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investigations of the host range of the corn cyst nematode, heterodera zeae, from maryland.the host range of the corn cyst nematode, heterodera zeae, recently detected in maryland, was investigated. a total of 269 plant entries, representing 68 families, 172 genera, and 204 species, was inoculated with cysts or a mixture of eggs and second-stage juveniles of h. zeae. the host range of the maryland population of h. zeae was limited to plants of the gramineae and included 11 tribes, 33 genera, 42 species, and 77 entries. all 22 corn (zea mays) cultivars tested were hosts. other economic ...198719290286
trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material.we studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (mus musculus), common reed (phragmites australis) and ladybugs (coccinella septempunctata at five disposal facilities for dredged material. the sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. they were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, wherea ...199015092276
clinical significance of aero-allergen identification in the western cape.positive identification and documentation of the seasonal variation of aero-allergens and the immune responses to them has important implications for the timing of allergen avoidance measures and the selection of patients suitable for immunotherapy. the relative abundance of aero-allergens in the cape peninsula during 1984-1987 was measured by continuous volumetric air sampling, using a burkard spore trap. mould spore counts of greater than 3,000 spores/m3 were found throughout the year and were ...19911989093
ige antibodies to recombinant pollen allergens (phl p 1, phl p 2, phl p 5, and bet v 2) account for a high percentage of grass pollen-specific ige.pollen from different grass species are some of the most potent elicitors of type i allergy worldwide. the characterization of antigenic structures and ige epitopes common to different grass species is relevant to define reagents for diagnosis and specific therapy of grass pollen allergy.19989500760
comparison of metabolisable energy values of different foodstuffs determined in ostriches and poultry.apparent (amen) and true (tmen) metabolisable energy values, corrected for nitrogen retention, of wheat bran, saltbush (atriplex nummularia), common reed (phragmites australis), lupins, soyabean oil cake meal (sbocm), sunflower oil cake meal (sfocm) and fishmeal were compared in 7 successive trials using 12 mature south african black ostriches and 10 adult australorp cockerels per ingredient. tmen values of 11.91, 7.09, 8.67, 14.61, 13.44, 10.79 and 15.13 mj/kg for wheat bran, saltbush, common r ...199910579407
uptake, effects, and metabolism of cyanobacterial toxins in the emergent reed plant phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud.the commonly occurring cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-lr (mc-lr) was rapidly taken up by the emergent reed plant phragmites australis with clear distribution in the different cormus parts of the plant. highest uptake was detected in the stem, followed by the rhizome. enzyme extracts of the rhizome system, the stem, and the leaf revealed the presence of soluble glutathione s-transferases (sgst) measured with the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. a significant elevation of sgst activi ...200111345462
controlled drainage and wetlands to reduce agricultural pollution: a lysimetric study.controlled drainage and wetlands could be very effective practices to control nitrogen pollution in the low-lying agricultural plains of northeast italy, but they are not as popular as in other countries. an experiment on lysimeters was therefore carried out in 1996-1998, with the double aim of obtaining local information to encourage the implementation of these practices and to gain more knowledge on the effects involved. controlled drainage + subirrigation and wetlands were all considered as n ...200111476512
toxicity evaluation of natural and synthetic phenanthrenes in aquatic systems.seven natural 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes were isolated from the common reed juncus effusus by means of chromatographic processes and identified by spectroscopic means. furthermore, mimics of natural isolated compounds were synthesized to try to evaluate the influence of functional groups on the dihydrophenanthrene skeleton. syntheses of compounds were based on the cross-coupling of 1-(2-iodo-5-methoxy)phenyl-ethanol with variously substituted iodobenzenes by zerovalent nickel. all the chemicals w ...200111491568
lead uptake, distribution, and effects in two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and phragmites australis (common reed).we examined biomass accumulation, tissue concentrations of lead (pb), and net uptake of pb in phragmites australis (common reed) and spartina alterniflora (salt cord grass) grown under greenhouse conditions in sediment of different pb concentrations. sediment and newly emerged ramets of each plant species were collected in april 1999 from tuckerton, nj, a relatively clean salt marsh. one-gallon pots were filled with either control sediment (29 microg g(-1) pb) or pb-added sediment (68 microg g(- ...200111693635
a gac biofilm reactor for the continuous degradation of 4-chlorophenol: treatment efficiency and microbial analysis.using a continuous enrichment technique, a bacterial consortium capable of degrading 4-chlorophenol (4-cp) was obtained from the rhizosphere of phragmites australis. a granular activated carbon (gac) biofilm reactor was established using this consortium, and the degradation of 4-cp was investigated under continuous flow operation using a feed of 20-50 mg l(-1) with a hydraulic residence time of 17 min over a 6-month period. chloride liberation occurred throughout the operation, and the reactor h ...200111759696
a constructed surface flow wetland for treating agricultural waste waters.a study was conducted between december 1997 and december 1998 in ne italy on a 3,200 m2 surface flow vegetated wetland receiving agricultural drainage water from a cultivated field of about 6 ha and occasional applications of organic wastes. the study aimed at evaluating: 1) biomass and seasonal nitrogen dynamics in above- and below-ground biomass of phragmites australis cav. (trin.) and typha latifolia (l.) grown in separate zones; 2) the effectiveness of the wetland in removing nutrients and s ...200111804144
reed bed dewatering of agricultural sludges and slurries.in trials at rugeley, uk, reed beds were used for dewatering agricultural sludges and slurries. three beds, each of 3.5 m2, were employed, two planted with phragmites australis, the third left unplanted as control. the sludge contained partly oxidised solids from a biological aerated filter (baf) treating weak pig slurry. it was supplemented with untreated settled pig slurry. following reed establishment planted bed a was fed at a constant similar rate to the unplanted control bed c. the second ...200111804149
an experimental constructed wetland system for the treatment of highway runoff in the uk.this paper compares the performance of an experimental highway runoff treatment system, incorporating a subsurface flow constructed wetland, with that of a vegetated balancing pond. both systems are located on the same major road in the uk which opened in november 1998. copper, chromium and nickel total aqueous metal concentrations, although low, have been consistently removed (maximum efficiencies of 67.3, 69.8 and 87.0% respectively in the constructed wetland), particularly in the summer. zinc ...200111804152
