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the open reading frame 2 product of cacao swollen shoot badnavirus is a nucleic acid-binding protein.the function of the open reading frame 2 product (p2) of cacao swollen shoot virus (cssv) and of other badnaviruses is not yet determined. their carboxyl-termini are lysine and proline rich and also contain alanine residues, amino acids present at the c-termini of histone-like proteins. full-length cssv p2 (132 amino acids) or versions truncated at the c-terminus (128, 113, 103, or 101 amino acids) were expressed in escherichia coli and partially purified. when assayed in nucleic acid-binding te ...19968918546
a short basic domain supports a nucleic acid-binding activity in the rice tungro bacilliform virus open reading frame 2 product.little is known about the features of badnavirus open reading frame 2 products (p2). so far, no consensus functional domain has been found in these proteins. however, they all have in common at their c-terminus amino acids which may have the capacity to bind nucleic acids. such capacity has already been established for cacao swollen shoot virus protein p2. we have looked for such a binding capacity of rice tungro bacilliform virus (rtbv) orf 2 product. for this purpose, the protein was expressed ...19979434726
analysis of the sequence of dioscorea alata bacilliform virus: comparison to others members of the badnavirus group.the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of dioscorea alata bacilliform virus (dabv) has been determined from cloned fragments. features of the genome confirm dabv to be a pararetrovirus of the genus badnavirus which is more similar to other mealy-bug transmitted badnaviruses, in particular to cacao swollen shoot virus, than to rice tungro bacilliform virus. sequence variability between cloned fragments suggests that the genetic variability of the virus may be quite high (up to 11% nucleot ...199910456795
in situ localization of cacao swollen shoot virus in agroinfected theobroma cacao.cacao swollen shoot virus (cssv) is a small non-enveloped bacilliform virus with a double-stranded dna genome. a very restricted host range and difficulties in transmitting the virus, either mechanically or via its natural vector, have hindered the study of cacao swollen shoot disease. as an alternative to the particle-bombardment method previously reported, we investigated another approach to infect theobroma cacao. a greater-than-unit length copy (1.2) of the cssv dna genome was cloned into th ...199910470252
cloning and sequence analysis of an infectious clone of citrus yellow mosaic virus that can infect sweet orange via agrobacterium-mediated inoculation.citrus yellow mosaic virus (cymv), a member of the family caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus, causes citrus mosaic disease, a disease that occurs commonly in india. the cymv genome has been cloned and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. its dna genome is 7559 bp in length and contains six putative open reading frames (orfs), all on the plus-strand of the genome and each capable of encoding proteins with a molecular mass of greater than 10 kda. orf 3, the largest orf, encodes a putative po ...200111562547
genomic characterisation of taro bacilliform virus.taro bacilliform virus (tabv) has been classified as a putative badnavirus based on its non-enveloped, bacilliform virion morphology and transmission by mealybugs. the complete nucleotide sequence of a papua new guinea isolate of tabv has now been determined and comprises 7458 bp. the genome contains four open reading frames (orfs) on the plus-strand that potentially encode proteins of 17, 16, 214 and 13 kda. the size and organisation of tabv orfs 1-3 is similar to that of most other badnaviruse ...200312721801
cacao diseases: important threats to chocolate production worldwide.abstract theobroma cacao, cacao, is an ancient, neotropical domesticate. it is now grown throughout the humid, lowland tropics and is the basis of a multibillion dollar confectionary trade. diverse diseases impact production of the crop. they reduce yields by ca. 20%, but could cause far greater losses if certain highly damaging diseases were to become more widely distributed. among the most potentially dangerous of these diseases are frosty pod, caused by moniliophthora roreri, and witches' bro ...200718943724
infection of non-host model plant species with the narrow-host-range cacao swollen shoot virus.cacao swollen shoot virus (cssv) is a major pathogen of cacao (theobroma cacao) in africa, and long-standing efforts to limit its spread by the culling of infected trees have had very limited success. cssv is a particularly difficult virus to study, as it has a very narrow host range, limited to several tropical tree species. furthermore, the virus is not mechanically transmissible, and its insect vector can only be used with difficulty. thus, the only efficient means to infect cacao plants that ...201727010241
