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plasmodium-salmonella co-infection induces intense inflammatory responsanirban pal, phd, cisr-central institute of medicinal and aromatic plants, lucknow, uttar pradesh indiae, oxidative stress and liver damage: a mice model study for therapeutic strategy.impairment of host immune response in malaria favours bacteraemia caused by typhoidal or non-typhoidal serovars of salmonella enterica. ofloxacin and artesunate are the drugs that are clinically proven for treating typhoid and malaria respectively. the study evaluates the host responses upon treatment with antibiotic (ofloxacin) and anti-malarial (artesunate) in a standardized mice model harbouring co-infection. balb/c mice (18-22 gm) were simultaneously co-infected with plasmodium yoelii nigeri ...201829394238
mechanism of splenic cell death and host mortality in a plasmodium yoelii malaria model.malaria is a fatal disease that displays a spectrum of symptoms and severity, which are determined by complex host-parasite interactions. it has been difficult to study the effects of parasite strains on disease severity in human infections, but the mechanisms leading to specific disease phenotypes can be investigated using strains of rodent malaria parasites that cause different disease symptoms in inbred mice. using a unique mouse malaria model, here we investigated the mechanisms of splenic c ...201728874800
plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (n67) is a robust animal model to study malaria transmission by south american anopheline mosquitoes.malaria is endemic in the american continent and the amazonian rainforest is the region with the highest risk of transmission. however, the lack of suitable experimental models to infect malaria vectors from the americas has limited the progress to understand the biology of transmission in this region. anopheles aquasalis, a major vector in coastal areas of south america, was found to be highly refractory to infection with two strains of plasmodium falciparum (nf54 and 7g8) and with plasmodium b ...201627911924
increased cd40 expression enhances early sting-mediated type i interferon response and host survival in a rodent malaria model.both type i interferon (ifn-i) and cd40 play a significant role in various infectious diseases, including malaria and autoimmune disorders. cd40 is mostly known to function in adaptive immunity, but previous observations of elevated cd40 levels early after malaria infection of mice led us to investigate its roles in innate ifn-i responses and disease control. using a plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis n67 and c57bl/6 mouse model, we showed that infected cd40-/- mice had reduced sting and serum ifn-β ...201627716849
new orally active diphenylmethyl-based ester analogues of dihydroartemisinin: synthesis and antimalarial assessment against multidrug-resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in mice.a new series of ester analogues of artemisinin 8a-f, incorporating diphenylmethyl as pharmacologically privileged substructure, and 8g-j have been prepared and evaluated for their antimalarial activity against multidrug-resistant (mdr) plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in swiss mice via oral route. these diphenylmethyl-based ester analogues 8a-f were found to be 2-4 folds more active than the antimalarial drugs β-arteether 4 and artesunic acid 5. ester 8a, the most active compound of the series, pro ...201626898813
arteether nanoemulsion for enhanced efficacy against plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis malaria: an approach by enhanced bioavailability.the present work is focused on the preparation of nanoemulsions (nes) loaded with arteether (art) for its enhanced efficacy against malaria parasites. art-nes have been prepared using high pressure homogenization (hph) technique with the aim of improving its solubility and thus its bioavailability. art-nes were optimized in terms of pressure and number of cycles. globule size and size distributions were chosen as quality parameters. the maximum drug loading was achieved up to 93 ± 7.4% with glob ...201525616971
synthesis and antimalarial activity of 3,3-spiroanellated 5,6-disubstituted 1,2,4-trioxanes.novel 3,3-spiroanellated 5-aryl, 6-arylvinyl-substituted 1,2,4-trioxanes 19-34 have been synthesized and appraised for their antimalarial activity against multidrug-resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in swiss mice by oral route at doses ranging from 96 mg/kg × 4 days to 24 mg/kg × 4 days. the most active compound of the series (compound 25) provided 100% protection at 24 mg/kg × 4 days, and other 1,2,4-trioxanes 22, 26, 27, and 30 also showed promising activity. in this model, β-arteether p ...201324900640
the dichotomy (generation of mabs with functional heterogeneity) in antimalarial immune response in vaccinated/protected mice: a new concept in our understanding of the protective immune mechanisms in malaria.globally, vaccines have emerged as one of the most effective, safe, and cost-effective public health interventions, and are known to save 2-3 million lives, annually. however, despite various commendable efforts, a suitable human malaria vaccine is yet to see the light of the day. the lack of our complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and immune protection in malaria appears to be responsible for this state. earlier, our laboratory has reported that swiss mice vaccina ...201424632591
larval nutrition differentially affects adult fitness and plasmodium development in the malaria vectors anopheles gambiae and anopheles stephensi.mosquito fitness is determined largely by body size and nutritional reserves. plasmodium infections in the mosquito and resultant transmission of malaria parasites might be compromised by the vector's nutritional status. we studied the effects of nutritional stress and malaria parasite infections on transmission fitness of anopheles mosquitoes.201324326030
correlation between plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis susceptibility to artemisinin and alkylation of heme by the drug.evidence of artemisinin (art) resistance in all of the greater mekong region is currently of major concern. understanding of the mechanisms of resistance developed by plasmodium against artemisinin and its derivatives is urgently needed. we here demonstrated that art was able to alkylate heme in mice infected by the art-susceptible strain of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, y-control. after long-term drug pressure, the parasite strain (y-art3) was 5-fold less susceptible to art than y-control. in ...201323752508
effect of chloroquine, methylene blue and artemether on red cell and hepatic antioxidant defence system in mice infected with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.reactive oxygen species are mediators of tissue injury and are involved in malaria infection. in this study, the status of red cell and hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defence indices were investigated during plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (p. yoelii) infection, and treatment with chloroquine (cq), methylene blue (mb) or artemether (art) in mice. p. yoelii infection caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in oxidative stress as evidenced by the elevated level of malondialdehyde. this wa ...201323604568
