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neosporosis, toxoplasmosis, and sarcocystosis in ruminants.neospora caninum, sarcocystis spp, and toxoplasma gondii are related coccidian parasites that can cause abortion and neonatal mortality in animals. in addition, t gondii and certain species of sarcocystis are zoonotic. this article reviews information on the etiology, diagnosis, control, and prevention of these diseases.200617071358
[seroprevalence of neospora caninum in cattle in the region of kayseri].this study was carried out in order to determine the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in cattle in the region of kayseri. blood samples were collected from 186 cattle and sera were obtained from these samples. sera samples were analyzed for antibodies against n. caninum using a commercially available competitive elisa (c-elisa) kit. according to the elisa test results, seroprevalence of n. caninum in the region of kayseri was found to be 7%. three of 9 aborting cows (33.3%) were found to be se ...200617124655
characterization of the fetuin-binding fraction of neospora caninum tachyzoites and its potential involvement in host-parasite interactions.terminal sialic acid residues on surface-associated glycoconjugates mediate host cell interactions of many pathogens. addition of sialic acid-rich fetuin enhanced, and the presence of the sialidiase inhibitor 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-n-acetylneuraminic acid reduced, the physical interaction of neospora caninum tachyzoites and bradyzoites with vero cell monolayers. thus, neospora extracts were subjected to fetuin-agarose affinity chromatography in order to isolate components potentially interacting wi ...200717291396
monoclonal antibody directed against neospora caninum tachyzoite carbohydrate epitope reacts specifically with apical complex-associated sialylated beta tubulin.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were generated against whole sonicated neospora caninum tachyzoites as immunogen. initial elisa screening of the reactivity of hybridoma culture supernatants using the same antigen and antigen treated with sodium periodate prior to antibody binding resulted in the identification of 8 supernatants with reactivity against putative carbohydrate epitopes. following immunoblotting, mab6d12 (igg1), binding a 52/48-kda doublet, and mab6c6 (igm), binding a 190/180-kda double ...200617304800
neospora caninum-like oocysts observed in feces of free-ranging red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (canis latrans).the aim of this study was to examine the feces of free-ranging foxes and coyotes for the presence of neospora caninum oocysts. feces were collected from 271 foxes and 185 coyotes in the canadian province of prince edward island, processed by sucrose flotation, and examined by light microscopy for the presence of coccidian oocysts. in 2 fox and 2 coyote samples, oocysts morphologically and morphometrically similar to oocysts of n. caninum were observed. dna was extracted from these samples and su ...200617304805
comparative effect of neospora caninum infection in balb/c mice at three different gestation periods.neospora caninum has been recognized as a major cause of infectious bovine abortion worldwide. in the present study, the effect of n. caninum infection in mice at the 3 gestation periods (first, second, and third period) was investigated. in dams, tissue distribution of n. caninum was evaluated by nested polymerase chain reaction. in the progeny, fetal mortality, stillbirth, litter size, neonatal mortality/morbidity, vertical transmission, and parasite burden in neonatal tissues were evaluated. ...200617304808
first report of neospora caninum abortion in a beef cow-calf herd from andorra, europe.neospora caninum-associated abortion was diagnosed in a 7-mo gestational age beef cow fetus from andorra. the fetus had a multifocal necrotizing encephalitis and nonpurulent multifocal myocarditis. the diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of n. caninum dna by polymerase chain reaction and tachyzoites by specific staining with n. caninum polyclonal antibodies in the fetal brain. the dam of the aborted fetus had serum n. caninum antibodies at the time of abortion but not 2 mo before abortion t ...200617304821
optimization of the use of c57bl/6 mice as a laboratory animal model for neospora caninum vaccine studies.the development and testing of vaccines for neospora caninum in mice require challenge studies to demonstrate a reduction in clinical signs or prevention of vertical transmission of the parasite after vaccination. genetic susceptibility to n. caninum varies with the strain of mice. in this study, c57bl/6 mice were evaluated as a model for neospora vaccine studies. a lethal challenge model was developed and the ld(50) was determined to be 1.5 x 10(7)n. caninum tachyzoites/mouse, delivered intrape ...200717306460
risk factors for canine neosporosis in farm and kennel dogs in southern italy.neosporosis by neospora caninum causes losses to livestock production through abortion in cattle while, in dogs, it induces neuromuscolar disease. this study investigated neosporosis seroprevalence associated risk factors (including the seropositivity to leishmaniosis) in dogs of southern italy, determined the prevalence of n. caninum oocyst shedding and examined the relationship between seroprevalence of neosporosis in farm dogs and cattle. using an inhibition elisa, 20.9% of 306 dogs had perce ...200717257762
seroprevalence of neosporosis in beef and dairy cattle breeds in northeast hungary.in order to assess the seroprevalence of bovine neosporosis with indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), blood samples were collected randomly from 1063 beef and dairy cattle belonging to 12 different breeds in northeast hungary. antibodies to neospora caninum were detected in 27 (2.5%) of the animals, kept on 19 of the 42 settlements included in this survey. since samples were collected on 50 farms, herd prevalence amounted to 38%. the percentage of cattle with seroconversion increased with ...200617278720
