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antifungal activity of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp) against anthracnose (colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in postharvest mango fruit and its possible mechanisms of action.anthracnose caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most important postharvest diseases in mango fruit, often causing huge economic losses. in this study, the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp) against anthracnose in postharvest mango fruit and the mechanisms involved were investigated. 1-mcp induced reactive oxygen species (ros) generation, damaged the mitochondria and destroyed the integrity of plasma membrane of spores of c. gloeosporioides, significantly suppressing spore ...201727728853
antibacterial efficacy of mangifera indica l. kernel and ocimum sanctum l. leaves against enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm.the enterococcus faecalis biofilm in the root canal makes it difficult to be eradicated by the conventional irrigants with no toxicity to the tissues. hence, plant products with least side effects are explored for their use as irrigants in the root canal therapy.201324082577
identification of lactic acid bacteria in fruit pulp processing byproducts and potential probiotic properties of selected lactobacillus strains.this study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (lab) in byproducts of fruit (malpighia glabra l., mangifera indica l., annona muricata l., and fragaria vesca l.) pulp processing. fifty strains of lab were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) and 16s rrna gene sequence (16s rrna) analysis. species belonging to lactobacillus genus were the predominant lab in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. the average congruency betwe ...201627625647
mangiferin decreases inflammation and oxidative damage in rat brain after stress.purpose: stress exposure elicits neuroinflammation and oxidative damage in brain, and stress-related neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases have been associated with cell damage and death. mangiferin (mag) is a polyphenolic compound abundant in the stem bark of mangifera indica l. with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in different experimental settings. in this study, the capacity of mag to prevent neuroinflammation and brain oxidative damage induced by stre ...201121986672
prevention of bacterial biofilms formation on urinary catheter by selected plant extracts.in this study, we investigated the feasibility of using psidium guajava, mangifera indica and ocimum gratissimum leaf extracts in preventing escherichia coli biofilm formation. the plants extractions were done with methanol under cold extraction. the various concentrations 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg ml(-1) were used to coat 63 catheters under mild heat from water bath. biofilm formation on the catheter was induced using cultures of e. coli. biofilm formation was evaluated using aerobic plate count an ...201526364356
omani propolis: chemical profiling, antibacterial activity and new propolis plant sources.propolis (bee glue) is a resinous honeybee product having a long history of application in many countries as a traditional remedy for treating wounds, burns, soar throat, stomach disorders, etc. it has been proved to possess beneficial biological effects, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antiulcer, and many others. bees gather propolis from diverse resinous plant parts and in different phytogeographic regions its chemical composition might vary significantly. i ...201324053750
antioxidant activity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in some medicinal plants of india.in this study, total phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin c content vis-a-vis antioxidant activities were assayed in leaves and stem bark of azadirachta indica, butea monosperma, cassia fistula, mangifera indica, syzygium cumini and tamarindus indica using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) and superoxide radical scavenging method. the dpph radical scavenging activity positively correlated with the total phenolic content in both stem bark and leaf. superoxide radical scavenging activity incre ...201121726132
biodegradation of selected nigerian fruit peels by the use of a non-pathogenic rhizobium species cwp g34b.this study was carried out to determine the ability of rhizobium species cwp g34b to degrade the peels of selected nigerian fruits. the potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which dnsa reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. the results ...201223166567
a comparative study on the effect of plant extracts with the antibiotics on organisms of hospital origin.thirty five plants belonging to twenty families were studied for their antimicrobial activity. among the plants tested, 43 % showed antimicrobial activity. fifteen plants belonging to 10 families exhibited activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. four plants namely azadirachta indica, garadenia jasminoides, magnifera indica, and wrightia tinctora showed an appreciable activity against the gram positive bacteria and seven plants against gram negative organisms. leaf ext ...200622557227
current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya.tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern japan. pineapple (ananas comosus), mango (mangifera indica) and papaya (carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in japan. modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. most parts of japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the ryukyu islands, which stretch from kyushu ...201627069392
evaluation of therapeutic potentials of plant extracts against poultry bacteria threatening public health.plant extracts were evaluated on poultry bacteria known to be threatening public health. this is to develop better bio-therapeutic agents from plant origin.201627782860
in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of anacardium occidentale and mangifera indica in oral care.oral health is an integral and important component of general health. infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. the present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. the uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. anacardium occidentale (cashew) and mangifera indica (m ...201725709341
an oxidoreductase from 'alphonso' mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls.two furanones, furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2h)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2h)-furanone), are important constituents of flavor of the alphonso cultivar of mango (mangifera indica). to get insights into the biosynthesis of these furanones, we isolated an enone oxidoreductase gene from the alphonso mango. it has high sequence similarity to an alkenal/one oxidoreductase from cucumber (79% identity) and enone oxidoreductases from tomato (73% identity) and strawberry (72% ...201324133645
