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development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to first-generation merozoites of eimeria bovis.merozoites of eimeria bovis were harvested from bovine monocyte cell cultures and used to immunize balb/c mice. spleens from immunized mice were removed and the cells fused with mouse myeloma cells. supernates from resulting hybridoma cell lines were examined for antibodies to first-generation e. bovis merozoites using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) assay. three positive cell lines were identified and cloned by limiting dilution. all three cell lines produced immunoglobulins of the ...19921281590
[abortions caused by protozoa in agricultural animals].a review is given on abortions in livestock caused by toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and sarcocystis spp. special emphasis is put on diagnostic procedures. t. gondii is considered to be a major cause of abortions in sheep and goats. diagnosis is based on the characteristic lesions in the cotyledons, histologic and immunohistochemical examination, and on the detection of specific antibodies in body fluids or serum of aborted fetuses. whether abortions in swine due to t. gondii are of practic ...19921396163
induced transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in cattle.three jersey cows were inoculated sc and im with 26 million neospora caninum tachyzoites at 129 (cow 1), 126 (cow 2), and 81 (cow 3) days after mating. cows remained clinically normal for at least 1 month after inoculation of n caninum. cow 1 was euthanatized 32 days after inoculation because of gangrenous mastitis. cow 1 had a live fetus with no gross lesions; however, microscopic lesions were seen in the fetus and consisted of severe nonsuppurative necrotizing encephalitis of the cerebral whit ...19921399772
[neospora abortion in cattle in the netherlands].three cases of bovine protozoal abortion at three different dairy farms are reported. multiple abortions had occurred, on two farms, and a sporadic abortion on the third farm. histopathological examination of foetal tissues revealed a distinctive multifocal necrotising encephalitis as well as focal inflammatory lesions in the myocardium, liver, kidney and lung. in one foetus protozoal tissue cysts were found in the brain and individual and clustered tachyzoites were seen in brain, and lung. in a ...19921440543
neosporosis in the aborted fetus and newborn calf.protozoal encephalitic lesions were found in four aborted fetuses and one dead newborn calf. the organism was identified as neospora caninum by immunoperoxidase. the brain lesions were of two forms. one was observed in three fetuses of 5 months gestation and was characterized by multifocal necrosis. the other was found in a 7-month fetus and in a newborn calf, and showed severe infiltration with macrophages and plasma cells containing igg. this association, between the age of fetus and inflammat ...19921452816
canine neosporosis in south africa.neospora caninum was identified in tissues of one neonatal and two adolescent dogs by a specific immunohistochemical technique during a retrospective study. the histological lesions included multifocal polymyositis, multifocal parasitic myocarditis, interstitial pneumonia, severe multifocal encephalitis and myelitis with perivascular cuffing. this report extends the known range of the parasite to the african continent.19921466136
characterization of anti-neospora caninum hyperimmune rabbit serum by western blot analysis and immunoelectron microscopy.the antigens recognized by hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against tachyzoites of the nc-1 isolate of neospora caninum were characterized using chemiluminescent western blotting, immunogold-silver staining and immunoelectron microscopy. approximately 20 immunodominant antigens whose relative rates of migration were 16-80 kda were recognized by the serum in western blots using reduced or nonreduced parasite antigen preparations. the nonreduced parasite antigens were more strongly recognized by th ...19921480607
clinical neosporosis in a 4-week-old hereford calf.most reports of neosporosis associated with abortion in cattle are in dairy cattle and infected calves do not survive beyond 7 days of age. this paper reports neosporosis in a 4-week-old hereford calf. the calf was full term and appeared clinically normal at birth. at 2 weeks of age, the calf had weakened and was unable to nurse unassisted. the calf was killed at 4 weeks because of paralysis. the primary lesions were in the brain and were associated with neospora caninum tachyzoites. the diagnos ...19921496796
an unidentified toxoplasma-like tissue cyst-forming coccidium in a cat (felis catus).an unidentified coccidium was found in the brain and the heart of a 6-year-old female cat. tissue cysts measured 40-130 x 40-112 microns and contained hundreds of bradyzoites measuring 4.2-5.2 x 1.2-1.8 microns. the cyst wall was 0.26-0.53 microns thick. tissue cysts reacted positively with anti-toxoplasma gondii serum but not with anti-neospora caninum serum in an immunohistochemical test. ultrastructurally, the cyst was aseptate and contained banana-shaped bradyzoites. micronemes and rhoptries ...19921584745
neospora caninum (apicomplexa) in a stillborn goat.tissue cysts of neospora caninum were found in sections of brain from a stillborn pygmy goat. the tissue cysts had 1-2-microns-thick cyst walls and stained with anti-n. caninum serum in an immunohistochemical test. glial nodules, mononuclear perivascular cuffing, and foci of inflammation were associated with n. caninum tissue cysts throughout the brain. this report indicates that n. caninum can be transmitted transplacentally in goats.19921597802
factors affecting the survival of neospora caninum bradyzoites in murine tissues.studies were conducted to determine factors that influence the survival of bradyzoites of neospora caninum within tissue cysts in the brains of experimentally inoculated mice. viable tissue cysts were detected in the brains of mice inoculated 13 mo previously with either of 2 isolates (nc-1 or nc-2) of n. caninum. bradyzoites within tissue cysts of the nc-2 isolate survived for at least 14 days at 4 c in refrigerated brain homogenates. bradyzoites within tissue cysts of the nc-2 isolate also sur ...19921738071
paresis in dogs and neospora caninum. 19911781143
