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toxoplasma gondii-like schizonts in the tracheal epithelium of a cat.toxoplasma gondii-like schizonts were found in tracheal epithelium of an 8-yr-old male cat. the parasites were located in parasitophorous vacuoles within the host cell cytoplasm, divided by schizogony, contained periodic acid-schiff-positive granules, and reacted with anti-t. gondii serum but not with anti-neospora caninum serum. mature schizonts were 7.0 x 5.9 microns (5-10 x 4-10 microns; n = 22) and contained 4-16 merozoites. the merozoites were approximately 5 x 1 microns.19911919933
neospora caninum-associated myocarditis and encephalitis in an aborted calf. 19902090271
characterization of anti-neospora caninum hyperimmune rabbit serum by western blot analysis and immunoelectron microscopy.the antigens recognized by hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against tachyzoites of the nc-1 isolate of neospora caninum were characterized using chemiluminescent western blotting, immunogold-silver staining and immunoelectron microscopy. approximately 20 immunodominant antigens whose relative rates of migration were 16-80 kda were recognized by the serum in western blots using reduced or nonreduced parasite antigen preparations. the nonreduced parasite antigens were more strongly recognized by th ...19921480607
sarcocystis neurona n. sp. (protozoa: apicomplexa), the etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.sarcocystis neuronan n. sp. is proposed for the apicomplexan taxon associated with myeloencephalitis in horses. only asexual stages of this parasite presently are known, and they are found within neuronal cells and leukocytes of the brain and spinal cord. the parasite is located in the host cell cytoplasm, does not have a parasitophorous vacuole, and divides by endopolygeny. schizonts are 5-35 microns x 5-20 microns and contain 4-40 merozoites arranged in a rosette around a prominent residual bo ...19911901359
sarcocystis canis n. sp. (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae), the etiologic agent of generalized coccidiosis in dogs.sarcocystis canis n. sp. is proposed for the protozoon associated with encephalitis, hepatitis, and generalized coccidiosis in dogs. only asexual stages are known in macrophages, neurons, dermal, and other cells of the body. the parasite is located free in the host cell cytoplasm without a parasitophorous vacuole; schizonts divide by endopolygeny. schizonts are 5-25 x 4-20 microns and contain 6-40 merozoites. merozoites are approximately 5-7 microns x 1 micron and do not contain rhoptries. the p ...19911907653
acute sarcocystosis-like disease in a dog.two of 8 littermate rottweiler dogs developed persistent diarrhea at 6.5 weeks of age. dog 1 was euthanatized at 14 weeks of age and had hepatitis characterized by necrosis and mixed leukocyte infiltrations in association with a previously unrecognized sarcocystis-like protozoon. the organism was free in the hepatocyte cytoplasm without a parasitophorous vacuole, had divided by schizogony, and stained with anti-sarcocystis serum, but did not stain with anti-toxoplasma gondii or anti-neospora can ...19911901306
neosporosis in the aborted fetus and newborn calf.protozoal encephalitic lesions were found in four aborted fetuses and one dead newborn calf. the organism was identified as neospora caninum by immunoperoxidase. the brain lesions were of two forms. one was observed in three fetuses of 5 months gestation and was characterized by multifocal necrosis. the other was found in a 7-month fetus and in a newborn calf, and showed severe infiltration with macrophages and plasma cells containing igg. this association, between the age of fetus and inflammat ...19921452816
neospora caninum induced abortion in sheep. 19902094452
neospora-like protozoal infections associated with bovine abortions.eighty bovine fetuses with presumed protozoal infections from a previous 2-year retrospective study were examined by immunohistochemistry using antisera against neospora caninum. in 66 (83%) of the fetuses, protozoa were found that reacted positively with anti-n. caninum sera. in three (4%) additional fetuses, protozoa identified as sarcocystis species did not react, and in two fetuses (3%) single protozoal clusters were found only in hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides. a group of 20 fetuses w ...19912063512
infections in mice with tachyzoites and bradyzoites of neospora caninum (protozoa: apicomplexa).tachyzoites of 2 isolates of neospora caninum (nc-1 and nc-2) were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.), intraperitoneally (i.p.), or orally into mice to compare the effects of route of inoculation on pathogenicity. mice developed more severe disease, and disease occurred sooner when inoculated with the nc-1 isolate compared to the nc-2 isolate. deaths occurred earlier in mice inoculated i.p. with either isolate. mice inoculated orally or s.c. with tachyzoites responded similarly to infection. tissu ...19902112599
neospora-like encephalomyelitis in a calf: pathology, ultrastructure, and immunoreactivity.protozoal encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in a 3-day-old calf that was stunted, weak, and recumbent. grossly, the calf had contracted tendons in the forelegs, a slightly doomed skull, a porencephalic cyst in the cerebellum, ulcerative esophagitis, and abomasitis. histologically, there was a multifocal nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis with clusters of protozoal tachyzoites and numerous protozoal cysts. the porencephalic cyst and gastrointestional lesions appeared to be unrelated to the protozoal ...19912039786
neospora-like protozoan infection as a major cause of abortion in california dairy cattle.ninety-five aborted bovine fetuses received from california dairies over a 4.5-year period had histologic lesions of focal encephalitis. protozoa that reacted with neospora caninum antiserum were detected in the brain of 88 of these fetuses and in the heart of 1 fetus. sarcocystis spp schizonts were seen in the vascular endothelium of 1 fetus. it was concluded that a neospora-like cyst-forming coccidian may be a major cause of abortion in california dairy cattle.19912004983
evidence that neospora caninum is identical to the toxoplasma-like parasite of norwegian dogs. 19911814191