use of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starters to ferment mango juice for promoting its probiotic roles.strains of leuconostoc mesenteroides, pediococcus pentosaceus, and lactobacillus brevis were identified from mango fruits by partial 16s rdna gene sequence. based on the ability of producing mannitol and diacetyl, leuconostoc mesenteroides mpl18 and mpl39 were selected within the lactic acid bacteria isolates, and used as mixed starters to ferment mango juice (mj). both the autochthonous strains grew well in fermented mango juice (fmj) and remained viable at 9.81 log cfu ml(-1) during 30 days of ...201626176886
antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.antioxidant properties of mango (mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (em) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant ...201526152044
evaluation of genotoxicity and dna protective effects of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from mangifera indica l. stem bark extract.mangiferin is a glucosylxantone isolated from mangifera indica l. stem bark. several studies have shown its pharmacological properties which make it a promising candidate for putative therapeutic use. this study was focused to investigate the in vitro genotoxic effects of mangiferin in the ames test, sos chromotest and comet assay. the genotoxic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes from nmri mice orally treated with mangiferin (2000 mg/kg) were also evaluated. additionally, its potential antimuta ...201222749943
benzophenone c-glucosides and gallotannins from mango tree stem bark with broad-spectrum anti-viral activity.the high mutation rate of rna viruses has resulted in limitation of vaccine effectiveness and increased emergence of drug-resistant viruses. new effective antivirals are therefore needed to control of the highly mutative rna viruses. the n-butanol fraction of the stem bark of mangifera indica exhibited inhibitory activity against influenza neuraminidase (na) and coxsackie virus 3c protease. bioassay guided phytochemical study of m. indica stem bark afforded two new compounds including one benzop ...201424613627
caulicolous botryosphaeriales from thailand.members of botryosphaeriales are commonly encountered as endophytes or pathogens of various plant hosts. the botryosphaeriaceae represents the predominant family within this order, containing numerous species associated with canker and dieback disease on a wide range of woody hosts. during the course of routine surveys from various plant hosts in thailand, numerous isolates of botryosphaeriaceae, including aplosporellaceae were collected. isolates were subsequently identified based on a combinat ...201526240447
phylogeny and pathogenicity of lasiodiplodia species associated with dieback of mango in peru.mango, which is an important tropical fruit crop in the region of piura (peru), is known to be prone to a range of diseases caused by lasiodiplodia spp. the aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of mango dieback in the region of piura, and to identify the species of lasiodiplodia associated with the disease and evaluate their pathogenicity towards mango. mango dieback was present in all orchards surveyed but incidence varied with location. identification of fungal isolat ...201728317545
complete genome sequence of probiotic lactobacillus plantarum strain fmnp01, isolated from mango fruit.lactobacillus plantarum strain fmnp01 is a new strain with probiotic properties that was isolated from fresh mango from guangzhou, china. here, we report the complete genome of this organism.201425428967
whole genome sequences and annotation of micrococcus luteus subg006, a novel phytopathogen of mango.actinobaceria, micrococcus luteus subg006 was isolated from infected leaves of mangifera indica l. vr. nylon in rajkot, (22.30°n, 70.78°e), gujarat, india. the genome size is 3.86 mb with g + c content of 69.80% and contains 112 rrna sequences (5s, 16s and 23s). the whole genome sequencing has been deposited in ddbj/embl/genbank under the accession number jokp00000000.201526697318
low doses of gamma radiation in the management of postharvest lasiodiplodia theobromae in mangos.the postharvest life of mango is limited by the development of pathogens, especially fungi that cause rot, among which stands out the lasiodiplodia theobromae. several control methods have been employed to minimize the damages caused by this fungus, chemical control can leave residues to man and nature; physical control by the use of gamma radiation in combination with modified atmosphere and cold storage. the use of gamma radiation helps to reduce the severity of the pathogen assist in the ripe ...201526413068
influence of formulation ratio of the plant components on the antimalarial properties of mama decoction.mangifera indica, alstonia boonei, morinda lucida and azadirachta indica (mama) decoction, commonly prepared and used in nigeria from 1:1:1:1 ratio of mangifera indica l. (anacardiaceae), alstonia boonei de wild (apocynaceae), morinda lucida benth (rubiaceae), and azadirachta indica a. juss (meliaceae) leaves, plus four new variants of this combination were subjected to three in vivo antimalarial test models using chloroquine-sensitive plasmodium berghei berghei to determine the most active unde ...201424658658
[analysis of the microbiological quality and potential presence of listeria monocytogenes in custard apple (annona muricata), mango (mangifera indica) and passion fruit (passiflora edulis) pulps from costa rica].the objective of this work was to determine some of the indicators associated to shelf life, hygiene, process and storage conditions for some of custard apple, mango and passion fruit pulps distributed by the main supermarket chains of the metropolitan area of san josé, costa rica, as well as to examine the potential presence of listeria monocytogenes in them. sixty fruit pulp samples were analyzed. tests included ph determination, total aerobic plate count, yeasts and mold count, lactic bacteri ...201324167958
in vivo antimalarial evaluation of mama decoction on plasmodium berghei in mice.the use of decoctions of different plant materials is common practice in antimalarial ethnomedicine in africa. scientific evaluation of such herbal combinations to verify the claims is important. the study has evaluated the antimalarial efficacy of mama decoction (md), a multicomponent herbal preparation and its individual plant components, namely leaves of morinda lucida benth [rubiaceae] (ml), azadirachta indica a. juss [meliaceae] (ai), alstonia boonei de wild [apocynaceae] (ab) and mangifera ...201424271081