immunogenicity and protective effect against murine cerebral neosporosis of recombinant ncsrs2 in different iscom formulations.recombinant ncsrs2, a major immunodominant surface antigen of the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum, was used as a model antigen to compare the immunogenicity of iscoms prepared according to three different methods. two ncsrs2 fusion proteins were used, one that was biotinylated upon expression in escherichia coli and linked to ni2+-loaded iscom matrix (iscom without any protein) via a hexahistidyl (his6)-tagged streptavidin fusion protein, and another that contained both a his6- ...200717280751
does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (lontra canadensis)?the investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. to identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-r ...200717347401
comparative host-parasite relationships in ovine toxoplasmosis and bovine neosporosis and strategies for vaccination.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are important causes of reproductive loss in ruminant species worldwide. both parasites cause disease during pregnancy that may result in foetal death or birth of live congenitally infected offspring. t. gondii is also an important human pathogen with the main risk groups including pregnant women and immuno-compromised individuals, although clinical disease has also been observed in outbreaks among immuno-competent people. while the two parasites are closel ...200717367899
study on the prevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum and molecular evidence of encephalitozoon cuniculi and encephalitozoon (septata) intestinalis infections in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in rural ireland.thoracic fluid (pleural fluid and clotted blood) from 206 foxes were examined for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and 220 thoracic fluid samples were tested for neospora caninum antibodies using indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (ifat). a total of 115 (56%) and six (3%) foxes had antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum, respectively. the brains from 148 foxes were examined for histological lesions and pathological changes suggestive of parasitic encephalitis were observed in 33 (22%). two ...200717368946
peripheral immune responses in pregnant cattle following neospora caninum infection.experimental infection of cattle with neospora caninum in early gestation causes foetal death, but the foetus survives infection in late gestation. an immunological mechanism of abortion has been suggested; therefore changes in the maternal immune response during pregnancy could account for these differences. we have investigated the peripheral immune responses of pregnant cattle following an intravenous inoculation with 10(7) n. caninum tachyzoites in early and late gestation. percentages of cd ...200717371459
molecular characterisation of bsr4, a novel bradyzoite-specific gene from neospora caninum.here we present the identification and cloning of the ncbsr4 gene, the putative neospora caninum orthologue to the toxoplasma gondii tgbsr4 gene. to isolate ncbsr4, genome walking pcr was performed on n. caninum genomic dna using the expressed sequence tag ncest3c28h02.y1 sequence, which shares a 44% identity with the tgbsr4 gene, as a framework. nucleotide sequencing of amplified dna fragments revealed a single uninterrupted 1227 bp open reading frame that encodes a protein of 408 amino acids w ...200717376452
prevalence of neospora caninum and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy-breed steers in a feedlot.to determine the prevalence and effect of neospora caninum infection and persistent infection (pi) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) on weight gain, morbidity, and mortality rate in dairy-breed steer calves located on a feedlot in california.200717397345
toxoplasma gondii dysregulates ifn-gamma-inducible gene expression in human fibroblasts: insights from a genome-wide transcriptional profiling.toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that persists for the life of a mammalian host. the parasite's ability to block the potent ifn-gamma response may be one of the key mechanisms that allow toxoplasma to persist. using a genome-wide microarray analysis, we show here a complete dysregulation of ifn-gamma-inducible gene expression in human fibroblasts infected with toxoplasma. notably, 46 of the 127 ifn-gamma-responsive genes were induced and 19 were suppressed in infected cell ...200717404298
identification of ribosomal phosphoprotein p0 of neospora caninum as a potential common vaccine candidate for the control of both neosporosis and toxoplasmosis.the characterization of the cross-reactive antigens of two closely related apicomplexan parasites, neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii, is important to elucidate the common mechanisms of parasite-host interactions. in this context, a gene encoding n. caninum ribosomal phosphoprotein p0 (ncp0) was identified by immunoscreening of a n. caninum tachyzoite cdna expression library with antisera from mice immunized with t. gondii tachyzoites. the ncp0 was encoded by a gene with open reading frame o ...200717412435
a longitudinal study of seroprevalence and seroconversion of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in northeast thailand.a long-term study was carried out in 11 dairy herds in the khon kaen province of northeast thailand between august 2001 and november 2004. the objective was to investigate seroprevalence dynamics of neospora caninum infection in the herds and to demonstrate patterns of seroconversion in individual cattle. each herd was visited once a year, in total four times, and sera from cattle > 3 months of age and farm dogs as well as a sample from the bulk milk were collected. all samples were analysed for ...200717416467
