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occurrence of antibodies anti -toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in southern brazil.a large number of brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. blood samples from 32 brazilian deer (blastocerus dichotomus, mazama nana and mazama americana) kept in captivity at bela vista biological sanctuary (foz do iguaçu, brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. deer serum samples were tested ...201526689185
blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: evaluating storage and temperature challenges of field collections.filter-paper (fp) blood sampling can facilitate wildlife research and expand disease surveillance. previous work indicated that nobuto fp samples from caribou and reindeer (rangifer tarandus subspecies) had comparable sensitivity and specificity to serum samples (≥ 80% for both) in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (celisas) for brucella spp., neospora caninum, and west nile virus. the same sensitivity and specificity criteria were met in indirect elisas for brucella spp., bovine he ...201424499329
health impact evaluation of alternative management systems in vicuña (vicugna vicugna mensalis) populations in peru.to determine the impact of farming over vicuña population in peru, serum samples were collected from 207 vicuñas (126 captive vicuñas and 81 free-ranging vicuñas) and 614 domestic south american camelids (571 alpacas and 43 llamas), in ten andean communities at the salinas y aguada blanca reserve, province of arequipa, southern peru. samples were tested for the presence of leptospirosis, foot and mouth disease (fmd), bovine viral diarrhea (bvd), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), brucellosis, bl ...201424492977
blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: detecting antibodies to neospora caninum, west nile virus, and five bovine viruses in reindeer.we compared nobuto filter paper (fp) whole-blood samples to serum for detecting antibodies to seven pathogens in reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus). serum and fp samples were collected from captive reindeer in 2008-2009. sample pairs (serum and fp eluates) were assayed in duplicate at diagnostic laboratories with the use of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (celisas) for neospora caninum and west nile virus (wnv); indirect elisa (ielisas) for bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), pa ...201424484497
association of histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from brazil.this study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of brazil. fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. pcr/rt-pcr assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine herpesvirus 1 (bohv-1), listeri ...201525480485
abortion in cattle due to infection with staphylococcus lugdunensis.an aborted fetus of 7 months gestation, the associated placenta, and a single blood sample from the dam were submitted for diagnostic investigation to the diagnostic laboratory of the lombardy and emilia-romagna experimental zooprophylactic institute in parma, italy. the serum was negative for neospora caninum, coxiella burnetii, chlamydophila abortus, bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), brucella abortus, and brucella melitensis. fetal tissues and placental cotyledo ...201425292193
prevalence of bovine herpesvirus type 4 in aborting dairy cows.bovine herpesvirus type 4 (bhv-4) is related to many different conditions: infertility, postpartal metritis, vulvovaginitis, mastitis, encephalitis, calf pneumonia, keratoconjunctivitis, cutaneous lesions, digital dermatitis and abortion. in this study a retrospective pcr examination of 100 extracted dna samples from aborting cows was performed in order to determine: prevalence of bhv-4 in abortive cattle, whether coinfections bhv-4 with other abortifacient pathogens are present in the same samp ...201628092611
the absence of zoonotic agents in invasive bullfrogs (lithobates catesbeianus) in belgium and the netherlands.exotic invasive bullfrogs (lithobates catesbeianus) are considered to exert a considerable negative impact on native amphibian communities. this can be due to competition and predation, but they are also a notorious source of the infectious diseases chytridiomycosis and ranavirosis, affecting amphibian populations globally. little is known regarding their carriage of other microbial agents that might be transferred to humans or other animals. in this study we determined the occurrence of the amp ...201324162797
neospora caninum in estonian dairy herds in relation to herd size, reproduction parameters, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, and bovine herpes virus 1.cows infected with the tissue parasite neospora caninum (nc) are more likely to abort or give birth to calves with neurological disorders. the known infection routes are transplacentally and by consumption of oocysts shed by the definitive host, the dog. it has been hypothesised, that dormant stages of persistent nc infection may be reactivated by immunosuppression mechanisms such as pathogenic invasions as bovine herpes virus 1 (bhv1) and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv). the study was set t ...201222721941
survey of nine abortifacient infectious agents in aborted bovine fetuses from dairy farms in beijing, china, by pcr.abortion in dairy cattle causes considerable economic losses to the dairy industry. aborted fetuses and samples from the corresponding aborting dams from 12 dairy herds in beijing were tested for 9 abortifacient infectious pathogens by pcr between 2008 and 2010. from a total of 80 abortion cases collected during this period, infectious agents were detected in 45 (56.3%) cases, 22 (48.9%) of which represented co-infections with two or three infectious agents. the detected pathogens included infec ...201222366134
contribution of leptospira, neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea virus to fetal loss of beef cattle in new zealand.the profitability of beef breeding farms in new zealand depends principally on optimal reproductive performance. the aim of this study was to estimate the impact of four major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), neospora caninum (n. caninum), leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo (hardjo), and leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (pomona), on rates of fetal loss in commercial beef breeding herds. farms reporting fetal loss were recruited, and a blood sample from aborting cows (cas ...201323932894
survey for infectious disease in the south american fur seal (arctocephalus australis) population at punta san juan, peru.the peruvian population of the south american fur seal ( arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. one of the largest rookeries for this species in peru is located within the punta san juan marine protected area (15°22's, 75°12'w). to better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) techniques in novembe ...201526056875
evaluation of bovine abortion cases and tissue suitability for identification of infectious agents in california diagnostic laboratory cases from 2007 to 2012.establishing a definitive cause of bovine abortion is a challenging problem faced by veterinary practitioners and diagnosticians. detection of an infectious or noninfectious source for abortion may facilitate interventions that mitigate future fetal loss in the herd. the purposes of this study were to identify the most common causes of bovine abortion in cases submitted to the california animal health and food safety laboratory system, davis (cahfs) from 2007 to 2013 and to determine if detectio ...201626679514
herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern china.although the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in china, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. thus, from september 2013 to december 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determin ...201526231838
detection of antibodies against brucella abortus, leptospira spp., and apicomplexa protozoa in water buffaloes in the northeast of argentina.water buffalo industry has become a profitable activity worldwide, including the northeast of argentina (nea). however, research on diseases affecting this species is scarce. the aim of the present study was to detect antibodies against brucella abortus, leptospira spp., neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, and sarcocystis spp. in 500 water buffalo cows from five ranches (100 animals each) in the nea. serum samples were tested for b. abortus by fluorescence polarization assay, leptospira spp. by ...201323765549
seroepidemiological study of neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in la pampa, argentina.neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. the aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of argentina (la pampa, province). an average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. a total of 4334 serum samples were tested for specific anti- neospora caninum igg using an indirect-elisa and 302 seropositive-elisa sera were re-examined using an avidity-elisa proce ...201526203996
serologic survey of infectious diseases in populations of maned wolf (chrysocyon brachyurus) and crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous) from aguas emendadas ecological station, brazil.domestic dogs are reservoirs for many infectious diseases and may represent a potential source of infection for wild canid populations. a serologic investigation of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, brucella abortus, and leptospira spp. was conducted on three maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus) and seven crab-eating foxes (cerdocyon thous), all free-living, at the aguas emendadas ecological station (esecae), federal district, brazil, between february and october 2006. out of th ...201323505716
molecular assessment of the transplacental transmission of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, brucella canis and ehrlichia canis in dogs.given the fact that numerous microbial species can be detected in pregnant female dogs, the objective of this study was to assess the transplacental transmission of brucella canis, ehrlichia canis, neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in stillborn puppies. this study involved 41 stillborn puppies, 78.6% of which were positive for t. gondii, 52.4% for n. caninum and 59.5% for b. canis. e. canis was not detected in any of the analyzed puppies. pregnancy is an important physiological condition fo ...201627865263
prevalence of antibodies for selected canine pathogens among wolves (canis lupus) from the alaska peninsula, usa.we collected blood samples from wolves ( canis lupus ) on the alaska peninsula, southwest alaska, us, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (cav), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine distemper virus (cdv), canine herpesvirus (chv), canine parainfluenza (cpi), canine parvovirus (cpv), neospora caninum , and toxoplasma gondii . detected antibody prevalence was 90% for cav, 28% for ccv, 12% for cdv, 93% for chv, 0% for cpi, 20% for cpv, 0% for n. caninum, and 86% for t. gondii . ...201627195683
pathogens of wild maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus) in brazil.the maned wolf, chrysocyon brachyurus, is an endangered neotropical canid that survives at low population densities. diseases are a potential threat for its conservation but to date have been poorly studied. we performed clinical evaluations and investigated the presence of infectious diseases through serology and coprologic tests on maned wolves from galheiro natural private reserve, perdizes city, minas gerais state, southeastern brazil. fifteen wolves were captured between 2003 and 2008. we f ...201223060508
infectious disease and toxicological monitoring of stranded pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) in cook inlet as surrogates for monitoring endangered belugas (delphinapterus leucas).pacific harbor seals ( phoca vitulina richardsi) and belugas ( delphinapterus leucas ) eat many of the same prey species, occupy the same geographic area, and demonstrate site fidelity in cook inlet, alaska. although most direct research involving the critically endangered belugas is currently prohibited, studying harbor seals may provide important information about this beluga population. in recent years, harbor seal populations in alaska have declined for unknown reasons. as part of its strand ...201627691941
myd88 and functionally related genes are associated with multiple infections in a model population of kenyan village dogs.the purpose of this study was to seek associations between immunity-related molecular markers and endemic infections in a model population of african village dogs from northern kenya with no veterinary care and no selective breeding. a population of village dogs from northern kenya composed of three sub-populations from three different areas (84, 50 and 55 dogs) was studied. canine distemper virus (cdv), hepatozoon canis, microfilariae (acantocheilonema dracunculoides, acantocheilonema reconditu ...201627655108
a serosurvey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (canis lupus) in minnesota.we tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in minnesota's wolf population. we found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite neospora caninum . ...201728192048
simultaneous detection of chlamydia spp., coxiella burnetii, and neospora caninum in abortion material of ruminants by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction.chlamydia spp., coxiella burnetii, and neospora caninum are responsible for reproductive diseases and are closely linked with high abortion rates in ruminants. furthermore, c. burnetii and chlamydia spp. have zoonotic potential. a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of chlamydia spp., c. burnetii, and n. caninum. the detection of beta-actin as internal control in the same pcr reaction provides additional information about sample quality by ...201323942900
epidemiology of reproductive pathogens in semi-intensive lamb-producing flocks in north-west spain: a comparative serological study.the aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of five major reproductive pathogens in semi-intensive lamb-producing flocks in north-west spain. two thousand four hundred serum samples were collected from 44 flocks, and several factors were studied to assess their influence on seropositivity. farms that tested seropositive for more than one pathogen were common (84.1%), but seroprevalence was high only for toxoplasma gondii (38.1%), and low for the other four pathogens, namely, ...201424685472