anti-malarial activity of a polyherbal product (nefang) during early and established plasmodium infection in rodent models.the emerging resistance of plasmodium species to currently available anti-malarials remains a public health concern, hence the need for new effective, safe and affordable drugs. natural products remain a reliable source of drugs. nefang is a polyherbal anti-malarial of the cameroonian folklore medicine with demonstrated in vitro antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities. it is composed of mangifera indica (bark and leaf), psidium guajava, carica papaya, cymbopogon citratus, citrus sinensis, ocim ...201425421605
biocontrol of postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit with debaryomyces nepalensis and effects on storage quality and postharvest physiology.anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. to control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. with people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. in this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched ...201526445226
antifungal activity of mango peel and seed extracts against clinically pathogenic and food spoilage yeasts.the antioxidant and antifungal (antiyeast) properties of mango (mangifera indica) peel and seed by-products were investigated. nine extracts were obtained using three cultivars and two extraction methods. significant differences between cultivars and extraction methods were detected in their bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. the antifungal property was determined using agar diffusion and broth micro-dilution assays against 18 yeast species of the genera candida, dekkera, hanseniaspor ...201526609883
ogataea kanchanaburiensis sp. nov. and ogataea wangdongensis sp. nov., two novel methylotrophic yeast species from phylloplane in thailand.three strains (km03(t), km13 (t) and km15) representing two novel methylotrophic yeast species were isolated from the external surface of plant leaves, which were collected from kanchanaburi province, thailand, by three-consecutive enrichments in methanol broth. strain km03(t) was isolated from phylloplane of a mango tree (mangifera indica) and two strains, km13(t) and km15, were obtained from phylloplane of different wine grapes (vitis vinifera). the sequences of the d1/d2 region of the large s ...201323104074
antidiabetic and anticancer activities of mangifera indica cv. okrong leaves.diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. this study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of mangifera indica cv. okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mm of p-nitro phenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside as substrate. inhibitory activity against ...201728217550
analysis of volatile aroma constituents of wine produced from indian mango (mangifera indica l.) by gc-ms.volatile aroma compounds are synthesized by wine yeast during wine fermentation. in this study the volatile aroma composition of two varieties of mango wine were determined to differentiate and characterize the wines. the wine was produced from the fruits of two varieties of mango cultivars namely banginapalli and alphonso. the volatile compounds formed in mango wine were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (gc-ms). thirty-two volatile compounds in wines were determined ...201023100826
water-soluble (1→3),(1→4)-α-d-glucan from mango as a novel inducer of cariogenic biofilm-degrading enzyme.a water-soluble polysaccharide (wsp) extracted from mango (mangifera indica l.) fruits has been suggested as a new alternative to mutan for mutanase induction in trichoderma harzianum. structural analyses revealed that the purified wsp was a (1→3),(1→4)-α-d-glucan with the molecular mass of ca. 760 kda in which the (1→4)-linked and (1→3)-linked α-glcp residues were in a ratio of 1:2.4. when the strain t harzianum ccm f-340 was grown in the presence of wsp, the maximal enzyme productivity obtaine ...201323583288
ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal and nutritious plants used to manage opportunistic infections associated with hiv/aids in western uganda.traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the people of uganda to treat a wide range of health problems. our study presents results of an ethnobotanical inventory conducted to identify and document medicinal and nutritional plants used in the management of opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (hiv/aids), the plant parts used, preparation and administration methods of herbal remedies.201424862490
[investigation on emission properties of biogenic vocs of landscape plants in shenzhen].isoprene and monoterpene emissions were characterized using flow and enclosure sampling method and gc-ms in usa for 158 species of plants growing in shenzhen, china. this survey was designed to include all of the dominant plants within the shenzhen region as well as unique plants such as cycads. these are the first measurements in a subtropical asian metropolis. substantial isoprene emissions were observed from thirty-one species, including caryota mitis, adenanthera pavonina var. microsperma, m ...201122468517
production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies to phytoene synthase of lycopersicon esculentum.monoclonal antibodies have been prepared against the tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) fruit ripening-enhanced phytoene synthase (psy1). the antigen was prepared as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein by cloning a 1.13 kb fragment of psy1 cdna into pur291, followed by transformation of e. coli. the fusion protein, induced by iptg, was purified by preparative sds-page and used to elicit an immune response. the cell lines were screened for cross-reactivity against beta-galactosidase-phytoene ...19989788145
larvicidal efficacy screening of anacardaciae crude extracts on the dengue hemorrhagic vector, aedes aegypti.vector-borne diseases are still rife because of the re-emergence of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. the objective of this paper is to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of crude leaf extract of mangifera indica, gluta renghas, and melanochyla fasciculiflora against vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever, aedes aegypti. these plant species are endemic species and widely distributed in malaysian forests. leaves of ma. indica, g. renghas and m. fascculiflora were collected from teluk bahang national ...201425134898