epidemiology and control of neosporosis and neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. until 1988, it was misidentified as toxoplasma gondii. since its first recognition in dogs in 1984 and the description of the new genus and species neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of cattle and dogs worldwide. abortions and neonatal mortality are a major problem in livestock operations, and neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle. although antibodies to n. caninum have been reported, the parasi ...200717428888
isolation and molecular detection of neospora caninum from naturally infected sheep from brazil.neospora caninum was isolated from a naturally infected sheep from brazil by bioassay in dogs. approximately 70g of brain from each of two 4-month-old sheep with indirect fluorescent antibodies (>or=1:50) to n. caninum was offered to a different ifat negative dog (sheep n. 302, ifat 1:400-dog 1 and sheep n. 342, ifat 1:50-dog 2). parasite dna was detected in both sheep brains using a pcr targeting the nc-5 gene of n. caninum. shedding of neospora-like oocysts was noticed only in dog 1, from 10 d ...200717451882
seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in urban and rural dogs in north-west italy.sera were collected from 490 dogs from north-west italy. one hundred and eighty-eight dogs were urban, while 302 dogs were rural. among the latter, 190 were shepherd dogs and 112 were cattle farm dogs. sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against neospora caninum using the neospora agglutination test. seroprevalence at 1/40, 1/80, 1/160 dilution titres was significantly higher in rural (36.4%, 19.5%, 9.9% respectively) than in urban dogs (20.2%, 10.6%, 4.8% respectively). seroprevalen ...200717456144
detection of pathogens in ovine and caprine abortion samples from sardinia, italy, by pcr.during 2003-2005, 399 abortion samples (315 fetuses and 84 placentae) were collected from 107 ovine and caprine farms in northern sardinia. tissues from aborted fetuses and placentae were examined by pcr assay to detect dna from coxiella burnetii, chlamydophila abortus, salmonella enterica serovar abortusovis, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum. the dna from at least 1 of these 5 infectious agents was amplified in 41% of ovine fetuses, while only 17% of the caprine fetuses yielded a positiv ...200717459840
necrotizing encephalitis of unknown cause in fennoscandian arctic foxes (alopex lagopus).a neurologic disease affected a colony of endangered fennoscandian arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) kept in captivity for breeding purposes. several outbreaks of disease occurred between 1994 and 2004. the clinical signs included ataxia, indications of anosmia, blindness, and abnormal behavior. the disease was characterized by severe necrotizing encephalitis affecting mostly the cranial cerebrum, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulbs. investigations to identify the etiology of the disease included tes ...200717459845
chronic neospora caninum infection and repeat abortion in dairy cows: a 3-year study.the serological status of neospora was monitored in animals older than 6 months in a dairy herd with a 3-year history of prevalent n. caninum and n. caninum-associated abortions. the numbers of animals in the herd tested each year of the study period were 259, 222 and 231, respectively. a separate analysis was performed on the 122 animals persisting in the herd for the 3 years. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum in the herd decreased from 31.7% in the first year to 24.8% in the second year ...200717467905
serosurvey of infectious disease agents of carnivores in captive red pandas (ailurus fulgens) in china.the future of the endangered red panda (ailurusfulgens) depends in part on the development of protective measures against infectious diseases. the present study is a first step toward improved understanding of infectious diseases in the species' home regions. serum samples obtained from 73 red pandas in 10 captive facilities in southwest, east, and northeast china from october to december 2004 were tested for antibodies against nine common infectious pathogens of carnivores. antibody titers agai ...200717469274
prevalence of neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in dairy cows in southern vietnam.the main purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) in some dairy herds in southern vietnam, and to ascertain whether there were differences in seroprevalences between herds with imported and locally bred cows. serum samples collected on five state farms and 97 smallholder herds were analysed for the presence of antibodies to n. caninum and bvdv. all bvdv antibody-negative sera were further tested by antigen-elisa in order ...200817349807
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in seals around hokkaido, japan.serological analysis was performed to detect toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in seals in hokkaido. serum samples were collected from 322 kuril harbor seals (phoca vitulina stejnegeri) at nosappu, akkeshi and erimo, from 46 spotted seals (p. largha) at nosappu, erimo, yagishiri island, hamamasu and syakotan, and from 4 ribbon seals (p. fasciata) and a bearded seal (erignathus barbatus) at nosappu between 1998 and 2006. recombinant surface antigen of t. gondii (sag2t) and n. canin ...200717485927
seroprevalence of and agroecological risk factors for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and neospora caninum infection among adult beef cattle in cow-calf herds in alberta, canada.a province-wide cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) and neospora caninum (nc) infection among cattle in 100 cow-calf herds in alberta was conducted. the seroprevalence of map in adult cattle was 1.5% across all herds. using a widely accepted herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows out of 30 animals tested, 7.9% of herds were estimated to be infected (95% confidence interval (ci): 2.3-23.4%). seropr ...200717494367