disseminated infection with neospora caninum in a ten-year-old dog.naturally-occurring neosporosis with multiple organ involvement was identified in a 10-year-old neutered male basset hound dog. clinical signs were first noticed 3 weeks prior to referral and consisted of crouched stance and mild pelvic limb ataxia. dexamethasone administration had provided transient improvement. on presentation to the teaching hospital, clinical signs included depression, pelvic limb ataxia, inability to stand without assistance, and pain on deep palpation of the cervical and l ...19911879145
[the clinical diagnosis of protozoal myositis syndrome (neospora caninum) of puppies].nine puppies suffered from progressive paresis with muscle wasting, hyporeflexia and extensor rigidity. ck-activity in serum was elevated and electrodiagnostic findings were indicative of lower motor neuron disease. although lesions were also found in the cns, additional neurological signs were rare, but csf examination revealed the presence of inflammatory lesions. on pathologic examination, all animals had a disseminated necrotizing myositis. in addition, a disseminated encephalomyelitis was f ...19911887444
acute sarcocystosis-like disease in a dog.two of 8 littermate rottweiler dogs developed persistent diarrhea at 6.5 weeks of age. dog 1 was euthanatized at 14 weeks of age and had hepatitis characterized by necrosis and mixed leukocyte infiltrations in association with a previously unrecognized sarcocystis-like protozoon. the organism was free in the hepatocyte cytoplasm without a parasitophorous vacuole, had divided by schizogony, and stained with anti-sarcocystis serum, but did not stain with anti-toxoplasma gondii or anti-neospora can ...19911901306
sarcocystis neurona n. sp. (protozoa: apicomplexa), the etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.sarcocystis neuronan n. sp. is proposed for the apicomplexan taxon associated with myeloencephalitis in horses. only asexual stages of this parasite presently are known, and they are found within neuronal cells and leukocytes of the brain and spinal cord. the parasite is located in the host cell cytoplasm, does not have a parasitophorous vacuole, and divides by endopolygeny. schizonts are 5-35 microns x 5-20 microns and contain 4-40 merozoites arranged in a rosette around a prominent residual bo ...19911901359
sarcocystis canis n. sp. (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae), the etiologic agent of generalized coccidiosis in dogs.sarcocystis canis n. sp. is proposed for the protozoon associated with encephalitis, hepatitis, and generalized coccidiosis in dogs. only asexual stages are known in macrophages, neurons, dermal, and other cells of the body. the parasite is located free in the host cell cytoplasm without a parasitophorous vacuole; schizonts divide by endopolygeny. schizonts are 5-25 x 4-20 microns and contain 6-40 merozoites. merozoites are approximately 5-7 microns x 1 micron and do not contain rhoptries. the p ...19911907653
toxoplasma gondii-like schizonts in the tracheal epithelium of a cat.toxoplasma gondii-like schizonts were found in tracheal epithelium of an 8-yr-old male cat. the parasites were located in parasitophorous vacuoles within the host cell cytoplasm, divided by schizogony, contained periodic acid-schiff-positive granules, and reacted with anti-t. gondii serum but not with anti-neospora caninum serum. mature schizonts were 7.0 x 5.9 microns (5-10 x 4-10 microns; n = 22) and contained 4-16 merozoites. the merozoites were approximately 5 x 1 microns.19911919933
neospora-like protozoan infection as a major cause of abortion in california dairy cattle.ninety-five aborted bovine fetuses received from california dairies over a 4.5-year period had histologic lesions of focal encephalitis. protozoa that reacted with neospora caninum antiserum were detected in the brain of 88 of these fetuses and in the heart of 1 fetus. sarcocystis spp schizonts were seen in the vascular endothelium of 1 fetus. it was concluded that a neospora-like cyst-forming coccidian may be a major cause of abortion in california dairy cattle.19912004983
neospora-like encephalomyelitis in a calf: pathology, ultrastructure, and immunoreactivity.protozoal encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in a 3-day-old calf that was stunted, weak, and recumbent. grossly, the calf had contracted tendons in the forelegs, a slightly doomed skull, a porencephalic cyst in the cerebellum, ulcerative esophagitis, and abomasitis. histologically, there was a multifocal nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis with clusters of protozoal tachyzoites and numerous protozoal cysts. the porencephalic cyst and gastrointestional lesions appeared to be unrelated to the protozoal ...19912039786
neospora-like protozoal infections associated with bovine abortions.eighty bovine fetuses with presumed protozoal infections from a previous 2-year retrospective study were examined by immunohistochemistry using antisera against neospora caninum. in 66 (83%) of the fetuses, protozoa were found that reacted positively with anti-n. caninum sera. in three (4%) additional fetuses, protozoa identified as sarcocystis species did not react, and in two fetuses (3%) single protozoal clusters were found only in hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides. a group of 20 fetuses w ...19912063512
neospora caninum induced abortion in sheep. 19902094452
repeated transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in dogs.four litters of german shorthaired pointers from one owner developed a toxoplasmosis-like illness. according to the records, 29 of 39 dogs had hind limb paralysis. six dogs from 2 litters were necropsied and had generalized encephalomyelitis. tachyzoites and tissue cysts of neospora caninum were found in the brain and spinal cord of each dog. lesions were found in the eyes, extraocular muscles, or both in all of the dogs, and n caninum was detected microscopically in the eyes (retina and choroid ...19902228766
neosporosis in cats.six cats (nos. 1-6) were inoculated intramuscularly with (1 x 10(6)) and orally (5 x 10(5)) tachyzoites of neospora caninum. three (nos. 1-3) of the six cats were given 40 mg/kg methylprednisolone acetate 7 days before and on the day of inoculation with n. caninum tachyzoites, and three cats (nos. 4-6) were not given methylprednisolone acetate. two of the cats (cat nos. 1 and 2) given methylprednisolone acetate died suddenly. cat no. 1 died 8 days post-inoculation, and cat no. 2 died 16 days pos ...19902238386
fatal congenital neospora caninum infection in a lamb.neospora caninum tissue cysts were found in the brain and spinal cord of a 1-wk-old lamb that was unable to stand after birth. the lamb was originally diagnosed as having toxoplasmosis, but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques used in the present study permitted a definitive diagnosis of neospora caninum tissue cysts in the brain and spinal cord of this lamb. this is the first report of n. caninum in sheep.19902299518
