temperature-dependent life history of oligonychus mangiferus (acari: tetranychidae) on mangifera indica.the mango red spider mite, oligonychus mangiferus (rhaman and sapra), is a major mango pest in taiwan. this mite damages the leaves of the mango tree and affects the quality of the fruit. this study investigates the life history of the mango red spider mite on mangifera indica l. cv. irwin at five constant temperatures (17, 21, 25, 29, and 33 °c), under 80 ± 5 % rh and l12:d12 photoperiod conditions. an increase in temperature significantly decreased the developmental times for each stage and th ...201323801038
purification of pectinase from mango (mangifera indica l. cv. chokanan) waste using an aqueous organic phase system: a potential low cost source of the a novel method of purification, an aqueous organic phase system (aops) was employed to purify pectinase from mango waste. the effect of different parameters, such as the alcohol concentration (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol), the salt type and concentration (ammonium sulfate, potassium phosphate and sodium citrate), the feed stock crude load, the aqueous phase ph and nacl concentration, were investigated in the recovery of pectinase from mango peel. the partition coefficient (k), selecti ...201323770734
multiparametric evaluation of the cytoprotective effect of the mangifera indica l. stem bark extract and mangiferin in hepg2 (mangifera indica l.) stem bark extract (msbe) is a natural product with biological properties and mangiferin is the major component. this paper reported the evaluation of the protective effects of msbe and mangiferin against the toxicity induced in hepg2 cells by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or amiodarone.201323738735
functional properties and dietary fiber characterization of mango processing by-products (mangifera indica l., cv ataulfo and tommy atkins).several reports have focused on utilization of post-harvest residues of crops, while neglecting those residues produced by mango processing. these residues represent a waste of nutrients and a source of environmental contaminants. such by-products could be valuable sources of dietary fiber (df), antioxidant compounds, and single carbohydrates. the aim of this study was to evaluate some functional properties (fp), and the content of df and polyphenols (pp) of the peel and coarse material obtained ...201323715790
effect of mangiferin and mahanimbine on glucose utilization in 3t3-l1 cells.stem barks of mangifera indica contain a rich content of mangiferin (xanthone glucoside), whereas murraya koenigii leaves contain rich sources of mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid) and used traditionally for the treatment of diabetes.201323661997
anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of mangifera evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of mangifera indica in in vitro conditions.201323608334
deciphering structural and temporal interplays during the architectural development of mango trees.plant architecture is commonly defined by the adjacency of organs within the structure and their properties. few studies consider the effect of endogenous temporal factors, namely phenological factors, on the establishment of plant architecture. this study hypothesized that, in addition to the effect of environmental factors, the observed plant architecture results from both endogenous structural and temporal components, and their interplays. mango tree, which is characterized by strong phenolog ...201323585668
anticonvulsant activity of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-o-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose isolated from leaves of mangifera indica.the present study was aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-o-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (pgg) isolated from methanolic leaf extracts of mangifera indica in mice. anticonvulsant activity of pgg was evaluated against pentylenetetrazole (ptz)-induced and maximal electroshock (mes)-induced convulsions in mice. additionally, locomotor activity and gaba levels in the brain were estimated to explore the possible cns-depressant activity and mechanism behind the anticonvulsant ...201323568550
effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of chokanan mango (mangifera indica l.) juice.ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. freshly squeezed chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °c for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °c, 40 khz frequency, 130 w) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. after sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in ph, total solu ...201323538119
protective effect of mango (mangifera indica l.) against uvb-induced skin aging in hairless mice.mangifera indica l. (anacardiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose extracts have been described as an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities.201323458392
do weaver ant (hymenoptera: formicidae) marks affect mango internal quality and storage life?in implementing the integrated pest management mango (mangifera indica l.) program using weaver ants (oecophylla smaragdina f.) as a major component in the northern territory of australia, we received a number of questions from farmers and extension officers asking whether weaver ant marks reduce internal fruit quality and induce fruit rot, which is economically important. however, this issue has not been investigated. soluble sugar content in fruits with and without weaver ant marks and observa ...201323448044
isolation, structural elucidation, ms profiling, and evaluation of triglyceride accumulation inhibitory effects of benzophenone c-glucosides from leaves of mangifera indica l.seventy percent ethanol-water extract from the leaves of mangifera indica l. (anacardiaceae) was found to show an inhibitory effect on triglyceride (tg) accumulation in 3t3-l1 cells. from the active fraction, six new benzophenone c-glucosides, foliamangiferosides a(3) (1), a(4) (2), c(4) (3), c(5) (4), c(6) (5), and c(7) (6) together with 11 known benzophenone c-glucosides (7-17) were obtained. in this paper, isolation, structure elucidation (1-6), and ms fragment cleavage pathways of all 17 iso ...201323368644
host status of commercial mango cultivars to thaumatotibia leucotreta (lepidoptera: tortricidae) in south africa.the objective of this study was to determine the host status of commercially cultivated mango fruit, mangifera indica l. (anacardiaceae) to thaumatotibia leucotreta (meyrick) (lepidoptera: tortricidae) in south africa. t. leucotreta was monitored with parapheromone traps in mango orchards in limpopo and mpumalanga from 2007 to 2010. fruit were inspected for the presence of t leucotreta eggs in mango orchards. mango fruit of the cultivars 'tommy atkins', 'kent', 'keitt', and 'sensation' were arti ...201223356058