experimental neosporosis in bulls: parasite detection in semen and blood and specific antibody and interferon-gamma responses.to investigate the presence of neospora caninum in semen and blood, and the development of specific antibody and interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) responses in experimentally infected bulls.200717316779
use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in bulk milk to estimate the prevalence of neospora caninum on dairy farms in prince edward island, canada.this study evaluated the use of bulk milk as a diagnostic tool for estimation of herd-level neospora caninum exposure in atlantic canada; it was used to estimate the prevalence of dairy farms with a within-herd n. caninum-seroprevalence > or = 15% in prince edward island (pei). the variation over time of n. caninum antibodies in bulk milk is also reported. skimmed bulk milk and individual serum samples were analyzed for n. caninum antibodies by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). ...200717542367
treatment of canine pediatric neospora caninum myositis following immunohistochemical identification of tachyzoites in muscle biopsies.a 7-week-old irish wolfhound was evaluated for an abnormal hind limb gait. quadriceps muscle atrophy was pronounced and patellar reflexes were absent bilaterally. neospora caninum myositis was diagnosed by histopathologic and serologic examination and immunohistochemical staining of muscle. substantial clinical improvement was noted after 18 weeks of treatment with clindamycin.200717542369
neosporosis and hammondiosis in dogs.the dog is a definitive host of the protozoan parasite neospora caninum, and in many parts of the world, infection is relatively common as determined by serology. reported seroprevalences usually range from 0 to 20 per cent, however, reports of clinically affected dogs are infrequent. affected dogs are generally less than six months old and predominantly have signs of an ascending hindleg paralysis, with the associated lesions of polyradiculoneuritis and granulomatous polymyositis. although any ...200717547641
factors associated with variation in neospora caninum bulk-milk s/p ratios in initially bulk-milk negative testing dutch dairy herds.we conducted a study on 81 initially bulk-milk elisa negative dairy herds taken from a random sample of dutch dairy herds to evaluate variation in bulk-milk s/p ratios and to study reasons for bulk-milk conversion. these herds were repeatedly (3-month intervals) tested between april 2004 and august 2005 and serostatus of all animals had previously been established as negative (n), low-positive (lp) or high-positive (hp). of these herds, herd- and test-related factors associated with variation in ...200717566576
induction of tachyzoite egress from cells infected with the protozoan neospora caninum by nitro- and bromo-thiazolides, a class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs.neospora caninum represents an important pathogen causing stillbirth and abortion in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs. nitazoxanide (ntz) and its deacetylated metabolite tizoxanide (tiz) are nitro-thiazolyl-salicylamide drugs with a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity in vitro and in vivo. in order to generate compounds potentially applicable in food and breeding animals, the nitro group was removed, and the thiazole-moiety was modified by other functional groups. we had shown earlier ...200717481636
prevention of vertical transmission of neospora caninum in c57bl/6 mice vaccinated with brucella abortus strain rb51 expressing n. caninum protective antigens.bovine abortions caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum have been responsible for severe economic losses to the cattle industry. infected cows either experience abortion or transmit the parasite transplacentally at a rate of up to 95%. neospora caninum vaccines that can prevent vertical transmission and ensure disruption in the life cycle of the parasite greatly aid in the management of neosporosis in the cattle industry. brucella abortus strain rb51, a commercially available vacci ...200717575983
detection of toxoplasma gondii in water by an immunomagnetic separation method targeting the sporocysts.an immunomagnetic separation (ims) method was developed to detect toxoplasma gondii in fresh waters by using the monoclonal antibody 4b6 targeting the sporocyst wall of t. gondii, hammondia hammondi, hammondia heydorni, and neospora caninum. water concentrates obtained by filtering 10- to 20-l samples samples were spiked with toxoplasma oocysts, sonicated to release the sporocysts, and analyzed by ims-4b6. mean sporocyst recoveries were 74.5 +/- 5.3% in drinking water, 30.6 +/- 2.4 and 37.1 +/- ...200717530288
aetiology of bovine abortion in switzerland from 1986 to 1995--a retrospective study with emphasis on detection of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii by pcr.in a retrospective study, covering the period from 1986 to 1995, tissues of aborted fetuses were re-examined. a total of 347 cases were tested immunohistochemically, among them samples of 223 brains were examined for neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv), and 249 placentae for chlamydiaceae. two real-time pcr assays, one for n. caninum, and one for t. gondii, were developed. these potential abortion-inducing agents were detected - and confirmed by pcr, excep ...200717359449