neospora caninum encephalomyelitis in a british dog. 19902316150
effects of sulfadiazine and amprolium on neospora caninum (protozoa: apicomplexa) infections in mice.an immunosuppressed mouse model was used to determine the effects of amprolium and sulfadiazine on experimental neospora caninum infections. both drugs were given in the drinking water. neither drug was effective in treating infections when given 7 days after inoculation of tachyzoites, when clinical signs of disease had developed. amprolium did not prevent deaths or development of clinical signs when given in the drinking water at 1 mg/ml or 5 mg/ml 3 days after inoculation of tachyzoites. sulf ...19902319416
neospora caninum infection in dogs. 19902344341
infection of mice with neospora caninum (protozoa: apicomplexa) does not protect against challenge with toxoplasma gondii.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are structurally related protozoal parasites of mammals that may cause abortion and neonatal morbidity and mortality. groups of mice were subcutaneously inoculated with 10(5) live zoites of the nc-1 or nc-3 isolates of n. caninum and reinoculated with an identical number of live zoites 2 weeks later. groups of mice which were injected subcutaneously with hanks balanced salt solution served as controls. three weeks after the final n. caninum inoculation, one ...19902370115
diagnosis and treatment of neospora caninum infection in a dog.neospora caninum, a protozoan organism, caused extensor rigidity of the pelvic limbs in a 12-week-old dog. diagnosis was based on results of muscle biopsy, neuroelectrodiagnostics, serotesting, and cell culture. indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) titer to n caninum was 1:800 at time of admission and 1:3,200 after 4 and 6 weeks. a reciprocal ifa titer of 50 to n caninum was also found in the csf. serotesting for t gondii was negative. treatment with clindamycin followed by sulfadiazine and trime ...19902370226
neosporosis in dogs.a bitch was inoculated subcutaneously and intramuscularly with neospora caninum tachyzoites on day 35 of pregnancy. eight pups were born 28 days later. five pups became ill and necropsies were performed before 20 days of age. three pups and the bitch remained clinically normal for 7 weeks after parturition when they were intramuscularly injected with 40 mg kg-1 methylprednisolone acetate weekly to activate chronic n. caninum infection. necropsies were performed 48, 17, 18, and 18 days respective ...19902382383
neosporosis-like abortions in a herd of dairy cattle.twenty-nine cows from a 240-cow drylot holstein dairy in north-central new mexico aborted over a period of approximately 5 months. nine aborted fetuses were necropsied, and all but 1 of the fetuses were between 5 and 7 months of gestation. microscopic examination of fetal tissues revealed focal necrotizing encephalitis and nonsuppurative myocarditis in 7 of the 9 fetuses. additional lesions observed in some fetuses were focal hepatic necrosis, nonsuppurative myositis, focal necrotizing placentit ...19892488345
neospora caninum-like protozoon associated with fatal myelitis in newborn calves.neospora caninum-like organisms were found in histologic sections of spinal cord of 4 paralyzed calves as reported by parish et al. (1987). tachyzoites divided by endodyogeny. tissue cysts were up to 62 microns wide and the cyst wall was up to 2.5 microns thick. the organism in calves was structurally distinct from toxoplasma gondii and sarcocystis species and reacted positively with anti-n. caninum serum in an immunoperoxidase test.19892493086
fatal neospora caninum infection in kittens.three 3-day-old kittens were inoculated subcutaneously and orally with neospora caninum tachyzoites. a littermate and the queen were not inoculated with n. caninum and served as controls. kitten 1 died between 14 and 16 days postinoculation (dpi) and was eaten by the mother. kitten 2 died 17 dpi and kitten 3 was euthanized 29 dpi in a moribund condition. the control littermate and the dam remained healthy. granulomatous skeletal myositis and nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis were the main lesions ...19892493087
in vitro development of neospora caninum (protozoa: apicomplexa) from dogs.the development of neospora caninum isolated from naturally infected dogs was examined in mammalian cell cultures. tachyzoites developed by endodyogeny when inoculated onto bovine monocyte or bovine cardiopulmonary artery endothelial cell cultures. tachyzoites were 5.0 by 2.0 microns and had a posteriorly located nucleus. cytopathogenic effects of parasite development consisted of the formation of holes in the cell monolayer associated with the rupture of infected host cells. serial passage of t ...19892493088
a neospora-like protozoon found in an aborted bovine placenta.portions of the placenta and kidneys from a 5-month-old bovine fetus were examined histologically. the placental cotyledonary villi were necrotic and protozoa were found in lesions. the organisms were in trophoblasts, periodic acid schiff-negative and did not react in an immunoperoxidase test using anti-toxoplasma gondii serum. individual zoites were approximately 5 x 2 microns and the biggest collection was 45 x 35 microns. the organism in the present case was structurally distinct from sarcocy ...19892588466
evaluation of anti-coccidial drugs' inhibition of neospora caninum development in cell cultures.eight anti-coccidial drugs were examined for their efficacies in preventing development of neospora caninum in bovine monocyte cell cultures. lasalocid sodium (0.05 microgram/ml), monensin sodium (0.05 microgram/ml), piritrexim (0.01 microgram/ml), pyrimethamine (0.05 microgram/ml), and trimethoprim (5.0 micrograms/ml) were effective in preventing development of intracellular n. caninum tachyzoites (p less than 0.05). no differences (p greater than 0.05) in mean numbers of infected cells compare ...19892614609
immunohistochemical diagnosis of neospora caninum in tissue sections.an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex immunoperoxidase staining method was developed to detect neospora caninum in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. specific antiserum to n caninum was made in rabbits and used to probe tissues from dogs naturally and experimentally infected with n caninum. the test detected tachyzoites and bradyzoites of n caninum. a reaction was not observed to toxoplasma gondii, hammondia hammondi, sarcocystis cruzi, s capricanis, s tenella, besnoitia jellisoni, ...19892694869