1,2,3,4,6 penta-o-galloyl-β-d-glucose, a bioactivity guided isolated compound from mangifera indica inhibits 11β-hsd-1 and ameliorates high fat diet-induced diabetes in c57bl/6 mice.methanolic leaf extract of mangifera indica (memi) was subjected to bioactivity guided fractionation in order to identify the active antidiabetic constituent. 32 fractions were evaluated for possible 11β-hsd-1 inhibition activity under in vitro conditions. the ea-7/8-9/10-4 fraction was evolved as a most potent fraction among all the fractions and it was identified as well known gallotannin compound 1,2,3,4,6 penta-o-galloyl-β-d-glucose (pgg) by spectral analysis. based on these results the pgg ...201323353053
effects of extract from mangifera indica leaf on monosodium urate crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats.the leaves of mangifera indica l. (anacardiaceae) is used as a medicinal material in traditional herb medicine for a long time in india, china, and other eastern asian countries. our present study investigated the therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract from mangifera indica (emi) in rat with monosodium urate (msu) crystals-induced gouty arthritis. effects of emi (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) administrated for 9 days on the ankle swelling, synovial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-α), and in ...201223304232
mango (mangifera indica l.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3t3-l1 adipocyte cells.plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. in mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3t3-l1 adipocyte cell line. in this study, the effects of preparative hplc fractions of methanol peel extracts from irwin, nam doc mai and kensington pride mangoes were evaluated. fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions ...201323295454
changes in acidity, tss, and sugar content at different storage periods of the postharvest mango (mangifera indica l.) influenced by bavistin df.a detailed study was carried out with the postharvest mangoes (namely, the langra and the khirshapat) treated with different levels of bavistin df (bdf) solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 ppm) for obtaining results on biochemical changes as well as storability of postharvest mango. the experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates. the results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the para ...201326904616
response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. the present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. the effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under ...201323267462
physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (mangifera indica l.) cultivars in china.four principal mango cultivars (tainong no.1, irwin, jinhwang and keitt) grown in southern china were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. of all the four cultivars, tainong no.1 had highest content of total phenols, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (dpph, frap) and l(*), lower ph, ppo activity and individual weight. keitt mangoes showed signif ...201323265504
dissipation of penconazole in peach, plum, apricot, and mango by hplc-dad.dissipation of penconazole was estimated in peach, plum, apricot, and mango fruits cultivated in different farms using quechers method for sample preparation and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. following one application of normal dose 25 ml 100 l(-1) water, the average initial deposits of penconazole were observed to be 0.44, 0.35, 0.66 and 1.12 mg kg(-1) for peach, plum, apricot, and mango, respectively. the residues dissipated below the maximum residues limit ...201323242260
reversal of dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in 3t3l1 adipocytes by 3β-taraxerol of mangifera indica.the present study investigates the efficacy of mangifera indica ethyl acetate extract (miee) and its bioactive compound, 3β-taraxerol in the reversal of dexamethasone (dex) induced insulin resistance in 3t3l1 adipocytes.201323219340
persistence behavior of imidacloprid and carbosulfan in mango (mangifera indica l.).imidacloprid was sprayed on mango cv. dashehari at 0.3 ml l(-1) of water during pre-bloom stage with 6-8 cm panicle size (first week of march) to control hopper and carbosulfan was sprayed at 2.0 ml l(-1) of water in the trees of mango hybrid (h-1000) during fruit development stage (first week of may) to control leaf webber. residues of both the insecticides were analysed in peel, pulp and fruit at different stages of fruit development and maturity. the initial residues of imidacloprid, after 30 ...201323196371
quantification and purification of mangiferin from chinese mango (mangifera indica l.) cultivars and its protective effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cells under h(2)o(2)-induced stress.mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 chinese mango (mangifera indica l.) cultivars. the highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of lvpimang (lpm) fruit (7.49 mg/g dw). efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous hpd100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current ch ...201223109851
metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from mangifera indica and solanum paniculatum leaves.the chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. however, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from solanum paniculatum and mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. the amount o ...201223108151
allelic database and accession divergence of a brazilian mango collection based on microsatellite markers.allelic patterns and genetic distances were examined in a collection of 103 foreign and brazilian mango (mangifera indica) accessions in order to develop a reference database to support cultivar protection and breeding programs. an upgma dendrogram was generated using jaccard's coefficients from a distance matrix based on 50 alleles of 12 microsatellite loci. the base pair number was estimated by the method of inverse mobility. the cophenetic correlation was 0.8. the accessions had a coefficient ...201223096906
total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut mango (mangifera indica l., cv. tommy atkin) as affected by infrared heat (mangifera indica l.) is a major tropical fruit that has not been exploited for fresh-cut or minimally processed products on a scale similar to apples, pineapples, or melons. the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of infrared (ir) treatment on total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut cubes from 'tommy atkin' mangoes. mango cubes were ir treated (5, 10, 15 min) and evaluated at 4-d intervals during 16-d storage at 4 ± 1 °c. tota ...201223094872