development of two immunochromatographic tests for the serodiagnosis of bovine babesiosis.in this study, we developed two immunochromatographic tests (icts), which are nitrocellulose membrane-based immunoassays for the convenient and rapid serodiagnosis of bovine babesiosis caused by babesia bovis (boict) and babesia bigemina (biict). the efficacy of two icts was evaluated using 13 positive sera from experimentally infected cattle with b. bovis or b. bigemina. clear results showed that the boict and elisa detected antibodies in sera collected from 14 to 93 days post-infection, while ...200717590275
serological evidence of neospora caninum infection in mithun (bos frontalis) from india.studies conducted on mithuns maintained at national research centre on mithun, indian council of agricultural research (icar), nagaland, india and mithuns found in free-ranging condition of nagaland revealed that the overall prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in mithun was 10% (95% ci=5-15) when detected by a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. highest (prevalence rate=16, 95% ci=8-24) seroprevalence was found in mithuns above 3 years of age and l ...200817590395
seroprevalence of neospora spp. among asymptomatic horses, aborted mares and horses demonstrating neurological signs in israel.sera from 800 asymptomatic horses were examined for the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum by immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat). the presence of antibodies to n. caninum was also tested in sera from 52 mares that had aborted and 40 horses exhibiting neurological signs. a total of 95 (11.9%) of the 800 sera had antibodies for neospora. significantly higher seropositivity was obtained from horses that had neurological signs (21.2%) and from aborted mares (37.5%). there was significan ...200717614202
the apicomplexan pathogen neospora caninum inhibits host cell apoptosis in the absence of discernible nf-kappa b activation.neospora caninum, a causative agent of bovine abortions, is an apicomplexan parasite that is closely related to the human pathogen toxoplasma gondii. since a number of intracellular parasites, including t. gondii, have been shown to modulate host cell apoptosis, the present study was conducted to establish whether n. caninum is similarly capable of subverting apoptotic pathways in its host cells. our results indicated that death receptor-mediated apoptosis is repressed during n. caninum infectio ...200717576757
neospora caninum in cattle: experimental infection with oocysts can result in exogenous transplacental infection, but not endogenous transplacental infection in the subsequent pregnancy.whilst it is presumed that infection of pregnant cattle with neospora caninum oocysts can provoke abortion and is the likely cause of epidemic abortion outbreaks, only two previous experiments have involved inoculation of pregnant cows with oocysts (and only one abortion was provoked in 22 pregnancies). here, we describe the oral oocyst challenge of 18 cows synchronously bred and inoculated precisely at 70 (n=6), 120 (n=6) and 210 (n=6) days in pregnancy with a nominal dose of 40,000 oocysts. on ...200717624353
quantification of vertical and horizontal transmission of neospora caninum infection in dutch dairy herds.ninety-six of 108 randomly selected dutch dairy herds had one or more cows with a positive serostatus for n. caninum. in these 96 herds, we have quantified the probabilities of vertical transmission (vt) and horizontal transmission (ht) of n. caninum infection by combining serostatus and pedigree data in 4091 dam-daughter pairs. the probability of animals infected by vertical transmission during pregnancy (prob(vt)) was calculated as the proportion of seropositive daughters among daughters of se ...200717640807
possible role of bovine trophoblast giant cells in transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in cattle.neospora caninum is an aplicomplexan parasite that has brought several concerns to cattle raisers worldwide due to its relationship to fetal loss. however, the mechanism of the parasite's transplacental infection and induced abortions are not completely understood. bovine trophoblastic binucleated cells (bnc) play a major role in the maternal-fetal interactions, migrating during the entire pregnancy from chorionic connections to uterine epithelium. this study aimed to investigate the possible ro ...200717588318
reduced cerebral infection of neospora caninum in balb/c mice vaccinated with recombinant brucella abortus rb51 strains expressing n. caninum srs2 and gra7 proteins.neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of bovine neosporosis, an important disease affecting the reproductive performance of cattle worldwide. currently there is no effective vaccine available to prevent n. caninum infection in cattle. in this study, we examined the feasibility of developing a live, recombinant n. caninum vaccine using brucella abortus vaccine strain rb51 as the expression and delivery vector. we generated two recombinant rb51 stra ...200717651896
evidence of neospora caninum dna in wild rodents.seventy-five house mice (mus musculus), 103 rats (rattus norvegicus) and 55 field mice (apodemus sylvaticus) from north-west italy were pcr analysed for neospora caninum infection. brain, kidney and muscle tissues collected from the above mentioned animals were tested by pcr using np6 and np21 primers. the brain tissue from 2 house mice and 2 rats, the kidney from 4 rats, 1 house mouse and 1 field mouse and muscle from 10 rats, 8 house mice and 1 field mouse were tested positive for n. caninum. ...200717651897
neospora caninum infection in birds: experimental infections in chicken and embryonated eggs.neospora caninum causes economical impact in cattle-raising farms since it is implicated as the major cause of bovine abortions. although infection by the parasite has been widely described in mammals, the role of birds in its life-cycle is still obscure. therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the infection by n. caninum in different chicken models. experimental infections were conducted in 7-day-old chicks, laying hens and embryonated eggs, where samples were analysed for parasite burden, igg a ...200717686190
