect of paternal age on the birth sex ratio in captive populations of aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis (gmelin)).for the management of captive populations of zoo animals, it is important to elucidate factors that affect the offspring birth sex ratio. on the basis of the sex allocation theory, the trivers-willard and mate attractive/quality hypotheses predict that maternal and paternal conditions affect offspring birth sex ratios. we examined these predictions for the birth sex ratio of aye-aye daubentonia madagascariensis (gmelin) by analyzing the pedigree information in the international studbook. we foun ...201931020706
an environmental dna sampling method for aye-ayes from their feeding traces.noninvasive sampling is an important development in population genetic monitoring of wild animals. particularly, the collection of environmental dna (edna) which can be collected without needing to encounter the target animal facilitates the genetic analysis of endangered species. one method that has been applied to these sample types is target capture and enrichment which overcomes the issue of high proportions of exogenous (nonhost) dna from these lower quality samples. we tested whether targe ...201830377496
fossil lemurs from egypt and kenya suggest an african origin for madagascar's 1967 g.g. simpson described three partial mandibles from early miocene deposits in kenya that he interpreted as belonging to a new strepsirrhine primate, propotto. this interpretation was quickly challenged, with the assertion that propotto was not a primate, but rather a pteropodid fruit bat. the latter interpretation has not been questioned for almost half a century. here we re-evaluate the affinities of propotto, drawing upon diverse lines of evidence to establish that this strange mammal ...201830131571
convergent evolution in the euarchontoglires.convergence-the independent evolution of similar phenotypes in distantly related clades-is a widespread and much-studied phenomenon. an often-cited, but hitherto untested, case of morphological convergence is that between the aye-aye and squirrels. the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) is a highly unusual lemuriform primate that has evolved a dentition similar to that of rodents: it possesses large, ever-growing incisors which it uses to strip the bark from trees in order to feed on wood-bo ...201830068543
the inside tract: the appendicular, cecal, and colonic microbiome of captive aye-ayes.the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) is famous for its feeding strategies that target structurally defended, but high-quality resources. nonetheless, the influence of this digestible diet on gut microbial contributions to aye-aye metabolism and nutrition remains unexplored. when four captive aye-ayes were unexpectedly lost to persin toxicity, we opportunistically collected samples along the animals' gastrointestinal tracts. here we describe the diversity and composition of appendicular, ce ...201829665003
neoplasia in three aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis).tumours diagnosed in three aged captive aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis), held in two different institutions, are described. a cerebral glioblastoma was diagnosed based on histological and immunohistochemical findings in one of the animals following initial presentation with bilateral mydriasis, absent pupillary reflex, head tilt and ataxia. a second animal was humanely destroyed due to impaired locomotion associated with spondylosis and a post-mortem diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma was m ...201829599000
behaviour and ecology of male aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) in the kianjavato classified forest, south-eastern madagascar.previous studies found that aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) consume a variety of non-invertebrate resources, supporting the hypothesis that aye-ayes are too large-bodied to focus feeding efforts on insects. however, these conclusions were based on introduced populations, with little known about aye-aye behaviour and ecology in its natural habitat. this study investigates activity budgets, diet, and home range/territories of 2 male aye-ayes in the kianjavato classified forest, a disturbed ...201829587255
deciduous dentition of the aye aye, daubentonia madagascariensis.until the 1980s all interpretations of the deciduous dental formulae of the unusual and endangered prosimian primate daubentonia madagascariensis were based on a publication more than 125 years old [peters, 1866a]. rather than being based on original material all later interpretations were exclusively derived from peters' figures and descriptions. a relatively recent attempt by luckett and maier [1986] to establish the true milk dentition of the aye aye was based on histological evaluation of a ...199631918496
feeding sites for extractive foraging by the aye-aye, daubentonia madagascariensis.the aye-aye, daubentonia madagascariensis, uses its middle digit to tap on woody sources in search of subsurface cavities containing prey. the acoustical properties of these cavities are thought to be important to this percussive foraging, but the contributions of cavity size, configuration, and contents to efficient prey capture are not known. the purpose of this study was to characterize these cavities and their residents. an analysis of foraged trees at two sites in madagascar revealed that m ...199531924073
a primate with a panda's thumb: the anatomy of the pseudothumb of daubentonia madagascariensis.accessory digits have evolved independently within several mammalian lineages. most notable among these is the pseudothumb of the giant panda, which has long been considered one of the most extraordinary examples of contingent evolution. to date, no primate has been documented to possess such an adaptation. here, we investigate the presence of this structure within the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis), a species renowned for several other specialized morphological adaptations in the hand, ...202031633197
home range size and seasonal variation in habitat use of aye-ayes (daubentonia madagascariensis) in torotorofotsy, madagascar.madagascar's dramatic climatic fluctuations mean most lemurs adjust behaviors seasonally as resource availability fluctuates. many lemurs will adopt one of two strategies, a resource maximizer or an area minimizer, when adjusting to seasonal shifts in resource availability. however, it is unknown if and how aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) ranging behavior is influenced by seasonality. we explored whether habitat use changed seasonally. we followed two aye-ayes, an adult male and an adult ...202032663822
dicect analysis of the extreme gouging adaptations within the masticatory apparatus of the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis).relative to all other primates, the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) exists at the extremes of both morphology and behavior. its specialized anatomy-which includes hypselodont incisors and highly derived manual digits-reflects a dietary niche, unique among primates, which combines tap-foraging with gouging to locate and extract wood-boring larvae. here, we explore the impact of this extreme dietary ecology upon the masticatory musculature of this taxon with reference to a second, similarly ...202031714689
evolution of neocortical folding: a phylogenetic comparative analysis of mri from 34 primate species.we conducted a comparative analysis of primate cerebral size and neocortical folding using magnetic resonance imaging data from 65 individuals belonging to 34 different species. we measured several neocortical folding parameters and studied their evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. our results suggest that the most likely model for neuroanatomical evolution is one where differences appear randomly (the brownian motion model), however, alternative models cannot be completely ruled o ...201931235272
the acoustic near-field measurement of aye-ayes' biological auditory system utilizing a biomimetic robotic tap-scanning.the aye-aye (daubentonia madagascariensis) is best known for its unique acoustic-based foraging behavior called 'tap-scanning' or 'percussive foraging'. the tap-scanning is a unique behavior allowing aye-aye to locate small cavities beneath tree bark and extract wood-boring larvae from it. the tap-scanning requires the animal auditory system to have exceptional acoustic near-field sensitivity. this paper has experimentally investigated the effects of external pinna in the acoustic sensing and de ...202032485699
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