effect of physico-chemical treatments on ripening behavior and post-harvest quality of amrapali mango (mangifera indica l.) during experiment was done to assess the effect of various physico-chemical treatments on ripening behavior and post harvest quality of mango cv. amrapali. the experiment was planned under completely randomized design (crd) with three replications. the treatment units was five fruits per replication. total 14 treatments were applied. out of these, ethrel 750 ppm treated fruits showed better results in respect of specific gravity (0.88), moisture loss (8.45%), decay (2.5%), total soluble solids (tss, ...201223033685
assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, coimbatore, india.being the second largest manufacturing industry in india, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (spm). since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. suitable plant species were selected based on the air pollution tolerance index (apti) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (aa), ph, relative water content (rwc) and total chlorophyll ...201223029915
influence of polysaccharides and storage during processing on the properties of mango seed kernel extract (microencapsulation).extracts from mango (mangifera indica linn.) cultivar chok-anan seed kernels were studied as active substances, since they are known as a good source of phenolic antioxidants with metal chelating and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. response surface methodology (rsm) was used to investigate the effect of a combination of polysaccharides selected from gum arabic, maltodextrin and alginate on droplet size distribution, encapsulation efficiency (ee), stability and viscosity of w/o/w emulsions. in ...201225005966
proteomic analysis of an unsequenced plant--mangifera indica.mangifera indica (mango) is an important fruit crop in tropical countries with india being the leading producer in the world. substantial research efforts are being devoted to produce fruit that have desirable characteristics including those that pertain to taste, hardiness and resistance to pests. characterization of the genome and proteome of mango would help in the improvement of cultivars. as the mango genome has not yet been sequenced, we employed a mass spectrometry-based approach followed ...201222906602
reducing effect of mangiferin on serum uric acid levels in mice.mangiferin, a natural bioactive xanthone c-glycoside, is widely present in medicinal plants like the leaf of mangifera indica l. (anacardiaceae). it has been reported that mangiferin possesses a variety of biological activities, including antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic.201222881143
residue dynamics of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in/on mango and soil.spirotetramat is a unique insecticide having both phloem and xylem mobility and imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is one of the most widely used in the world. the combination formulation is very effective against sucking pests of mango. residue dynamics of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in/on mango and soil was studied following application of the combination formulation, spirotetramat 12% + imidacloprid 12% (240 sc) at 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1). spirotetramat residues in/on mango fruits ...201222872376
physical barriers to carotenoid bioaccessibility. ultrastructure survey of chromoplast and cell wall morphology in nine carotenoid-containing fruits and vegetables.the ultrastructural characterisation of cellular components is a key element in revealing the bases for differences in nutrient bioaccessibility among fruits and vegetables and their derived products. together, cell walls and chromoplasts constitute the two major physical barriers to carotenoid release from the food matrix (structure) during digestion. in general, larger cells with thinner cell walls are most likely to fail under mechanical pressure. in relation to chromoplasts, the substructure ...201222870847
antimutagenic properties of mangifera indica l. stem bark extract and evaluation of its effects on hepatic cyp1a1.mangifera indica stem bark extract (msbe) is a cuban natural product which has shown strong antioxidant properties. in this work, the antimutagenic effect of msbe was tested against 10 well-known mutagens/carcinogens in the ames test in the absence or presence of metabolic fraction (s9). the chemical mutagens tested included: cyclophosphamide, mitomycin c, bleomycin, cisplatin, dimethylnitrosamine (dmna), benzo[a]pyrene (bp), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-aaf), sodium azide, 1-nitropyrene (1-np) and ...201222865094
investigation on the antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stems bark, and kernel of mango (mangifera indica l.).bioactive polyphenols, cartenoids, and anthocyanins present in fruits and vegetables are receiving much attention because of their potential antioxidant activity. this study was conducted to determine antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stem bark, and kernel of mango varieties langra and chonsa. total phenolic (tpc) and total flavonoid contents (tfcs) in segments of langra ranged from 63.89 to 116.80 mg gae/g dw and 45.56 to 90.89 mg ce/g dw, respectively, and that of chonsa were 69.24 to 122 ...201222860576
differentiation of mangoes (magnifera indica l.) conventional and organically cultivated according to their mineral content by using support vector machines.mangoes of uniform genetics (lippens variety) cultivated in the gomera island (canary islands) by conventional and organic farming were used to analyze the mineral content in order to differentiate crops cultivated in the same geographic area by the cultivation practices. farming differences as well as soil differences may be reflected in the mineral content of the mangoes cultivated in these extensions. concentration metal profiles consisting of the content of ca, co, cu, fe, k, mg, mn, na, ni ...201222841087
antidiarrhoeal efficacy of mangifera indica seed kernel on swiss albino examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of mangifera indica (m. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity in swiss albino mice.201222840451
mangiferin and its traversal into the brain.mangiferin, the main active substance of the mango tree bark (mangifera indica l.), is known for its use in natural medicine, not only as a health enhancing panacea or adjunct therapeutic, but also for brain functions improvement. in this context, we deemed it worthwhile to establish whether mangiferin could traverse into the brain after systemic administration; an essential piece of information for the rational use of a compound as a neurotherapeutic, remaining so far inconclusive regarding man ...201322836625
mangifera indica l. extract and mangiferin modulate cytochrome p450 and udp-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.the aqueous stem bark extract of mangifera indica l. (msbe) has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. in previous studies, we showed that msbe and mangiferin, its main component, lower the activity of some cytochrome p-450 (p450) enzymes in rat hepatocytes and human liver microsomes. in the present study, the effects of msbe and mangiferin on several p450 enzymes and udp-glucuronosyltransferases (ugts) in human-cultured hepatocytes have been examined. aft ...201322815239