ketoconazole, a cytochrome p(450) inhibitor can potentiate the antimalarial action of α/β arteether against mdr plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.the emergence of multidrug resistant (mdr) strains of plasmodium falciparum in south east asia and other tropical countries, is posing serious challenge for the international efforts to eradicate malaria. new drug target/act/non-act combinations need to be discovered to control the spread of mdr malaria. the present communication deals with antimalarial potential of a new combination comprising of ketoconazole (ktz) (an antifungal/inhibitor of cyp3a4) and artemisinin derivative α/β arteether (ar ...201323391499
antimalarial interaction of quinine and quinidine with clarithromycin.quinine (qn) and quinidine (qnd) have been commonly used as effective and affordable antimalarials for over many years. quinine primarily is used for severe malaria treatment. however, plasmodia resistance to these drugs and poor patient compliance limits their administration to the patients. the declining sensitivity of the parasite to the drugs can thus be dealt with by combining with a suitable partner drug. in the present study qn/qnd was assessed in combination with clarithromycin (cltr), a ...201323137860
qsar, docking and admet studies of artemisinin derivatives for antimalarial activity targeting plasmepsin ii, a hemoglobin-degrading enzyme from p. falciparum.this work presents the development of quantitative structure activity relationship (qsar) model to predict the antimalarial activity of artemisinin derivatives. the structures of the molecules are represented by chemical descriptors that encode topological, geometric, and electronic structure features. screening through qsar model suggested that compounds a24, a24a, a53, a54, a62 and a64 possess significant antimalarial activity. linear model is developed by the multiple linear regression method ...201222670592
linker-based hemisuccinate derivatives of artemisinin: synthesis and antimalarial assessment against multidrug-resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in mice (1).artesunic acid 5, the hemisuccinate derivative of dihydroartemisinin 2, is the only clinically useful water-soluble derivative of artemisinin 1. however, being a lactol ester, it is rapidly hydrolyzed back to dihydroartemisinin in aqueous alkaline solution, a reaction that seriously limits its utility. a new series of potentially more stable linker-based hemisuccinate derivatives 12a-i and 14a-c have been prepared. the process involved acid-catalyzed reaction of dihydroartemisinin with various d ...201222216834
clarithromycin, a cytochrome p450 inhibitor, can reverse mefloquine resistance in plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis- infected swiss mice.summaryduring the last 2 decades there have been numerous reports of the emergence of mefloquine resistance in southeast asia and nearly 50% resistance is reported in thailand. a world health organization report (2001) considers mefloquine as an important component of act (artesunate+mefloquine) which is the first line of treatment for the control of uncomplicated/multi-drug resistant (mdr) plasmodium falciparum malaria. in view of the emergence of resistance towards this drug, it is proposed to ...201121756423
antiplasmodial activity of artecyclopentyl mether a new artemisinin derivative and its effect on pathogenesis in plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infected mice.in an effort to evaluate novel derivatives from artemisinin, possessing potential antimalarial activity, a new derivative artecyclopentyl mether (cpm-1) was derivatized and evaluated for its dose-dependent efficacy in plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infected mice. the survivability of mice at 7.5 mg/kg was >28 days with negligible parasitaemia and recovered anemia (66.16-72.62%). artecyclopentyl mether was also found to modulate the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (ifn-γ, 39.64-56.92%; tnf, 4 ...201121541755
site-specific integration and expression of an anti-malarial gene in transgenic anopheles gambiae significantly reduces plasmodium infections.diseases transmitted by mosquitoes have a devastating impact on global health and this is worsening due to difficulties with existing control measures and climate change. genetically modified mosquitoes that are refractory to disease transmission are seen as having great potential in the delivery of novel control strategies. historically the genetic modification of insects has relied upon transposable elements which have many limitations despite their successful use. to circumvent these limitati ...201121283619
synthesis and antimalarial assessment of a new series of orally active amino-functionalized spiro 1,2,4-trioxanes.keto-trioxanes 7a-d, easily accessible in two steps from allylic alcohols 5a-d, underwent reductive amination with substituted anilines to furnish amino-functionalized trioxanes 8a-i, 9a-i, 10a-i, and 11a-i. all these new trioxanes were assessed for their oral antimalarial activity against multidrug-resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in swiss mice. 2-naphthalene-based trioxanes 9c and 9i, the most active compounds of the series, provided 100% protection to the malaria-infected mice at 24 mg ...201020936847
both hemolytic anemia and malaria parasite-specific factors increase susceptibility to nontyphoidal salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in mice.severe pediatric malaria is an important risk factor for developing disseminated infections with nontyphoidal salmonella serotypes (nts). while recent animal studies on this subject are lacking, early work suggests that an increased risk for developing systemic nts infection during malaria is caused by hemolytic anemia, which leads to reduced macrophage microbicidal activity. here we established a model for oral salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium challenge in mice infected with plasmodium ...201020100860
search for new pharmacophores for antimalarial activity. part iii: synthesis and bioevaluation of new 6-thioureido-4-anilinoquinazolines.syntheses and in vitro antimalarial evaluation of 42 new thioureidoquinazolines have been carried out. several analogs showed promising antimalarial effect in the in vitro investigation against chloroquine-sensitive 3d7 strain of plasmodium falciparum whereas one of the compounds shows 50% curative effect in the mouse model at an oral dose of 100mg/kg x 4 days against multidrug resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.200919586687
rodent malaria-resistant strains of the mosquito, anopheles gambiae, have slower population growth than -susceptible strains.trade-offs between anti-parasite defence mechanisms and other life history traits limit the evolution of host resistance to parasites and have important implications for understanding diseases such as malaria. mosquitoes have not evolved complete resistance to malaria parasites and one hypothesis is that anti-malaria defence mechanisms are costly.200919379508
adjuvanticity and protective immunity of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis blood-stage soluble antigens encapsulated in fusogenic liposome.in our previous studies we established fusogenic properties of lipids isolated from edible yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae (s. cerevisiae). we demonstrated that liposomes prepared from s. cerevisiae membrane lipid (saccharosome) can deliver encapsulated antigen into cytosol of the antigen presenting cells and elicit antigen specific cell mediated as well as humoral immune responses. in this study, we evaluated immunological behavior of saccharosome encapsulated cytosolic proteins (sag) of plasmod ...200918996429