heavy metal contents in reed plants (phragmites australis) along the river scheldt. 200115954281
phytoremediation of small-scale oil spills in fresh marsh environments: a mesocosm simulation.research was conducted to assess the impact of oiling on fresh-marsh plant communities and to test the efficacy of techniques that may be used to enhance the bioremediation of crude oil spills in these environments while minimizing secondary anthropogenic impacts. to emulate field conditions, a mesocosm facility was used that houses 120 mesocosm vessels, each of 200-1 capacity. a five-way factorial treatment arrangement was used that included two substrates (inorganic, organic), two nutrient reg ...200111570802
concentrations of heavy metals and plant nutrients in water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes of anthropogenic lakes (former open cut brown coal mines) differing in stage of acidification.concentration of heavy metals (al, ba, cd, co, cr, cu, fe, mn, ni, pb, sr, v and zn) as well as macronutrients (n, p, k, ca, mg, s) were measured in water, bottom sediments and plants from anthropogenic lakes in west poland. the collected plants were: phragmites australis, potamogeton natans, iris pseudoacorus, juncus effusus, drepanocladus aduncus, juncus bulbosus, phalaris arundinacea, carex remota and calamagrostis epigeios. two reference lakes were sampled for nymphaea alba, phragmites austr ...200111778963
four or more species of cladosporium sympatrically colonize phragmites australis.a collection of cladosporium has been recovered from common reed growing at lake constance (germany). high-resolution cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed that cladosporium isolates from reed are diverse. morphologically, we distinguished three species, viz. c. herbarum, c. oxysporum, and cladosporium sp. internal transcribed spacer (its) sequence analysis supported these results and, moreover, separated the most common species, c. oxysporum, into two subclades. two additional phylogenies ...200211848674
anthropogenic modification of new england salt marsh landscapes.salt marshes play a critical role in the ecology and geology of wave-protected shorelines in the western atlantic, but as many as 80% of the marshes that once occurred in new england have already been lost to human development. here we present data that suggest that the remaining salt marshes in southern new england are being rapidly degraded by shoreline development and eutrophication. on the seaward border of these marshes, nitrogen eutrophication stimulated by local shoreline development is s ...200211818525
microcosm wetlands for wastewater treatment with different hydraulic loading rates and macrophytes.constructed wetlands (cw) usually require large land areas for treating wastewater. this study evaluated the feasibility of applying cw with less land requirement by operating a group of microcosm wetlands at a hydraulic retention time (hrt) of less than 4 d in southern taiwan. an artificial wastewater, simulating municipal wastewater containing 200 mg l(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (cod), 20 mg l(-1) of nh4+-n (an), and 20 mg l(-1) of po4(3-)-p (op), was the inflow source. three emergent plant ...200211931463
reed (phragmites australis) decline in a brackish wetland in italy.a comparative field study was carried out at two sites (a healthy site and a declining site) in a brackish wetland in northern italy, with the objective to investigate the symptoms and the possible causes leading to reed (phragmites australis) decline in this area. the declining reed plants presented many of the symptoms (clumping habit, smaller size, weaker culms, abnormal rhizome and root anatomy, low starch levels in rhizomes) comprised within the so-called reed die-back syndrome, frequently ...200212054106
effects of macrophytes and external carbon sources on nitrate removal from groundwater in constructed wetlands.several microcosm wetlands unplanted and planted with five macrophytes (phragmites australis, commelina communis, penniserum purpureum, ipomoea aquatica, and pistia stratiotes) were employed to remove nitrate from groundwater at a concentration of 21-47 mg no3-n/l. in the absence of external carbon, nitrate removal rates ranged from 0.63 to 1.26 g no3-n/m2/day for planted wetlands. planted wetlands exhibited significantly greater nitrate removal than unplanted wetlands (p<0.01), indicating that ...200212166674
release into the environment of metals by two vascular salt marsh plants.metals in contaminated salt marshes are mainly locked in the anaerobic layer of sediments, where they are tightly bound as sulfides and organic complexes. vascular plants survive in saturated soils in part by pumping o2 into their root zones, changing their microenvironment to an oxic one. this, along with chelating exudates, mobilizes metals, allowing uptake by the roots. we compared the common reed phragmites australis and cordgrass spartina alterniflora in lab and field studies for ways in wh ...200212408582
leaf litter ecological fate in the schelde estuary in belgium.two dominant species of willow(salix triandra) and reed (phragmites australis) along the schelde estuary(in belgium) were selected in this research. the pigments of higher plant was used as biomarkers, the decomposition process of the two species were studied after they fall into the schelde estuary. after statistical analysis (spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.05), the results has shown the decomposition dynamics pattern of the pigments, and the willow showed different pattern in comparing ...200212491734
phytoremediation of selenium by two helophyte species in subsurface flow constructed wetland.the phytoremediation of selenium by two different wetland species was investigated. selenium (20.4 microg/l) was supplied continuously to subsurface flow constructed wetlands, one vegetated with typha latifolia l. and the other with phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud. the beds of both species had same hydraulic loading rate (0.079 m(3)/m(2)/d) and water retention time (24 h). however, the mass loading rate was 1.27 mg se/m(2)/d for phragmites and 1.35 mg se/m(2)/d for typha. in the typha ...200312531701
spatial analysis of plant detritus processing in a mediterranean river type: the case of the river tirso basin, sardinia, italy.the river continuum concept represents the most general framework addressing the spatial variation of both structure and function in river ecosystems. in the mediterranean ecoregion, summer drought events and dams constitute the main sources of local disturbance to the structure and functioning of river ecosystems occurring in the river basin. in this study, we analysed patterns of spatial variation of detritus processing in a 7th order river of the mediterranean ecoregion (river tirso, sardinia ...200312765266
12co2 emission from different metabolic pathways measured in illuminated and darkened c3 and c4 leaves at low, atmospheric and elevated co2 concentration.the detection of 12co2 emission from leaves in air containing 13co2 allows simple and fast determination of the co2 emitted by different sources, which are separated on the basis of their labelling velocity. this technique was exploited to investigate the controversial effect of co2 concentration on mitochondrial respiration. the 12co2 emission was measured in illuminated and darkened leaves of one c4 plant and three c3 plants maintained at low (30-50 ppm), atmospheric (350-400 ppm) and elevated ...200312773522