improved maturity and ripeness classifications of magnifera indica cv. harumanis mangoes through sensor fusion of an electronic nose and acoustic recent years, there have been a number of reported studies on the use of non-destructive techniques to evaluate and determine mango maturity and ripeness levels. however, most of these reported works were conducted using single-modality sensing systems, either using an electronic nose, acoustics or other non-destructive measurements. this paper presents the work on the classification of mangoes (magnifera indica cv. harumanis) maturity and ripeness levels using fusion of the data of an electr ...201222778629
efficacy of extracts of immature mango on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.the principal health problem in small ruminants is helminthiasis and the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelminthics has limited the success of control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. in this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango mangifera indica l. var ubá were evaluated for inhibition of larval development and fecal egg count reduction in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. in the phytochemical analyses, tannins and ...201222773010
mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3t3-l1 cells.obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. there is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. mangoes (mangifera indica l.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. in this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; irwin, ...201222699857
brassinolide enhances cold stress tolerance of fruit by regulating plasma membrane proteins and to enhance fruit tolerance to cold stress is an important biological interest. in this paper, we found that mango (mangifera indica l.) fruit treated with 10 μm brassinolide (bl) showed a higher tolerance to cold temperature of 5 °c. further, we compared the changes in expression profiles of plasma membrane (pm) proteins and the corresponding gene expressions between bl-treated and control fruit. fourteen differential proteins were positively identified by mass spectrometry, and were categor ...201222660900
purification of serine protease from mango (mangifera indica cv. chokanan) peel using an alcohol/salt aqueous two phase alcohol/salt-based aqueous two-phase (atps) system, as a novel method of purification, was employed to purify serine proteases from mango (mangifera indica cv. chokanan) peel. the effectiveness of different parameters, such as type and concentration of alcohol (1-propanol, 2-propanol, and ethanol), type of salt (sodium citrate, potassium phosphate, and ammonium sulphate), ph, and nacl, on the purification and selective separation of serine protease was investigated. desirable conditions of pa ...201229243626
the morphological structure of leaves and the dust-retaining capability of afforested plants in urban guangzhou, south china.air pollution is a serious health problem throughout the world, exacerbating a wide range of respiratory and vascular illnesses in urban areas. the mass artificial plantation is very helpful to absorb dust and reduce pollution for conservation of the urban environment. the foliar surface of plants is an important receptor of atmospheric pollutants. therefore, selection of suitable plant species for urban environment is very important.201222614051
analgesic and cytotoxic activity of acorus calamus l., kigelia pinnata l., mangifera indica l. and tabernaemontana divaricata l.the aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic and cytotoxic activity of acorus calamus l., kigelia pinnata l., mangifera indica l., tabernaemontana divaricata l. extracts by using acetic acid-induced writhing method in mice and brine shrimp lethality assay.201222557926
comparison of efficiency of distance measurement methodologies in mango (mangifera indica) progenies based on physicochemical descriptors.we investigated seven distance measures in a set of observations of physicochemical variables of mango (mangifera indica) submitted to multivariate analyses (distance, projection and grouping). to estimate the distance measurements, five mango progeny (total of 25 genotypes) were analyzed, using six fruit physicochemical descriptors (fruit weight, equatorial diameter, longitudinal diameter, total soluble solids in °brix, total titratable acidity, and ph). the distance measurements were compared ...201222535394
molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (mangifera indica l.) cotyledon segments.polar auxin transport (pat) plays an important role in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. in this study, we cloned a gene encoding an auxin efflux carrier (designated as mipin1), and we cloned four genes encoding auxin influx carriers (designated as miaux1, miaux2, miaux3 and miaux4). the results of a phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that mipin1 and the miauxs belong to plant pin and auxs/laxs groups. quantitative real-ti ...201222522578
2d-dige analysis of mango (mangifera indica l.) fruit reveals major proteomic changes associated with ripening.a comparative proteomic investigation between the pre-climacteric and climacteric mango fruits (cv. keitt) was performed to identify protein species with variable abundance during ripening. proteins were phenol-extracted from fruits, cyanine-dye-labeled, and separated on 2d gels at ph 4-7. total spot count of about 373 proteins spots was detected in each gel and forty-seven were consistently different between pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits and were subjected to lc-ms/ms analysis. functio ...201222504795
optimization of serine protease purification from mango (mangifera indica cv. chokanan) peel in polyethylene glycol/dextran aqueous two phase peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. this study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (peg)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (atps) to purify serine protease from mango peel. the activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (peg, 4000-12,000 g·mol(-1)), tie line length (-3.42-35.27%), nacl (-2.5-11.5%) and ...201222489172
optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (mangifera indica cv. chokanan) peel.response surface methodology (rsm) along with central composite design (ccd) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (mangifera indica cv. chokanan) peel. the effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/ml), arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °c ...201222489134