coxiella burnetii shedding by farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).wildlife and notably deer species--due to the increasing relevance of deer farming worldwide--may contribute to the maintenance of coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of q fever. currently, there are no precedents linking exposure to deer species with human q fever cases. however, a human case of q fever was recently diagnosed in a red deer (cervus elaphus) farm, which led us to investigate whether deer could be a source for environmental contamination with c. burnetii and ascertain the implicat ...201524127840
multivariate model for the assessment of risk of fetal loss in goat herds.the observational study was carried out in a population of polish breeding goats in 2007 to determine the prevalence of fetal loss and identify risk factors contributing to its occurrence. the multivariate model allowing to predict the risk of the occurrence of fetal loss in a herd in a study population was developed. data on the occurrence of fetal loss, as well as of 28 hypothesized risk factors were collected from goat owners using standardized questionnaire during face-to-face reviews on far ...201222708360
geographical distribution modelling for neospora caninum and coxiella burnetii infections in dairy cattle farms in northeastern spain.maximum entropy ecological niche modelling and spatial scan statistic were utilized to predict the geographical range and to investigate clusters of infections for neospora caninum and coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle farms in catalonia, northeastern spain, using the maxent and satscan programs, respectively. the geographical distribution of neospora and coxiella with the highest level of probability (p > 0·60) covers central catalonia and spreads towards northeastern catalonia which contains a ...201322370223
development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays based on its-1 for rapid detection of toxoplasma gondii in pork.the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay is a novel method that rapidly amplifies dna with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions. in this study, we established a lamp assay with six primers targeting a highly conserved region of toxoplasma gondii its-1 sequence. the amplification protocol completes within 30 min under isothermal condition in a 65°c water bath while specificity tests confirmed no cross-reactivity with dna templates of neospora caninum, eimeri ...201525624074
evaluation of spore wall protein 1 as an alternative antigen for the diagnosis of encephalitozoon cuniculi infection of farmed foxes using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the sequence encoding swp1 was cloned from the genome of encephalitozoon cuniculi. recombinant swp1 (rswp1) was expressed in escherichia coli and used to detect e. cuniculi infections in farmed foxes and dogs with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in the present study. the sera of foxes infected with e. cuniculi could be distinguished from the sera of foxes infected with toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and cryptosporidium parvum using the elisa. in total, 198 fox samples ...201424830821
fecal shedding of toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on prince edward island, canada.knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (canis latrans) in prince edward island, canada. identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 h ...201323568915
serological detection and epidemiology of neospora caninum and cryptosporidium parvum antibodies in cattle in southern egypt.neospora caninum and cryptosporidium parvum are intracellular protozoan parasites that are distributed worldwide and of major economical concern in cattle industry. n. caninum can cause abortion storms and high culling rates, whereas c. parvum has zoonotic implications and can cause diarrhea in calves. there are currently no data on the prevalence of neosporosis and cryptosporidiosis in humans or animals in southern egypt. prevalence of these two infections was determined in a sample of cattle f ...201627377768
isolation and proteomic analysis of rhoptry-enriched fractions from cryptosporidium parvum.rhoptries are unique secretory/excretory organelles that are found exclusively in the apicomplexa, and their contents are discharged at the time of invasion and are critical in the establishment of productive infection. several rhoptry proteins have been identified in toxoplasma gondii, plasmodium falciparum and neospora caninum and have been linked not only with the parasites' adhesion and invasion processes but also with their intracellular pathways. to date, only one cryptosporidium parvum rh ...201526587492
genetic mapping and coccidial parasites: past achievements and future prospects.coccidial parasites including cryptosporidium parvum, cyclospora cayetanensis, neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and the eimeria species can cause severe disease of medical and veterinary importance. as many as one-third of the human population may carry t. gondii infection, and eimeria are thought to cost the global poultry production industry in excess of us$2 billion per annum. despite their significance, effective vaccines are scarce and have been confined to the veterinary field. as seque ...201223107923
dissemination of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms.the present paper discusses the spread of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms; it focuses in dissemination of parasitic forms that would lead to subsequent infection of sheep or goats. systems of small ruminant production involve a component of animal movement (e.g., grazing) as part of routine husbandry, which favors spread of parasitic forms; that refers mainly to parasites of the digestive system (nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, protozoa), as well as helminthes of the respi ...201526012856
the molecular basis for the distinct host and tissue tropisms of coccidian parasites.the phylum apicomplexa is home to a variety of parasites of significant medical and economic relevance, including the coccidian species toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and eimeria tenella. in spite of their shared ancestry, the aforementioned coccidian species exhibit highly variable host and tissue tropisms; whilst t. gondii invades a broad spectrum of cell types and host organisms, e. tenella infection is restricted to the caecum in chicken. apicomplexans are obligatory intracellular paras ...201222982139
identification and characterization of a novel neospora caninum immune mapped protein 1.immune mapped protein 1 (imp1) is a newly discovered protein in eimeria maxima. it is recognized as a potential vaccine candidate against e. maxima and a highly conserved protein in apicomplexan parasites. although the neospora caninum imp1 (ncimp1) orthologue of e. maxima imp1 was predicted in the n. caninum genome, it was still not identified and characterized. in this study, cdna sequence encoding ncimp1 was cloned by rt-pcr from rna isolated from nc1 tachyzoites. ncimp1 was encoded by an ope ...201222405293
structural and evolutionary adaptation of rhoptry kinases and pseudokinases, a family of coccidian virulence factors.the widespread protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii interferes with host cell functions by exporting the contents of a unique apical organelle, the rhoptry. among the mix of secreted proteins are an expanded, lineage-specific family of protein kinases termed rhoptry kinases (ropks), several of which have been shown to be key virulence factors, including the pseudokinase rop5. the extent and details of the diversification of this protein family are poorly understood.201323742205