is the invasion of the common reed, phragmites australis, into tidal marshes of the eastern us an ecological disaster?studies of effects of the invasive brackish marsh plant phragmites australis (common reed) on estuarine biota are reviewed. with few exceptions, most field studies indicate that these p. australis-dominated marshes have diverse and abundant benthic biota, and are utilized by nekton, comparable to spartina alterniflora marshes. however, larval mummichogs, fundulus heteroclitus, appear to be reduced in p. australis marshes compared with s. alterniflora marshes. small epifauna living on plant stems ...200312837299
[vegetation state and soil enzyme activities of copper tailing yard on tongguan mountain].from the open investigation and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the vegetation state and soil enzyme activities of copper tailing yard of tongguan mountain. the results showed that there were 34 species of natural colonized plants on copper tailing yard, subordinated to 16 families and 33 genera, and regard herbs as principle, and many for 1-2 years old. the main families were compositae (10 species), gramineae (9 species) and legumineceae (2 species). hippochaete ramosissimum, which bel ...200312924135
[responses of interspecific relationships among main herbaceous plants to flooding disturbance in songnen plain, northeastern china].to investigate the effects of flooding disturbance on the interspecific relationships among grassland plant species, a comparatively thorough study was conducted on sanjiadian national rangeland in the territory of da'an city, jilin province, which was partly flooded in 1998. the study site was located in the south of songnen plain, northeastern china, dominated by leymus chinensis grassland. along the flooding gradients (from un-flooded to heavily flooded) formed on an extensive mild slope take ...200312973991
in vivo observation of conidial germination at the oxic-anoxic interface and infection of submerged reed roots by microdochium bolleyi.the underground plant parts of reed (phragmites australis) growing in anoxic soil of the littoral zone of lakes are provided with oxygen via an aerenchyma. some of this oxygen is released into the rhizosphere, which creates a potential microhabitat for aerobic fungi. although fungal endophytes of reed have been shown to occur also in roots of flooded habitats, it is not known whether or how fungi can infect roots growing in anoxic or hypoxic soil. to study fungal infection of reed roots in the l ...200319719598
endophytic fungal mutualists: seed-borne stagonospora spp. enhance reed biomass production in axenic microcosms.fungal endophytes mainly belong to the phylum ascomycota and colonize plants without producing symptoms. we report on the isolation of seed-borne fungal endophytes from phragmites australis (common reed) that were ascribed to the genus stagonospora. nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays revealed that a stagonospora sp. regularly colonized reed as shown for a period of three years. in spring, it was only detected in roots, whereas in autumn, it could frequently be found in all organs, inc ...200312848423
new, rare and remarkable microfungi from macedonia (greece).on the occasion of the great excursion of the botanical institute of the university of essen in the year 2000 we were able to collect about 250 species of parasitic and saprophytic microfungi in eastern greece. dominant were ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes, for example puccinia convolvuli on calystegia silvatica, puccinia caricina on carex flava, ramularia cynoglossi on cynoglossum creticum, phyllosticta juglandis and marssonina juglandis on juglans regia, erysiphe cynoglossi on e ...200315151300
occurrence of puccinia isiacae on phragmites australis in saudi arabia and its possibility as a biological control agent.during the summer of 2002, symptoms of rust disease were observed for the first time on phragmites australis in saudi arabia. light brown lesions of regular shape indicating uredinia of puccinia isiacae appeared on the leaves. the morphology and characteristics of the fungus were described in detail with both light and scanning electron microscopy. the possibility of using this fungus as a biological control agent was also discussed.200415462516
metal uptake, transport and release by wetland plants: implications for phytoremediation and restoration.marshes have been proposed as sites for phytoremediation of metals. the fate of metals within plant tissues is a critical issue for effectiveness of this process. in this paper we review studies that investigate the effects of plants on metals in wetlands. while most of these marsh plant species are similar in metal uptake patterns and in concentrating metals primarily in roots, some species retain more of their metal burden in below ground structures than other species, which redistribute a gre ...200415051245
[niche characteristics of plants on four environmental gradients in middle reaches of tarim river].tarim river is the longest continental river in china. along its either bank, the natural vegetation belts are composed of arbors, shrubs and grasses. in this paper, the niche breadths and overlaps of nineteen species on four environmental gradients in the middle reaches of tarim river were calculated and analyzed. the results showed that the nineteen species could be divided into three groups, based on their average niche breadths. group one included populus euphratica, tamarix ramosissima, t. ...200415334943
metal dynamics of plant litter of spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis in metal-contaminated salt marshes. part 1: patterns of decomposition and metal uptake.to investigate the decay rate and metal uptake in litter from two species of wetland plants, leaves and stems of senescent spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis (p) were obtained from the hackensack meadowlands (nj, usa) in october 1998, and their initial metal contents were determined. two types of s. alterniflora were obtained, one set from a natural site (ns) and one from a restored site (rs). leaves and stems were placed in separate litterbags, and samples of each type were reciproc ...200415376538
decomposition dynamic of higher plant pigments by hplc analysis.the fate of the litter of dominant vegetation(willows and reeds) is one of the aspects studied in the frame of the project "onderzoek milieu effecten sigmaplan". one of the questions to be considered is how long the litter stays within the estuary. in this paper, the time the leaf litter (salix triandra and phragmites australis) stayed in the schelde estuary was studied by using plant pigment as biomarkers with hplc application. after analyzing the original data from the incubation experiment de ...200415559826
uptake of bromide by two wetland plants (typha latifolia l. and phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud).the successful use of bromide (br-) as a conservative tracer for hydrological tests in wetland systems requires minimal br- loss due to plant uptake. the uptake of br- by two wetland plants, cattail (typha latifolia l.) and reed grass (phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud), was investigated in greenhouse flow-through microcosms. concentrations of br- and other pertinent constituents in sediment pore water were measured at 2 cm depth increments in the sediment column. the vertical br- conce ...200415575283