congenital neospora caninum infection in a calf with spinal cord anomaly.neospora caninum was identified in a calf with spinal cord anomaly in australia. the calf was full-term and born dead. the caudal cervical and cranial thoracic segments of the spinal cord of the calf were asymmetric because of marked unilateral reduction of ventral gray matter and focal cavitation. mild focal disseminated nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis was associated with n caninum tissue cysts. tissue cysts were 16 to 35 microns x 10 to 27 microns, and the cyst walls were 1 to 3 microns thick ...19902243037
paresis in dogs and neospora caninum. 19911781143
disseminated infection with neospora caninum in a ten-year-old dog.naturally-occurring neosporosis with multiple organ involvement was identified in a 10-year-old neutered male basset hound dog. clinical signs were first noticed 3 weeks prior to referral and consisted of crouched stance and mild pelvic limb ataxia. dexamethasone administration had provided transient improvement. on presentation to the teaching hospital, clinical signs included depression, pelvic limb ataxia, inability to stand without assistance, and pain on deep palpation of the cervical and l ...19911879145
an unidentified toxoplasma-like tissue cyst-forming coccidium in a cat (felis catus).an unidentified coccidium was found in the brain and the heart of a 6-year-old female cat. tissue cysts measured 40-130 x 40-112 microns and contained hundreds of bradyzoites measuring 4.2-5.2 x 1.2-1.8 microns. the cyst wall was 0.26-0.53 microns thick. tissue cysts reacted positively with anti-toxoplasma gondii serum but not with anti-neospora caninum serum in an immunohistochemical test. ultrastructurally, the cyst was aseptate and contained banana-shaped bradyzoites. micronemes and rhoptries ...19921584745
canine neosporosis in south africa.neospora caninum was identified in tissues of one neonatal and two adolescent dogs by a specific immunohistochemical technique during a retrospective study. the histological lesions included multifocal polymyositis, multifocal parasitic myocarditis, interstitial pneumonia, severe multifocal encephalitis and myelitis with perivascular cuffing. this report extends the known range of the parasite to the african continent.19921466136
diagnosis and treatment of neospora caninum infection in a dog.neospora caninum, a protozoan organism, caused extensor rigidity of the pelvic limbs in a 12-week-old dog. diagnosis was based on results of muscle biopsy, neuroelectrodiagnostics, serotesting, and cell culture. indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) titer to n caninum was 1:800 at time of admission and 1:3,200 after 4 and 6 weeks. a reciprocal ifa titer of 50 to n caninum was also found in the csf. serotesting for t gondii was negative. treatment with clindamycin followed by sulfadiazine and trime ...19902370226
clinical neosporosis in a 4-week-old hereford calf.most reports of neosporosis associated with abortion in cattle are in dairy cattle and infected calves do not survive beyond 7 days of age. this paper reports neosporosis in a 4-week-old hereford calf. the calf was full term and appeared clinically normal at birth. at 2 weeks of age, the calf had weakened and was unable to nurse unassisted. the calf was killed at 4 weeks because of paralysis. the primary lesions were in the brain and were associated with neospora caninum tachyzoites. the diagnos ...19921496796
infection of mice with neospora caninum (protozoa: apicomplexa) does not protect against challenge with toxoplasma gondii.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are structurally related protozoal parasites of mammals that may cause abortion and neonatal morbidity and mortality. groups of mice were subcutaneously inoculated with 10(5) live zoites of the nc-1 or nc-3 isolates of n. caninum and reinoculated with an identical number of live zoites 2 weeks later. groups of mice which were injected subcutaneously with hanks balanced salt solution served as controls. three weeks after the final n. caninum inoculation, one ...19902370115
factors affecting the survival of neospora caninum bradyzoites in murine tissues.studies were conducted to determine factors that influence the survival of bradyzoites of neospora caninum within tissue cysts in the brains of experimentally inoculated mice. viable tissue cysts were detected in the brains of mice inoculated 13 mo previously with either of 2 isolates (nc-1 or nc-2) of n. caninum. bradyzoites within tissue cysts of the nc-2 isolate survived for at least 14 days at 4 c in refrigerated brain homogenates. bradyzoites within tissue cysts of the nc-2 isolate also sur ...19921738071
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to first-generation merozoites of eimeria bovis.merozoites of eimeria bovis were harvested from bovine monocyte cell cultures and used to immunize balb/c mice. spleens from immunized mice were removed and the cells fused with mouse myeloma cells. supernates from resulting hybridoma cell lines were examined for antibodies to first-generation e. bovis merozoites using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) assay. three positive cell lines were identified and cloned by limiting dilution. all three cell lines produced immunoglobulins of the ...19921281590
[neospora abortion in cattle in the netherlands].three cases of bovine protozoal abortion at three different dairy farms are reported. multiple abortions had occurred, on two farms, and a sporadic abortion on the third farm. histopathological examination of foetal tissues revealed a distinctive multifocal necrotising encephalitis as well as focal inflammatory lesions in the myocardium, liver, kidney and lung. in one foetus protozoal tissue cysts were found in the brain and individual and clustered tachyzoites were seen in brain, and lung. in a ...19921440543
[the clinical diagnosis of protozoal myositis syndrome (neospora caninum) of puppies].nine puppies suffered from progressive paresis with muscle wasting, hyporeflexia and extensor rigidity. ck-activity in serum was elevated and electrodiagnostic findings were indicative of lower motor neuron disease. although lesions were also found in the cns, additional neurological signs were rare, but csf examination revealed the presence of inflammatory lesions. on pathologic examination, all animals had a disseminated necrotizing myositis. in addition, a disseminated encephalomyelitis was f ...19911887444