comparison of male reproductive success in malaria-refractory and susceptible strains of anopheles gambiae.in female mosquitoes that transmit malaria, the benefits of being refractory to the plasmodium parasite are balanced by the immunity costs in the absence of infection. male mosquitoes, however, gain no advantage from being refractory to blood-transmitted parasites, so that any costs associated with an enhanced immune system in the males limit the evolution of female refractoriness and has practical implications for the release of transgenic males.200818534029
anti-protozoan activities of harungana madagascariensis stem bark extract on trichomonads and malaria.the ethanolic stem bark extract of harungana madagascariensis (hypericaceae), (choisy) poir were evaluated for their activities on trichomonas gallinae (rivolta) stabler isolated from the pigeon (columba livia). it was also tested for their anti-malarial activity on n67 plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (in vivo) in mice and on plasmodium falciparum isolates in vitro.200818372133
orally active esters of dihydroartemisinin: synthesis and antimalarial activity against multidrug-resistant plasmodium yoelii in mice.a series of artemisinin derived esters 7a-j, incorporating pharmacologically privileged substructure, such as biphenyl, adamantane and fluorene, have been prepared and evaluated for antimalarial activity against multidrug-resistant (mdr) plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis by oral route. several of these compounds were found to be more active than the antimalarial drugs beta-arteether 4 and artesunic acid 5. ester 7i, the most active compound of the series, provided 100% and 80% protection to the infe ...200818206370
orally active 1,2,4-trioxepanes: synthesis and antimalarial activity of a series of 7-arylvinyl-1,2,4-trioxepanes against multidrug-resistant plasmodium yoelii in swiss mice.7-arylvinyl-1,2,4-trioxepanes 7a-d, 8a-d, 9a-d, 10a-d, 11a-c, and 12a-c, prepared by photooxygenation of homoallylic alcohols 5a-d, were evaluated against multi-drug resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in swiss mice by oral and intramuscular routes. trioxepane 11c, the most active compound of the series, showed more than 98% suppression of parsitaemia at 96 mg/kg by both oral and intramuscular routes. this is the first report on in vivo active 1,2,4-trioxepanes.200818054238
effect of chloroquine on gene expression of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis during its sporogonic development in the mosquito vector.the anti-malarial chloroquine can modulate the outcome of infection during the plasmodium sporogonic development, interfering with plasmodium gene expression and subsequently, with transmission. the present study sets to identify plasmodium genes that might be regulated by chloroquine in the mosquito vector.200717605769
effect of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infection on hepatic and splenic glutathione-s-transferase(s) in swiss albino and db/+ mice: efficacy of mefloquine and menadione in antimalarial chemotherapy.the present report deals with the status of hepatic and splenic glutathione-s-transferase (gst) activities in mice during experimental infection with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis and subsequent treatment of infected mice with mefloquine (mf) and menadione (md). the infection caused significant decline in the hepatic and splenic glutathione-s-transferase (gst) activities of albino and db/+ mice. the decline was observed in the levels of both cytosolic and microsomal gst(s) of liver and spleen in ...200717352848
new adamantane-based spiro 1,2,4-trioxanes orally effective against rodent and simian malaria.new 6-arylvinyl- and 6-adamantylvinyl-substituted 1,2,4-trioxanes (13a-g and 14a,b) have been prepared and evaluated for antimalarial activity against multidrug resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in mice by both oral and intramuscular routes. while all the 6-arylvinyl-substituted trioxanes, 13a-f, showed promising activity, none of the 6-adamantylvinyl-substituted trioxanes, 13g and 14a,b, exhibited significant activity. trioxane, 13f, the most active compound of the series, provided 100% a ...200717266204
prophylactic potential of liposomized integral membrane protein of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis against blood stage infection in balb/c mice.triton x-114 phase separated integral membrane proteins (imps) of a multidrug resistant strain of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (p. yoelii) were screened for their potential to impart protection against malaria infection in balb/c mice. as revealed by immunoblotting, antibodies present in parasite specific sera from convalescent (protected) as well as immunized (partially protected) animals recognized different membrane proteins. a thorough investigation reveals that p. yoelii specific convalesc ...200717241709
synthesis and antimalarial evaluation of a series of piperazinyl flavones.a series of 27 flavonoid derivatives containing a piperazinyl chain have been synthesized and tested for their antiplasmodial activity. diverse substitution patterns on piperazinyl and flavone moieties were examined and found to affect the activity differently. the most active compounds, which have a 2,3,4-trimethoxybenzylpiperazinyl chain attached to the flavone at the 7-phenol group, showed in vitro activity against chloroquine-sensitive (thai) and -resistant (fcb1,k1) plasmodium falciparum st ...200717166718
new orally active derivatives of artemisinin with high efficacy against multidrug-resistant malaria in mice.a new series of ether derivatives of dihydroartemisinin have been prepared and evaluated for their antimalarial activity against multidrug-resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in mice by oral route. these new derivatives 7-17 are highly lipophilic (log p in the range of 5.51 to 7.19) as compared with beta-arteether (log p 3.84), and several of them are two- to four-fold more active than beta-arteether. among the ether derivatives, alpha-isomers are more active than the beta-isomers. the ether ...200617125275
blood schizontocidal activity of selected 1,2,4-trioxanes (fenozans) against the multidrug-resistant strain of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (mdr) in vivo.blood schizontocidal activity of 10 selected cis-fused cyclopenteno-1,2,4-trioxanes (namely fenozan compound nos 6, 7, 11, 27, 32, 39, 44, 45, 48 and 51) have been re-investigated to establish their curative doses against the multidrug-resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis strain, which is lethal in swiss mice. freshly prepared formulations of these compounds prepared either in neutral groundnut (peanut) oil or in dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso)-tween-water, were compared for their antimalarial acti ...200616764736
orally active 1,2,4-trioxanes: synthesis and antimalarial assessment of a new series of 9-functionalized 3-(1-arylvinyl)-1,2,5-trioxaspiro[5.5]undecanes against multi-drug-resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in mice.using easily accessible keto-trioxanes 7a-g as the starting materials, a series of new variously functionalized 1,2,4-trioxanes 10-36 have been prepared and evaluated for antimalarial activity against multi-drug-resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in mice in the dose range of 24 mg/kg x 4 days to 96 mg/kg x 4 days by oral route. trioxanes 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 22 have shown promising antimalarial activity. trioxanes 14 and 18, the two most active compounds of the series, provide 100% a ...200616640340