extraction of dna suitable for pcr applications from mature leaves of mangifera indica l.good quality deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) is the pre-requisite for its downstream applications. the presence of high concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, proteins, and other secondary metabolites in mango leaves poses problem in getting good quality dna fit for polymerase chain reaction (pcr) applications. the problem is exacerbated when dna is extracted from mature mango leaves. a reliable and modified protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (ctab) method for dna extracti ...201222467363
evaluation of aluminum phosphide against wood-destroying insects.aluminum phosphide, a well-known stored grain fumigant, available in solid formulation, has shown promise as wood fumigant. this chemical decomposes to phosphine when exposed to moisture. the feasibility of fumigant treatment to extend the service life of wood was evaluated in a small block test of two wood species. hard wood (mangifera indica l.) and conifer blocks (pinus roxburghii sargent) were fumigated with different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%) of aluminum phosphide. ...201222420265
development and application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific detection of mangiferin content in various cultivars of mangifera indica leaves using anti-mangiferin polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for determining mangiferin content in plant samples using a polyclonal antibody (pab) against mangiferin. the developed elisa showed a full measurement range from 0.12 to 31.25 μg/ml mangiferin with a relative standard deviation (rsd) less than 6% for both intra- and interassay precision levels. the accuracy was determined by a percent recovery experiment at three concentration levels and it showed 97.8%-103.7% recovery in mangifera indi ...201222394207
development and characterization of 20 new polymorphic microsatellite markers from mangifera indica (anacardiaceae).twenty microsatellite loci for mango (mangifera indica), an important commercial fruit tree in east asia, were developed to evaluate the genetic diversity and identification of cultivars.201222371856
assessing allometric models to predict vegetative growth of mango (mangifera indica; anacardiaceae) at the current-year branch scale.accurate and reliable predictive models are necessary to estimate nondestructively key variables for plant growth studies such as leaf area and leaf, stem, and total biomass. predictive models are lacking at the current-year branch scale despite the importance of this scale in plant science.201222362545
mangiferin exerts hepatoprotective activity against d-galactosamine induced acute toxicity and oxidative/nitrosative stress via nrf2-nfκb pathways.mangiferin, a xanthone glucoside, is well known to exhibit antioxidant, antiviral, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and gene-regulatory effects. in the present study, we isolated mangiferin from the bark of mangifera indica and assessed its beneficial role in galactosamine (gal) induced hepatic pathophysiology. gal (400 mg/kg body weight) exposed hepatotoxic rats showed elevation in the activities of serum alp, alt, levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipid-peroxidation and reduction in the ...201222310181
perspectives on medicinal properties of tree, mangifera indica, has been cultivated in india and several other tropical countries for centuries, and it is a good source of compound 'mangiferin'. mangiferin's xanthonoid structure with c-glucosyl linkage and polyhydroxy component is believed to be crucial for its free radical-scavenging ability leading to a potent antioxidant effect. a number of biological activities of mangiferin have been suggested, including antidiabetic and antiinflammatory abilities. these might be explained ...201222303941
evaluation of processed green and ripe mango peel and pulp flours (mangifera indica var. chokanan) in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant compounds and functional is a highly perishable seasonal fruit and large quantities are wasted during the peak season as a result of poor postharvest handling procedures. processing surplus mango fruits into flour to be used as a functional ingredient appears to be a good preservation method to ensure its extended consumption.201225363645
(1) h and (13) c nmr characterization of new cycloartane triterpenes from mangifera indica.from the stem bark of mangifera indica, seven cycloartane-type secondary metabolites were isolated. compound 1 has been isolated for the first time from m. indica, whereas compounds 2 (2a and 2b, as an epimeric mixture), 3, and 4 are new triterpenoid-type cycloartanes. unambiguous (13) c and (1) h nmr assignments for these compounds and the known compounds mangiferonic acid (compound 5), isomangiferolic acid (compound 6), ambolic acid (compound 7), and friedelin (compound 8) are reported; the la ...201222271257
rapd analysis of the genetic diversity of mango (mangifera indica) germplasm in brazil.we evaluated genetic variability of mango (mangifera indica) accessions maintained in the active germplasm bank of embrapa meio-norte in teresina, piauí, brazil, using rapds. among these accessions, 35 originated from plantings in brazil, six from the usa and one from india. genomic dna, extracted from leaf material using a commercial purification kit, was subjected to pcr with the primers a01, a09, g03, g10, n05, and m16. fifty-five polymorphic loci were identified, with mean of 9.16 ± 3.31 ban ...201122194163
case series in patients with zoster-associated pain using mangifera indica l. extract.neuroimmune activation has been proposed as a source of new targets for therapeutic intervention in neuropathic pain. vimang® is an aqueous extract from mangifera indica l. (common mango) that is traditionally used in cuba for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immunomodulatory properties. in the present case report, we determine its potential effects in patients with zoster-associated pain.201122189366
physiological age at harvest regulates the variability in postharvest ripening, sensory and nutritional characteristics of mango (mangifera indica l.) cv. coghshall due to growing conditions.climacteric fruits are harvested at the green-mature stage and ripen during their marketing cycle. however, growing conditions induce variability into the maturity stage of mangoes at harvest, with an impact on their final quality. assuming that the physiological age can be correctly evaluated by a criterion based on the variable chlorophyll fluorescence of the skin (f(v)) and that differences in physiological age depend on growing conditions, controlled stress experiments were carried out on ma ...201222102013
ethnopharmacological survey of annonaceae medicinal plants used to treat malaria in four areas of cameroon.malaria endemic countries have vital resources that are medicinal plants on which their traditional medicines depend. in some cameroonian settings, in addition to the commonly used potions from plants like alstonia boonei, zanthoxylum macrophylla and mangifera indica, other herbal species are being increasingly used to treat malaria. so, specialized traditional healers have developed alternative reasonably priced therapies, relying on the signs and/or symptoms of malaria. within this framework, ...201222079831