transplacental neospora caninum infection in cats.transplacental transmission of neospora caninum was studied in 2 pregnant cats (queens). queen 1 was inoculated subcutaneously with 2 x 10(6) cell culture-derived n. caninum tachyzoites on day 47 of gestation. she gave birth to a full-term kitten on the 17th day after inoculation. the kitten died the second day after birth due to generalized n. caninum infection. the mother cat was killed on the third day after parturition and was found to have a macerated kitten in the uterus. severe placentiti ...19892795379
neospora caninum (protozoa: apicomplexa) infections in mice.groups of mice were given 0 mg, 4 mg, or 2 mg of methylprednisolone acetate (mpa) 7 days prior to, the day of, and 7 days after subcutaneous inoculation with 0 or 2 x 10(5) tachyzoites of neospora caninum. clinical signs of disease were seen only in mice given both mpa and n. caninum tachyzoites. mice given 4 mg mpa and n. caninum tachyzoites developed severe disseminated neosporosis and most died or were killed when comatose 11-13 days postinoculation (pi). acute pneumonia, polymyositis, enceph ...19892795380
transplacental neospora caninum infection in dogs.a beagle bitch was inoculated sc and im with 1.5 million neospora caninum tachyzoites on the 35th day of gestation. eight pups were born alive 28 days after n caninum inoculation of the bitch. pup 1 did not breathe and died while still enclosed in fetal membranes. pup 2 died 2 days after birth (dab). pups 3, 4, and 5 were euthanatized on 2, 3, and 20 dab, respectively, because they were hypothermic and not nursing. pups 6, 7, and 8 remained clinically normal. indirect fluorescent n caninum serum ...19892802335
ultrastructure of tachyzoites, bradyzoites and tissue cysts of neospora caninum.dividing tachyzoites of neospora caninum were 4 x 3 microns and had ultrastructural characteristics typical for the cyst-forming coccidia. unusual ultrastructural characteristics of fully-formed tachyzoites included no micropores, 8-12 anterior and 4-6 posterior rhoptries, and a few posterior micronemes. most tachyzoites were located free in the host cell cytoplasm; only a few occurred within a parasitophorous vacuole. parasite multiplication appeared to be rapid because most organisms were in v ...19892810142
neonatal neospora caninum infection in dogs: isolation of the causative agent and experimental transmission.neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in 5 young dogs from 2 litters with a common parentage. the pups were born healthy, but developed hind limb paresis 5 to 8 weeks after birth. the predominant lesions were polyradiculoneuritis and granulomatous polymyositis. neospora caninum was seen microscopically in sections of naturally infected pups, and was isolated in cell cultures, mice, and dogs inoculated with infected canine tissues. antibodies to n caninum were detected in sera of infected dogs ...19883144521
newly recognized fatal protozoan disease of dogs.histologic sections and case histories from 23 dogs with proven fatal toxoplasmosis-like illness at the angell memorial animal hospital were reviewed. toxoplasma gondii was identified in 13 dogs. a newly identified parasite, neospora caninum, structurally distinct from t gondii, was found in 10 dogs. the newly discovered organism, belonging to a new genus and new species, formed meronts in many tissues of the dogs, especially the brain and spinal cord. neospora caninum was located directly in th ...19883391851
vertical transmission of neospora caninum in mice.herein we report a murine model to examine transplacental transmission, transmammary transmission, or both, of neospora caninum. prevalence of transplacental transmission in outbred swiss-webster mouse pups was 85%, with 11 of 13 litters containing at least 1 transplacentally infected pup. sixty-two percent of litters born to experimentally infected dams contained 85% or more transplacentally infected pups. numbers of pups congenitally infected per litter was higher if dams were inoculated durin ...19957472863
experimental oral inoculations in birds to evaluate potential definitive hosts of neospora caninum.experimental oral inoculations to evaluate potential definitive hosts of neospora caninum were conducted by feeding infected rodent tissues to 9 carnivorous birds of 4 species. birds included 2 red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), 2 turkey vultures (cathartes aura), 2 barn owls (tyto alba), and 3 american crows (corvus brachyrhynchus). the rodents (mice or rats) had been inoculated with 100,000 culture-derived tachyzoites of n. caninum 1-6 mo before feeding to the birds. fecal samples were coll ...19957472875
abortions, fetal death, and stillbirths in pregnant pygmy goats inoculated with tachyzoites of neospora caninum.neospora caninum-induced abortion is a major production problem in the dairy cattle industry in the united states and worldwide. abortions attributable to naturally acquired n caninum infection also have been observed in pygmy goats. we studied experimentally induced infections with n caninum in pregnant pygmy does to determine whether abortions attributable to n caninum infection would occur after inoculation. seven pregnant pygmy does (1 control doe and 6 inoculated with n caninum) were studie ...19957486395
identification and characterization of neospora caninum tachyzoite antigens useful for diagnosis of neosporosis.the purpose of the present study was to identify antigens of the protozoan neospora caninum that could be useful for the diagnosis of neosporosis in domestic animals. as revealed by immunoblotting, immune sera from a wide range of animal species exhibited a similar recognition pattern of four major and several minor n. caninum antigens. in contrast to preinoculation sera, all tested immune sera recognized nonreduced immunodominant 17-, 29-, 30-, and 27-kda antigens. a 46-kda protein which showed ...19947496948
genetic comparison of neospora caninum with toxoplasma and sarcocystis by random amplified polymorphic dna-polymerase chain reaction.to determine the relationship of neospora caninum to protozoa classified in the family sarcocystidae of the phylum apicomplexa, the genomes of n. caninum, three toxoplasma gondii strains (rha, cep, tpr) and three sarcocystis species (s. tenella, s. muris, s. gigantea) that were thought to be closely related coccidia were compared by the random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique. the genomic dnas were amplified by the use of seven 10-mer arbitrary sequence ...19957501633