screening the wetland plant species alisma plantago-aquatica, carex rostrata and phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with eriophorum angustifolium and festuca rubra merlin.several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. in previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants typha latifolia, phragmites australis, glyceria fluitans and eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. this study screened three other species of wetland plants: alisma plantago-aquatica, carex rostrata and phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. the degree of tolerance ...200515589661
nutrient removal through autumn harvest of phragmites australis and thypha latifolia shoots in relation to nutrient loading in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant effluent.the efficacy and feasibility of annual harvesting of phragmites australis and typha latifolia shoots in autumn for nutrient removal was evaluated in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant (stp) effluent. aboveground biomass and nutrient dynamics nutrient removal through harvest were studied in parallel ditches with stands of phragmites or typha that were mown in october during two successive years. the inflow rate of stp effluent to the ditches was experimentally varied, resu ...200515921271
degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by selected helophytes.four emergent plants (helophytes, synonyms emersion macrophytes, marsh plants, etc.) phragmites australis, juncus glaucus, carex gracillis and typha latifolia were successfully used for degradation of tnt (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) under in vitro conditions. the plants took up and transformed more than 90% of tnt from the medium within ten days of cultivation. the most efficient species was ph. australis which took up 98% of tnt within ten days. the first stable degradation products 4-amino-2,6-din ...200516054915
stimulation of pyrene mineralization in freshwater sediments by bacterial and plant bioaugmentation.as a means to study the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) in freshwater sediments, pyrene mineralization was examined in microcosms spiked with [14c]pyrene. some microcosms were planted with reeds (phragmites australis) and/or inoculated with a pyrene-degrading strain, mycobacterium sp. 6py1. mineralization rates recorded over a 61 d period showed that reeds promoted a significant enhancement of pyrene degradation, which possibly resulted from a root-mediated increase of oxygen dif ...200516124309
diversity of alkaliphilic and alkalitolerant bacteria cultivated from decomposing reed rhizomes in a hungarian soda lake.bacterial communities associated with decomposing rhizomes of phragmites australis were investigated in lake ferto (neusiedlersee, hungary). alkaliphilic and alkalitolerant strains were isolated on cellulose-containing alkaline medium spread with dilutions of scrapings taken from the surface of the decaying plant material. fifty-one strains were grouped by numerical analysis based on physiological tests and biolog sole carbon source utilization data. the strains identified by 16s rdna sequence c ...200516132425
o-acetylserine (thiol) lyase activity in phragmites and typha plants under cadmium and nacl stress conditions and the involvement of aba in the stress response.the roles of o-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (oastl, ec 4.2.99.8) and abscisic (aba) acid in stress responses to nacl and cadmium treatments were investigated in typha latifolia l. and phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steudel plants. oastl activity increased under stress (25-300 microm cd, 100mm nacl, 1 microm aba) in both typha and phragmites mainly in roots, contributing substantially to satisfy the higher demand of cysteine for adaptation and protection. the earliest significant responses in ...200516146312
use of microbial community to evaluate performance of a wetland system in treating pb/zn mine drainage.the performance of a wetland system in treating lead (pb)/zinc (zn) mine drainage was evaluated by using the polyurethane foam unit (pfu) microbial community (method), which has been adopted by china as a standardized procedure for monitoring water quality. the wetland system consisted of four cells with three dominant plants: typha latifolia, phragmites australis and paspalum distichum. physicochemical characteristics [ph, ec, content of total suspended solid (tss) and metals (pb, zn, cd, and c ...200516215655
plant growth-promoting bacteria facilitate the growth of the common reed phragmites australisin the presence of copper or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.to test whether plant growth-promoting bacteria might be useful in facilitating the growth of phragmites australis, the common reed, in the presence of metals and organic compounds, p. australis seeds were treated with plant growth-promoting bacteria. the bacterium pseudomonas asplenii ac was genetically transformed to express a bacterial gene encoding the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and both the native and transformed bacteria were tested in conjunction with p. australis ...200516328627
low persistence of bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis spores in four mosquito biotopes of a salt marsh in southern france.we studied the persistence of bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (bti) in a typical breeding site of the mosquito ochlerotatus caspius in a particularly sensitive salt marsh ecosystem following two bti-based larvicidal applications (vectobac 12as, 1.95 l/ha). the treated area was composed of four larval biotopes that differed in terms of the most representative plant species (sarcocornia fruticosa, bolboschoenus maritimus, phragmites australis, and juncus maritimus) and the physical and ...200516328650
isolation and characterization of polymeric galloyl-ester-degrading bacteria from a tannery discharge place.the culturable bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of plants growing in the area of discharge of a tannery effluent were characterized. relative proportions of aerobic, denitrifying, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were determined in the rhizosphere of typha latifolia, canna indica, and phragmites australis. aerobic bacteria were observed to be the most abundant group in the rhizosphere, and plant type did not seem to influence the abundance of the bacterial types analyzed. to isolate bacteria abl ...200516341641
pythium phragmitis sp. nov., a new species close to p. arrhenomanes as a pathogen of common reed (phragmites australis).during a study on the occurrence and pathogenicity of oomycetes in the reed-belt (phragmites australis) of lake constance (germany), a new pythium resembling the important cereal pathogen species complex p. arrhenomanes/p. graminicola was consistently isolated from necrotic mature reed leaves and reed rhizosphere samples. the new species proved to be significantly more aggressive towards reed leaves and seedlings in vitro than related species. it is characterised by filamentous, inflated sporang ...200516353634
effect of design parameters in horizontal flow constructed wetland on the behaviour of volatile fatty acids and volatile alkylsulfides.a pilot-scale horizontal flow constructed wetland (hfcw) system planted with common reed (phragmites sp.) was constructed to study how hydraulic loading rate (hlr), aspect ratio, water depth, and granular medium affect to the fate of several organic matter degradation intermediates namely, acetic acid (hac), isovaleric acid (isoval), and dimethylsulfide (dms). anova statistical analysis performed on the data set of 8 months of operation shows that the hlr and the water depth are two major factor ...200515811405