repeated transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in dogs.four litters of german shorthaired pointers from one owner developed a toxoplasmosis-like illness. according to the records, 29 of 39 dogs had hind limb paralysis. six dogs from 2 litters were necropsied and had generalized encephalomyelitis. tachyzoites and tissue cysts of neospora caninum were found in the brain and spinal cord of each dog. lesions were found in the eyes, extraocular muscles, or both in all of the dogs, and n caninum was detected microscopically in the eyes (retina and choroid ...19902228766
in vitro development of neospora caninum (protozoa: apicomplexa) from dogs.the development of neospora caninum isolated from naturally infected dogs was examined in mammalian cell cultures. tachyzoites developed by endodyogeny when inoculated onto bovine monocyte or bovine cardiopulmonary artery endothelial cell cultures. tachyzoites were 5.0 by 2.0 microns and had a posteriorly located nucleus. cytopathogenic effects of parasite development consisted of the formation of holes in the cell monolayer associated with the rupture of infected host cells. serial passage of t ...19892493088
fatal neospora caninum infection in kittens.three 3-day-old kittens were inoculated subcutaneously and orally with neospora caninum tachyzoites. a littermate and the queen were not inoculated with n. caninum and served as controls. kitten 1 died between 14 and 16 days postinoculation (dpi) and was eaten by the mother. kitten 2 died 17 dpi and kitten 3 was euthanized 29 dpi in a moribund condition. the control littermate and the dam remained healthy. granulomatous skeletal myositis and nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis were the main lesions ...19892493087
neosporosis in cats.six cats (nos. 1-6) were inoculated intramuscularly with (1 x 10(6)) and orally (5 x 10(5)) tachyzoites of neospora caninum. three (nos. 1-3) of the six cats were given 40 mg/kg methylprednisolone acetate 7 days before and on the day of inoculation with n. caninum tachyzoites, and three cats (nos. 4-6) were not given methylprednisolone acetate. two of the cats (cat nos. 1 and 2) given methylprednisolone acetate died suddenly. cat no. 1 died 8 days post-inoculation, and cat no. 2 died 16 days pos ...19902238386
induced transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in cattle.three jersey cows were inoculated sc and im with 26 million neospora caninum tachyzoites at 129 (cow 1), 126 (cow 2), and 81 (cow 3) days after mating. cows remained clinically normal for at least 1 month after inoculation of n caninum. cow 1 was euthanatized 32 days after inoculation because of gangrenous mastitis. cow 1 had a live fetus with no gross lesions; however, microscopic lesions were seen in the fetus and consisted of severe nonsuppurative necrotizing encephalitis of the cerebral whit ...19921399772
neospora caninum-like protozoon associated with fatal myelitis in newborn calves.neospora caninum-like organisms were found in histologic sections of spinal cord of 4 paralyzed calves as reported by parish et al. (1987). tachyzoites divided by endodyogeny. tissue cysts were up to 62 microns wide and the cyst wall was up to 2.5 microns thick. the organism in calves was structurally distinct from toxoplasma gondii and sarcocystis species and reacted positively with anti-n. caninum serum in an immunoperoxidase test.19892493086
neospora caninum (apicomplexa) in an aborted equine fetus.tachyzoites of neospora caninum were found in sections of lung of an equine fetus aborted 2 mo before term. individual tachyzoites were approximately 3-5 x 2-3 microns, divided by endodyogeny, and stained positively with anti-n. caninum serum but not with anti-toxoplasma gondii serum. toxoplasma gondii antibody was not found in the mare's serum. this is the first report of n. caninum in a horse and indicates that n. caninum can be transmitted transplacentally in equids.19902213418
effects of sulfadiazine and amprolium on neospora caninum (protozoa: apicomplexa) infections in mice.an immunosuppressed mouse model was used to determine the effects of amprolium and sulfadiazine on experimental neospora caninum infections. both drugs were given in the drinking water. neither drug was effective in treating infections when given 7 days after inoculation of tachyzoites, when clinical signs of disease had developed. amprolium did not prevent deaths or development of clinical signs when given in the drinking water at 1 mg/ml or 5 mg/ml 3 days after inoculation of tachyzoites. sulf ...19902319416
transplacental neospora caninum infection in dogs.a beagle bitch was inoculated sc and im with 1.5 million neospora caninum tachyzoites on the 35th day of gestation. eight pups were born alive 28 days after n caninum inoculation of the bitch. pup 1 did not breathe and died while still enclosed in fetal membranes. pup 2 died 2 days after birth (dab). pups 3, 4, and 5 were euthanatized on 2, 3, and 20 dab, respectively, because they were hypothermic and not nursing. pups 6, 7, and 8 remained clinically normal. indirect fluorescent n caninum serum ...19892802335
neospora caninum infection in english springer spaniel littermates. diagnostic evaluation and organism isolation.progressive paraparesis developed in four male english springer spaniel pups from a litter of five during the first 10 weeks of life. two of the pups, which had the earliest onset of neurologic signs, were euthanatized without further workup. however, a detailed investigation was completed on the remaining two littermates at 12 weeks of age. both pups had progressive paraparesis for 3 to 4 weeks before presentation, with one dog developing subsequent asymmetric pelvic limb extensor rigidity. bas ...19921484374
[abortions caused by protozoa in agricultural animals].a review is given on abortions in livestock caused by toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and sarcocystis spp. special emphasis is put on diagnostic procedures. t. gondii is considered to be a major cause of abortions in sheep and goats. diagnosis is based on the characteristic lesions in the cotyledons, histologic and immunohistochemical examination, and on the detection of specific antibodies in body fluids or serum of aborted fetuses. whether abortions in swine due to t. gondii are of practic ...19921396163
identification and characterization of neospora caninum tachyzoite antigens useful for diagnosis of neosporosis.the purpose of the present study was to identify antigens of the protozoan neospora caninum that could be useful for the diagnosis of neosporosis in domestic animals. as revealed by immunoblotting, immune sera from a wide range of animal species exhibited a similar recognition pattern of four major and several minor n. caninum antigens. in contrast to preinoculation sera, all tested immune sera recognized nonreduced immunodominant 17-, 29-, 30-, and 27-kda antigens. a 46-kda protein which showed ...19947496948
