existence of carotenoids in acholeplasma axanthum.the neutral lipids of acholeplasma axanthum contain carotenoid pigments, as evidenced by spectral characteristics, visual color, color reactions, and labeling with [2-14c-a1mevalonic acid. approximately 80% of the label from [2-14c]mevalonic acid appeared in esterified fatty acids of the glycolipids and polar lipids. these carboxylic acids behaved as hydroxy acids of varying chain length.1979762011
[generation of pro-coagulation activity by leukocytes stimulated in vitro with lipoglycans from mycoplasmas].lipoglycans represent a special type of lipopoly-saccharide that differs in structure from the well-known gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide. after briefly describing their most important characteristics, the authors take into consideration the in vitro interaction between lipoglycans from acholeplasma granularum, acholeplasma oculi, and acholeplasma axanthum and human leukocytes in terms of production of procoagulant activity. the results obtained show that the examined lipoglycans posse ...19853843073
occurance of acholeplasma axanthum in cattle. 19744460932
studies on the pathogenicity of acholeplasma axanthum in swine.acholeplasma axanthum sp. was isolated from the lung of swine with catarrhal pneumonia. clinical symptoms of respiratory disease, gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, as well as serological response were produced by intranasal inoculation of ;miniature pigs' with the supernatant of lung suspension containing acholeplasma axanthum and by a 48 hr. broth culture of the strain.a similar picture of disease was observed in animals held in contact with the animals inoculated with untreated lung ...19744522723
isolation of acholeplasma axanthum from swine. 19734595934
acholeplasma axanthum, sp. n.: a new sterol-nonrequiring member of the mycoplasmatales.mycoplasmas recovered from tissue cultures and previously shown to belong to the sterol-nonrequiring group of mycoplasmas have been further characterized. the biological and serological properties of these strains show them to be clearly distinct from acholeplasma laidlawii and a. granularum, two species of sterol-nonrequiring mycoplasmas recently reclassified. it is proposed that the newly described mycoplasmas be designated acholeplasma axanthum, sp. n.19704919991
chemical structures of acholeplasmal lipoglycans and their relation to biological interactions.the partial characterization of the structure of the lipoglycan (lg) from acholeplasma axanthum is added to the previous complete structural analysis of the lipoglycan from a. granularum. the terminal sequence of a. axanthum lg is glcp(beta 1----2)-glcp(beta 1----2)-glcp(beta 1----6)-; of a. granularum glcp(beta 1----2)-glcp(alpha 1----4)-glcp(beta 1----4)-. these specific residues define the major antigenic determinants of the lg as determined by blockage of hemagglutination of lg coated erythr ...19836206656
dna cleavage patterns as indicators of genotypic heterogeneity among strains of acholeplasma and mycoplasma species.electrophoretic patterns of digestion products of acholeplasma and mycoplasma dna by restriction endonucleases were compared. the patterns of acholeplasma axanthum strains isolated from a variety of hosts and habitats differed markedly from each other, indicating considerable genotypic heterogeneity among strains included in this species. heterogeneity was less marked among the acholeplasma oculi strains tested, and was minimal among strains of the avian pathogen mycoplasma gallisepticum. strain ...19836313853
intraspecies genetic relatedness among strains of acholeplasma laidlawii and of acholeplasma axanthum by nucleic acid hybridization.this study compares the intraspecies genetic relatedness among strains of two established species of acholeplasma. radiolabelled dna probes were prepared from three strains of acholeplasma laidlawii and two strains of acholeplasma axanthum, by using the nick translation method. the labelled dna probes of these two strains were hybridized to an excess of unlabelled dna from 12 strains of acholeplasma laidlawii and from six strains of acholeplasma axanthum, respectively. nucleic acid hybridization ...19836631407
structures and properties of acyl diglucosylcholesterol and galactofuranosyl diacylglycerol from acholeplasma axanthum.acholeplasma axanthum is one of the few procaryotes, and the only member of the mollicutes, known to contain phosphosphingolipids. examination of strain s743 for glycolipids revealed the presence of glucosides of cholesterol and galactosides of glycerol as the predominant glycolipids. the major component is acylated diglucosylcholesterol, followed by monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and monoglucosylcholesterol. the glucose residues of the sterol-based compounds appear to be alpha-linked pyranoses, w ...19836871237