antibacterial effect of mango (mangifera indica linn.) leaf extract against antibiotic sensitive and multi-drug resistant salmonella typhi.alternative herbal medicine has been used to treat various infections from centuries. natural plants contain phytoconstituents having similar chemical properties as of synthetic antibiotics. typhoid fever is a serious infection and failure of its treatment emerged multi-drug resistant (mdr) bugs of salmonella typhi. due to multiple and repeated issues with antibiotics efficacy, it became essential to evaluate biological properties of plants from different geographical origins. mango leaves have ...201323811447
evaluation of herbal antimalarial mama decoction-amodiaquine combination in murine malaria model.co-administration of amodiaquine with mama decoction (md), an herbal antimalarial drug comprising the leaves of mangifera indica l. (anacardiaceae), alstonia boonei de wild (apocynaceae), morinda lucida benth (rubiaceae) and azadirachta indica a. juss (meliaceae) was investigated. the practice of concurrent administration of herbal medicines with orthodox drugs is currently on the increase globally.201627057621
fungal planet description sheets: 371-399.novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from australia: neoseptorioides eucalypti gen. & sp. nov. from eucalyptus radiata leaves, phytophthora gondwanensis from soil, diaporthe tulliensis from rotted stem ends of theobroma cacao fruit, diaporthe vawdreyi from fruit rot of psidium guajava, magnaporthiopsis agrostidis from rotted roots of agrostis stolonifera and semifissispora natalis from eucalyptus leaf litter. furthermore, neopestalotiopsis egyptiaca is desc ...201526823636
herbal extracts in oral health care - a review of the current scenario and its future needs.oral diseases are among the major public health problems and the commonest of chronic diseases that affect mankind. the application of natural products for the control of oral diseases is considered as an interesting alternative to synthetic antimicrobials due to their lower negative impact, and for the effort to overcome primary or secondary resistance to the drug during therapy.201726392704
effects of the culture media optimization on pectinase production by enterobacter sp. pstb-1.in the present study, media composition for high production of pectinase by enterobacter sp. pstb-1 in submerged fermentation was optimized using response surface methodology (rsm). mango fruit processing industrial waste (miw) was used as substrate (carbon source) as it contains high amount of pectin. enterobacter sp. pstb-1 used in present study has given pectin clear zone (pcz) of 34 mm is higher than other isolates. the experimental results made by statistical design for high pectinase produ ...201628330278
cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on allium cepa linn.the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: azadirachta indica (a. juss), morinda lucida (benth.), cymbopogon citratus (dc stapf.), mangifera indica (linn.) and carica papaya (linn.) was evaluated using the allium cepa assay. the extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectiv ...200717572030
salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis and listeria monocytogenes in mango (mangifera indica l.) pulp: growth, survival and cross-contamination.this study examined the ability of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis and listeria monocytogenes to grow or survive in mango pulp stored at -20°c, 4°c, 10°c and 25°c, as well as to cross-contaminate mangoes by means of a knife contaminated with different levels of these pathogens.201425328926
ethnopharmacological reports on anti-buruli ulcer medicinal plants in three west african countries.buruli ulcer (bu) is the third most common mycobacterial infection in the world, after tuberculosis and leprosy and has recently been recognized as an important emerging disease. this disease is common in west africa where more than 99% of the burden is felt and where most affected people live in remote areas with traditional medicine as primary or only option. reports indicate that the ethnopharmacological control approach of the disease in such settings has shown promise. however, no or very f ...201526099634
the treatment of jaundice with medicinal plants in indigenous communities of the sub-himalayan region of uttarakhand, india.inspite of tremendous advances made in allopathic medical practices, herbs still play an important role in the management of various liver diseases. a large number of plants and formulations have been claimed to have hepatoprotective activity. jaundice is a symptom, indicative of the malfunctioning of the liver. this paper provides ethnomedicinal information on the plants used to treat jaundice by three important indigenous communities, i.e., nomadic gujjars, tharu and bhoxa of sub-himalayan reg ...201222759701
fermentation of three varieties of mango juices with a mixture of saccharomyces cerevisiae and williopsis saturnus var. mrakii.this study was carried out to ascertain the behavior and fermentation performance of mixed yeasts in mango juices of three varieties. saccharomyces cerevisiae merit.ferm and williopsis saturnus var. mrakii ncyc500 at a ratio of 1:1000 were simultaneously inoculated into juices of three mango (mangifera indica l.) varieties (r2e2, harum manis and nam doc mai). both yeasts grew well in all juices and there was no early growth arrest of either yeast, but there was late death of w. saturnus var. mra ...201222800660
ogataea mangiferae sp. nov., a methylotrophic yeast isolated from mango leaves.five strains of a novel methanol-assimilating yeast species were isolated from mango (mangifera indica) leaves collected at the campus of the federal university of minas gerais in brazil. the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (its) region and the d1/d2 domains of the large subunit of the rrna gene showed that this species belongs to the ogataea clade and is related to o. allantospora, o. chonburiensis, o. dorogensis, o. kodamae, o. paradorogensis and candida xyloterini (ogataea clade) ...201525792365
air-borne contact dermatitis in varanasi.forty-six patients suspected to have air borne contact dermatitis were tested with various plant antigens. thirteen patients turned out to be sensitive to one or more antigens. the plant antigens, used for testing, were parthenium hysterophorus, lantana camara, cynodon dactylon, bougainvaled spectabills, calotropis procera, argimone mexicana, acacia arabica, azadiracha indica, eucalyptus rostrata, saraka indica, triticum vulgare, triticum aestivum, dryopteris filix, nerium indicum, eclipta alba, ...201728150592