neospora caninum infection in a litter of labrador retriever dogs in denmark. 19957502956
a survey of the incidence of neospora caninum infection in aborted and stillborn bovine fetuses in england and wales.selected brains and fetal viscera from 190 aborted or stillborn bovine fetuses submitted to veterinary investigation centres in england and wales between august 1992 and january 1993 were examined histologically. non-suppurative inflammation of the brain and/or myocardium and placental cotyledons was identified by light microscopy in 20 (10.5 per cent). an immunocytochemical examination of fixed tissue sections using antisera against neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and sarcocystis species re ...19957571263
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for serological diagnosis of neospora sp. infection in cattle.a kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed and optimized for detection of antibodies to neospora sp. in cattle. sonicated tachyzoites of neospora sp. isolated from an aborted bovine fetus were used as antigen. variability in immunoblot patterns among positive sera, and the fact that all life stages of the parasites are unknown, justified use of a multiple-antigen elisa to allow for maximum sensitivity. immunoblot analysis revealed negligible cross-reactions between toxopla ...19957578451
neospora caninum infection in three dogs.infection with neospora caninum in three young dogs is described. the predominant clinical signs were lower motor neuron deficits of the pelvic limbs, bladder and rectum. in two cases there was liver infection and dysfunction. the younger dogs had an acute onset rapidly progressive syndrome. the older dog had a similar but more chronic course. the diagnosis was confirmed by an immunofluorescence antibody test. the parasite is sensitive to clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulphonamide preparations, h ...19957603059
sequence analysis and comparison of ribosomal dna from bovine neospora to similar coccidial parasites.the nuclear small subunit ribosomal rna (nss-rrna) gene sequence of neospora spp. isolated from cattle was analyzed and compared to the sequences from several closely related cyst-forming coccidial parasites. double-stranded dna sequencing of 5 bovine neospora spp. isolates (bpa1-4), 2 neospora caninum isolates (nc-1 and nc-3), and 3 toxoplasma gondii isolates (rh, gt-1, ct-1) were performed and compared to each other, as well as to other sequences available in genbank for the nc-1 isolate, sarc ...19957623193
prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in swedish dogs. 19947676930
vertical transmission of neospora caninum in dogs.herein we report the development of a canine model to examine transplacental and/or transmammary transmission of neospora caninum. six pregnant bitches were experimentally infected with n. caninum on day 21 of gestation. one bitch successfully delivered a litter of 3 live pups. these pups showed slight proprioception deficits, increased muscle tone, and spasticity in both pelvic limbs; however, n. caninum was neither demonstrated by bioassay in cell culture nor seen in histological sections of t ...19957707195
mouse model for central nervous system neospora caninum infections.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes severe disease in transplacentally infected dogs and abortions in domestic ruminants. rodent models of neosporosis rely on treatment of hosts with methylprednisolone acetate (mpa) to enhance infections. the present study reports the development of an inbred balb/c mouse model that results in central nervous system neosporosis in the absence of mpa treatment. seven of 12 balb/c mice died 26-70 days after subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation with tac ...19957707216
neospora caninum pneumonia in an adult dog.neospora caninum was identified in a lung aspirate specimen from an adult dog with severe pneumonia. neosporosis was tentatively diagnosed by cytologic examination of a wright-giemsa-stained smear of the aspirate specimen, using light microscopy. the infection was confirmed by immunohistochemical examination of a section of lung tissue obtained at necropsy. neosporosis is usually a fatal ascending neurologic disease of dogs less than 1 year of age. neospora caninum infections are uncommon in adu ...19957768704
[cyst-forming coccidia: toxoplasma, neospora, sarcocystis].the most important cyst-forming coccidian parasites in human and veterinary medicine belong the genera of toxoplasma, neospora and sarcocystis. toxoplasma gondii shows its clinical relevance in congenital infections and opportunistic infections in immunodeficient patients. in veterinary medicine the parasite is predominantly the cause of important economic loss in livestock production. neospora causes diseases resembling toxoplasmosis; neosporosis is one of the most important causes of bovine ab ...19957770750
canine neosporosis: a case report and literature review.a three-year-old, intact female vizsla presented for signs of an acute-onset, progressive spinal cord disease. postmortem examination revealed multifocal central nervous system (cns) lesions, severe pneumonia with pulmonary edema, and congestion of the liver. protozoal cysts were found in multiple spinal cord and brain stem sections. immunohistochemical staining positively identified these cysts as neospora caninum. a literature review of neospora caninum infection in the dog with summary of the ...19957773765
neospora caninum--request for specimens for research. 19957779045
the phylogeny of neospora caninum.morphological studies by electron microscopy on the protozoan neospora caninum have shown that this organism possesses a subcellular structure typical of parasites classified in the family sarcocystidae, subclass coccidiasina of the phylum apicomplexa. using a strategy based on dna sequence analysis of products derived by asymmetric pcr to determine the nucleotide sequences, we have tested the validity of this classification by comparing the small subunit ribosomal rna (18s rrna) gene sequences ...19947935608
examination of the activities of 43 chemotherapeutic agents against neospora caninum tachyzoites in cultured cells.neospora caninum causes serious disease in dogs, and it, or a similar parasite, is a major cause of abortion in cattle. little is known about the susceptibility of this protozoan to antimicrobial agents. we studied several antimicrobial agents to determine which classes might have activity against this parasite. we also determined whether activity of such agents was coccidiocidal or coccidiostatic. a 2-day of treatment, monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay and a 5-day of treatment, cell ...19947978638