extra-intestinal localization of goussia sp. (apicomplexa) oocysts in rana dalmatina (anura: ranidae), and the fate of infection after metamorphosis.although coccidia of the genus goussia are common parasites of fish, only 2 species have been described in amphibians: g. hyperolisi from common reed frogs hyperolius viridiflavus from kenya and g. neglecta from unspecified european water frogs of the genus rana from germany. the genus goussia is characterized by an oocyst, with a fine oocyst wall, containing 4 dizoic sporocysts that are composed of 2 valves joined by a longitudinal suture and lacking a stieda body (typical for the genus eimeria ...200616903235
pythium litorale sp. nov., a new species from the littoral of lake constance, germany.a description is given of pythium litorale sp. nov., a new species from reed stands in germany. pythium litorale was among the most abundant species when the oomycete community of littoral soils of lake constance was studied. it was consistently isolated from flooded as well as from drier reed sites. the species is characterized by subglobose, papillate and internally proliferating sporangia, globose hyphal swellings, the absence of oogonia in single culture and a high optimum growth temperature ...200616436067
on the induction of volatile organic compound emissions by plants as consequence of wounding or fluctuations of light and temperature.among the volatile organic compounds (vocs) emitted by plants, some are characteristic of stress conditions, but their biosynthesis and the metabolic and environmental control over the emission are still unclear. we performed experiments to clarify whether (1) the emission following wounding can occur at distance from the wounding site, from voc pools subjected to metabolic signals; and (2) the emission of biogenic vocs generated by membrane damage (e.g. consequent to wounding or ozone exposure) ...200616913871
effects of plants on the removal of hexavalent chromium in wetland sediments.the effect of two wetland plants, typha latifolia l. (cattail) and phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud (common reed), on the fate of cr(vi) in wetland sediments was investigated using greenhouse bench-scale microcosm experiments. the removal of cr(vi) was monitored based on the vertical profiles of aqueous cr(vi) in the sediments. the cr(vi) removal rates were estimated taking into account plant transpiration, which was found to significantly concentrate dissolved species in the sediments ...200616397109
accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steudel and bolboschoenus maritimus (l.) palla in a constructed wetland of the venice lagoon watershed.a recently constructed wetland, located in the venice lagoon watershed, was monitored to investigate growth dynamics, nutrient and heavy metal shoot accumulation of the two dominating macrophytes: phragmites australis and bolboschoenus maritimus. investigations were conducted over a vegetative season at three locations with different distance to the inlet point to assess effects on vegetation. the distance from the inlet did not affect either shoot biomass or nutrients (n, p, k and na) and heavy ...200616574288
influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings.establishment of carex rostrata, eriophorum angustifolium and phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (ph approximately 3) and their effect on ph in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. the amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes-sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and as concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. an additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with e. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendment ...200616584823
arthropod food web restoration following removal of an invasive wetland plant.restoration of habitats impacted by invasive plants is becoming an increasingly important tool in the management of native biodiversity, though most studies do not go beyond monitoring the abundance of particular taxonomic groups, such as the return of native vegetation. yet, the reestablishment of trophic interactions among organisms in restored habitats is equally important if we are to monitor and understand how ecosystems recover. this study examined whether food web interactions among arthr ...200616711049
lead and zinc accumulation and tolerance in populations of six wetland plants.wetland plants such as typha latifolia and phragmites australis have been indicated to show a lack of evolution of metal tolerance in metal-contaminated populations. the aim of the present study is to verify whether other common wetland plants such as alternanthera philoxeroides and beckmannia syzigachne, also possess the same characteristics. lead and zinc tolerances in populations of six species collected from contaminated and clean sites were examined by hydroponics. in general, the contamina ...200616214279
rhizome phyllosphere oxygenation in phragmites and other species in relation to redox potential, convective gas flow, submergence and aeration pathways.underground rhizomes of emergent aquatic macrophytes are important for perennation, vegetative spread, competition and anchorage. in four species we examined the potential for the development of oxidized phyllospheres around rhizome apical buds, similar to the protective oxygenated rhizospheres around roots. redox potentials and polarographic measurements of radial oxygen loss were recorded using platinum cathodes around the apical buds. the aeration pathway from atmosphere to phyllosphere was i ...200617096797
phytoremediation of selenium using subsurface-flow constructed wetland.the potential of two plant species, phragmites australis (common reed) and typha latifolia (cattail), in the phytoremediation process of selenium (se) was studied in subsurface-flow constructed wetland (ssf). se was supplemented continuously at a concentration of 100 microg se l(-1) in the inlet of the cultivation beds of the ssf. water samples collected from the outlet of the phragmites bed after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 wk of treatments showed that se content was under detectable limits. water sampl ...200617120524
salt tolerance and osmotic adjustment of spartina alterniflora (poaceae) and the invasive m haplotype of phragmites australis (poaceae) along a salinity gradient.an invasive variety of phragmites australis (poaceae, common reed), the m haplotype, has been implicated in the spread of this species into north american salt marshes that are normally dominated by the salt marsh grass spartina alterniflora (poaceae, smooth cordgrass). in some european marshes, on the other hand, spartina spp. derived from s. alterniflora have spread into brackish p. australis marshes. in both cases, the non-native grass is thought to degrade the habitat value of the marsh for ...200621642124
the roost and roosting behaviour of eurasian marsh harriers circus aeruginosus during autumnal migration in eastern poland.the study deals with characteristics of behaviour, individual roost sites selections used by eurasian marsh harrier (circus aeruginosus) during autumnal migrations on the first known communal roost in poland over the years 2003-2005. eurasian marsh harriers communal roosts contained from 1 to 23 individuals which were spend nights in: reed beds (phragmites australis), purple moor grasses molinia cearulea, small reeds (calamagrostis sp.), sedges (carex sp.) thistles (cirsium sp.). adult birds wer ...200719069855