studies on drug metabolizing enzymes during arteether treatment of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infected mice cerebral microvessels.human cerebral malaria is caused by a protozoan parasitic with no cure till date. the isolation of brain capillaries i.e. microvessels has permitted the in vitro study related to cerebral function. microvessels were isolated from normal and p. yoelii infected mice brain cortex and subjected to biochemical characterization by the following enzyme markers viz alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyi transpeptidase and monoamine oxidase and electron microscopically. limited studies have been carried ou ...200516637400
evaluating the costs of mosquito resistance to malaria parasites.costly resistance mechanisms have been cited as an explanation for the widespread occurrence of parasitic infections, yet few studies have examined these costs in detail. a malaria-mosquito model has been used to test this concept by making a comparison of the fitness of highly susceptible lines of mosquitoes with lines that are resistant to infection. malaria infection is known to cause a decrease in fecundity and fertility of mosquitoes; resistant mosquitoes were thus predicted to be fitter th ...200516526504
immune stimulation and malaria infection impose reproductive costs in anopheles gambiae via follicular apoptosis.the employment of defense mechanisms is recognized as a costly life-history trait. in the malaria vector anopheles gambiae, reproductive costs have been associated with both humoral and cellular innate immune responses and also with malaria infection. the resorption of developing oocytes associated with malaria infection is preceded by the programmed cell death, or apoptosis, of follicular cells. here we demonstrate that apoptosis in ovarian follicular epithelial cells also occurs when mosquitoe ...200616213176
blood schizontocidal activity of azithromycin and its combination with alpha/beta arteether against multi-drug resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, a novel mdr parasite model for antimalarial screening.many different drug-resistant lines of rodent malaria are available as screening models. it is obligatory to screen new compounds for antimalarial activity against a series of resistant lines in order to identify a compound with potential for the treatment of multi-drug resistant (mdr) malaria infections. instead of using a battery of resistant lines, a single mdr plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis strain that shows a wide spectrum of drug resistance to high doses of chloroquine, mepacrine, amodiaqui ...200516178350
escheriosome entrapped soluble blood stage antigens impart protective immunity against a multi-drug resistant isolate of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in balb/c mice.the plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis murine model was used to evaluate the potential of liposome entrapped soluble blood stage antigens (sag) based vaccine against malaria infection in balb/c mice. results from the present study revealed that immunization with e. coli lipid liposome (escheriosome) entrapped sag provided strong protective immune responses that successfully suppressed drug resistant strain of plasmodium yoelii, whereas other forms of sag such as, egg pc/chol liposomes entrapped, or i ...200616168527
malaria parasite developmental analyses by the nested polymerase chain reaction method: an implication for the evaluation of mosquito infection rates in epidemiological studies.a malaria mosquito vector, anopheles saperoi, and a non-vector, aedes albopictus, were allowed to feed on mice infected with murine malaria, plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, and were subsequently monitored for the development of parasites by the nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method, using plasmodium genus-specific primer pairs. the mosquitos were divided into two parts, head/thorax and abdomen, for dna analyses. the parasite dna and murine dna for each mosquito were examined in parallel. ...200415916075
merozoite surface protein 4/5 provides protection against lethal challenge with a heterologous malaria parasite strain.immunization with merozoite surface protein 4/5 (msp4/5), the murine malaria homologue of plasmodium falciparum msp4 and msp5, has been shown to protect mice against challenge by parasites expressing the homologous form of the protein. the gene encoding msp4/5 was sequenced from a number of plasmodium yoelii isolates in order to assess the level of polymorphism in the protein. the gene was found to be highly conserved among the 13 p. yoelii isolates sequenced, even though many of the same isolat ...200415385485
resistance reversal action of ketoconazole against mefloquine resistance of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.ketoconazole at 200 mg/kg dose has been found to exert marginal antimalarial action against multidrug resistant (mdr) plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (p. yoelii nigeriensis) in swiss mice with 25% protection (2/8 mice) while at lower ketoconazole dose i.e., 75-100 mg/kg, 14.28% mice were protected. mefloquine (mfq) (at 8 and 16 mg/kg) exerted suppressive action against mdr p. yoelii nigeriensis resulting in 25 and 14.28% protection of mice respectively. combined treatment with ketoconazole and mef ...200415363936
effects of autacoid inhibitors and of an antagonist on malaria infection in mice.the effects of p-chlorophenylalanine, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, cyproheptadine, a serotonin, bradykinin and histamine antagonist, were assessed separately and in combination with chloroquine (cq) in vom strains of swiss albino mice (18-22 g) of either sex infected intraperitoneally with 1 x 10(7) plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis-induced malaria. as prophylactic, these agents reduced from 31.9 +/- 4.5 to 16.1 +/- 8.1% the level of par ...200415273821
nitric oxide protects against chloroquine resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis parasites in vitro.malaria is a life-threatening disease of global concern. the role of nitric oxide in the clearance of malarial parasites is still under debate. several reports suggest a possible role for nitric oxide in the protection during initial stages of malarial infection. in the present study, we demonstrate that the nitric oxide in combination with low concentrations of chloroquine controls the parasitaemia in vitro. activated peritoneal macrophages co-cultured with lipopolysaccharide+interferon-gamma o ...200314990311
8-quinolinamines conjugated with amino acids are exhibiting potent blood-schizontocidal antimalarial activities.alanine, lysine, ornithine and valine conjugated to primaquine and other 8-quinolinamine antimalarials were prepared for blood-schizontocidal antimalarial activity evaluation. the analogues were examined in vivo against plasmodium berghei (drug-sensitive strain) and plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (highly virulent multi-drug-resistant strain) infected mice models. n(1)-[4-(5-butoxy-4-ethyl-6-methoxy-8-quinolylamino)pentyl]-(2s)-2,6-diaminohexanamide (20) which showed curative activity at 5mg/kg in ...200414697789
trypsin and aminopeptidase activities in blood-fed females anopheles dirus (diptera: culicidae) of differing susceptibility to plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.midgut proteolytic enzymes contribute to the success or failure of plasmodium infection of the mosquito. the present study investigated trypsin and aminopeptidase activities in the midgut of two strains of anopheles dirus selected for susceptibility and refractoriness to plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. at intervals of 6 hours following a bloodmeal, the midguts of fully engorged female mosquitos were dissected, homogenized, and assayed for enzyme activity. no differences trypsin activity (nmole/mi ...200212757211