neospora caninum encephalomyelitis in a british dog. 19902316150
neospora caninum (apicomplexa) in a stillborn goat.tissue cysts of neospora caninum were found in sections of brain from a stillborn pygmy goat. the tissue cysts had 1-2-microns-thick cyst walls and stained with anti-n. caninum serum in an immunohistochemical test. glial nodules, mononuclear perivascular cuffing, and foci of inflammation were associated with n. caninum tissue cysts throughout the brain. this report indicates that n. caninum can be transmitted transplacentally in goats.19921597802
fatal congenital neospora caninum infection in a lamb.neospora caninum tissue cysts were found in the brain and spinal cord of a 1-wk-old lamb that was unable to stand after birth. the lamb was originally diagnosed as having toxoplasmosis, but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques used in the present study permitted a definitive diagnosis of neospora caninum tissue cysts in the brain and spinal cord of this lamb. this is the first report of n. caninum in sheep.19902299518
immunohistochemical diagnosis of neospora caninum in tissue sections.an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex immunoperoxidase staining method was developed to detect neospora caninum in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. specific antiserum to n caninum was made in rabbits and used to probe tissues from dogs naturally and experimentally infected with n caninum. the test detected tachyzoites and bradyzoites of n caninum. a reaction was not observed to toxoplasma gondii, hammondia hammondi, sarcocystis cruzi, s capricanis, s tenella, besnoitia jellisoni, ...19892694869
the neuropathology in toxoplasmosis-like infection caused by a newly recognized cyst-forming sporozoon in dogs.the pathomorphological changes in the central nervous system associated with an infection with a previously reported, toxoplasma-like, cyst-forming sporozoon were studied by means of light microscopy, including immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy in seven dogs, aged 4 months to 2 years. tachyzoites (endozoites) within parasitophorous vacuoles were found in neurons, astrocytes, macrophages, vascular pericytes and probably also in fibroblasts, while cyst stages were only obs ...19892730788
mouse model for central nervous system neospora caninum infections.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes severe disease in transplacentally infected dogs and abortions in domestic ruminants. rodent models of neosporosis rely on treatment of hosts with methylprednisolone acetate (mpa) to enhance infections. the present study reports the development of an inbred balb/c mouse model that results in central nervous system neosporosis in the absence of mpa treatment. seven of 12 balb/c mice died 26-70 days after subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation with tac ...19957707216
neospora caninum infection in three dogs.infection with neospora caninum in three young dogs is described. the predominant clinical signs were lower motor neuron deficits of the pelvic limbs, bladder and rectum. in two cases there was liver infection and dysfunction. the younger dogs had an acute onset rapidly progressive syndrome. the older dog had a similar but more chronic course. the diagnosis was confirmed by an immunofluorescence antibody test. the parasite is sensitive to clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulphonamide preparations, h ...19957603059
sequence analysis and comparison of ribosomal dna from bovine neospora to similar coccidial parasites.the nuclear small subunit ribosomal rna (nss-rrna) gene sequence of neospora spp. isolated from cattle was analyzed and compared to the sequences from several closely related cyst-forming coccidial parasites. double-stranded dna sequencing of 5 bovine neospora spp. isolates (bpa1-4), 2 neospora caninum isolates (nc-1 and nc-3), and 3 toxoplasma gondii isolates (rh, gt-1, ct-1) were performed and compared to each other, as well as to other sequences available in genbank for the nc-1 isolate, sarc ...19957623193
neosporosis in dogs.a bitch was inoculated subcutaneously and intramuscularly with neospora caninum tachyzoites on day 35 of pregnancy. eight pups were born 28 days later. five pups became ill and necropsies were performed before 20 days of age. three pups and the bitch remained clinically normal for 7 weeks after parturition when they were intramuscularly injected with 40 mg kg-1 methylprednisolone acetate weekly to activate chronic n. caninum infection. necropsies were performed 48, 17, 18, and 18 days respective ...19902382383
neospora caninum infection in dogs. 19902344341
neonatal neospora caninum infection in dogs: isolation of the causative agent and experimental transmission.neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in 5 young dogs from 2 litters with a common parentage. the pups were born healthy, but developed hind limb paresis 5 to 8 weeks after birth. the predominant lesions were polyradiculoneuritis and granulomatous polymyositis. neospora caninum was seen microscopically in sections of naturally infected pups, and was isolated in cell cultures, mice, and dogs inoculated with infected canine tissues. antibodies to n caninum were detected in sera of infected dogs ...19883144521
newly recognized fatal protozoan disease of dogs.histologic sections and case histories from 23 dogs with proven fatal toxoplasmosis-like illness at the angell memorial animal hospital were reviewed. toxoplasma gondii was identified in 13 dogs. a newly identified parasite, neospora caninum, structurally distinct from t gondii, was found in 10 dogs. the newly discovered organism, belonging to a new genus and new species, formed meronts in many tissues of the dogs, especially the brain and spinal cord. neospora caninum was located directly in th ...19883391851
abortions, fetal death, and stillbirths in pregnant pygmy goats inoculated with tachyzoites of neospora caninum.neospora caninum-induced abortion is a major production problem in the dairy cattle industry in the united states and worldwide. abortions attributable to naturally acquired n caninum infection also have been observed in pygmy goats. we studied experimentally induced infections with n caninum in pregnant pygmy does to determine whether abortions attributable to n caninum infection would occur after inoculation. seven pregnant pygmy does (1 control doe and 6 inoculated with n caninum) were studie ...19957486395