synthesis and evaluation of novel analogues of mangiferin as potent screen different analogues of mangiferin pharmacologically for antipyretic activity.201122078948
direct purification of pectinase from mango (mangifera indica cv. chokanan) peel using a peg/salt-based aqueous two phase aqueous two-phase system (atps) was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (mangifera indica cv. chokanan) peel. the effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000-10,000), potassium phosphate composition (12-20%, w/w), system ph (6-9), and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0-8%, w/w) on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. the partition coefficient of the e ...201121986520
identification of benzophenone c-glucosides from mango tree leaves and their inhibitory effect on triglyceride accumulation in 3t3-l1 adipocytes.a 70% ethanol-water extract from the leaves of mangifera indica l. (anacardiaceae) inhibited triglyceride (tg) accumulation in 3t3-l1 cells. from the active fraction, seven new benzophenone c-glycosides, foliamangiferosides a (1), a(1) (2), a(2) (3), b (4), c(1) (5), c(2) (6), and c(3) (7), together with five known compounds were isolated and the structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. the effects of these compounds on tg and the free fatty acid level in ...201121923172
multi-residue analysis of pesticide residues in mangoes using solid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography and uv-vis detection.a sensitive and efficient solid-phase microextraction method, based on liquid chromatography and uv-vis detection, was developed and validated as an alternative method for sample screening prior to lc-ms analysis. it enables the simultaneous determination of ten pesticides in mango fruits. the fiber used was polydimethylsiloxane while optimum spme conditions employed have been developed and optimized in a previous work. the desorption process was performed in static mode, using acetonitrile as a ...201121919197
an ethnobotanical survey of mosquito repellent plants in umkhanyakude district, kwazulu-natal province, south africa.the aim of the study was to document plants traditionally used to repel mosquitoes in the umkhanyakude district, kwazulu-natal, south africa. the specific objectives of the study were to: (1) identify plant species and their parts being used; (2) determine the condition of plant material used and the method of application.201121893183
volatile compounds of leaves and fruits of mangifera indica var. coquinho (anacardiaceae) obtained using solid phase microextraction and hydrodistillation.volatile compounds present on fruits and leaves of mangifera indica var. coquinho were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction (hs-spme) and hydrodistillation (hd). conventional techniques, such as hydrodistillation, may impart chemical changes to the original oil composition being also time-consuming. on the other hand, hs-spme provides solvent-less extractions, shorter extraction times and may supply complementary information about the composition of the compounds. the hs-spme te ...201123140720
cloning and molecular characterization of an ethylene receptor gene, miers1, expressed during mango fruitlet abscission and fruit ripening.we isolated and characterized a mango (mangifera indica l.) cdna homolog of the ethylene receptor gene ers1, designated miers1. genomic southern blot analysis suggested the existence of a second gene with homology to miers1. spatial and temporal expression patterns of miers1 were first studied during fruitlet drop and compared with those of a previously identified mietr1 gene that encodes an etr1-type ethylene receptor. experiments were conducted on developing fruitlet explants in which fruitlet ...201121676621
behavior of beta cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in/on mango (mangifera indica l.).residue persistence of beta cyfluthrin and imidacloprid on mango was carried out after giving spray application of the combination formulation, beta cyfluthrin 9% + imidacloprid 21% (solomon 300 od) 3 times at the fruit formation stage. the treatments were, untreated control, standard dose of 75 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose of 150 g a.i. ha(-1). initial residues of beta cyfluthrin on mango fruits were 0.04 and 0.12 mg kg(-1) from treatments at the standard and double doses, respectively. the re ...201121617939
development of new microsatellite markers from mango (mangifera indica) and cross-species amplification.microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to assess the genetic diversity among mango (mangifera indica) cultivars and to test their amplification in closely related species.201121613158
nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (mangifera indica var. chokanan) pulp and peel flours.sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (mpuf and mpef, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. results showed sponge cake incorporated with mpuf and mpef to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. increasing the levels of mpuf and mpef in spong ...201121534889
evaluation of herbal methionine and mangifera indica against lead-induced organ toxicity in broilers.lead toxicity was studied in male broiler chicks (cobb strain) of a day-old age. the chicks were randomly divided into six groups consisting of 15 in each group. group 1 was maintained as basal diet control and group 2 was kept on lead at 300 ppm in feed throughout 5 wk as toxic control without any treatment. groups 3 and 4 were maintained on herbal methionine at 1.4 g/kg feed + mangifera indica at 0.1% in feed, respectively. groups 5 and 6 were treated with lead + herbal methionine and lead + m ...201121430924
molecular identification of mango, mangifera indica l.var. (>mangifera indica) belonging to anacardiaceae family is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. it is considered as the king of fruits. the present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. the chloroplast trnl-f region was amplified from extracted total genomic dna using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequenced. sequence of the dominant dgge band revealed that mangifera indica in tested leaves was mangifera indica (100% similar ...201121423885
gallic acid indanone and mangiferin xanthone are strong determinants of immunosuppressive anti-tumour effects of mangifera indica l. bark in mda-mb231 breast cancer cells.vimang is a standardized extract derived from mango bark (mangifera indica l.), commonly used as anti-inflammatory phytomedicine, which has recently been used to complement cancer therapies in cancer patients. we have further investigated potential anti-tumour effects of glucosylxanthone mangiferin and indanone gallic acid, which are both present in vimang extract. we observed significant anti-tumour effects of both vimang constituents in the highly aggressive and metastatic breast cancer cell t ...201121420233