prophylactic effect of multi-herbal extract 'agbo-iba' on malaria induced in mice.to determine the efficacy of a multi-herbal preparation extract of 'agbo-iba' on rodent malaria induced in mice.200212638827
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against asexual stages of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.swiss mice vaccinated with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis-soluble antigen and saponin, following a homologous 100% lethal challenge, showed 60% protection (6 out of 10 mice survived). monoclonal antibodies (mabs), generated by hybridizing the sp2/0 myeloma cells with the splenocytes of each of these ten mice, separately, were screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and were characterized by using merozoite (mz) invasion inhibition assay in vitro, immunofluorescence assay (ifa), ...200212573112
haem polymerase as a novel target of antimalarial action of cyproheptadine.an antihistaminic drug, cyproheptadine (20-25mg/kg x 4 days), showed significant schizontocidal activity in the blood against a lethal multidrug-resistant (mdr) strain of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (highly resistant to chloroquine, mefloquine, and quinine); the protection of mice ranged between 75 and 100%. a combination of cyproheptadine (15 mg/kg) and chloroquine improved antimalarial activity compared to treatment with either drug alone, whereas a combination of cyproheptadine with quinine ...200212392821
antagonist effect of chloroquine and tumor necrosis factor on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in normal and plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis-infected mice.plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (p. y. nigeriensis) produces lethal malaria infection in swiss albino mice. tumor necrosis factor (tnf) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of malaria by production of reactive oxygen species. chloroquine is a traditionally used antimalarial and has been postulated to inhibit tnf secretion during malaria infection.200211980364
malaria-induced apoptosis in mosquito ovaries: a mechanism to control vector egg production.many insects are able to adjust their egg production according to physiological conditions such as nutrient supply and mating success. one way in which this is achieved is by resorption of some, or all, of the ovarian follicles at some stage during oogenesis. we have shown that the mosquito anopheles stephensi responds in this manner when ookinetes of the malaria parasite plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis first begin to invade the midgut. little is known about the initiation and regulation of follic ...200111683433
effects of malaria infection on vitellogenesis in anopheles gambiae during two gonotrophic cycles.we report changes in the abundance of vitellogenin (vg) mrna, and concentration of haemolymph vg and ovarian vitellin (vn) in anopheles gambiae following infection with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. a parasite-induced reduction in vg mrna abundance was first detected 24 h after feeding on an infective blood meal, when ookinetes were invading the midgut. during a second gonotrophic cycle post-infection, developing oocysts reduced vg mrna abundance by up to 33% and the effect was detected from 2 ...200111520358
changes in rodent-erythrocyte methemoglobin reductase system produced by two malaria parasites, viz. plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis and plasmodium berghei.the methemoglobin reductase system plays a vital role in maintaining the equilibrium between hemoglobin and methemoglobin in blood. exposure of red blood cells to oxidative stress (pathological/physiological) may cause impairment to this equilibrium. we studied the status of erythrocytic methemoglobin and the related reductase system during plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infection in mice and p. berghei infection in mastomys. malaria infection was induced by intraperitoneal inoculation with 10(6) ...200111435127
the influence of host haematocrit on the blood feeding success of anopheles stephensi: implications for enhanced malaria transmission.two studies were carried out to determine the effect of the rodent malaria plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis on the blood feeding success of anopheles stephensi. initially, pairs of mice with similar packed cell volume (pcv) (measured by haematocrit) were selected. following infection of one of the pair its pcv gradually fell. at various times post-infection, a comparison was made of the bloodmeal size (haemoglobin content) of mosquitoes feeding on these mice. the bloodmeal sizes increased with para ...200111393821
effect of beta-arteether treatment on erythrocytic methemoglobin reductase system in plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infected mice.the methemoglobin reductase system plays a vital role in maintaining the equilibrium between hemoglobin (hb) and methemoglobin (methb) in blood. exposure of red blood cells to an oxidative stress (pathological/physiological) may cause impairment in this equilibrium.200111360434
effect of poly iclc treatment on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defense indices in plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infected mice.plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (p. y. nigeriensis) produces lethal malaria infection in swiss albino mice. reactive oxygen species (ros) are important mediators of tissue injury during malaria infection.200111286134
glucose transport in cerebral microvessels during plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infection in mice.plasmodium yoelii infected cerebral micro vessels of mice registered a significant increase in d-[u-14c] glucose transport as compared to normal microvessels which was found to be time, temperature and concentration dependent. metabolic inhibitors galactose, manose, 2-deoxy glucose and d-glucose showed noticeable inhibition of the same.200011198395
interaction between chloroquine and diverse pharmacological agents in chloroquine resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.the effect of a number of pharmacological agents on the enhancement of antimalarial activity of chloroquine was evaluated against chloroquine resistant line of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (n-67). the response after combination therapy was monitored on the basis of alteration in the course of parasitaemia, the extension of mean survival time and the percent cure rate in different groups. the study was designed to compare the in vivo efficacy of a number of resistance modulating agents found eff ...200011080509
effect of tumor necrosis factor on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defense indices in normal and plasmodium yeolii nigeriensis infected mice.plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (p. y. nigeriensis) produces lethal malaria infection in swiss albino mice. reactive oxygen species (ros) such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide along with endogenously produced tumor necrosis factor (tnf) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of malaria.200011071400
modulation of halofantrine resistance after coadministration of halofantrine with diverse pharmacological agents in a rodent malaria model.the declining efficacy of antimalarial drugs against plasmodium falciparum strains has been reported from several endemic regions of the world. strategic evaluation of several pharmacological agents in combination with chloroquine to enhance the sensitivity of the latter against resistant parasites has been documented in several studies. however no attempts have been directed to monitor the efficacy of such biological response modifiers for reversing the resistance to halofantrine. in the presen ...200010972203