the phylogeny of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii based on ribosomal rna sequences.neospora caninum is a newly described cyst-forming coccidium which is the cause of severe neurological disease in dogs. the parasite is morphologically similar to toxoplasma gondii, but the two species can be differentiated serologically. in order to define the phylogenetic position of n. caninum, we have determined 16s-like rrna sequences from three members of the family of sarcocystidae: n. caninum, t. gondii, and sarcocystis fusiformis. the 16s-like rrna genes from the three parasites were am ...19948039658
neospora caninum in british dogs. 19948085319
sudden death associated with neospora caninum myocarditis in a dog.a 10-month-old female bull mastiff dog was found dead without reports of any prior clinical signs of disease. necropsy revealed lesions in the myocardium, which consisted of a large 2 x 2.3-cm brownish area and a few small similar lesions. microscopically, neospora caninum tachyzoites were found in the lesions characterized by necrosis and interstitial myocarditis. diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-n caninum serum.19938226237
evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of babesia gibsoni infections in dogs.we determined the extent of the serologic cross-reactivity in the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test for babesia gibsoni, and the optimal cut-off titer for seropositivity in the test. the lowest titer to b gibsoni detected in a dog with naturally acquired clinical babesiosis was 1,280, and 7 of 12 dogs had titer between 10,240 and 20,480. two experimentally infected normosplenic dogs developed high titer (40,960 to 81,920) to b gibsoni, and the same sera reacted in ifa tests for b canis (t ...19938250380
detection of neospora caninum in tissue sections using a murine monoclonal antibody.a murine monoclonal antibody (mab 6g7), isotype igg2a, produced against tachyzoites of neospora caninum (isolate nc-1) reacted specifically with tachyzoites of n. caninum in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. mab 6g7 did not react with tachyzoites of toxoplasma gondii, sporozoites of isospora suis, eimeria bovis, or e. tenella, or merozoites of e. bovis in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. mab 6g7 reacted positively with both tachyzoites and bradyzoites of n. caninum in an ...19938286458
neospora caninum in aborted twin calves.neospora caninum was detected in the brains of twin aborted calves by means of a specific immunohistochemical test on formalin-fixed, wax-embedded tissues. microscopic lesions associated with this infection included multifocal necrosis and gliosis in the brain accompanied by a mononuclear, perivascular inflammatory reaction and meningitis; and severe, diffuse epicarditis and subepicardial myocarditis characterised by infiltration of macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. this report document ...19938410939
use of infected cultured cells to compare ultrastructural features of neospora caninum from dogs and toxoplasma gondii.the ultrastructure of tachyzoites of 3 isolates of neospora caninum from dogs was examined, using transmission electron microscopy of infected cultured cells. ultrastructure of the 3 isolates was similar. tachyzoites had a pellicle, 22 subpellicular microtubules, a conoid, anterior and posterior polar rings, 8 to 12 electron-dense rhoptries, numerous micronemes, a single vesicular nucleus, tubular mitochondria, golgi complexes, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticula, an inactive micropore, electron-den ...19938427452
visceral toxoplasmosis in dogs from brazil.toxoplasma gondii was identified in tissues of two dogs (3 and 10 months of age) from brazil. primary lesions consisted of necrotizing intestinal myositis associated with numerous tachyzoites. parasites in tissues reacted with anti-t. gondii serum but not with neospora caninum serum.19938447074
in vitro isolation and characterization of a neospora sp. from aborted bovine foetuses.a neospora sp. was isolated from the brains of two aborted bovine foetuses and grown continuously in vitro in bovine cell cultures. a comparison of the antigenic reactivity of in vitro cultivated tachyzoites with polyclonal antisera to neospora caninum, hammondia hammondi or toxoplasma gondii revealed that the bovine protozoal isolates were similar to n. caninum and antigenically distinct from t. gondii. tachyzoites of both bovine isolates had similar ultrastructural features, including an apica ...19938488061
characterization of the first european isolate of neospora caninum (dubey, carpenter, speer, topper and uggla).neospora caninum is an apicomplexan, protozoan parasite, which causes severe disease in dogs and cattle. it has previously been isolated only in the united states. a 5-week-old boxer pup with a progressive hindlimb paresis was diagnosed as suffering from neosporosis on the basis of clinical signs and the presence of anti-neospora antibodies in it, 2 litter-mates and its dam. despite treatment with sulphonamides, the pup was euthanased 3 days later. the diagnosis of neosporosis was confirmed by i ...19958559588
neospora caninum: specific oligonucleotide primers for the detection of brain "cyst" dna of experimentally infected nude mice by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr).both tachyzoites and bradyzoites in tissue cysts of neospora caninum are morphologically difficult to distinguish from those of other cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites such as toxoplasma gondii. thus, molecular tools may contribute to easy identification of the parasite. based upon an n. caninum-specific dna fragment that we have recently cloned, 5 sense (np1, np3, np5, np7, np21) and 4 antisense (np2, np4, np6, np8) oligonucleotides were designed for a sensitive and specific polymerase chain ...19968604096
fatal transplacental neosporosis in a deer (cervus eldi siamensis).neospora caninum tissue cysts were found in sections of the brain from a full-term stillborn deer of eld (cervus eldi siamensis) from a zoo in france. there was n. caninum-associated nonsuppurative encephalitis and the diagnosis was confirmed in immunohistochemical staining with antibodies specific to n. caninum.19968604111