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dogs from rural and urban environments in tehran, iran.103 serum samples were taken from owned dogs in tehran (53 urban dogs and 50 farm dogs) from february to may 2005 and tested for igg antibody against neospora caninum using the immunofluorescence antibody test. urban dogs were selected from apparent healthy dogs referred to the small animal hospital of faculty of veterinary medicine, university of tehran, for routine operation, and the farm dogs were selected from the sheepdogs in sheep flocks around tehran randomly. the titer of 1:50 was select ...200717687566
possibility of neospora caninum infection by venereal transmission in cb-17 scid mice.cb-17 scid and balb/c male mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with neospora caninum to examine the possibility of its venereal transmission. some of these mice were killed on days 7 and 20 post-inoculation to examine the genital organs for presence of the parasite. the remaining scid male mice were housed with non-infected female mice from day 7 p.i. and kept with them for 14 days. these scid mice died between days 28 and 35 p.i. n. caninum dna was detected in the testis of mice on days 7 an ...200717689194
humoral immune response in pregnant heifers inoculated with neospora caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival route.the aim of this study was to compare systemic humoral immune responses in pregnant heifers inoculated with neospora caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival and intravenous routes. twenty nine heifers separated in three experimental groups were studied: group 1 (n=10 animals) and group 2 (n=9 animals) were inoculated with 10(8) of n. caninum tachyzoites by conjunctival and intravenous routes at 5th month of gestation, respectively; group 3 (n=10 animals) were non-inoculated control animals. an indire ...200717697754
cloning and expression of an antigenic domain of a major surface protein (nc-p43) of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines. it was described in 1988 as causing neuromuscular alterations and death in dogs. recently, n. caninum has been the focus of considerable attention for its large impact on the dairy industry, given the economic losses related to breeding failures and to a decrease in productivity. elisa diagnosis of neosporosis has not been widely used in brazil, mostly because of th ...200717706005
prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in goats slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of patos city, paraíba state, northeast region of brazil.the prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies was investigated in goats slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of patos, state of paraíba, northeast region of brazil, and possible associations between sex of the animals and antibody prevalence were verified. three-hundred six blood samples from goats collected before slaughter by jugular venopuncture were used. for the serologic diagnosis of t. gondii and n. caninum, the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (ifat) ...200717706359
first identification of neospora caninum infection in aborted bovine foetuses in china.the first identification of neospora caninum infection in the tissues of aborted bovine foetuses in china is reported. aborted foetuses were collected from 16 dams, and 12 of the dams had high serum antibody titres to n. caninum determined using an elisa test kit. the nc-5 gene of n. caninum was amplified from dna samples extracted from brains of four aborted foetuses using a neospora-specific pcr assay, confirming n. caninum infection in the aborted foetuses. histology and immunohistochemistry ...200717706874
neospora caninum: functional inhibition of protein disulfide isomerase by the broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug nitazoxanide and other thiazolides.nitazoxanide (ntz) and several ntz-derivatives (thiazolides) have been shown to exhibit considerable anti-neospora caninum tachyzoite activity in vitro. we coupled tizoxanide (tiz), the deacetylated metabolite, to epoxy-agarose-resin and performed affinity chromatography with n. caninum tachyzoite extracts. two main protein bands of 52 and 43kda were isolated. the 52kda protein was readily recognized by antibodies directed against ncpdi, and mass spectrometry confirmed its identity. poly-histidi ...200817720161
inoculation of balb/c mice with live attenuated tachyzoites protects against a lethal challenge of neospora caninum.neospora caninum tachyzoites attenuated through passage in tissue culture were tested for their ability to induce protective immunity against a lethal challenge dose of parasites. balb/c mice were each inoculated with either 1x10(6) live virulent tachyzoites (group 1) or 1x10(6) live attenuated tachyzoites (group 2), while (group 3) received a control inoculum. all mice were each challenged 28 days later with 5x10(6) virulent parasites. histopathological lesions in the brains including necrosis ...200817767798
sarcocystis sp.-associated meningoencephalitis in a bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus).protozoal meningoencephalitis is uncommon in raptors. an adult female bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus) was euthanized after several months of treatment for progressive neurologic signs. the predominant histologic lesion was lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic meningoencephalitis involving the cerebrum and cerebellum. there was a marked segmental loss of granular cells and purkinje cells, as well as segmental atrophy of the molecular layer in the cerebellum. protozoal merozoites and schizonts ...200717823405
cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a female japanese cat.a 16-year-old female japanese cat was presented with a single mammary-gland nodule approximately 3 cm in diameter. histologically, the nodule consisted of necrotizing granulomatous panniculitis, vasculitis, and mastitis, and contained free and clustered protozoal organisms. the organism was present in the cytoplasm of macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and mammary-gland epithelia. the organism was positive for anti- toxoplasma gondii and anti- neospora caninum antibodies. electron micr ...200717846241
internal hydrocephalus and associated periventricular encephalitis in a young fox.marked lateral ventricular enlargement associated with atrophic cerebral cortex and periventricular encephalitis is described in a 2-month-old fox affected by disorientation, generalized ataxia, difficulty in walking, circling, and blindness. clinical conditions progressed to stupor and spontaneous death within a few days. at necropsy, severe inflammatory and necrotizing lesions were observed in periventricular sites associated with diverticula and cleft formation in perithalamic areas and rhine ...200717846249
prevention of lethal experimental infection of c57bl/6 mice by vaccination with brucella abortus strain rb51 expressing neospora caninum antigens.bovine abortions caused by the intracellular protozoal parasite neospora caninum are a major concern to cattle industries worldwide. a strong th1 immune response is required for protection against n. caninum. brucella abortus strain rb51 is currently used as a live, attenuated vaccine against bovine brucellosis. strain rb51 can also be used as an expression vector for heterologous protein expression. in this study, putative protective antigens of n. caninum mic1, mic3, gra2, gra6 and srs2, were ...200717568587
protection against abortion linked to gamma interferon production in pregnant dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.many immunological aspects of pregnancy, such as the role played by gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) in abortion, are not well understood. neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan considered to be among the main causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. the present study analyzes the interaction between ifn-gamma production and n. caninum infection in naturally infected pregnant cows. data were obtained from 126 pregnant cows: 86 seropositive and 40 seronegative for the parasite. pregnancy diagn ...200717854883
fecal and serological survey of neospora caninum in farm dogs in costa rica.to detect oocysts of neospora caninum in dog feces and to determine the excretion pattern in dogs from specialized dairy farms in costa rica, a total of 265 fecal samples from 34 dogs were collected at intervals from february to august 2005. fecal samples were examined for n. caninum-like oocysts microscopically, by dna detection using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and by bioassay. n. caninum dna was detected by pcr in four fecal samples, twice from one dog, but oocysts were not detected ...200717868998
neosporosis in beagle dogs: clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, isolation and genetic characterization of neospora caninum.clinical neosporosis was diagnosed in a litter of five pups born to a beagle bitch from virginia, usa. four of the pups developed limb weakness starting at 4 weeks of age. the dogs were suspected to have neosporosis based on clinical signs and empirically treated with clindamycin (75 mg, oral, twice daily, total 150 mg) starting at 9 weeks of age and the dosage was doubled at 13 weeks of age. antibodies to neospora caninum were detected in sera of the dam and pups when first tested serologically ...200717890012
epidemiology of neosporosis in dairy cattle in galicia (nw spain).this comprehensive study of neosporosis in dairy cattle in galicia (nw spain) included: (1) a comparative study of three serological techniques for detection of neospora caninum antibodies (direct agglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence); (2) a cross-sectional serological survey in which 276 herds and 5,196 animals were tested; (3) a study of n. caninum antibody dynamics; (4) the isolation of viable tachyzoites of n. caninum. data were analysed to determi ...200817899194
histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of neospora caninum diagnosis in bovine aborted fetuses.lesions suggestive of protozoal infection such as nonsuppurative myositis, nonsuppurative myocarditis, nonsuppurative pneumonia associated with focal cellular necrosis and multifocal necrotizing nonsuppurative encephalitis were observed in 89 (34%) out of 258 aborted bovine fetuses. immunohistochemistry (ihc) revealed tachyzoites and cysts of neospora caninum in 55 (61.8%) of these 89 fetuses. several fetal variables were tested by multivariate logistic regression, in which increasing odds for p ...200717904290
quantitative analysis of parasite dna in the blood of immunized and naïve mice after infection with neospora caninum.real-time pcr was used to study the duration and level of parasitaemia in mice immunized with immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms) containing recombinant ncsrs2, one of the immunodominant surface antigens of neospora caninum. after challenge infection, blood was collected daily for 9 days. during this period the amounts of parasite dna detected in immunized mice were significantly lower (p<0.001), and the duration of parasitaemia appeared to be shorter, than in non-immunized controls. furthermo ...200817922929
evaluation of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infections in alpaca (vicugna pacos) and llama (lama glama) aborted foetuses from peru.the aim of this study was to investigate the participation of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in abortion cases of peruvian llamas and alpacas. fifteen aborted foetuses were recovered from two main rearing areas of camelids in peru (central or south andean region). foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in target organs. n. caninum and t. gondii infections were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (ihc) combined with pcr and by pcr alone, respec ...200717931783