pyronaridine: an effective antimalarial against multidrug-resistant malaria.pyronaridine, administered intramuscularly (im) to swiss mice infected with the lethal multidrug-resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, was found to exert high blood schizontocidal activity. the efficacy of doses of pyronaridine ranging from 0.625 to 30 mg (base/kg) was evaluated using a 4 day treatment schedule (drug was administered at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hrs). it was found that doses of 2.5mg/ kg and higher protected animals completely from the lethal effects of the parasite. the same degree o ...200010968405
studies on erythrocytic methemoglobin reductase systems in plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infected mice.the methemoglobin reductase system plays a vital role in maintaining the equilibrium between hemoglobin and methemoglobin in blood. exposure of red blood cells to oxidative stress (pathological/physiological) causes an impairment in this equilibrium.200010945172
immune responses mediating survival of naive balb/c mice experimentally infected with lethal rodent malaria parasite, plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.the rodent malaria parasite, plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis is known to cause fatal malaria infections in balb/c mice. however, we found that nearly 5% of inbred balb/c mice could overcome primary infections initiated with lethal inoculum of p. y. nigeriensis asexual blood-stages, without any experimental intervention. these 'survivor' mice developed peak parasitemia levels of about 5% and successfully resolved their infections in about two weeks time; infected blood collected during the descendi ...200010865192
plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (mdr)-efficacy of oral pyronaridine against multidrug-resistant malaria in swiss mice.a multidrug-resistant strain of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (mdr) showing a wide spectrum of resistance to chloroquine, amodiaquine, mepacrine, mefloquine, halofantrine, quinine, and quinidine was used in this study for in vivo evaluation of the blood schizontocidal activity of pyronaridine, a topoisomerase ii inhibitor, in swiss mice. the parasite produces 100% lethal infection in mice. the drug was administered orally once a day from day 0 onward. the initial studies showed that low doses of ...200010831384
status of hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defense systems during chloroquine treatment of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infected mice.plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (p. y. nigeriensis) produces lethal malaria infection in swiss albino mice. reactive oxygen species (ros) such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide have been implicated in the pathogenesis of malaria.199910757052
inhibition of the development of the hepatic stages of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis by antihistaminic agents. 199910656045
blood digestion in the mosquito, anopheles stephensi: the effects of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis on midgut enzyme activities.midgut proteases contribute to the success or failure of plasmodium infection of the mosquito. this paper examines the reciprocal effect of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis on midgut trypsin, chymotrypsin, aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase in the mosquito anopheles stephensi. the total protein ingested and the rate of protein digestion were unaffected by the parasite, but more protein was ingested at the first than the second bloodmeal. all peptidases were unaffected by the presence of the parasi ...199910633914
azithromycin: antimalarial profile against blood- and sporozoite-induced infections in mice and monkeys.the spectrum of antimalarial activity of the new macrolide antibiotic azithromycin was evaluated against blood- and sporozoite-induced infections with a chloroquine-resistant strain of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (n-67) in swiss mice and with simian parasite plasmodium cynomolgi b in rhesus monkeys. against experimental rodent malaria, a 70 mg/kg/day dose showed curative blood-schizontocidal activity in a four-dose regimen administered orally from day 0 to day 3 or from day 2 to day 5 to mice ...200010631075
docetaxel (taxotere): effectiveness against plasmodium falciparum in vitro and plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in vivo. 199810622642
selection of anopheles dirus for refractoriness and susceptibility to plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.two lines of the oriental malaria vector mosquito anopheles dirus species a (diptera: culicidae), one fully refractory and one fully susceptible to plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (an african rodent malaria parasite), were established after 17 generations of mass selection, followed by single female selection for one or two generations. prior to selection, the stock colony of an. dirus was 17% refractory. both lines of an. dirus produced abundant ookinetes that started to invade the midgut within ...199910608223
mice immunised with synthetic peptide from n-terminal conserved region of merozoite surface antigen-2 of human malaria parasite plasmodium falciparum can control infection induced by plasmodium yoelii yoelii 265by strain.synthetic peptides representing conserved msa-2 sequences are being considered as a possible component of a blood stage malaria vaccine. antibody response towards the entire n-terminal conserved region of msa-2 and its constituent b-epitope sntfinna following immunisation of balb/c and c57bl/6 mice with different peptide constructs was assessed by elisa and immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat). co-linear synthesis of sntfinna-epitope in tandem with the entire n-terminal conserved region pepti ...199910580206
the effect of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infection on the feeding persistence of anopheles stephensi liston throughout the sporogonic cycle.vector-borne parasites such as malaria have been shown to modify the feeding behaviour of their invertebrate hosts so as to increase the probability of transmission. however, evolutionary consideration of developmental changes in malaria within anopheles mosquitoes suggests that the nature of altered feeding by mosquitoes should differ depending on the developmental stage of the parasite. we present laboratory evidence that the feeding persistence of female anopheles stephensi towards a human ho ...199910518321
studies on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems during arteether treatment of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infected mice.reactive oxygen species play an important role in pathology during malaria infection. the status of hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defence indices was studied during plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (p. y. nigeriensis) infection in mice and arteether treatment of p. y. nigeriensis infected mice. p. y. nigeriensis infection caused a significant increase in hepatic xanthine oxidase, rate of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (gsh) and glutathione reductase with progressive rise in para ...199910448917