an immunohistochemical method for detecting bradyzoite antigen (bag5) in toxoplasma gondii-infected tissues cross-reacts with a neospora caninum bradyzoite antigen.the previously cloned gene of a bradyzoite-specific antigen (bag5) of toxoplasma gondii was used to express a fusion protein for subsequent antiserum production in rabbits. the bag5 antiserum was used in an immunohistochemical procedure to look for reactive epitopes in bradyzoites and tachyzoites of t. gondii within animal tissues. encysted bradyzoites in brain were stained deeply and diffusely. although most unencysted organisms in brain were not stained, occasional free organisms had mild to d ...19968604117
what is your neurologic diagnosis? neospora caninum-induced myositis. 19968617618
the prevalence of neosporosis in aborted bovine foetuses submitted to the allerton regional veterinary laboratory.combined histological examination and avidin-biotin immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed brain and myocardium from aborted bovine foetuses presented to the allerton regional veterinary laboratory were utilized for the diagnosis of bovine neosporosis. two out of 144 cases were diagnosed positive for neosporosis, indicating a low prevalence of infection and confirming neospora caninum to be a cause of sporadic abortion in the population surveyed.19958628575
systemic infection with an unidentified toxoplasma-like protozoan in a neonatal lichtenstein's hartebeest (sigmoceros lichtensteinii).an unidentified toxoplasma gondii-like disseminated infection was found in tissues of a 2-day-old hartebeest. protozoal tachyzoites were about 3.5 x 1.7 microns, had electron-dense rhoptries, and divided by endodyogeny. the organism did not stain with polyclonol antibodies to t. gondii, neospora caninum, or sarcocystis cruzi.19968636866
serologic responses of cattle and other animals infected with neospora caninum.to examine cross-reactivity among neospora caninum and closely-related apicomplexans.19968669764
the ultrastructure of bradyzoites and tissue cysts of neospora caninum in dogs: absence of distinguishing morphological features between parasites of canine and bovine origin.the fine structure of bradyzoites and tissue cysts of neospora caninum in dogs is described. original findings consisting of branching, septa-like structures of the cyst wall and peculiar, lipid-like inclusions in the cyst ground substance were described. tubulo-vesicular structures in the cyst ground substance and distinctive, vesicular organelles containing short, membranous segments and smaller vesicles, described in neospora parasites of bovine origin and previously undescribed in parasites ...19968686169
evaluation of two neospora caninum recombinant antigens for use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum is a recently described apicomplexan parasite which causes paralysis and death in dogs. neospora parasites also cause abortion and neonatal morbidity in cattle, sheep, goats, and horses, and neosporosis is emerging as an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. the purpose of this study was to identify n. caninum cdna clones encoding antigens that would be useful for the immunodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis. two n. caninum tachyzoite cdna clones expressing antigens that we ...19968705668
demonstration of synergistic effects of sulfonamides and dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase inhibitors against neospora caninum tachyzoites in cultured cells, and characterization of mutants resistant to pyrimethamine.to examine the efficacies of combinations of 7 sulfonamides and 5 dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase (dhfr/ts) inhibitors against tachyzoites of neospora caninum in cultured cells. mutant tachyzoites that were resistant to pyrimethamine were produced and examined for resistance to other dhfr/ts inhibitors. design and procedures: after 5 days of treatment, a cell culture flask lesion-based assay was used to determine efficacies of combinations of sulfonamides and dhfr/ts inhibitors agai ...19968720241
serological diagnosis of bovine neosporosis by neospora caninum monoclonal antibody-based competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite closely related to toxoplasma gondii, causes abortion and congenital infection in cattle. to investigate specific methods of antemortem diagnosis, the antibody responses of infected cows were evaluated by immunoblot assay and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa) by using a monoclonal antibody (mab), mab 4a4-2, against n. caninum tachyzoites. mab 4a4-2 bound diffusely to the exterior surface of n. caninum tachyzoites and recogn ...19968735092
[detection of antibodies against neospora caninum in cows on hessian farms with abortion and fertility problems].to address the question whether n. caninum-infections occur in german cattle, 388 sera from dairy farms with abortions and fecundity problems in north hesse were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and seropositive farms epidemiologically analyzed. 16 sera (4.1%) with titres of > or= 1:400 from a total of 10 farms (45.5% of the farms) were considered neospora-positive. there was a conspicuous clustering of seropositive and indifferent animals in three farms. a history of abortion could not be es ...19968766905
detection of neospora caninum dna by the polymerase chain reaction.neospora caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite which is now recognised as a major cause of abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle and other livestock. this study describes the primary dna structure of the transcribed spacer region of the rdna of n. caninum. of importance is that the sequence data generated have been used to develop a species-specific pcr test for n. caninum dna, which will prove valuable in epidemiology studies on neosporosis.19968773521
congenital neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle and associated calfhood mortality.a prospective cohort study was undertaken on two central california dairies, a and b, to estimate prevalence of congenital infection with neospora caninum, to characterize temporal variation in prevalence, to determine if occurrence of congenital infection was associated with specific dam and calf attributes, and to estimate the effect of congenital infection on calfhood mortality. of the 405 calves enrolled over a period of 2 1/2 y on dairy a and dairy b, 30.6% (85/278) and 53.5% (68/127), resp ...19968785719