neosporosis-like abortions in a herd of dairy cattle.twenty-nine cows from a 240-cow drylot holstein dairy in north-central new mexico aborted over a period of approximately 5 months. nine aborted fetuses were necropsied, and all but 1 of the fetuses were between 5 and 7 months of gestation. microscopic examination of fetal tissues revealed focal necrotizing encephalitis and nonsuppurative myocarditis in 7 of the 9 fetuses. additional lesions observed in some fetuses were focal hepatic necrosis, nonsuppurative myositis, focal necrotizing placentit ...19892488345
interferon gamma inhibits the intracellular multiplication of neospora caninum, as shown by incorporation of 3h uracil.an assay was developed to quantify the growth of two different isolates of the protozoon neospora caninum within ovine fibroblast cells in vitro by differential uptake of 3h uracil. the nc-1 isolate of n. caninum multiplied more quickly in culture than the nc liverpool isolate, as reflected by increased incorporation of isotope by the former over a shorter period of time. after the parasites had left the ruptured host cells, there was very little incorporation of isotope. this suggested that mul ...19957490344
a neospora-like protozoon found in an aborted bovine placenta.portions of the placenta and kidneys from a 5-month-old bovine fetus were examined histologically. the placental cotyledonary villi were necrotic and protozoa were found in lesions. the organisms were in trophoblasts, periodic acid schiff-negative and did not react in an immunoperoxidase test using anti-toxoplasma gondii serum. individual zoites were approximately 5 x 2 microns and the biggest collection was 45 x 35 microns. the organism in the present case was structurally distinct from sarcocy ...19892588466
vertical transmission of neospora caninum in mice.herein we report a murine model to examine transplacental transmission, transmammary transmission, or both, of neospora caninum. prevalence of transplacental transmission in outbred swiss-webster mouse pups was 85%, with 11 of 13 litters containing at least 1 transplacentally infected pup. sixty-two percent of litters born to experimentally infected dams contained 85% or more transplacentally infected pups. numbers of pups congenitally infected per litter was higher if dams were inoculated durin ...19957472863
experimental oral inoculations in birds to evaluate potential definitive hosts of neospora caninum.experimental oral inoculations to evaluate potential definitive hosts of neospora caninum were conducted by feeding infected rodent tissues to 9 carnivorous birds of 4 species. birds included 2 red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), 2 turkey vultures (cathartes aura), 2 barn owls (tyto alba), and 3 american crows (corvus brachyrhynchus). the rodents (mice or rats) had been inoculated with 100,000 culture-derived tachyzoites of n. caninum 1-6 mo before feeding to the birds. fecal samples were coll ...19957472875
characterization of a murine monoclonal antibody generated against neospora caninum tachyzoites by use of western blot analysis and immunoelectron microscopy.a murine monoclonal antibody (mab) 6g7 generated against tachyzoites of neospora caninum recognized 8 major and several minor antigens, as observed by western blot analysis. relative rate of migration of the 8 major antigens ranged from 31 to 97.4 kd. in addition, mab 6g7 recognized a toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite antigen with a relative rate of migration of 107 kd. immunogold labeling of n caninum tachyzoites grown in human foreskin fibroblast cells indicated that mab 6g7 binds to micronemes, de ...19947887516
evaluation of anti-coccidial drugs' inhibition of neospora caninum development in cell cultures.eight anti-coccidial drugs were examined for their efficacies in preventing development of neospora caninum in bovine monocyte cell cultures. lasalocid sodium (0.05 microgram/ml), monensin sodium (0.05 microgram/ml), piritrexim (0.01 microgram/ml), pyrimethamine (0.05 microgram/ml), and trimethoprim (5.0 micrograms/ml) were effective in preventing development of intracellular n. caninum tachyzoites (p less than 0.05). no differences (p greater than 0.05) in mean numbers of infected cells compare ...19892614609
vertical transmission of neospora caninum in dogs.herein we report the development of a canine model to examine transplacental and/or transmammary transmission of neospora caninum. six pregnant bitches were experimentally infected with n. caninum on day 21 of gestation. one bitch successfully delivered a litter of 3 live pups. these pups showed slight proprioception deficits, increased muscle tone, and spasticity in both pelvic limbs; however, n. caninum was neither demonstrated by bioassay in cell culture nor seen in histological sections of t ...19957707195
encephalomyelitis and myositis in a boxer puppy due to a neospora-like infection.a 10-week-old boxer dog from uppsala, sweden, was killed because of hind limb paralysis. the hind limb muscles were grossly atrophied and encephalomyelitis and myositis were the predominant microscopic lesions. neospora caninum-like tachyzoites were found in the brain and skeletal muscles, and tissue cysts were found in the brain. the organism was not toxoplasma gondii, as t. gondii antibody was not found in the indirect fluorescent antibody test in serum samples from the puppy and the dam, and ...19892773275
ultrastructure of tachyzoites, bradyzoites and tissue cysts of neospora caninum.dividing tachyzoites of neospora caninum were 4 x 3 microns and had ultrastructural characteristics typical for the cyst-forming coccidia. unusual ultrastructural characteristics of fully-formed tachyzoites included no micropores, 8-12 anterior and 4-6 posterior rhoptries, and a few posterior micronemes. most tachyzoites were located free in the host cell cytoplasm; only a few occurred within a parasitophorous vacuole. parasite multiplication appeared to be rapid because most organisms were in v ...19892810142
prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in swedish dogs. 19947676930
evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of babesia gibsoni infections in dogs.we determined the extent of the serologic cross-reactivity in the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test for babesia gibsoni, and the optimal cut-off titer for seropositivity in the test. the lowest titer to b gibsoni detected in a dog with naturally acquired clinical babesiosis was 1,280, and 7 of 12 dogs had titer between 10,240 and 20,480. two experimentally infected normosplenic dogs developed high titer (40,960 to 81,920) to b gibsoni, and the same sera reacted in ifa tests for b canis (t ...19938250380