trypanosomatid protozoa in plants of southeastern spain: characterization by analysis of isoenzymes, kinetoplast dna, and metabolic behavior.three flagellates of the family trypanosomatidae were isolated from mango fruits (mangifera indica) and from the stems of clover (trifolium glomeratum) and amaranth (amaranthus retroflexus) in southeastern spain and were adapted to in vitro culture in monophase media. the parasites showed an ultrastructural pattern similar to that of other species of the genus phytomonas. mango and clover isolates differed from amaranth isolates in ultrastructural terms. the isolates were characterized by isoenz ...19989610631
pharmacological evidence for the folk use of nefang: antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of its constituent plants.nefang is a polyherbal anti-malarial composed of mangifera indica ( mib and mil; bark and leaf), psidium guajava ( pg ), carica papaya ( cp ), cymbopogon citratus ( cc ), citrus sinensis ( cs ) and ocimum gratissimum ( og ) (leaves). previous studies have demonstrated its in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities, antioxidant properties and safety profile. this study aimed at evaluating the antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the constituent plants of nefang whi ...201526055261
protective effect of mangifera indica linn., cocos nucifera linn., and averrhoa carambola linn. extracts against ultraviolet b-induced damage in human keratinocytes.this study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of mangifera indica linn., cocos nucifera linn., and averrhoa carambola linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet b (uvb), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of dna damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ros), and apoptosis. the richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of m. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg qe/g dry weight), while the lowest one w ...201627057195
cloning and expression of ethylene receptor ers1 at various developmental and ripening stages of mango fruit.ethylene induces characteristic ripening reactions in climacteric fruits through its binding to histidine-kinase (hk) receptors, activating the expression of ripening genes. ethylene receptors have been found in arabidopsis thaliana (brassicaceae) and some fruits; number and expression patterns differ among species. in mango, only ethylene receptor etr1 was known. we cloned ers1 cdna from mango, and evaluated the expression of mi-ers1 and mi-etr1 by qpcr in developmental and ripening stages of t ...201223079970
forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: anastrepha (diptera: tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in puerto rico.mcphail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of anastrepha obliqua (macquart) and anastrepha suspensa (loew) in two orchards with hosts of these flies (mango, mangifera indica l., and carambola, averrhoa carambola l.), as well as in forest fragments bordering these orchards. contour maps were constructed to measure population distributions in and around orchards. our results indicate that anastrepha populations are focused around host fruit in b ...201323575019
in vitro susceptibility of viridans streptococci to leaf extracts of mangifera indica.the susceptibility of viridans streptococci to leaf extracts of mangifera indica was studied on 53 clinical isolates from 39 patients. all the isolates were found to be susceptible to both water and methanol extract of m. indica leaves. minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of methanol extract for all isolates were <50 mg/ml and mic of water extract for all isolates were <200 mg/ml. methanol extract was found to have better action against viridans streptococci than water extract.200723100659
edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.the effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. hard mature green mango (mangifera indica l. cv. kensigton pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), semperfresh (0.6%), aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or a. vera gel (100%). untreated fruit served as the control. following ...200818247535
food and feeding behaviour of asiatic elephant (elephas maximus linn.) in kuldiha wild life sanctuary, odisha, india.the feeding behaviour of asiatic elephant (elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in kuldiha wildlife sanctuary in odisha during 2007 to 2009. though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. the food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. alteration of predominantly browsi ...201324006812
current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. this phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. this review is focu ...201627246698
insights into the key aroma compounds in mango (mangifera indica l. 'haden') fruits by stable isotope dilution quantitation and aroma simulation experiments.thirty-four aroma-active compounds, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis, were quantified in tree-ripened fruits of mango (mangifera indica l. 'haden'). from the results, the odor activity value (oav) was calculated for each compound as the ratio of its concentration in the mangoes to its odor threshold in water. oavs > 1 were obtained for 24 compounds, among which ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity; oav 2100), (3e,5z)-undeca-1 ...201627167034
glycaemic response to some commonly eaten fruits in type 2 diabetes mellitus.it is not known which of the commonly consumed fruits in nigeria are suitable for persons with diabetes mellitus especially with regards to the attendant plasma glucose response (pgr) to consumption of such fruits.201121984455
acute renal failure induced by chinese herbal medication in nigeria.traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. these herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30-35% of all cases of acute renal failure in africa. most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some ...201526199625
effect of two herbal mouthwashes on gingival health of school children.this study aimed at determining the effect of indigenously prepared neem and mango chewing stick mouthwashes on plaque and gingival indices. a sample of 105 children aged 12-15 years was randomized into three groups, namely neem, mango, and chlorhexidine mouthwash groups. all the children were examined at baseline and gingival and plaque indices were recorded. baseline scores for plaque and gingivitis were fair and moderate, respectively, in all the three groups and there existed no statisticall ...201425379471
antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. to identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (tpc), antioxidant (aoa) and free radical scavenging activities (frsa). the amount of tpc varied from 10.5 (carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (caesalpinia mexicana, fruits) and aoa from 20.3% (musa paradisiacal, fruits) ...201122754941