ecological studies on al-khadoud spring, al-hassa, saudi arabia.al-khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in al-hassa governorate, saudi arabia. however, much of its biotic information is still unknown. this study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. these species include two submerged aquatic plants (potamogeton pectinatus l. and ceratophyllum demersum l.). the common distributed species are phragmites australis (cav.) t ...200719090280
varying stable nitrogen isotope ratios of different coastal marsh plants and their relationships with wastewater nitrogen and land use in new england, usa.the stable nitrogen isotope ratios of some biota have been used as indicators of sources of anthropogenic nitrogen. in this study the relationships of the stable nitrogen isotope ratios of marsh plants, iva frutescens (l.), phragmites australis (cav.) trin ex steud, spartina patens (ait.) muhl, spartina alterniflora loisel, ulva lactuca (l.), and enteromorpha intestinalis (l.) with wastewater nitrogen and land development in new england are described. five of the six plant species (all but u. la ...200717171277
accumulation of metals in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater in flanders, belgium.this study assessed the accumulation of metals in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater of 350 pe after three years of operation. metal concentrations in the influent wastewater, effluent, sediment, leaves, stems, and belowground biomass of phragmites australis were analysed. spatial variations were assessed by sampling at increasing distance from the inlet and at different positions across the width of the reed bed. all metals except fe and mn were effici ...200717240426
urea transformation of wetland microbial communities.transformation of urea to ammonium is an important link in the nitrogen cycle in soil and water. although microbial nitrogen transformations, such as nitrification and denitrification, are well studied in freshwater sediment and epiphytic biofilm in shallow waters, information about urea transformation in these environments is scarce. in this study, urea transformation of sedimentary, planktonic, and epiphytic microbial communities was quantified and urea transformation of epiphytic biofilms ass ...200717268879
five year water and nitrogen balance for a constructed surface flow wetland treating agricultural drainage waters.the performance of a constructed surface flow wetland in reducing diffuse n pollution coming from croplands is being investigated in an ongoing experiment, begun in 1998 in ne italy. the 0.32 ha wetland is vegetated with phragmites australis (cav.) trin. and typha latifolia (l.). it receives drainage water from 6 ha of land managed for an experiment on drainage systems, where maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and soybean are cultivated. during the period 1998-2002, the wetland received from 4698 to ...200717270250
cloning and functional analysis of the k+ transporter, phahak2, from salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant reed plants.we isolated phahak2 cdnas from salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive reed plants. phahak2 belongs to group ii by phylogenetic analysis, and was predicted to be a high-affinity plasma membrane k(+) transporter. yeast transformed with the phahak2-u from salt-sensitive reed plants (phragmites australis) had a decreased ability to take up k(+) in the presence of nacl and showed a higher na(+) permeability than yeast transformed with phahak2-n or phahak2-e from two salt-tolerant reed plants. these results ...200717279448
uptake and distribution of n, p and heavy metals in three dominant salt marsh macrophytes from yangtze river estuary, china.we examined the variation in aboveground biomass accumulation and tissue concentrations of nitrogen (n), phosphorus (p), copper (cu), zinc (zn) and lead (pb) in phragmites australis (common reed), spartina alterniflora (salt cordgrass), and scirpus mariqueter throughout the growing season (april-october 2005), in order to determine the differences in net element accumulation and distribution between the three salt marsh macrophytes in the yangtze river estuary, china. the aboveground biomass was ...200717306362
ch4 and n2o emissions from spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis in experimental mesocosms.spartina alterniflora, a perennial grass with c(4)-photosynthesis, shows great invading potential in the coastal ecosystems in the east of china. we compared trace gas emissions from s. alterniflora with those from a native c(3) plant, phragmites australis, by establishing brackish marsh mesocosms to experimentally assess the effects of plant species (s. alterniflora vs. p. australis), flooding status (submerged vs. non-submerged), and clipping (plants clipped or not) on trace gas emissions. the ...200717316757
constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater.wastewaters from leather processing are very complex and lead to water pollution if discharged untreated, especially due to its high organic loading. in this study the survival of different plant species in subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands receiving tannery wastewater was investigated. five pilot units were vegetated with canna indica, typha latifolia, phragmites australis, stenotaphrum secundatum and iris pseudacorus, and a sixth unit was left as an unvegetated control. the treat ...200717320926
nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (phragmites australis, typha orientalis, pennisetum purpureum, ipomoea aquatica, and pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. the results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) nitrate removal ...200717365317
metabolic activity and phylogenetic diversity of reed (phragmites australis) periphyton bacterial communities in a hungarian shallow soda lake.in the present study, the species composition and potential metabolic activities of bacterial communities of reed phragmites australis (cav.) (trin. ex steudel) periphyton from lake velencei were studied by cultivation-based and metabolic fingerprinting methods. serially diluted spring biofilm samples were used to test the community-level physiological profiling (clpp) using biolog microplates, and for plating onto different media. on the basis of their morphological, biochemical, and physiologi ...200717406774
susceptibility of native and non-native common reed to the non-native mealy plum aphid (homoptera: aphididae) in north america.an aggressive, non-native haplotype (distinct genetic lineage within a species) of phragmites australis is invading brackish and freshwater systems in the eastern united states, potentially displacing native haplotypes. we studied the differential susceptibility of native and non-native populations collected from sites throughout north america to the non-native aphid, hyalopterus pruni. in a greenhouse study, we found significantly higher aphid populations on native haplotypes than on the non-na ...200717445381
factors affecting metal concentrations in the upper sediment layer of intertidal reedbeds along the river scheldt.factors that play a role in determining metal accumulation in sediments of 26 intertidal marshes which are mainly vegetated by reed plants (phragmites australis) were assessed along the scheldt estuary (belgium and the netherlands). in the upper 20 cm sediment layer, several physico-chemical properties (clay, silt and sand content, organic matter, carbonate and chloride content, ph and conductivity) and aqua regia extractable metals (cd, cr, cu, ni, pb, zn) were determined. the sediments were si ...200717492090