encephalitozoon cuniculi, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in invasive eastern cottontail rabbits sylvilagus floridanus in northwestern italy.sylvilagus floridanus is a lagomorph introduced for hunting purposes from north america to europe where, in certain areas like northern italy, its population reached high densities. brain, kidney and skeletal muscle of 144 eastern cottontail rabbits s. floridanus were examined by pcr for encephalitozoon cuniculi, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. dna of e. cuniculi was found with a prevalence of 9.72% (ci 95% 0.058-0.156). t. gondii and n. caninum dna was detected in 2.08% (ci 95% 0.0071-0 ...201323747104
immunization with neospora caninum profilin induces limited protection and a regulatory t-cell response in mice.profilins are actin-binding proteins that regulate the polymerization of actin filaments. in apicomplexan parasites, they are essential for invasion. profilins also trigger the immune response of the host by activating tlrs on dendritic cells (dcs), inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. in this study we characterized for the first time the immune response and protection elicited by a vaccine based on neospora caninum profilin in mice. groups of eight balb/c mice received either ...201626551412
development of an indirect elisa using different fragments of recombinant ncgra7 for detection of neospora caninum infection in cattle and water buffalo.dense granules are immunodominant proteins for the standardization of immunodiagnostic procedures to detect neosporosis. in the presented study different fragment of a dense-granule protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of neospora caninum in cattle and water buffalo.201725904948
a neospora caninum vaccine using recombinant proteins fails to prevent foetal infection in pregnant cattle after experimental intravenous challenge.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rncsag1, rnchsp20 and rncgra7 recombinant proteins formulated with immune stimulating complexes (iscoms) in pregnant heifers against vertical transmission of neospora caninum. twelve pregnant heifers were divided into 3 groups of 4 heifers each, receiving different formulations before mating. immunogens were administered twice subcutaneously: group a animals were inoculated with three recombinant proteins ...201425467890
cloning and expression of neospora caninum dense-granule 7 in e. coli.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan which induces abortion, still birth and neuromuscular disorders in cattle and is an important problem in dairy and beef industry worldwide. the dense granule protein 7 (gra7) of n. caninum is an immune-dominant protein shared by both tachyzoite and bradyzoites. this study was conducted to produce recombinant gra7 of n. caninum using a plasmid with high level of expression of this protein in e. coli. for this purpose, a segment of n. caninum ...201424808652
characterization of neospora caninum macrophage migration inhibitory factor.the present study is the first characterization of neospora caninum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (ncmif). blast-n analysis of ncmif revealed high similarity (87%) to the toxoplasma gondii mif. ncmif was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli in 3 forms, ncmif (mature protein), ncmifm (mutation of proline-2 to glycine), and ncmifhis (addition of a polyhistidine tag at the n-terminus). none of these recombinant ncmifs (rncmif) had tautomerase, oxidoreductase, or immunologic regulatory ...201323850997
gene cloning and characterization of the protein encoded by the neospora caninum bradyzoite-specific antigen gene bag1.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes repeated abortion and stillbirth in cattle. the aim of this study was to clone the gene encoding the n. caninum orthologue (ncbag1) of the toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific protein tgbag1 and characterize its expression pattern in the parasite. isolation of the full-length 684-bp gene revealed that it shared 78.3% sequence similarity with tgbag1. ncbag1 encodes a predicted protein of 227 amino acids with 80.3% similarity to tgbag1. a p ...201323245337
low efficacy of ncgra7, ncsag4, ncbsr4 and ncsrs9 formulated in poly-ε-caprolactone against neospora caninum infection in mice.the protective efficacy of vaccination with neospora caninum recombinant antigens was evaluated in balb/c pregnant and non-pregnant mouse models of neosporosis. a major immunodominant dense granule protein (ncgra7) and three bradyzoite-specific surface antigens (ncsag4, ncbsr4 and ncsrs9) were expressed in escherichia coli and encapsulated within poly-ε-caprolactone (pcl) nanoparticles for the first time. good efficiencies of entrapment (greater than 50%) were obtained for all encapsulated prote ...201222640942
cloning, nucleotide sequencing and bioinformatics study of ncsrs2 gene, an immunogen from iranian isolate of neospora caninum.neosporosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoa neospora caninum which infect variety of hosts. ncsrs2 is an immuno-dominant antigen of n. caninum which is considered as one of the most promising targets for a recombinant or dna vaccine against neosporosis. as no study has been carried out to identify the molecular structure of n. caninum in iran, as first step, we prepared a scheme to identify this gene in this parasite in iran.201323682269
neospora caninum surface antigen (p40) is a potential diagnostic marker for cattle neosporosis.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan that infects domestic and wild canids as well as many warm-blooded animals as shown by the isolation of viable parasites. the effectiveness of diagnostic tests for detecting specific antibodies against n. caninum is hampered by potential cross-reaction with other coccidia. so, there is currently an urgent need for a sensitive and specific diagnostic assay for detecting n. caninum in animals. the n. caninum 40-kd surface antigen (p40), similar to ncs ...201323435920
development of latex agglutination test with recombinant ncsag1 for the rapid detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in cattle.neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. surface antigen 1 of n. caninum (ncsag1) is an important immunodominant candidate for the development of a diagnostic reagent for neosporosis. the present study describes the development and evaluation of a latex agglutination test (lat) with recombinant ncsag1 (rncsag1) for the detection of antibodies to n. caninum in cattle. the rncsag1 gene was cloned in pet-28a and protein was expresse ...201222571832
development of a diagnostic method for neosporosis in cattle using recombinant neospora caninum proteins.neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of cattle and dogs, caused by intracellular parasite, neospora caninum. neosporosis appears to be a major cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide and causes to huge economic loss to dairy industry.201222558916