respiration-associated components of cytochrome pigments were detected by difference (reduced minus oxidized) spectroscopy at liquid nitrogen temperature in whole-cell preparations or membrane fractions of acholeplasma axanthum s273, acholeplasma equifetale n93, acholeplasma granularum bts39, acholeplasma laidlawii b-pg9, acholeplasma modicum pg-49, acholeplasma oculi 19l, mycoplasma arginini g230, mycoplasma arthritidis 07, mycoplasma pneumoniae fh, and mycoplasma pulmonis jb. all ten mollicutes species examined contained iron ...19817240087
rapid detection of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures by enzymatic detection of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) products.enzymatic detection of polymerase chain reaction (ed-pcr) was applied for rapid and easy identification of mycoplasmas from contaminated cell culture. this method was based on the capture of amplified products via biotin-streptavidine affinity and the detection of an incorporated hapten in amplified products with enzyme-linked antibody. primers corresponding to common sequence of mollicutes in 16s ribosomal rna dominated gene was used. nineteen of twenty mollicutes so far reported as cell contam ...19958519917
A PCR assay and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism combination identifying the 3 primary Mycoplasma species causing mastitis.The focus of the current research was to develop real-time PCR assays with improved sensitivity and the capacity to simultaneously speciate the 3 most common mycoplasma mastitis agents: Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma californicum, and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium. Real-time PCR was chosen because it provides rapid results. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used as the gold standard for evaluating candidate real-time PCR assays. To ascertain the real-time PCR assay specificity, reference strains of ...201222192198
phylogenetic relationships among members of the class mollicutes deduced from rps3 gene sequences.a gene for a ribosomal protein, rps3, was amplified by pcr and sequenced from representatives of the class mollicutes. alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences allowed the construction of a phylogeny that is consistent with the phylogenetic trees created from 5s and 16s rrna comparisons, including the position of the former acholeplasma florum on the mycoplasma branch, rather than with the classical acholeplasmataceae. additional confirmation of the phylogeny comes from the deduction that ...19948123554
identification of the amide-linked fatty acids of acholeplasma axanthum s743 as d(-)3-hydroxyhexadecanoate and its homologues.the amide-linked fatty acids of the sphingolipids of acholeplasma axanthum s743 are predominantly hydroxy acids. these acids were shown by gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and polarimetry to be the d(-)3-hydroxy fatty acids. the predominant component of the mixture was 3-hydroxyhexadecanoate (beta-hydroxypalmitate, hydroxy [h] 16:0) followed by h 20delta (delta = unsaturated), h14:0, h12:0, and h18delta in decreasing order of concentration. the fatty acid profile indicates that thes ...19734752935
occurrence and properties of lactic dehydrogenases of fermentative mycoplasmas.eight fermentative mycoplasmas differing in genome size, deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) base composition, or sterol dependence were examined for lactic dehydrogenase composition by spectrophotometric assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. three completely different patterns of lactic dehydrogenase composition were found. (i) a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nad)-dependent l(+)-lactic dehydrogenase was found in mycoplasma pneumoniae, m. gallisepticum, m. mycoides var. mycoides, mycoplasma ...19724115465
phosvitin kinase activity in acholeplasma axanthum.incubating the soluble fraction derived from a. axanthum with phosvitin and [gamma-32p]atp results in the phosphorylation of phosvitin. casein, histone and kemptide were practically ineffective substrates, whereas a 55 kda protein of m. gallisepticum was efficiently phosphorylated. the enzymatic activity has an optimal ph in the ph range 6.0-6.2 and requires divalent cations. the activity was inhibited by ammonium sulfate, heparin and sulphydryl blocking reagents, but was not affected by calmodu ...19883203746
effect of mycoplasma gallinarum on the replication in vitro of goose parvovirus strain "b".replication in vitro of the goose parovirus strain "b" was inhibited by mycoplasma gallinarum co-infection. this effect could be prevented by continuous supplementation of cell cultures with arginine. the infection of cell cultures with acholeplasma axanthum did not influence virus replication.19751171580
homogeneity of lipopolysaccharides from acholeplasma.five methods were employed to determine the heterogeneity or homogeneity of lipopolysaccharides from four acholeplasmal species, acholeplasma axanthum, a. granularum, a. laidlawii, and a. modicum. a axanthum lipopolysaccharide behaved as a single component in all tests. a. granularum exhibited two components of identical composition and antigenic specificity. a. modicum lipopolysaccharide behaved as three components in two tests, but all three were similar in composition and identical serologica ...197767111