effect of fuel and kiln type on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) levels in smoked shrimp, a beninese food condiment.smoked shrimp is a food condiment widely used in beninese local cooking practices. a previous study revealed that this product is highly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pah). the present study explored possibilities to reduce pah levels in shrimp smoked using cottage industry smoking techniques with barrel and chorkor kilns, by replacing wood by charcoal from acacia auriculiformis and mangifera indica, as fuels. results showed that only shrimp smoked using acacia charcoal in ...201424762007
herbal medicine use and linked suspected adverse drug reactions in a prospective cohort of ugandan inpatients.clinical history-taking can be employed as a standardized approach to elucidate the use of herbal medicines and their linked suspected adverse drug reactions (adrs) among hospitalized patients. we sought to identify herbal medicines nominated by ugandan inpatients; compare nomination rates by ward and gender; confirm the herbs' known pharmacological properties from published literature; and identify adrs linked to pre-admission use of herbal medicines.201627229463
contact dermatitis due to plants in chandigarh.two hundred and seven patients (151 males and 56 females) were patch tested with a battery of plants, potassium dichromate and formaldehyde. sensitivity to parthenium hysterophorus. nerium indicum, calotropis procera, eucalyptus sp and mangifera indica was found in 60.87, 23.64, 15.46 andl2.08% patients respectively. one hundred and twenty six patients (92 males and 34 females ) including five teenage girls and one 13 years old child had parthenium dermatitis. majority (74.60%) were between 30 t ...201728145295
storage behavior of mango as affected by post harvest application of plant extracts and storage conditions.the use of plant extracts could be a useful alternative to synthetic fungicides in the post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables. the aim of this study was to access the efficacy of extracts obtained from four plants (neem, pongamia, custard apple leaf and marigold flowers) on the extension of shelf life of mango fruits cv. dashehri under two storage conditions (cool store and ambient condition). the fruits were treated with 2 concentrations of each plant extracts (10 % and 20 %) were place ...201425328189
efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.titanium dioxide nanoparticles (tio2 nps) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. nano-preparations with tio2 nps are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. the present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity o ...201525403378
regulation of floral initiation in horticultural trees.the intention of this review is to discuss floral initiation of horticultural trees. floral initiation is best understood for herbaceous species, especially at the molecular level, so a brief overview of the control of floral initiation of arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana (l.) heynh.) precedes the discussion of trees. four major pathways to flowering have been characterized in arabidopsis, including environmental induction through photoperiod and temperature, autonomous floral initiation, and r ...200818653697
the species composition of thrips (insecta: thysanoptera) inhabiting mango orchards in pulau pinang, malaysia.a field study was conducted at two localities on pulau pinang, malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (mangifera indica l.) orchards. the co2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. the mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to ...201224575225
nutritional composition of fruits selected by long-tailed macaques (macaca fascicularis) in kuala selangor, malaysia.proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (macaca fascicularis), i.e., arenga pinnata, areca catechu, terminalia catappa, elaeis guineensis, lagerstroemia tomentosa, mangifera indica, cascabela thevetia, muntingia calabura, musa sp., artocarpus heterophyllus, ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. the results show ...201728228918
diversity and utilization of tree species in meitei homegardens of barak valley, assam.an inventory of tree diversity in traditional homegardens of meitei community was conducted in a bontarapur village in cachar district of barak valley, assam. meitei homegarden locally called ingkhol exhibits a wide diversity in size, shape, location and composition. seventy one tree species were enumerated from 50 homegardens belonging to 60 genus and 35 families. among the families encountered, rutaceae was the dominant family (4 genus and 7 species) followed by meliaceae (5 genus and 5 specie ...201324620581
hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of standardized herbal extracts.phyllanthus emblica, camellia sinensis, mangifera indica, punica granatum, and acacia catechu have been shown to possess widespread pharmacological application against multitude of diseases namely cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, and oxidative stress.201222701284
antioxidant potential of a polyherbal antimalarial as an indicator of its therapeutic value.nefang is a polyherbal product composed of mangifera indica (bark and leaf), psidium guajava, carica papaya, cymbopogon citratus, citrus sinensis, and ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph), total phenolic content (tpc), and ferric reducing antioxidant pow ...201324454347
antioxidant levels and activities of selected seeds of malaysian tropical fruits.the aims of this study are to determine and compare the antioxidant levels and activities (i.e. primary and secondary) between selected seeds of malaysian tropical fruits - guava (psidium guajava), mango (mangifera indica l.) and papaya (carica papaya l.). seeds are among byproducts from the processing of fruitsbased products. instead of discarding seeds as waste, seeds with high potential as antioxidants could be utilised for commercial purposes. accordingly, the selected seeds of malaysian tro ...201022691862
40k/137cs discrimination ratios to the aboveground organs of tropical plants.in the present work, the accumulation of caesium and potassium in aboveground plant parts was studied in order to improve the understanding on the behaviour of monovalent cations in several compartments of tropical plants. we present the results for activity concentrations of (137)cs and (40)k, measured by gamma spectrometry, from five tropical plant species: guava (psidium guajava), mango (mangifera indica), papaya (carica papaya), banana (musa paradisíaca), and manioc (manihot esculenta). caes ...200818308433
effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits.the effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (averrhoa carambola l.), mango (mangifera indica l.), papaya (carica papaya l.), muskmelon (cucumis melo l.), and watermelon citruluss lanatus (thunb.) were investigated. significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (tpc), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. there was no significant (p > 0.05) change ...201121845104
varietal differences in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango (mangifera indica) and papaya (carica papaya) fruits.mango and papaya, which are rich sources of beta-carotene, are widely consumed in india. in this study, beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility were determined in six locally available varieties of mango, namely, badami, raspuri, mallika, malgoa, totapuri, and neelam, and two varieties of papaya, namely, honey dew and surya. varietal differences were evident in both beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility in the case of mango. beta-carotene content in ripe mango ranged from 0.55 +/ ...200717715885
chemical prospection of important ayurvedic plant tinospora cordifolia by uplc-dad-esi-qtof-ms/ms and nmr.a rapid, sensitive, and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric method (uplc-ms) was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds, syringin (3), cordifolioside a (4), magnoflorine (6) and tinocordiside (10) in the stem of tinospora cordifolia. the analysis was performed using an acquity c18 column and gradient elution of 0.05% formic acid in water and acetonitrile at a detection wavelength of 267 nm in 5 min. a high c ...201525920217
evaluation of yellow sticky traps for monitoring the population of thrips (thysanoptera) in a mango orchard.populations of several thrips species were estimated using yellow sticky traps in an orchard planted with mango, mangifera indica l. during the dry and wet seasons beginning in late 2008-2009 on penang island, malaysia. to determine the efficacy of using sticky traps to monitor thrips populations, we compared weekly population estimates on yellow sticky traps with thrips population sizes that were determined (using a co(2) method) directly from mango panicles. dispersal distance and direction of ...201122251688
a 90 day chronic toxicity study of nigerian herbal preparation das-77 in rats.the herbal preparation das-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in nigeria, contains the milled bark of mangifera indica l. and root of carica papaya l. toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study.201222892317
carotenoids and vitamin c during handling and distribution of guava (psidium guajava l.), mango (mangifera indica l.), and papaya (carica papaya l.) at commercial restaurants.the content and stability of vitamin c (ascorbic acid, aa, and dehydroascorbic acid, dha) and carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin) were analyzed in papaya, mango, and guava after the reception, preparation (cleaning, peeling, and slicing), and distribution stages for consumption in a commercial restaurant. the analysis of carotenoids and vitamin c was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc). the fruits analyzed were considered excellent sources of vi ...201020441159
anaphylaxis to mango fruit and crossreactivity with artemisia vulgaris pollen. 200919862948
extraction process optimization of polyphenols from indian citrus sinensis - as novel antiglycative agents in the management of diabetes mellitus.diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. it has become an epidemic disease in the 21st century where, india leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects. non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) is severe form of diabetes, occurs between reducing sugar and proteins which results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (ages) that leads to the other complicated secondary disorders. in this context, mangifera indica (m ...201424397983
[food allergy: the celery-mugwort-spice syndrome. association with mango allergy?].celery allergies are commonly observed in mugwort pollen-allergic patients. this situation is frequently associated with an allergy to spices of the umbelliferous family. thus a "celery-mugwort-spice syndrome" has been established. in 31 patients (27 females, 4 males) allergy to celery was diagnosed between 1978 and 1982. they were followed up in 1983 and complementary tests (skin and rast) with various raw vegetables, spices and mugwort pollen were done. for specific diagnosis of allergy to cel ...19846734454
in vitro antiplasmodial activities and synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the polyherbal product, nefang.nefang, a polyherbal product composed of mangifera indica (bark and leaf), psidium guajava, carica papaya, cymbopogon citratus, citrus sinensis, and ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against p. falciparum malaria. in vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extracts were analyzed on cq-sensitive (3d7) and multidrug resistant (dd2) p. falciparum strains. the interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ...201424877138
[query: distinguish between dicot and monocot according to whether free vein termination exist or not].to observe and study the correctness of the proposition dicot have free vein termination but monocot have not. to evaluate the reliability of the identification principle that is based on above proposition.201122032128
determination of the host status of the 'persian' lime (citrus latifolia tanaka) for anastrepha ludens (loew) (diptera: tephritidae).field and laboratory no-choice oviposition tests were performed to determine whether the 'persian' lime (citrus latifolia tanaka) is a host of anastrepha ludens loew (diptera: tephritidae). trapping and fruit sampling were performed to determine adult population densities and the level of infestation in the two lime orchards. additionally, unharvested and harvested limes were exposed to sexually mature flies and the number of eggs laid and the immature developmental rates were determined. as a c ...201526470106
composition by lc-ms/ms of new carotenoid esters in mango and citrus.interest in the composition of carotenoid esters of fruits is growing because esterification may affect their bioavailability. thus, the aim was to provide a detailed identification of carotenoid esters in citrus and mango. orange cv. 'valencia' and cv. 'pera' presented 9 free carotenoids, 38 monoesters, and 60 diesters. violaxanthin and luteoxanthin derivatives were the major ones, followed by antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeinoxanthin esters, many of them reported fo ...201627712060