differential locus expansion distinguishes toxoplasmatinae species and closely related strains of toxoplasma gondii.toxoplasma gondii is a human obligate intracellular parasite that has infected over 20% of the world population and has a vast intermediate host range compared to those of its nearest relatives neospora caninum and hammondia hammondi. while these 3 species have highly syntenic genomes (80 to 99%), in this study we examined and compared species-specific structural variations, specifically at loci that have undergone local (i.e., tandem) duplication and expansion. to do so, we used genomic sequenc ...201424496792
in vitro cultivation of hammondia heydorni: generation of tachyzoites, stage conversion into bradyzoites, and evaluation of serologic cross-reaction with neospora caninum.hammondia heydorni was in vitro isolated from oocysts shed by three dogs using a finite cell line from embryonal bovine heart (kh-r). the oocysts were purified and suspended in 2% potassium dichromate or 2% sulphuric acid for sporulation for 2-5 days at room temperature. the parasites were confirmed as h. heydorni by pcr using specific primers (js4/js5) and by negative reaction for neospora caninum employing the primers np6+/np21+. h. heydorni sporulated oocysts (1 × 10(6)) from each dog were in ...201525887985
detection of neospora caninum-dna in feces collected from dogs in shenyang (china) and its1 phylogenetic analysis.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan that infects many domestic and wild animals. dog is known as a definitive host of n. caninum and involved in transmitting infections to intermediate hosts by shedding oocysts. to investigate the epidemiology of dog neosporosis in china, 212 dog feces specimens in shenyang were screened by nested-pcr using nc5 primers and confirmed by n. caninum its1 pcr. the positive rate of n. caninum dna was 34.90% (74/212). there were no significant correlations ...201425047704
first isolation of hammondia heydorni from dogs in china.fecal samples of 945 dogs were examined microscopically in 2 refuge facilities in china from march 2010 to november 2011. in 8 dogs, oocysts, 9-14 μm in size, were found. their morphology was similar to those of hammondia heydorni and neospora caninum. sporulated hammondia/neospora-like oocysts were fed to 2 dogs, 2 gerbils, 2 guinea pigs, and 2 km mice; tissues from these inoculated animals were then fed to coccidia-free dogs to determine species susceptibility to these oocysts. oocysts were no ...201323731857
characterisation of full-length mitochondrial copies and partial nuclear copies (numts) of the cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i genes of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, hammondia heydorni and hammondia triffittae (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae).genomic dna was extracted from three oocyst isolates of hammondia triffittae from foxes and two oocyst isolates of hammondia heydorni from dogs, as well as from cell culture-derived tachyzoites of toxoplasma gondii (rh strain) and neospora caninum (nc-liverpool strain), and examined by pcr with primers targeting the cytochrome b (cytb) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (cox1) genes in order to characterise both genes and, if possible, the remainder of the mitochondrial genome of these speci ...201323358734
secreted effectors in toxoplasma gondii and related species: determinants of host range and pathogenesis?recent years have witnessed the discovery of a number of secreted proteins in toxoplasma gondii that play important roles in host-pathogen interactions and parasite virulence, particularly in the mouse model. however, the role that these proteins play in driving the unique features of t. gondii compared to some of its nearest apicomplexan relatives (hammondia hammondi and neospora caninum) is unknown. these unique features include distinct dissemination characteristics in vivo and a vast host ra ...201525655311
characterization of neospora caninum microneme protein 10 (ncmic10) and its potential use as a diagnostic marker for neosporosis.improvements in the serological diagnosis of neosporosis are needed to differentiate acute versus chronic neospora caninum infections. in the present study, n. caninum microneme protein 10 (ncmic10), similar to other microneme proteins, was shown to be released in a calcium-dependent manner. ncmic10 may be discharged during active invasion of host cells by the parasite, and thus represent an excellent marker for the diagnosis of neosporosis. in order to test this hypothesis, recombinant ncmic10 ...201222284302
phylogeny, morphology, and metabolic and invasive capabilities of epicellular fish coccidium goussia janae.to fill the knowledge gap on the biology of the fish coccidian goussia janae, rna extracted from exogenously sporulated oocysts was sequenced. analysis by trinity and trinotate pipelines showed that 84.6% of assembled transcripts share the highest similarity with toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. phylogenetic and interpretive analyses from rna-seq data provide novel insight into the metabolic capabilities, composition of the invasive machinery and the phylogenetic relationships of this par ...201526599727
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii serodiagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus carriers.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii belong to the sarcocystidae family, and both have one definitive and various intermediary hosts. owing to their weak immune systems, immunocompromised persons might be prone to opportunistic infections. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of anti- n. caninum and anti- t. gondii antibodies in immunocompromised individuals.201526516966
t and b lymphocytes in the brains of dogs with concomitant seropositivity to three pathogenic protozoans: leishmania chagasi, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.visceral leishmaniasis is a disease with great variability regarding the clinical manifestations in humans and dogs. chronically infected dogs may develop neurological disorders, however, there are few reports that characterize the lesions and make clear the pathogenesis of the canine cerebral leishmaniasis. concomitant with leishmania chagasi, dogs may be infected by opportunistic pathogens, such as toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, which may contribute to the occurrence of lesions in the ...201323758819
di-cationic arylimidamides act against neospora caninum tachyzoites by interference in membrane structure and nucleolar integrity and are active against challenge infection in mice.neospora caninum is considered to be the main cause of bovine abortion in europe and the usa, leading to considerable financial impact. losses are caused directly by abortions or indirectly through breeding of calves with impaired viability. due to the lack of effective chemotherapy against bovine neosporosis, there is a need to develop new anti-protozoal compounds, which would either eliminate the parasite or avoid its transmission. in order to identify compounds of interest, the in vitro activ ...201224533272
serological detection of toxoplasma gondii, leishmania infantum and neospora caninum in cats from an area endemic for leishmaniasis in brazil.an investigation was made into the occurrence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii, leishmania infantum and neospora caninum in 151 domestic cats, based on the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). serum samples were collected from 151 domestic cats (65 free-roaming and 86 domiciled cats; 55 males and 96 females) in campo grande, mato grosso do sul, brazil between january and april 2013. igg antibodies to t. gondii, l. infantum and n. caninum were found, respectively, in 49 (32.5%), 34 (22.5% ...201725517522