identification of a major surface protein on neospora caninum tachyzoites.neospora caninum is a recently identified coccidian parasite that is closely related to toxoplasma gondii. molecules associated with the surface of n. caninum tachyzoites are likely to be involved in the process of adhesion and invasion of host cells. they probably also participate in the interaction of the parasite with the immune system, and they could play an important role in the pathogenesis of the parasite. to identify such surface molecules, we performed subcellular fractionation studies ...19968832729
rapid and sensitive identification of neospora caninum by in vitro amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 1.neospora caninum and n. caninum-like organisms are cyst-forming coccidian parasites known to cause neuromuscular disorders in dogs and abortion in cattle. in this article we report on the use of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of dna from n. caninum. after determining the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) of n. caninum and toxoplasma gondii, and part of the sequences for 4 species of sarcocystis, we designed a primer set for the amplification of a 279-bas ...19968851857
adhesion and invasion of bovine endothelial cells by neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a recently identified coccidian parasite which was, until 1988, misdiagnosed as toxoplasma gondii. it causes paralysis and death in dogs and neonatal mortality and abortion in cattle, sheep, goats and horses. the life-cycle of neospora has not yet been elucidated. the only two stages identified so far are tissue cysts and intracellularly dividing tachyzoites. very little is known about the biology of this species. we have set up a fluorescence-based adhesion/invasion assay in ...19968851858
neospora caninum infection in a napolitan mastiff dog from spain.fetal neosporosis-associated myeloencephalitis was diagnosed in a 4-month-old napolitan mastiff dog from spain. neospora caninum tachyzoites and tissue cysts were observed in lesions in the central nervous system and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-n. caninum monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.19968893485
diagnosis of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infection by pcr and dna hybridization immunoassay.a recently described pcr test for the identification of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii has been further developed and optimized in view of its practicability for routine diagnostic application. the n. caninum-specific pcr was adapted to the diagnostic operating standard of the t. gondii-specific pcr in that the uracil dna glycosidase system was introduced, which eliminates potential carry-over contaminations of amplified target dna from previous reactions. furthermore, both pcr tests wer ...19968897199
culling associated with neospora caninum infection in dairy cows.to estimate the extent to which cows infected with neospora caninum were culled, compared with noninfected cows, and to identify differences in reasons for culling between infected and noninfected cows.19968915429
subcellular localization and functional characterization of nc-p43, a major neospora caninum tachyzoite surface protein.neospora caninum is a recently identified coccidian parasite which shares many features with, but is clearly distinct from, toxoplasma gondii. n. caninum tachyzoites infect a wide range of mammalian cells both in vivo and in vitro. the mechanisms by which infection is achieved are largely unknown. recent evidence has suggested that a receptor-ligand system in which one or several host cell receptors bind to one or several parasite ligands is involved. parasite cell surface-associated molecules s ...19968926100
clinical aspects of 27 cases of neosporosis in dogs.twenty-seven cases of neosporosis in european dogs are described. the disease was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, or a favourable response to treatment in the dogs with appropriate clinical signs, and by the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum but not to toxoplasma gondii. the affected dogs were two days to seven years old, and of 13 different breeds. both sexes were affected and in most cases littermates remained normal. twenty-one cases had an initial hindlimb pa ...19968931299
experimental neosporosis in pregnant ewes and their offspring.six groups of six pregnant ewes each were inoculated with 170,000 or 1,700,000 tachyzoites of neospora caninum on gestation day 65, 90, or 120. all ewes seroconverted, and none showed signs of illness other than abortion. regardless of the inoculum dose, all ewes inoculated on gestation day 65 aborted; ewes inoculated on gestation day 90 aborted, gave birth to weak lambs, or gave birth to clinically normal lambs; and all ewes inoculated on gestation day 120 gave birth to clinically normal lambs. ...19968952023
stillbirth/perinatal weak calf syndrome: serological examination for evidence of neospora caninum infection. 19968953695
development of a polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of neosporosis using the neospora caninum 14-3-3 gene.neospora caninum is a recently described apicomplexan parasite which causes neuromuscular disease in dogs, and abortion and neonatal morbidity in cattle, sheep and horses. morphological similarities and serological cross-reactivity between n. caninum and the closely related parasite toxoplasma gondii, have resulted in the frequent misdiagnosis of neosporosis as toxoplasmosis. this report describes the isolation and characterization of an n. caninum cdna clone encoding a 14-3-3 protein homologue. ...19968992315
a review of neospora caninum and neosporosis.neospora caninum is a recently recognized protozoan parasite of animals, which until 1988 was misidentified as toxoplasma gondii. its life cycle is unknown. transplacental transmission is the only recognized mode of transmission. it has a wide host range, but its zoonotic potential is unknown. neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. it is also an important cause of neuromuscular paralysis in dogs. this paper reviews information on parasite structure, life cycle, bio ...19969011014
neospora caninum: role for immune cytokines in host immunity.neospora caninum is a coccidial protozoan parasite that infects a large range of mammals including dogs, cats, mice, and cattle. morphologically, n. caninum appears indistinguishable from toxoplasma gondii, although they are genetically distinct. to date there have been no reported cases of this infection in humans, although nonhuman primates may be susceptible to infection. inbred a/j mice develop no clinical and little histologic evidence of infection in spite of a high-dose inoculum of n. can ...19979024199
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