performance of vegetated and non-vegetated vertical flow reed beds in the treatment of diluted leachate.this study was undertaken to investigate the behaviour of a vertical flow reed bed system with 3 kind of wastewaters (w1, w2 and w3) and for two hydraulic retention times (3 and 7 days) as well as to assess the role of phragmites australis in constructed wetland treatment processes. the adopted batch experimental system consisted of six vertical flow filters, filled with granular media and planted with reeds. for each vegetated reactor there was a correspondent blank in order to make a compariso ...200717558782
reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds. effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-c genotoxicity assay, dr-calux assay and on early life stage development in zebrafish (danio rerio).sweden has prohibited the deposition of organic waste since january, 2005. since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a larger degree. one common method in the usa and parts of europe is the use of wetlands to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. the capacity of reed beds to affect the toxicity of a complex mixture of nitroaromatics in sludge, however, is n ...200717561780
seasonal changes of metal accumulation and distribution in common club rush (schoenoplectus lacustris) and common reed (phragmites australis).in this study, two aquatic macrophytes phragmites australis and schoenoplectus lacustris and corresponding sediment samples were collected every three months from lake sapanca (turkey) and analysed for their heavy-metal contents (pb, cr, cu, mn, ni, zn and cd). accumulation factor ratios of plant parts were calculated for all metals, and the two species were compared in terms of accumulation properties. the highest concentrations were measured in the root systems while relatively low concentrati ...200717577664
[carbon storage and carbon fixation during the succession of natural vegetation in wetland ecosystem on east beach of chongming island].vegetation is an important biological factor in the ecological succession of wetland, and the main factor affecting the carbon storage and carbon fixation in wetland ecosystem. by the methods of field survey and lab analysis, this paper studied the carbon storage and carbon fixation during the succession of wetland vegetation on east beach of chongming island, and the results showed that there existed greater differences in the existing carbon storage and its allocation in wetland vegetation at ...200717615896
[methane emission from aquatic vegetation zones of wuliangsu lake, inner mongolia].to quantify the variations of methane fluxes from different aquatic vegetation zones, two-year measurements were measured at different aquatic vegetation zones and water depths using static chamber technique during two growing season from april to october in 2003 and 2004. results showed that the average emission flux of ch4 from potamogeton pectinatus (submerged macrophyte) growing zones was (3.44 +/- 1.60) mg x (m2 x h)(-1), 78.06% lower than that from phragmites australis (emergent macrophyte ...200717633615
[succession character of salt marsh vegetations in chongming dongtan wetland].this paper studied the ecological character, importance value, aboveground biomass and its n content of salt marsh vegetations in chongming dongtan wetland in the process of succession. the results indicated that with the increase of altitude, the importance value of scirpus mariqueter, a representative species at early succession stage, decreased gradually, while those of spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis increased. the biodiversity of the vegetations increased with succession. dur ...200717650865
root-secreted allelochemical in the noxious weed phragmites australis deploys a reactive oxygen species response and microtubule assembly disruption to execute rhizotoxicity.phragmites australis is considered the most invasive plant in marsh and wetland communities in the eastern united states. although allelopathy has been considered as a possible displacing mechanism in p. australis, there has been minimal success in characterizing the responsible allelochemical. we tested the occurrence of root-derived allelopathy in the invasiveness of p. australis. to this end, root exudates of two p. australis genotypes, bb (native) and p38 (an exotic) were tested for phytotox ...200717899282
effects of substratum on the diversity and stability of ammonia-oxidizing communities in a constructed wetland used for wastewater treatment.to study the relationship between the nature of the substratum and the diversity and stability of the ammonia-oxidizing microbial community in a constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewaters.200717953555
[effects of allelochemical ema from reed on the production and release of cyanotoxins in microcystis aeruginosa].the growth inhibition of ethyl-2-methylacetoacetate (ema) isolated from common reed (phragmites australis trin. or phragmites communis trin.) on the growth of microcystis aeruginosa pcc7806 was investigated and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of cyanotoxin (mc-lr) after treatment of ema were tested. the experimental results indicated that ema has significant inhibitory effect on the growth of m. aeruginosa pcc7806, and the value of ec(50,7d) was 2.0 mg x l(-1). however, the inh ...200717990557
diversity of reed (phragmites australis) stem biofilm bacterial communities in two hungarian soda lakes.from reed biofilm samples of kelemen-szék (kiskunság national park, knp) and nagy-vadas (hortobágy national park, hnp) altogether 260 bacterial isolates were gained after serial dilutions and plating onto different media. following a primary selection 164 strains were investigated by "traditional" phenotypic tests and clustered by numerical analysis. fifty-six representative strains were selected to ardra and 16s rdna sequence analysis for identification. strains were identified as members of ge ...200718088008
[population expansion of spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis at jiuduansha, shanghai based on cellular automata model].based on the field survey and the interpretation and analysis of satellite images about the population expansion patterns of spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis at jiuduansha shoals in 1997-2004, and combined with 3s techniques, a cellular automata (ca) model was built to simulate the population dynamics of plants adaptable to salt marsh. the results showed that the model could well simulate the population expansion pattern and trend of s. alterniflora and p. australis at jiuduansha, ...200718333459
chemical and biological assessment of an urban, estuarine marsh in northeastern new jersey usa.oritani marsh in the hackensack meadowlands of urbanized northeastern new jersey usa was assessed in 2000 for vegetation, soil/sediment chemistry, abundance/diversity of benthic invertebrates, and bird and mammal usage. vegetatively, both marsh and uplands are dominated by tall, dense phragmites australis. small patches (less than 2 hectares total) dominated by spartina spp. were found at the lowest elevations. soil/sediment cores were sliced into 5 intervals and analyzed for metals, pesticides ...200717058019