epidemiology of leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum in rattus rattus in absence of domestic reservoir and definitive hosts.isolated environments are privileged settings to study transmission of infection. montecristo is a small island where no wild or domestic carnivores are present. invasive black rats rattus rattus (n=78) were captured and tested by pcr for leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. we wanted to test, for these parasites, the existence of a sylvatic cycle independent of reservoir or definitive hosts. none of the rats tested positive by pcr for either t. gondii or n. caninum. we r ...201424295953
temporal trends in bulk milk antibodies to salmonella, neospora caninum, and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in irish dairy herds.bulk milk samples were collected from 309 irish dairy herds at four time points during 2009 and tested for antibodies to salmonella spp., n. caninum, and l. hardjo, three abortifacient agents in irish dairy herds. of the 312 study herds, 49% vaccinated against salmonella and 76% vaccinated against l. hardjo. in unvaccinated herds, the overall prevalence of antibody positive herds was 49% for salmonella, 19% for n. caninum and 86% for l. hardjo. there was no association between both testing posit ...201323117041
protozoal infections of the cornea and conjunctiva in dogs associated with chronic ocular surface disease and topical immunosuppression.to describe five cases of protozoal keratitis or conjunctivitis in dogs with chronic preexisting ocular surface disease treated with long-term immunosuppression.201626037023
effect of exposure to neospora caninum, salmonella, and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo on the economic performance of irish dairy herds.the objective of the current study was to quantify the effects of exposure to salmonella, neospora caninum, and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (l. hardjo) on dairy farm profitability and to simulate the effect of vaccination for salmonella and l. hardjo on dairy farm profitability. the production effects associated with exposure to each of these pathogens in study herds were defined under 3 categories: (1) milk production effects, (2) reproduction effects (including culling), and (3) mort ...201525704967
management practices as risk factors for the presence of bulk milk antibodies to salmonella, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in irish dairy herds.a survey of management practices in 309 irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to salmonella, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. a previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for salmonella, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. association analy ...201424661904
occurrence of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and neospora caninum in alberta cow-calf operations.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) and neospora caninum (nc) are two pathogens causing important production limiting diseases in the cattle industry. significant impacts of map and nc have been reported on dairy cattle herds, but little is known about the importance, risk factors and transmission patterns in western canadian cow-calf herds. in this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of map and nc infection in southwest alberta cow-calf herds was estimated, risk factors for nc w ...201425277685
identification and characterization of gra6/gra7 of neospora caninum in mdbk cells.neospora caninum, an apicomplexan parasite, is recognized as a major bovine abortifacient. dense granule antigens (gras) play important roles in the formation and modification of parasitophorous vacuoles (pvs) in toxoplasma gondii. however, a few studies investigating gras have been reported in n. caninum. the aim of the present study was to characterize the dense gra6/gra7 of n. caninum in pvs using mdbk cells as a host cell model. neospora caninum was inoculated into mdbk cells, and changes we ...201728338718
dectin-1 compromises innate responses and host resistance against neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that has drawn increasing interest due to its association with worldwide repetitive bovine abortions, which cause billionaire losses to the meat and dairy industries annually. innate immunity plays an important role in infection control, and n. caninum activates the production of inflammatory mediators through toll-like receptors, nod-like receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. advances in the knowledge of initi ...201728326085
rhoptry protein 5 (rop5) is a key virulence factor in neospora caninum.neospora caninum, of the apicomplexa phylum, is a common cause of abortions in cattle and nervous system dysfunction in dogs. rhoptry proteins of apicomplexa play an important role in virulence. the objectives of this study were to study functions of ncrop5 in n. caninum by deleting the ncrop5 gene from the wild nc-1 strain. we selected ncrop5 in toxodb and successfully constructed an ncrop5 gene-deleted vector, ptcr-ncrop5-cd ko. then we screened the ncrop5 knockout strains (δncrop5) at the gen ...201728326073
toll-like receptors 3, 7 and 8 are upregulated in the placental caruncle and fetal spleen of neospora caninum experimentally infected cattle.innate immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface are key in the pathogenesis of neospora caninum, an obligate parasite that causes abortion in cattle. herein, we determined the gene expression of endosomal toll-like receptors (tlrs) in the placenta and fetuses from both non-infected pregnant heifers and pregnant heifers intravenously challenged with live tachyzoites of n. caninum on day 70 of gestation. on day 104 of pregnancy, mrna expression of tlrs 3 and 8, as well as that of tlrs 7 an ...201728288766
can hierarchical modeling improve our understanding of bovine abortion due to neospora caninum infection?the purpose of this study was to use mixed logistic regression to evaluate the association between neospora caninum serostatus and abortion, accounting for the effects of farms. the main objective was to explore the interpretation of this model and discuss the contribution of this analysis to our understanding of the disease's epidemiology. a mixed-effects logistic model using farms as a random effect and the serostatus for n. caninum, age of cattle and farm location as fixed effects was perform ...201728259557
molecular analyses on neospora caninum-triggered netosis in the caprine system.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite causing serious reproductive disorders in large and small ruminants worldwide. polymorphonuclear neutrophils (pmn) react against multiple invading pathogens through different mechanisms including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (nets). here, in vitro interactions of caprine pmn and n. caninum tachyzoites were studied. scanning electron microscopic- and immunofluorescence-analyses demonstrated that caprine pmn undergo ...201728254622
controlled release of artemisone for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria.cerebral malaria (cm) is a leading cause of malarial mortality resulting from infection by plasmodium falciparum. treatment commonly involves adjunctive care and injections or transfusion of artemisinins. all artemisinins that are in current use are metabolized to dihydroxyartemisinin (dha), to which there is already some parasite resistance. we used artemisone, a derivative that does not convert to dha, has improved pharmacokinetics and anti-plasmodial activity and is also anti-inflammatory (an ...201728249591