studies on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system during chloroquine/poly iclc treatment of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infected mice.reactive oxygen species are important mediators of tissue injury during malaria infection. the status of hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defence indices were studied during plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (p. y. nigeriensis) infection and chloroquine/ polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with polylysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly iclc) treatment of infected mice. p. y. nigeriensis infection resulted in a significant increase in oxidative stress indices viz., xanthine oxidase a ...199910391138
effect of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (haemosporidia: plasmodiidae) on anopheles stephensi (diptera: culicidae) vitellogenesis.our previous studies demonstrated a significant reduction in the egg production and survival of anopeles stephensi liston infected with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis killick-kendrick. we investigated the physiological mechanism underlying the malaria-induced curtailment of reproductive fitness. polyclonal antibodies were raised against an. stephensi vitellin (vn) and used in an enzyme immunoassay to quantify ovarian vn and hemolymph vitellogenin (vg) at 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 48 h postblood feed ...19989835686
causal prophylactic activity of antihistaminic agents against plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infection in swiss mice.the causal prophylactic activity of five tricyclic anti-histaminic agents (histamine h1-receptor antagonists) cyproheptadine, ketotifen, loratadine, azatadine and terfenadine was evaluated in an experimental murine malaria model. sporozoite induced infections with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (n-67), a strain innately resistant to choloroquine, were employed for the efficacy test and pyrimethamine and primaquine were used as standard reference drugs. treatment with cyproheptadine or ketotifen a ...19989638277
effects of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infection on anopheles stephensi egg development and resorption.it has been shown previously that infection with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis reduces the number of eggs produced by female anopheles stephensi. here we examine the mechanism underlying fecundity reduction. ovaries from infected and uninfected (control) female mosquitoes were examined 12, 24 or 36 h after blood-feeding during the first gonotrophic cycle (replicated) or the second gonotrophic cycle (unreplicated). follicular development was assessed according to christophers' stages and the prop ...19979330258
the effects of infection with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis on the reproductive fitness of anopheles stephensi.infection with the rodent malarial parasite plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis caused a significant reduction in the reproductive fitness (number of eggs produced and proportion of eggs hatched) of two different generations of anopheles stephensi. overall fertility (number of larvae produced) was reduced by 38.3% in the generation containing smaller mosquitoes (with a wing length of 3.2 +/- 0.1 mm) with relatively larger parasite burdens, and by 48.81% in the generation containing larger mosquitoes ( ...19979290843
poly iclc enhances the antimalarial activity of chloroquine against multidrug-resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in mice.swiss mice infected with multidrug-resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis were treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with polylysine and carboxymethyl cellulose (poly iclc), a potent interferon (ifn) inducer and immune enhancer, in combination with chloroquine (cq), which completely eliminated the malaria parasite from these animals. the enhancement of the antimalarial activity of poly iclc was found to be completely reversed by the cytochrome p-450 inducer, phenobarbitone. no ...19979243375
role of macrophages as possible transporters of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis merozoites through the lymphatic system. preliminary note.vesicles containing apparently healthy merozoites from mature schizonts were observed in the spleen and lymph nodes of mice parasitized by plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. they differed from all parasitic stages undergoing digestion by the macrophage and from mature schizonts of the blood. up to 40 merozoites from three mature schizonts may be seen in the same compartment. they are thought to be accumulations of latent merozoites.19979208034
plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis: biological mechanisms of resistance to chloroquine.the sensitivity to chloroquine according to the degree of synchronicity of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, which is considered to be the most resistant of the rodent malaria strains, was studied. the infection was synchronised by means of a percoll-glucose gradient which separates rings and young trophozoites from other stages. the mid-term trophozoite, when it predominated in the blood at the time of treatment, was shown to be as sensitive to chloroquine as plasmodium vinckei petteri. according ...19949140489
the effect of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infection on ovarian protein accumulation by anopheles stephensi.both anopheline and culicine mosquitoes have been shown to incur a reduction in reproductive fitness when infected with malaria parasites. the agent of rodent malaria, plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, was used as a laboratory model to investigate changes in the accumulation of protein in the ovaries of anopheles stephensi when infected with oocysts or when feeding on mice with heavy asexual parasitaemia but no mature gametocytes. herein we report that during the early phases of the gonotrophic cyc ...19979134561
adoptive transfer of immunity induced with chloroquine attenuated plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis from immune to immunologically naive mice.immunity was induced in albino mice using chloroquine-attenuated plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis which had been maintained under drug pressure in 4 passages. attempts were made to adoptively transfer immunity from the immune to immunologically naive mice by means of serum, spleen and thoracic duct extracts. none of them conferred complete immunity on the recipients but some protection was gained. this was evident from the prolongation of both the pre-patent periods of the infection and the surviva ...19979133824
efficacy of cymbopogon giganteus and enantia chrantha against chloroquine resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.the antimalarial activity of boiled water extracts of two medicinal plants (cymbopogon giganteus and enantia chlorantha) against chloroquine resistant plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in albino mice was assessed. twenty-five mice were used for each extract. each mouse was inoculated with approximately 10(5) erythrocytes infected with chloroquine-resistant p.y. nigeriensis. at five to seven percent parasitaemia, the mice were randomly divided into five groups of five mice each. the first four groups ...19968997841
induction of chloroquine resistance in plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.chloroquine resistance was induced in plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis by the method of drug pressure. twenty five albino mice were used at each passage and each of them was inoculated intra-peritoneally with approximately 10(5) erythrocytes infected with the parasite. the first fifteen mice divided into three groups of five mice each were treated with different sub-curative doses of chloroquine which usually cleared the infection for a few days before recrudescence. inocula for passages to the nex ...19968997840