a survey of the incidence of neospora caninum infection in aborted and stillborn bovine fetuses in england and wales.selected brains and fetal viscera from 190 aborted or stillborn bovine fetuses submitted to veterinary investigation centres in england and wales between august 1992 and january 1993 were examined histologically. non-suppurative inflammation of the brain and/or myocardium and placental cotyledons was identified by light microscopy in 20 (10.5 per cent). an immunocytochemical examination of fixed tissue sections using antisera against neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and sarcocystis species re ...19957571263
[neospora caninum as a cause of lameness symptoms in young dogs].at the age of three weeks, two labrador retriever puppies, out of a litter of nine, suffered from diarrhoea and muscular weakness. one puppy died within two days. the other was killed after a tetraparalysis had developed. two weeks later a third puppy was killed because of a paretic hind leg. at the age of five months another dog had to be euthanized because of progressive hind limb ataxia. pathological examination revealed polyradiculoneuritis, multifocal encephalomyelitis and polymyositis. in ...19938322363
neospora caninum infection in a litter of labrador retriever dogs in denmark. 19957502956
neospora caninum (protozoa: apicomplexa) infections in mice.groups of mice were given 0 mg, 4 mg, or 2 mg of methylprednisolone acetate (mpa) 7 days prior to, the day of, and 7 days after subcutaneous inoculation with 0 or 2 x 10(5) tachyzoites of neospora caninum. clinical signs of disease were seen only in mice given both mpa and n. caninum tachyzoites. mice given 4 mg mpa and n. caninum tachyzoites developed severe disseminated neosporosis and most died or were killed when comatose 11-13 days postinoculation (pi). acute pneumonia, polymyositis, enceph ...19892795380
neospora caninum pneumonia in an adult dog.neospora caninum was identified in a lung aspirate specimen from an adult dog with severe pneumonia. neosporosis was tentatively diagnosed by cytologic examination of a wright-giemsa-stained smear of the aspirate specimen, using light microscopy. the infection was confirmed by immunohistochemical examination of a section of lung tissue obtained at necropsy. neosporosis is usually a fatal ascending neurologic disease of dogs less than 1 year of age. neospora caninum infections are uncommon in adu ...19957768704
genetic comparison of neospora caninum with toxoplasma and sarcocystis by random amplified polymorphic dna-polymerase chain reaction.to determine the relationship of neospora caninum to protozoa classified in the family sarcocystidae of the phylum apicomplexa, the genomes of n. caninum, three toxoplasma gondii strains (rha, cep, tpr) and three sarcocystis species (s. tenella, s. muris, s. gigantea) that were thought to be closely related coccidia were compared by the random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique. the genomic dnas were amplified by the use of seven 10-mer arbitrary sequence ...19957501633
transplacental neospora caninum infection in cats.transplacental transmission of neospora caninum was studied in 2 pregnant cats (queens). queen 1 was inoculated subcutaneously with 2 x 10(6) cell culture-derived n. caninum tachyzoites on day 47 of gestation. she gave birth to a full-term kitten on the 17th day after inoculation. the kitten died the second day after birth due to generalized n. caninum infection. the mother cat was killed on the third day after parturition and was found to have a macerated kitten in the uterus. severe placentiti ...19892795379
neospora caninum in aborted twin calves.neospora caninum was detected in the brains of twin aborted calves by means of a specific immunohistochemical test on formalin-fixed, wax-embedded tissues. microscopic lesions associated with this infection included multifocal necrosis and gliosis in the brain accompanied by a mononuclear, perivascular inflammatory reaction and meningitis; and severe, diffuse epicarditis and subepicardial myocarditis characterised by infiltration of macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. this report document ...19938410939
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for serological diagnosis of neospora sp. infection in cattle.a kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed and optimized for detection of antibodies to neospora sp. in cattle. sonicated tachyzoites of neospora sp. isolated from an aborted bovine fetus were used as antigen. variability in immunoblot patterns among positive sera, and the fact that all life stages of the parasites are unknown, justified use of a multiple-antigen elisa to allow for maximum sensitivity. immunoblot analysis revealed negligible cross-reactions between toxopla ...19957578451
in vitro isolation and characterization of a neospora sp. from aborted bovine foetuses.a neospora sp. was isolated from the brains of two aborted bovine foetuses and grown continuously in vitro in bovine cell cultures. a comparison of the antigenic reactivity of in vitro cultivated tachyzoites with polyclonal antisera to neospora caninum, hammondia hammondi or toxoplasma gondii revealed that the bovine protozoal isolates were similar to n. caninum and antigenically distinct from t. gondii. tachyzoites of both bovine isolates had similar ultrastructural features, including an apica ...19938488061
the phylogeny of neospora caninum.morphological studies by electron microscopy on the protozoan neospora caninum have shown that this organism possesses a subcellular structure typical of parasites classified in the family sarcocystidae, subclass coccidiasina of the phylum apicomplexa. using a strategy based on dna sequence analysis of products derived by asymmetric pcr to determine the nucleotide sequences, we have tested the validity of this classification by comparing the small subunit ribosomal rna (18s rrna) gene sequences ...19947935608