biological assay for thiamin of the carabao variety of philippine mango (mangifera indica l.). 194720255766
vascular epiphytes and host trees of ant-gardens in an anthropic landscape in southeastern mexico.ant-gardens (ags) are considered one of the most complex mutualist systems between ants and plants, since interactions involving dispersal, protection, and nutrition occur simultaneously in them; however, little is known about the effects of the transformation of ecosystems on their diversity and interactions. in five environments with different land use within an anthropic landscape in southeastern mexico, we investigated the diversity and composition of epiphytes and host trees of ags built by ...201627866229
partial purification of tumour reducing principle from helicanthis elasticus (fam. loranthaceae).extracts from plants of loranthaceae family collected from 15 host trees were screened for their cytocidal activity to tumour cells. biologically active extracts prepared from helicanthis elasticus grown on mangifera indica and citrus maxima (host trees) were partially purified by the gel filtration method. the purified material was found to be cytotoxic in vitro and reduced solid and ascites tumours in mice when given either simultaneously or prophylactically. the partially purified material wa ...19948019988
quality assessment of industrially processed fruit juices available in dhaka city, bangladesh.this study was performed to evaluate the nutritional and microbiological quality of industrially processed packed fruit juices of mango (mangifera indica) and orange (citrus sinensis) from nine different manufacturing companies in dhaka city. the highest quantity of total sugar (17.62%) and reducing sugar (9.99%) was recorded in mango juices while the lowest in orange juices (10.41% and 2.24% respectively) of different companies. in this study, protein contents were comparatively higher in mango ...201022691996
transient thermal dissipation method of xylem sap flow measurement: multi-species calibration and field evaluation.the transient thermal dissipation (ttd) method developed by do and rocheteau (2002b) is a close evolution of the original constant thermal dissipation (ctd) method of granier (1985). the ttd method has the advantage of limiting the influence of passive natural temperature gradients and of yielding more stable zero-flux references at night. by analogy with the ctd method, the transient method was first calibrated on synthetic porous material (sawdust) on the assumption that the relationship was i ...201019864260
a phylogenetic re-evaluation of phyllosticta (botryosphaeriales).phyllosticta is a geographically widespread genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a diverse host range. this study redefines phyllosticta, and shows that it clusters sister to the botryosphaeriaceae (botryosphaeriales, dothideomycetes), for which the older family name phyllostictaceae is resurrected. in moving to a unit nomenclature for fungi, the generic name phyllosticta was chosen over guignardia in previous studies, an approach that we support here. we use a multigene dna dataset of the its, ...201324302788
characterization of mango (mangifera indica l.) transcriptome and chloroplast genome.we characterized mango leaf transcriptome and chloroplast genome using next generation dna sequencing. the rna-seq output of mango transcriptome generated >12 million reads (total nucleotides sequenced >1 gb). de novo transcriptome assembly generated 30,509 unigenes with lengths in the range of 300 to ≥3,000 nt and 67× depth of coverage. blast searching against nonredundant nucleotide databases and several viridiplantae genomic datasets annotated 24,593 mango unigenes (80% of total) and identifi ...201424515595
tocopherol and tocotrienol levels of foods consumed in hawaii.because of the individual biological effects and the uncertain or missing information on levels of tocopherols (t) and tocotrienols (t3) in foods frequently consumed in hawaii, 79 food items (50 in duplicate) were analyzed for alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol (alphat, betat, gammat, and deltat) and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol (alphat3, betat3, gammat3, and deltat3) in addition to alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alphatac). foods from local markets were stored according to us ...200717263473
[volatile acids in tropical fruits: cherimoya (annona cherimolia, mill.), guava (psidium guajava, l.), mango (mangifera indica, l., var. alphonso), papaya (carica papaya, l.)].the volatile acids extracted by pentane/dichloromethane (2 + 1) from tropical fruit pulps were identified and determined by capillary gas chromatography (hrgc) and combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using ei- and ci mode (hrgc-ei/cims). in cherimoya (a. cherimolia, mill.) fruit pulp 47 acids were characterized; major compounds were hexanoic (3 mg/kg) and octanoic (1 mg/kg) acid. fifty one acids were identified in guava (p. guajava, l.), 54 in mango (m, indica, l., var. alpho ...19854013523
the effects of a modified hot water treatment on anastrepha ludens (diptera: tephritidae)-infested mango.the mexican fruit fly, anastrepha ludens (loew), is a quarantine pest in mango (mangifera indica l.) that can be controlled by using a hot water treatment (hwt). this treatment is normally followed by a 30-min hydrocooling (hyc) process that reduces the negative effects that the treatment has on fruit quality. however, if hot water-treated fruits are immediately immersed in water at 21 °c, the survival rate of third-instar a. ludens may be increased. the current approved treatment protocol state ...201728073977
effect of rootstock on mango fruit susceptibility to infestation by anastrepha obliqua.the effect of the use of rootstock criollo on the susceptibility of manila mango fruit to infestation by anastrepha obliqua (macquart) was determined in the present investigation. growth, quality parameters (soluble solids content (%), citric acid content (%), firmness, monoterpene volatiles (3-carene, limonene, alpha-pinene, and beta-myrcene), main flavonoids content (milligrams/100 g fresh pulp), and larvicidal activity of methanolic extracts, as well as the degree of infestation during prehar ...201122299362
effect of resin ducts and sap content on infestation and development of immature stages of anastrepha obliqua and anastrepha ludens (diptera: tephritidae) in four mango (sapindales: anacardiaceae) cultivars.we determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (criollo, manila, ataulfo, and tommy atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in mexico: anastrepha ludens (loew) and anastrepha obliqua (macquart). we performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) ass ...201728073981
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