identification of the major antigenic determinants on lipoglycans from acholeplasma granularum and acholeplasma axanthum.the major antigenic determinants of the lipoglycans from acholeplasma granularum and acholeplasma axanthum were found to be the oligosaccharide sequences glcp(beta 1 leads to 2)-glcp(alpha 1 leads to 4)-glcp and glcp(beta 1 leads to 2)-glcp(beta 1 leads to 2)-glcp, respectively. the disaccharides sophorose and maltose inhibited hemagglutination by specific antiserum of sheep erythrocytes coated with lipoglycan from a. granularum. only sophorose possessed this capacity with the lipoglycan from a. ...19836188700
direct isolation of mycoplasmas and acholeplasmas from sera and kidneys of calves.kidneys and sera of calves from various farms and primary kidney tissue cultures were tested for mycoplasma and acholeplasma contamination. altogether 24 strains belonging to mycoplasma arginini and acholeplasma axanthum were isolated from tissue cultures, kidneys and sera. the same species were detected from lungs and peribronchial lymph nodes of calves, together with a. laidlawii, a. modicum and m. bovirhinis species. there was a close correlation between the mycoplasma content of tissue cultu ...19751167436
[studies of mycoplasma mastitis in cattle. 7. mycoplasma mastitis in 3 dairy cattle herds].reported in this paper is the occurrence of enzootic mastitis in three dairy cattle stocks. the outbreaks had been caused by mycoplasma bovis, acholeplasma laidlawii, acholeplasma axanthum as well as by one unidentified strain of the family of mycoplasmataceae. all animals with positive response to mycoplasma tests were identified an selected by repetitive testing of cultures in milk samples which had been taken from all lactating and dry cows and heifers as well as by evaluation of organ sample ...1979547919
dnases of acholeplasma strain from each of seven species of acholeplasma was examined for the presence of dnases. six of the strains were found to be dnase positive when assayed with dna-methyl-green-containing agar, indicating that this method can be used to differentiate the seventh strain, acholeplasma axanthum, from the remaining acholeplasma spp. electrophoretic patterns obtained from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels containing dna revealed dnases in the cell extracts of all seven strains and in the ...19836874645
mycoplasma infection of geese. 1. incidence of mycoplasmas and acholeplasmas in geese.this paper presents data about the isolation of members of the order mycoplasmatales from material of goose origin. acholeplasma laidlawii strains were isolated from 2 to 8 day old goslings with heavy fibrinous airsacculitis, peritonitis and perihepatitis. losses reached 30% of the flock by the end of the 8th week of age. acholeplasma axanthum strains were detected in goose-embryos that died on the 13th day of incubation. a significant loss (up to 60%) of embryos was observed in the flock and so ...197518777290
isolation and characterization of the sheep erythrocyte receptor for acholeplasmal lipoglycans.a receptor specific for lipoglycans from acholeplasma axanthum and acholeplasma granularum was isolated from sheep erythrocyte stroma by extraction with n-pentanol and permeation chromatography. the purified receptor appeared as one band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and stained with coomassie blue, periodate-schiff reagent, and sudan black. it was distinct from the erythrocyte receptor for gram-negative lipopolysaccharides and the glycophorin receptor for certain species of myco ...19826185420
antiserum raised against gyrase a of acholeplasma laidlawii reacts with phytoplasma proteins.part of the gyrase a gene (gyra) of acholeplasma laidlawii was cloned and incorporated directly downstream from a 6 x his tag segment of the pqe expression vector. the 23-kda fusion protein was expressed as a 6 x his-tagged protein in escherichia coli. the fusion protein was purified and used as an antigen for rabbit immunization. western immunoblot analysis revealed that the antiserum raised against the gyrase a fragment had a specific affinity for a 108-kda protein of a. laidlawii and cross-re ...200211814658
endotoxin-like activities of mycoplasmal lipopolysaccharides (lipoglycans).lipoglycans (previously designated lipopolysaccharides) from several species of acholeplasma and from thermoplasma acidophilum were examined for endotoxin-like activities as measured by the standard rabbit fever test and the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. the lipoglycans from acholeplasma granularum, achloplasma laidlawii, acholeplasma modicum, and acholeplasma oculi caused a febrile response at concentrations of 1 ng/ml per kg or greater, whereas with control escherichia coli ec-2 lipopolysac ...19807429642
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