examination of the activities of 43 chemotherapeutic agents against neospora caninum tachyzoites in cultured cells.neospora caninum causes serious disease in dogs, and it, or a similar parasite, is a major cause of abortion in cattle. little is known about the susceptibility of this protozoan to antimicrobial agents. we studied several antimicrobial agents to determine which classes might have activity against this parasite. we also determined whether activity of such agents was coccidiocidal or coccidiostatic. a 2-day of treatment, monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay and a 5-day of treatment, cell ...19947978638
the phylogeny of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii based on ribosomal rna sequences.neospora caninum is a newly described cyst-forming coccidium which is the cause of severe neurological disease in dogs. the parasite is morphologically similar to toxoplasma gondii, but the two species can be differentiated serologically. in order to define the phylogenetic position of n. caninum, we have determined 16s-like rrna sequences from three members of the family of sarcocystidae: n. caninum, t. gondii, and sarcocystis fusiformis. the 16s-like rrna genes from the three parasites were am ...19948039658
neospora caninum--request for specimens for research. 19957779045
neospora caninum in dogs: detection of antibodies by elisa using an iscom antigen.an indirect enzyme linked immunsorbent assay (elisa) for detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in serum from dogs is described. extracted tachyzoite proteins incorporated into immunostimulating complexes (iscoms) were used as coating antigen. a mixture of a monoclonal antibody to dog immunoglobulin g and a horse radish peroxidase conjugated antibody to mouse ig was used to detect bound antibody. when the iscom preparation was analysed by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel ...19947708430
fatal transplacental neosporosis in a deer (cervus eldi siamensis).neospora caninum tissue cysts were found in sections of the brain from a full-term stillborn deer of eld (cervus eldi siamensis) from a zoo in france. there was n. caninum-associated nonsuppurative encephalitis and the diagnosis was confirmed in immunohistochemical staining with antibodies specific to n. caninum.19968604111
an immunohistochemical method for detecting bradyzoite antigen (bag5) in toxoplasma gondii-infected tissues cross-reacts with a neospora caninum bradyzoite antigen.the previously cloned gene of a bradyzoite-specific antigen (bag5) of toxoplasma gondii was used to express a fusion protein for subsequent antiserum production in rabbits. the bag5 antiserum was used in an immunohistochemical procedure to look for reactive epitopes in bradyzoites and tachyzoites of t. gondii within animal tissues. encysted bradyzoites in brain were stained deeply and diffusely. although most unencysted organisms in brain were not stained, occasional free organisms had mild to d ...19968604117
sudden death associated with neospora caninum myocarditis in a dog.a 10-month-old female bull mastiff dog was found dead without reports of any prior clinical signs of disease. necropsy revealed lesions in the myocardium, which consisted of a large 2 x 2.3-cm brownish area and a few small similar lesions. microscopically, neospora caninum tachyzoites were found in the lesions characterized by necrosis and interstitial myocarditis. diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-n caninum serum.19938226237
detection of neospora caninum in tissue sections using a murine monoclonal antibody.a murine monoclonal antibody (mab 6g7), isotype igg2a, produced against tachyzoites of neospora caninum (isolate nc-1) reacted specifically with tachyzoites of n. caninum in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. mab 6g7 did not react with tachyzoites of toxoplasma gondii, sporozoites of isospora suis, eimeria bovis, or e. tenella, or merozoites of e. bovis in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. mab 6g7 reacted positively with both tachyzoites and bradyzoites of n. caninum in an ...19938286458
neospora caninum: specific oligonucleotide primers for the detection of brain "cyst" dna of experimentally infected nude mice by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr).both tachyzoites and bradyzoites in tissue cysts of neospora caninum are morphologically difficult to distinguish from those of other cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites such as toxoplasma gondii. thus, molecular tools may contribute to easy identification of the parasite. based upon an n. caninum-specific dna fragment that we have recently cloned, 5 sense (np1, np3, np5, np7, np21) and 4 antisense (np2, np4, np6, np8) oligonucleotides were designed for a sensitive and specific polymerase chain ...19968604096
isolation of neospora caninum from a british dog. 19938310633
differentiation of toxoplasma gondii from closely related coccidia by riboprint analysis and a surface antigen gene polymerase chain reaction.the tachyzoite of the human pathogen toxoplasma gondii is morphologically indistinguishable from the proliferative stages of some other zoonotic coccidia, including sarcocystis. to determine the identity of such coccidia obtained from human tissues and other sources, we compared riboprints (through restriction enzyme analysis of the polymerase chain reaction [pcr]-amplified small subunit rrna gene) of the following protozoa: the rh and ts-4 strains of t. gondii, lines oh3 and s11, which are two ...19938470780
neospora caninum in british dogs. 19948085319
serologic responses of cattle and other animals infected with neospora caninum.to examine cross-reactivity among neospora caninum and closely-related apicomplexans.19968669764
bovine neospora caninum abortion in the uk. 19938256426
evaluation of two neospora caninum recombinant antigens for use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum is a recently described apicomplexan parasite which causes paralysis and death in dogs. neospora parasites also cause abortion and neonatal morbidity in cattle, sheep, goats, and horses, and neosporosis is emerging as an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. the purpose of this study was to identify n. caninum cdna clones encoding antigens that would be useful for the immunodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis. two n. caninum tachyzoite cdna clones expressing antigens that we ...19968705668
serological diagnosis of bovine neosporosis by neospora caninum monoclonal antibody-based competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite closely related to toxoplasma gondii, causes abortion and congenital infection in cattle. to investigate specific methods of antemortem diagnosis, the antibody responses of infected cows were evaluated by immunoblot assay and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa) by using a monoclonal antibody (mab), mab 4a4-2, against n. caninum tachyzoites. mab 4a4-2 bound diffusely to the exterior surface of n. caninum tachyzoites and recogn ...19968735092