neospora caninum in beef herds in new south wales, australia. 1: seroprevalence study.to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in beef breeding herds across new south wales (nsw) and to determine if there are any differences associated with geographic location and other herd-level factors.201728239857
uterine serpin (serpina 14) correlates negatively with cytokine production at the foetal-maternal interface but not in the corpus luteum in pregnant dairy heifers experimentally infected with neospora caninum.this study examines gene expression patterns in dairy heifers experimentally infected with n. caninum during on day 110 of pregnancy with live foetuses at euthanasia, 42 days later. the study population was constituted of four non-infected controls and three infected dams. gene expression was determined on gamma interferon (ifnγ), (th1 pro-inflammatory cytokine), interleukin-4 (il4) (th2 pro-gestation cytokine) or interleukin-10 (il10) (t regulatory cytokine) and the serine peptidase inhibitor s ...201728176427
two novel calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 inhibitors interfere with vertical transmission in mice infected with neospora caninum tachyzoites.we present the effects of two novel bumped kinase inhibitors, bki-1517 and bki-1553, against neospora caninum tachyzoites in vitro and in experimentally infected pregnant mice. these compounds inhibited tachyzoite proliferation of a transgenic beta-galactosidase reporter strain cultured in human foreskin fibroblasts with 50% inhibitory concentrations (ic50s) of 0.05 ± 0.03 and 0.18 ± 0.03 μm, respectively. as assessed by an alamarblue assay, fibroblast ic50s were above 20 μm; however, morphologi ...201728137808
effects of thai piperaceae plant extracts on neospora caninum infection.neosporosis has a worldwide distribution and causes economic losses in farming, particularly by increasing the risk of abortion in cattle. this study investigated the effects of thai piperaceae (piper betle, p. nigrum, and p. sarmentosum) extracts on neospora caninum infections in vitro and in vivo. in an in vitro parasite growth assay based on the green fluorescent protein (gfp) signal, p. betle was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in human foreskin fibroblast cells (ic5 ...201728137670
a new microneme protein of neospora caninum, ncmic8 is involved in host cell invasion.microneme proteins play an important role in the invasion process of apicomplexan parasites through adhesion to host cells. we discovered a new n. caninum protein, ncmic8, which is highly identical to tgmic8. the ncmic8 sequence has 2049 bp and no intron in the open reading fragment. it has a molecular weight of 73.8 kda and contains a signal peptide, a transmembrane region, a low complexity region and 10 epidermal growth factor (egf) domains. immuno-fluorescence assay showed that ncmic8 is loca ...201728130119
in contrast to toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum tachyzoites did not sustain multiplication in vitro at increased incubation temperatures.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are coccidian parasites that infect a wide range of mammalian and avian species. while viable t. gondii has been in vitro isolated in natural infections from wild and domestic birds, attempts to isolate n. caninum from naturally-infected birds were unsuccessful. we speculate that body temperatures of birds, which are usually higher than those of mammals, may impair the multiplication of n. caninum. in contrast to n. caninum, t. gondii can grow in vitro at t ...201728115178
constitutive expression and characterization of a surface srs (ncsrs67) protein of neospora caninum with no orthologue in toxoplasma gondii.neospora caninum is a parasite of the apicomplexa phylum responsible for abortion and losses of fertility in cattle. as part of its intracellular cycle, the first interaction of the parasite with the target cell is performed with the surface proteins known as the srs superfamily (surface antigen glycoprotein - related sequences). sag related or srs proteins have been a target of intense research due to its immunodominant pattern, exhibiting potential as diagnostic and/or vaccine candidates. the ...201728108401
isolation and biological and molecular characterization of neospora caninum (nc-sp1) from a naturally infected adult asymptomatic cattle (bos taurus) in the state of são paulo, brazil.the biological and genetic diversity of neospora caninum is very limited because of availability of only a few viable isolates worldwide. this study describes the isolation and biological and molecular characterization of a new viable isolate of n. caninum (nc-sp1), from a cattle in brazil. approximately 400 g of brain from a naturally infected adult male cattle from an abattoir was fed to a 2-month-old dog. neospora-like oocysts were observed on day 7 post-inoculation (pi) and the duration of o ...201728073388
evaluation of methylene blue, pyrimethamine and its combination on an in vitro neospora caninum model.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite strongly related to reproductive problems in cattle. the neosporosis control is not well established and several fronts are under development, predominantly based on immune protection, immunomodulation and chemotherapy. the use of anti-malarial drugs as therapeutic sources has, in theory, considerable potential for any apicomplexan. drugs such as methylene blue (mb) and pyrimethamine (pyr) represent therapeutic options for malaria; thus, their use for ...201728073383
the p38 mapk inhibitor, sb203580, inhibits cell invasion by neospora caninum.the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan. it can cause severe diseases in a number of animals throughout the world. infection with n. caninum leads to abortions in pregnant animals and neuromuscular disorders of newborns which cause great economic losses to animal husbandry. however, the mechanism of cell invasion by n. caninum is still unclear. this paper aims to investigate the impact of sb203580, a p38 mapk inhibitor, on host cell invasion by ...201728039498
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in red deer from central italy.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are cosmopolite protozoan parasites impacting on human and animal health. in particular, t. gondii commonly infects human beings and all warm-blooded animals, while n. caninum is responsible for bovine abortion and neuromuscular disease in dogs. the aim of the presented survey was to evaluate the occurrence and prevalence of these parasites in the most numerous italian red deer population. the sera of 60 red deer (cervus elaphus) inhabiting central italy (4 ...201628030947
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in goats from north-western spain.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are protozoans involved in reproductive failure especially in ruminant livestock. the objective was to estimate the seroprevalence of both parasites in goats from north-western spain and to study the influence of some factors on seropositivity.201628030928