high-resolution melt and morphological analyses of mealybugs (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) from cacao: tools for the control of cacao swollen shoot virus spread.mealybugs (hemiptera: coccoidea: pseudococcidae) are key vectors of badnaviruses, including cacao swollen shoot virus (cssv), the most damaging virus affecting cacao (theobroma cacao l.). the effectiveness of mealybugs as virus vectors is species dependent, and it is therefore vital that cssv resistance breeding programmes in cacao incorporate accurate mealybug identification. in this work, the efficacy of a co1-based dna barcoding approach to species identification was evaluated by screening a ...201625827719
bacilliform dna-containing plant viruses in the tropics: commonalities within a genetically diverse group.plant viruses, possessing a bacilliform shape and containing double-stranded dna, are emerging as important pathogens in a number of agricultural and horticultural crops in the tropics. they have been reported from a large number of countries in african and asian continents, as well as from islands from the pacific region. the viruses, belonging to two genera, badnavirus and tungrovirus, within the family caulimoviridae, have genomes displaying a common plan, yet are highly variable, sometimes e ...201323763585
geographical differentiation of the molecular diversity of cacao swollen shoot virus in togo.the variability of cacao swollen shoot virus (cssv) was studied in two areas of togo with distinct epidemiological backgrounds, kloto and litimé. this molecular study was based on 120 sequence comparisons of the first part of orf3 of the viral genome. the phylogenetic study distinguished three groups of cssv isolates, a, b, and c, with clear geographical differentiation between the kloto and litimé areas. the only group detected in kloto was group c, whereas the litimé area only contained isolat ...201222160623
molecular variability analysis of five new complete cacao swollen shoot virus genomic sequences.cacao swollen shoot virus (cssv), a member of the family caulimovi-ridae, genus badnavirus occurs in all the main cacao-growing areas of west africa. we amplified, cloned and sequenced complete genomes of five new isolates, two originating from togo and three originating from ghana. the genome of these five newly sequenced isolates all contain the five putative open reading frames i, ii, iii, x and y described for the first sequenced cssv isolate, agou1 originating from togo. their genomes have ...200515338327
early detection of cacao swollen shoot virus using the polymerase chain reaction.a polymerase chain reaction assay was developed which allows early detection of cacao swollen shoot virus (cssv) in dna extracts from cacao plantlets agroinoculated with the togolese isolate agou 1. the primers used were derived from badnavirus conserved sequences and nucleic acid was extracted with the plant dneasy extraction kit (qiagen). cssv genome was detectable between 6 and 20 days after inoculation. the first leaf symptoms appeared after 4 weeks and the first shoot swelling symptoms afte ...200111311339
nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of cacao swollen shoot virus.cacao swollen shoot virus is classified as a badnavirus based on its nonenveloped, bacilliform particle morphology and double-stranded dna genome. a complete copy of the genome was cloned into a plasmid vector and the sequence was determined from 75 overlapping subclones covering both strands. the genome contains 7161 base pairs and possesses an intergenic region and five putative open reading frames (orf) capable of coding for proteins > 10 kda. all of the orfs are present on the plus-strand. o ...19937690503
characterization of the genome of cacao swollen shoot virus.cacao swollen shoot disease has been known to be caused by a small non-enveloped bacilliform virus for more than 25 years. purification using a combination of celite filtration, polyethylene glycol concentration and sucrose density gradient centrifugation has yielded concentrated preparations of purified cacao swollen shoot virus (cssv). results of nuclease sensitivity tests indicated that the cssv genome consists of dsdna which has two single-stranded regions. the approximate size of cssv dna c ...19911856700
application of a systemic insecticide by trunk implantation to control a mealybug vector of the cacao swollen shoot virus. 195413165638
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