immunization of albino mice using chloroquine attenuated plasmodium yoelli nigeriensis.in an attempt to induce chloroquine resistance in plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis by the method of drug pressure, it was found that the mice continued to be infected until the fourth passage when they became refractory or immune to the infection. when the immune mice were challenged at four weekly intervals, they remained refractory to the infection until week 12 when one of them became infected. however, by the sixteenth week, the rest of the mice became susceptible to the infection. four of the ...19958904069
postprandial lymphatic flux and malaria.24 hours after an intra-peritoneal inoculation of frozen blood infected with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, the malarial infection is non detectable in most starved mice while it is patent in mice fed 2 hours before the inoculation. it is assumed that the post feeding lymphatic flow brings to the blood the latent merozoites.19958745741
plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis: the effect of high and low intensity of infection upon the egg production and bloodmeal size of anopheles stephensi during three gonotrophic cycles.anopheles stephensi mosquitoes showed a reduction in fecundity over 3 successive gonotrophic cycles, after becoming infected with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. this effect could be observed at high oocyst burdens (> 75) or at low oocyst burdens (mean of 4.36). mean bloodmeal size of the infected mosquitoes was significantly reduced only when feeding upon a mouse with a high gametocytaemia and the conversion of the bloodmeal into eggs by the infected mosquitoes was disrupted. patterns of infecte ...19958559587
plasmodium vinckei vinckei and p. yoelii nigeriensis: pattern of gametocyte production and development.the morphological evolution and the periodicity of the gametocytes of two rodent malaria species were studied in the white mouse. experiments with plasmodium vinckei vinckei, a highly synchronous species, showed that the production of the sexual stages was periodic and was set by the specific rhythm of the asexual stages, i.e. the time of inoculation and the duration of the cycle in the blood. the duration of gametocytogenesis from merozoite to stage 0 was approximately 30 hours, and from stage ...19958532362
synchronization of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis and p. y. killicki infection in the mouse by means of percoll-glucose gradient stage fractionation: determination of the duration of the schizogonic cycle.the youngest (rings and young trophozoites) erythrocytic stages of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis and p. yoelii killicki, two rodent malaria subspecies developing very asynchronously in the blood, were separated from the other stages using a discontinuous percoll-glucose gradient. they were inoculated into mice and the subsequent infection remained synchronous for two generations. the duration of the asexual cycle was found to be 18 h.19948202457
[schizogony of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. role of latent merozoites].several procedures were employed to try to specify the schizogonic cycle of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. the percoll-glucose gradient technique for concentrating the very young stages (rings and young trophozoites), allowing a very precise follow up of the development of the parasitaemia during the first schizogonic cycles. a method for studying the prepatencies, providing an approximation of the number of merozoites inoculated. a comparison between the numbers of merozoites present in the blo ...19938154783
neuropathological studies on plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis-induced malaria in mice.malaria infection in mice was produced by intraperitoneal inoculation of 10(6) erythrocytes parasitized with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, a virulent strain of murine malaria. about one week after infection parasitaemia ranged between 60 and 80%, and 100% mortality was observed. infected animals were killed 6 days after infection to allow the examination of brain tissue. electron microscopical observations revealed marked damage to cerebral vascular vessel walls with separation of muscular laye ...19948040397
malaria-induced reduction of fecundity during the first gonotrophic cycle of anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.anopheles stephensi mosquitoes which had fed upon mice infected with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis malaria parasites produced significantly fewer eggs than mosquitoes fed on an uninfected mouse. fecundity reduction was more pronounced when the bloodmeal contained malaria gametocytes and the mosquitoes developed oocysts. egg production and haematin excretion were correlated for uninfected bloodfed mosquitoes; the presence of p.y.nigeriensis in the blood affected this relationship. reduced fecundi ...19957787226
antimalarial effects of c18 fatty acids on plasmodium falciparum in culture and on plasmodium vinckei petteri and plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in vivo.following the demonstration of the antimalarial effect of the long chain saturated alcohol n-hentriacontanol ((ch2)29ch2oh), isolated from the bolivian endemic solanaceous plant cuatresia sp., we have tested the effect of the c18 fatty acids oleic, elaidic, linoleic, and linoleic on malaria parasites. these fatty acids inhibited the parasitemic development in mice infected with plasmodium vinckei petteri or with plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in a 4-day suppressive test. to gain a deeper discernm ...19957628573
[immediate inhibition of the infectivity of gametocytes of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis by serum from rodents infected for 5 days]. 19827181381
a cage replacement experiment involving introduction of genes for refractoriness to plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis into a population of anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae). 19827086849
studies on the role of host serum in the retention of malarial sporozoites by isolated perfused rat liver.the binding of host serum components to malarial sporozoites has been proposed as a mechanism for the specific phagocytic uptake of these parasites, and hence the specificity of host infection (schulman et al., 1981). we therefore observed the kinetics of uptake of sporozoites of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis and p. gallinaceum by isolated perfused rat livers in the presence of homologous or heterologous sera. in the homologous system (p. y. nigeriensis sporozoites in rat serum) sporozoite uptak ...19827080155
vaccination to prevent transmission of plasmodium yoelii malaria.it was possible to block the transmission of infection of the rodent malaria parasite plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis to anopheles stephensi mosquitoes by immunizing mice with a vaccine containing formalin-fixed gametes. both intramuscular and intravenous routes were effective, immunity was achieved with a single dose and the immunity persisted for 6 months at least. transmission-blocking immunity was found to reside in a serum factor, probably antibody, and to be directed against extracellular ga ...19827070834
absence of effects of insecticides on susceptibility of anophelines to plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. 19826810475
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