occurrence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from rural properties surrounding a biological reserve, espirito santo, brasil.the aim of this study was to determine the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in serum samples of 187 dogs from 30 rural properties surrounding córrego do veado biological reserve, espírito santo state, brazil. the reserve is one of the last lowland atlantic forest remnants of the region, surrounded by agriculture farms and cattle pastures. the presence of igg antibodies was determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test for t. gondii (cut-off 1:16) and n. can ...201627925068
serosurvey for leishmania spp., toxoplasma gondii, trypanosoma cruzi and neospora caninum in neighborhood dogs in curitiba-paraná, brazil.neighborhood dogs may act as reservoirs for several zoonotic protozoan infections, particularly in urban areas, thus constituting a potential public health threat. accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the exposure of neighborhood dogs to four protozoan pathogens in public areas with high levels of human movement in curitiba, southern brazil. blood samples from 26 neighborhood dogs were screened by means of the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) for leishmania sp ...201627925057
the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion.toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcosporidiosis (sarcocystosis) and trypanosomiasis are the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion which caused by single-celled protozoan parasites; toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, sarcocystis spp and trypanosoma evansi, respectively. toxoplasmosis is generally considered the most important disease that causing abortion of both pregnant women and different female animals throughout the world, about third of human being population had antibodies aga ...201627876900
seroepidemiological survey of neospora caninum and its risk factors in farm dogs in nakuru district, kenya.the objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum (nc) and its risk factors in farm dogs in kenya.201627847430
canine neutrophil extracellular traps release induced by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum in vitro.neosporosis is considered as one of the main causes of abortion and severe economic losses in dairy industry. the canis genus serving as one of the confirmed definitive hosts of the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum (n. caninum) plays a critical role in its life cycle. however, the effects of n. caninum on its definitive hosts of neutrophils extracellular traps (nets) formation remain unclear. in the present study, n. caninum tachyzoite-induced canine nets formation was observed by scanning ...201627843440
mucosal immunization confers long-term protection against intragastrically established neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for heavy economic losses in dairy and beef cattle farms worldwide. although vaccination is widely regarded as the preferable strategy to prevent neosporosis no commercial vaccine is currently available. we have previously shown that intranasal immunization with an n. caninum antigen extract enriched in hydrophobic proteins plus cpg adjuvant protected mice against intragastrically established neosporosis. nevertheless, ...201627814932
neospora caninum in wild waterfowl: occurrence of parasite dna and low antibody titers.thirty-five adult waterfowl (14 males and 21 females) representing various orders and species were sampled during the hunting season from 2015 to 2016. antibodies to neospora caninum were detected by ifat on blood samples, while heart and brain were subjected to molecular analysis for the detection of neospora caninum dna. twelve birds (34.3%) (6 anas crecca , 3 anas platyrhynchos , 2 anas penelope , 1 anas acuta ) showed antibodies versus n. caninum , while 10 animals out of 35 (4 a. crecca , 2 ...201727805842
fusion of foreign t-cell epitopes and addition of tlr agonists enhance immunity against neospora caninum profilin in cattle.we demonstrated recently that immunization with recombinant neospora caninum profilin (rncpro) induces limited protection and a regulatory t-cell response in mice. the aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response elicited by rncpro in cattle and assess a strategy to enhance its immunogenicity, combining the addition of t-cell epitopes and immune modulators. we developed a chimeric recombinant profilin fused to functional t-cell epitopes present in the n-terminal sequence of vesicular st ...201627512980
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in red foxes in slovakia.sera or meat juices of 177 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) originated from the localities of a human-influenced landscape (group 1) and 126 foxes from the protected mountain region (group 2) of slovakia, collected during 2010-2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii using indirect elisa and neospora caninum by competitive elisa. the tissue and uncoagulated blood samples were examined for the presence of the parasite's dna. the total seropositivity to t. gondii was 62.7 ...201627787208
unusual presentation of neosporosis in a neonatal puppy from a litter of bulldogs.a 17-day-old bulldog puppy died soon after presentation for weakness and tachypnoea. gross lesions included diffuse pulmonary oedema and a region of myocardial pallor that resembled an infarct. inflammation was observed histopathologically in many organs, with numerous clusters of intracellular protozoa that stained positively using neospora caninum immunohistochemistry. myocarditis was severe and had associated necrosis of individual myocytes, but the tissue was not infarcted. the bitch had an ...201627785796
assessment of transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in dairy cattle in the agreste region of pernambuco.the transplacental transmission is the primary route of neospora caninum infection in bovine herds around the world. this study aimed to determine the frequency of transplacental transmission of the parasite in dairy cattle of agreste region of pernambuco through serological tests (ifat and elisa). three hundred sixteen serum samples from cows and heifers and their offspring were analyzed. the transplacental transmission rate was 72.22% (13/18) for cows and 69.23% (9/13) for heifers by ifat. eli ...201727737368
toxoplasmatinae parasites in bats from bahia state, brazil.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are widespread cyst-forming coccidian parasites of the subfamily toxoplasmatinae that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. whereas t. gondii is a zoonotic disease, n. caninum is restricted to nonhuman animals. some chiropteran species can be infected by t. gondii and present fatal toxoplasmosis. in most cases, t. gondii -infected bats are believed to remain asymptomatic and to act as an infection source to other animals. it is not known whether ...201727705102
genetic characterization of neospora caninum from aborted bovine foetuses in aguascalientes, mexico.the cyst-forming protozoan parasite neospora caninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among n. caninum isolates based on multilocus microsatellite genotyping. currently, the most extensive study reported is based on the n. caninum genotyping of 96 samples from four countries on two continents (spain, argentina, germany and scotland) that demonstrate different ...201627692324
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