mangiferin: a xanthone attenuates mercury chloride induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in hepg2 cells.mangiferin (mgn), a dietary c-glucosylxanthone present in mangifera indica, is known to possess a spectrum of beneficial pharmacological properties. this study demonstrates antigenotoxic potential of mgn against mercuric chloride (hgcl2)-induced genotoxicity in hepg2 cell line. treatment of hepg2 cells with various concentrations of hgcl2 for 3 h caused a dose-dependent increase in micronuclei frequency and elevation in dna strand breaks (olive tail moment and tail dna). pretreatment with mgn si ...201321308892
preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (mangifera indica l.) cv. nam dok mai #4.preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. this study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. nam dok mai #4). mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (dafb) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 dafb. the bags were removed on the harvest days. the wavelength-sel ...201121302320
extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties.this paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (o(2) (•-)) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. firstly, scavenging activity against o(2) (•-) was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (esr)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently po ...201121297917
chemical characterization of a commercial commiphora wightii resin sample and chemical profiling to assess for authenticity.the gum resin of commiphora wightii [(hook. ex stocks) engl.] is an ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of arthritis, inflammation, obesity, lipid disorders, and cardiovascular diseases and is known as guggul. morphologically, it is not easy to distinguish guggul from closely related gum resins of other plants. reliability of the commercially available guggul is critical due to the high risk of adulteration. to check authenticity, a commercial guggul sample was investigated for its chemical mar ...201121240842
a mangifera indica l. extract could be used to treat neuropathic pain and implication of has been accepted that neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and glial activation are involved in the central sensitization underlying neuropathic pain. vimang is an aqueous extract of mangifera indica l. traditionally used in cuba for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. several formulations are available, and also for mangiferin, its major component. preclinical studies demonstrated that these products prevented tumor necrosis factor α -induced iκb de ...201021150823
deposition of stearate-oleate rich seed fat in mangifera indica is mediated by a fata type acyl-acp thioesterase.although the mechanism of accumulation of c8-c16 saturated fatty acids in seed oils has been well-studied, the control of stearic (c18:0) acid deposition in high stearate seed fat is still unclear. we investigated the mechanism that regulates high level of stearate and oleate (c18:1) accumulation in mango (mangifera indica) seeds during its development, and examined the seed plastid extracts for induction of any specialized fatty acyl-acp thioesterase (fat) that may control this high level of de ...201121130480
residues of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in/on mango fruit (mangifera indica l.).mango, the major fruit crop of india is affected by stone weevil, which can cause serious damage to the fruits. acephate gives good control of mango stone weevil. residues of acephate and its major metabolite, methamidophos were evaluated on mango fruits following repeated spray applications at the recommended dose (0.75 kg a.i. ha⁻¹) and double the recommended dose (1.5 kg a.i. ha⁻¹). acephate residues mostly remained on the fruit peel which persisted up to 30 days. movement of residues to the ...201121107525
herbicidal activity of flavonoids of mango leaves against parthenium hysterophorus l.this study was undertaken to investigate the herbicidal activity of mango (mangifera indica l.) leaves against parthenium weed (parthenium hysterophorus l.). the aqueous leaf extract at 15% concentration (on fresh weight basis) significantly reduced germination, shoot length and the shoot and root biomasses of parthenium seedlings. in a leaf residue incorporation pot trial, 2% residue incorporation treatment significantly suppressed the root and shoot biomasses of parthenium, while a 5% residue ...201021104534
evaluation of air pollution tolerance index of selected plant species along roadsides in thiruvananthapuram, develop the usefulness of plants as bioindicators requires an appropriate selection of plant species which entail an utmost importance for a particular situation. in the present study a periodic evaluation of air pollution tolerance index [apti] of selected tree species such as polyalthia longifolia, (sonner) thw., alstonia scholaris, r. br., mangifera indica, l., and shrubs clerodendron infortunatum, l., eupatorium odoratum, l., and hyptis suaveolens, (l.) poit., growing adjacent to the nati ...201021047015
comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional hydrodistillation in the extraction of essential oils from mango (mangifera indica l.) flowers.microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (mahd) is an advanced hydrodistillation (hd) technique, in which a microwave oven is used in the extraction process. mahd and hd methods have been compared and evaluated for their effectiveness in the isolation of essential oils from fresh mango (mangifera indica l.) flowers. mahd offers important advantages over hd in terms of energy savings and extraction time (75 min against 4 h). the composition of the extracted essential oils was investigated by gc-fid a ...201021042260
mangifera indica leaf-assisted biosynthesis of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles.the use of various parts of plants for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered as a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. the present study reports a facile and rapid biosynthesis of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles. the method developed is environmentally friendly and allows the reduction to be accelerated by changing the temperature and ph of the reaction mixture consisting of aqueous agno3 and mangifera indica leaf extract. at a ph of 8, the colloid consists o ...201121030295
an improved pollen collection and cryopreservation method for highly recalcitrant tropical fruit species of mango (mangifera indica l.) and litchi (litchi chinensis sonn.).an improved method for pollen collection from freshly dehiscing anthers of mango (mangifera indica l.) and litchi (litchi chinensis sonn.) using the organic solvent cyclohexane has been devised. using this method pollen quantity sufficient for large scale pollinations could be collected and stored for future use. transport of pollen in viable conditions over long distances, from site of collection (field genebank) to cryolab was successfully devised for both these fruit species. cryopreservation ...201020919456