neospora caninum infection in three labrador littermates.neospora caninum is a recently identified protozoan parasite which was previously confused with toxoplasma gondii. neosporosis in puppies commonly causes signs referable to parasitic encephalomyelitis and myositis. the parasite was identified in tissues from 3 9-week-old labrador littermates which showed signs of progressive hind limb hyperextension and paralysis. the diagnosis was confirmed, utilising a specific avidin-biotin immunohistochemical technique. attempts to treat the pups with clinda ...19938496897
[cyst-forming coccidia: toxoplasma, neospora, sarcocystis].the most important cyst-forming coccidian parasites in human and veterinary medicine belong the genera of toxoplasma, neospora and sarcocystis. toxoplasma gondii shows its clinical relevance in congenital infections and opportunistic infections in immunodeficient patients. in veterinary medicine the parasite is predominantly the cause of important economic loss in livestock production. neospora causes diseases resembling toxoplasmosis; neosporosis is one of the most important causes of bovine ab ...19957770750
characterization of the first european isolate of neospora caninum (dubey, carpenter, speer, topper and uggla).neospora caninum is an apicomplexan, protozoan parasite, which causes severe disease in dogs and cattle. it has previously been isolated only in the united states. a 5-week-old boxer pup with a progressive hindlimb paresis was diagnosed as suffering from neosporosis on the basis of clinical signs and the presence of anti-neospora antibodies in it, 2 litter-mates and its dam. despite treatment with sulphonamides, the pup was euthanased 3 days later. the diagnosis of neosporosis was confirmed by i ...19958559588
detection of neospora caninum dna by the polymerase chain reaction.neospora caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite which is now recognised as a major cause of abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle and other livestock. this study describes the primary dna structure of the transcribed spacer region of the rdna of n. caninum. of importance is that the sequence data generated have been used to develop a species-specific pcr test for n. caninum dna, which will prove valuable in epidemiology studies on neosporosis.19968773521
direct abc immunohistochemistry to encephalitozoon cuniculi.among the sera from 9 rabbits spontaneously infected with encephalitozoon cuniculi, a serum which revealed a high titer for e. cuniculi by indirect protein a-gold (ipag) immunohistochemistry and reacted with the outer layer of the shell of e. cuniculi spores on immunoelectron microscopical examination, was biotinylated. the biotinylated rabbit anti-e. cuniculi igg reacted immunohistochemically with e. cuniculi, but not with other protozoa tested, namely neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and sa ...19938513018
prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in a population of urban dogs in england.of 163 dogs, randomly selected from those examined at the university of liverpool small animal hospital, 12.9 per cent had antibody titres > or = to 1/200 to neospora caninum in an indirect fluorescent antibody test. none was apparently suffering clinical neosporosis. there was no association between the occurrence of neospora antibodies and either toxoplasma antibodies measured by the dye test, sex, age, type of feeding or the presence of other dogs in the household. antibody was detected at ti ...19938447050
visceral toxoplasmosis in dogs from brazil.toxoplasma gondii was identified in tissues of two dogs (3 and 10 months of age) from brazil. primary lesions consisted of necrotizing intestinal myositis associated with numerous tachyzoites. parasites in tissues reacted with anti-t. gondii serum but not with neospora caninum serum.19938447074
canine neosporosis: a case report and literature review.a three-year-old, intact female vizsla presented for signs of an acute-onset, progressive spinal cord disease. postmortem examination revealed multifocal central nervous system (cns) lesions, severe pneumonia with pulmonary edema, and congestion of the liver. protozoal cysts were found in multiple spinal cord and brain stem sections. immunohistochemical staining positively identified these cysts as neospora caninum. a literature review of neospora caninum infection in the dog with summary of the ...19957773765
use of infected cultured cells to compare ultrastructural features of neospora caninum from dogs and toxoplasma gondii.the ultrastructure of tachyzoites of 3 isolates of neospora caninum from dogs was examined, using transmission electron microscopy of infected cultured cells. ultrastructure of the 3 isolates was similar. tachyzoites had a pellicle, 22 subpellicular microtubules, a conoid, anterior and posterior polar rings, 8 to 12 electron-dense rhoptries, numerous micronemes, a single vesicular nucleus, tubular mitochondria, golgi complexes, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticula, an inactive micropore, electron-den ...19938427452
systemic infection with an unidentified toxoplasma-like protozoan in a neonatal lichtenstein's hartebeest (sigmoceros lichtensteinii).an unidentified toxoplasma gondii-like disseminated infection was found in tissues of a 2-day-old hartebeest. protozoal tachyzoites were about 3.5 x 1.7 microns, had electron-dense rhoptries, and divided by endodyogeny. the organism did not stain with polyclonol antibodies to t. gondii, neospora caninum, or sarcocystis cruzi.19968636866
prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in coyotes (canis latrans) and experimental infections of coyotes with neospora caninum.antibodies to neospora caninum were detected in 5 (10%) of 52 coyotes from texas. antibodies to toxoplasma gondii were detected in 32 (62%) of 52 samples from these same coyotes. four (80%) of the 5 coyotes that were seropositive for n. caninum also had antibodies to t. gondii. nineteen (37%) of the coyotes did not have antibodies to either parasite. three coyote pups were inoculated with the brains from mice infected with 3 strains of n. caninum originally isolated from dogs. none of the pups d ...19968691381
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