use of blast furnace granulated slag as a substrate in vertical flow reed beds: field application.research was conducted at middle east technical university (metu), ankara, turkey in 2000 to determine whether a reed bed filled with an economical turkish fill media that has high phosphorus (p) sorption capacity, could be implemented and operated successfully under field conditions. in batch-scale p-sorption experiments, the p-sorption capacity of the blast furnace granulated slag (bfgs) of kardemir iron and steel ltd., co., turkey, was found to be higher compared to other candidate filter mat ...200717070037
removal of bacteria by filtration in planted and non-planted sand columns.in order to diminish hygienic hazards from pathogens, the elimination of pathogenic bacteria in a pre-treatment step is important for the use of domestic wastewater for irrigation purposes. therefore, we analysed the removal of bacteria in laboratory-scale model sand filters simulating vertical flow systems of constructed wetlands (cw). sand-filled glass columns were planted with juncus effusus or phragmites australis and non-planted columns were used as controls. processes of bacteria removal s ...200717084880
an approach to mosquito control: using the dominant attraction of flowering tamarix jordanis trees against culex pipiens.in this study, we identified blossoms that attract culex pipiens l. s.l. in a mediterranean habitat by using branches of 26 common plant species as baits for traps. the highest catch, 60.5% of the total, by flowers of tamarix jordanis boiss., was approximately 6 times greater than the 10.7% caught by flowering polygonum equisetiforme sm., and 10 times higher than the 6.6% caught by flowers of acacia saligna (lindle) h. l. wendl. the catch elicited by the other plants ranged between 4.0 and 0.1%. ...200818533430
[niches of plant species in wetlands of the yellow river delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity].ordination methods were used to arrange in turn the 19 plant species in wetlands of the yellow river delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity, and to classify them into three ecological species groups, i. e. low, medium, and high water table depth/soil salinity ecological species groups. their niche breadths and niche overlaps under the two gradients were also analyzed. the results indicated that for the gradient of water table depth, the species in medium water table depth e ...200818655579
phylogenetic and metabolic bacterial diversity of phragmites australis periphyton communities in two hungarian soda ponds.bacterial diversity of reed (phragmites australis) periphyton communities of kelemen-szék and nagy-vadas (two hungarian soda ponds) was investigated using molecular cloning and cultivation-based techniques. the majority of the 80 kelemen-szék and 72 nagy-vadas bacterial isolates proved to be moderately halophilic and alkaliphilic. a great proportion of the isolates showed phosphatase and urease activity, utilized aesculin, citrate and certain biopolymers (e.g., gelatine and tween 80). partial 16 ...200818679563
phytophthora gallica sp. nov., a new species from rhizosphere soil of declining oak and reed stands in france and germany.a non-papillate, slow-growing phytophthora species, which could not be assigned to any existing taxon, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of a declining oak in northeast france, and from the rhizosphere of phragmites australis at lake constance in south-west germany in 1998 and 2004, respectively. we describe this species, previously informally designated phytophthora taxon 'g', as phytophthora gallica sp. nov. morphology, growth rates, and pathogenicity against cuttings of riparian tree species ...200818693002
seasonal effect on n2o formation in nitrification in constructed wetlands.constructed wetlands are considered to be important sources of nitrous oxide (n(2)o). in order to investigate the contribution of nitrification in n(2)o formation, some environmental factors, plant species and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (aob) in active layers have been compared. vegetation cells indicated remarkable effect of seasons and different plant species on n(2)o emission and aob amount. nitrous oxide data showed large temporal and spatial fluctuations ranging 0-52.8 mg n(2)o m(-2)d(-1). ...200818782640
artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.artificial wetlands (aw) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an ...200818957747
biodegradation of carbendazim by epiphytic and neustonic bacteria of eutrophic chełmzyńskie lake.the paper presents a study on biodegradation of carbendazim (1 mg/l) by homogeneous cultures of epiphytic (n = 25) and neustonic (n = 25) bacteria and heterogeneous (n = 1) cultures containing a mixture of 25 bacterial strains isolated from epidermis of the common reed (phragmites australis, (cav.) trin. ex steud.) and surface microlayer (sm approximately 250 microm) of eutrophic lake chełmzyńskie. results indicate that epiphytic bacteria are characterized by higher average capacity to decompose ...200819004243
heavy metals in wetland plants and soil of lake taihu, china.properties of vertical distribution of soil near water bodies are vary considerably from those of land and may greatly affect the transportation of heavy metals in wetlands. vertical distributions of heavy metals (cr, cd, cu, pb, and zn) in the soil of aquatic-terrestrial ecotone (ate) of lake taihu, china, and in wetland plant tissues were studied. generally, concentrations of heavy metals decreased with increasing depth in the top 40-cm cores and then increased slightly with increasing depth. ...200818092866
influence of tidal regime on the distribution of trace metals in a contaminated tidal freshwater marsh soil colonized with common reed (phragmites australis).a historical input of trace metals into tidal marshes fringing the river scheldt may be a cause for concern. nevertheless, the specific physicochemical form, rather than the total concentration, determines the ecotoxicological risk of metals in the soil. in this study the effect of tidal regime on the distribution of trace metals in different compartments of the soil was investigated. as, cd, cu and zn concentrations in sediment, pore water and in roots were determined along a depth profile. tot ...200818158203
phytotoxicity of oil sands naphthenic acids and dissipation from systems planted with emergent aquatic macrophytes.differences in dissipation and phytotoxicity were measured for two naphthenic acid mixtures in hydroponically grown emergent macrophytes (typha latifolia, phragmites australis, and scirpus acutus). one of the naphthenic acid (na) mixtures was extracted from tailings pond water of an oil sands operation in fort mcmurray, alberta, canada. the other mixture was a commercially available na mixture. while the oil sands na mixture was less phytotoxic to wetland plants compared to the commercially avai ...200818161556
the effects of tannery wastewater on the development of different plant species and chromium accumulation in phragmites australis.toxicity tests were performed to assess the effect of tannery wastewater with different treatment levels on two wetland plants, phragmites australis and typha latifolia, which are frequently used in constructed wetlands (cws) for water treatment, and thus deepen the knowledge on their capacity to withstand the application of industrial wastewater. trifolium pratense, a plant generally used as an indicator in toxicity tests, was included as a control. end points measured were germination percenta ...200818214580
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