species composition and population dynamics of thrips (thysanoptera) in mango orchards of northern peninsular malaysia.thrips are key pests of mango, mangifera indica (l.), in malaysia, including the northern peninsular. as penang has year-round equatorial climate and high of rainfall, the populations of thrips may be subject to variations in composition and size. with a goal of developing an appropriate control strategy, a survey was conducted in penang to determine species composition and abundance in relation to some environmental factors. sprayed and unsprayed orchards were sampled on weekly basis through tw ...201022546435
characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe mangifera indica l. peel is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. as it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. during its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. the prominent phenolic compounds identified by hplc were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid. the phenolic acid derivatives present in acetone extract ...201020851730
rapid green synthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles using mangifera indica leaf.this paper reports the rapid biological synthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles at room temperature using fresh/dry leaf extract of mangifera indica. this is a simple, cost-effective, stable for long time and reproducible aqueous synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of nearly monodispersed au nanoparticles of size ∼20 nm and 17 nm. the nanoparticles were obtained within 2 min of addition of the extract to the solution of haucl ₄·3h₂o and the colloid is found to be stable for more than 5 ...201020800536
[impact of atmospheric total suspended particulate pollution on photosynthetic parameters of street mango trees in xiamen city].with the development of urbanization, total suspended particulate (tsp) pollution is getting serious, and the normal physiological processes of urban vegetation are profoundly affected while adsorbing and purifying the particulates. in this study, four areas were selected, i.e., tingxi reservoir (clean control area), xiamen university (cultural and educational area), xianyue (business area), and haicang (industrial area), with their atmospheric tsp concentrations and the photosynthetic parameter ...201020707106
a bioactive prodelphinidin from mangifera indica leaf extract.a new trimeric proanthocyanidin, epigallocatechin-3-o-gallat-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin (1), was isolated together with three known flavan-3-ols, catechin (2), epicatechin (3), and epigallocatechin (4), and three dimeric proanthocyanidins, 5-7, from the air-dried leaves of mangifera indica. their chemical structures were determined on the basis of 1d- and 2d-nmr spectra (hsqc, hmbc) of their peracetylated derivatives, maldi-tof-mass spectra, and by acid-catalyzed degradati ...201620653233
differential expression of the mango alcohol dehydrogenase gene family during ripening.alcohol dehydrogenases play an important role during fruit ripening and aroma production. three full-length cdnas (miadh1, 2 and 3) encoding alcohol dehydrogenases were obtained from mango fruit pulp using rt-pcr approaches. all three members displayed strong homology in the coding region when compared at the protein and nucleotide levels, however showed variations in untranslated regions. expression patterns of these adhs were different during fruit development and ripening. miadh1 and miadh2 t ...201020598721
diurnal activity of four species of thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae) and efficiencies of three nondestructive sampling techniques for thrips in mango inflorescences.thrips cause considerable economic loss to mango, mangifera indica l., in penang, malaysia. three nondestructive sampling techniques--shaking mango panicles over a moist plastic tray, washing the panicles with ethanol, and immobilization of thrips by using co2--were evaluated for their precision to determine the most effective technique to capture mango flower thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae) in an orchard located at balik pulau, penang, malaysia, during two flowering seasons from december 2008 ...201020568607
chlorophyll fluorescence, a nondestructive method to assess maturity of mango fruits (cv. 'cogshall') without growth conditions bias.the quality of ripe mango fruits depends on maturity stage at harvest, which is usually assessed by visible criteria or from estimates of the age of fruit. the present study deals with the potential of chlorophyll fluorescence as a nondestructive method to assess the degree of fruit maturity regardless of fruit growing conditions. chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured along with respiration rates of fruits still attached to the tree. at the same harvest stage, based on the fruit age ...201020550188
in vitro modulation of abcb1/p-glycoprotein expression by polyphenols from mangifera indica.many plant compounds are able to modulate the activity and/or the expression of the major multidrug transporter abcb1/p-glycoprotein (p-gp). in this study, mango (mangifera indica l.) stem bark extract (msbe), its main polyphenol mangiferin and the mangiferin aglycone derivative norathyriol, as well as catechin, gallic acid and quercetin, were investigated for their potential ability to influence abcb1 gene and p-gp expression in hk-2 cells, a proximal tubule line constitutively expressing this ...201020513373
role of oxidative stress and the activity of ethylene biosynthetic enzymes on the formation of spongy tissue in 'alphonso' mango.spongy tissue formation in 'alphonso' mangoes (mangifera indica l) is a major national problem leading to loss for farmers and traders. spongy tissue is whitish sponge like tissue formed near the seed with insipid taste and off odour. lipid peroxidation of membranes as studied by malondialdehyde formation was significantly higher in spongy tissue. activities of antioxidative enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were lower in spongy tissue. among the anti ...201023572640
antimicrobial evaluation of mangiferin analogues.the naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of mangifera indica. mangiferin was further converted to 5-(n-phenylaminomethyleno)mangiferin, 5-(n-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(n-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(n-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(n, n-diphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(n--napthylaminomethyleno) mangiferin and 5-(n-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangi ...200920490307
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