in vitro analysis of the tat protein transduction domain as a drug delivery vehicle in protozoan parasites.the present study was undertaken to analyse the capability of hiv-1 derived tat protein transduction domain (ptd) fused with green fluorescent protein (tat-gfp) as a delivery vehicle into a range of protozoan parasites. successful transduction of native purified tat-gfp was observed by fluorescent microscopy in cryptosporidium parvum, giardia duodenalis, and neospora caninum. the ability to transduce peptides and other cargo into protozoan parasites, will greatly assist in the delivery of future ...200817945214
occurrence of antibodies against neospora caninum in water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) on four ranches in corrientes province, argentina.the aim of the present work was to describe the occurrence of antibodies to neospora caninum in water buffaloes on four ranches located in corrientes province in the northeast of argentina. antibodies against n. caninum were determined in sera of 449 water buffaloes by using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). a bayesian logistic regression mixed model was used to quantify the strength of association between positive serological results to n. caninum and gender, age and category (calf, ...200717950535
the host-parasite relationship in pregnant cattle infected with neospora caninum.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is an important cause of reproductive disease in cattle worldwide. the dog is a definitive host for the parasite and the oocyst stage, shed in the faeces, is a source of infection for cattle through consumption of contaminated feed or water. in addition, transplacental transmission of n. caninum is a very efficient means of the parasite infecting a new host and this can occur in successive pregnancies and over several generations. neospora parasites may ca ...200717958926
dense-granule protein ncgra7, a new marker for the serodiagnosis of neospora caninum infection in aborting cows.to investigate whether the production of an antigen-specific antibody is associated with neospora caninum-induced bovine abortion, 62 serum samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the recombinant antigens ncsag1, ncsrs2, and ncgra7. our study suggested that ncgra7 would be a new marker for the serodiagnosis of n. caninum infection resulting in abortion.200717959821
c57bl/6 mice infected with neospora caninum during administration of progesterone show bias toward type 2 immune response.to clarify the role of progesterone in the development of immune responses during pregnancy against neospora caninum infection, c57bl/6 mice were given a progesterone pellet, and measured on interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 production following the infection. ifn-gamma production in the prescribed group was significantly lower than that in the intact group on day 40 post administration. il-4 producing cell population in the prescribed group was larger than that in the intact group. these resul ...200717984602
the extent of parasite-associated necrosis in the placenta and foetal tissues of cattle following neospora caninum infection in early and late gestation correlates with foetal death.the protozoan parasite neospora caninum is the most frequently diagnosed abortifacient in the uk and a leading cause of abortion worldwide but the mechanisms leading to abortion are not fully understood. the distribution of parasites and the histopathological changes in the placenta and foetus were compared in 12 cows following experimental infection of cattle with n. caninum in early (n=6) and late (n=6) gestation, by pcr, immunohistology, light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. ...200818021783
anti-neosporal igg and ige antibodies in canine neosporosis.neospora caninum infection provokes neurological disorders, recurrent abortion and death in dogs and cattle. dogs are both intermediate and definitive host of n. caninum. thus, the development of sensitive and specific immunoassays to diagnose canine neosporosis is essential to control this disease. this work investigated serum anti-neosporal igg and ige antibodies in 140 dogs represented by 30 healthy animals (group i), 11 dogs showing acute n. caninum infection (group ii), 50 urban dogs with s ...200718035978
sarcocystis neurona encephalitis in a dog.a 1.5-year-old male feist dog was presented to a veterinarian for reluctance to stand on the hind legs. treatment included dexamethasone and resulted in a favorable initial response, but posterior paresis returned and progressed to recumbency, hyperesthesia, and attempts to bite the owner. the dog was euthanized. the brain was negative for rabies by fluorescent antibody analysis. multiple foci of encephalitis were found in the cerebrum and particularly in the cerebellum. protozoa morphologically ...200718039914
chickens (gallus domesticus) are natural intermediate hosts of neospora caninum.neospora caninum naturally infects many mammal species, but has not previously been demonstrated in birds. we examined sera for n. caninum antibodies from 200 outdoor chickens and from 200 chickens confined indoors in the state of bahia, brazil. seroprevalence was greater in outdoor chickens (23.5% versus 1.5%, p<0.001). pcr testing for n. caninum was positive in six of 10 seropositive chickens. amplicons from two of these were sequenced and had 97-98% nucleotide identity with n. caninum. this f ...200818054356
diagnosis of sarcocystis cruzi, neospora caninum, and toxoplasma gondii infections in cattle.the aim of the study was to diagnose sarcocystis sp. infections in cattle and to detect coinfections by toxoplasma gondii and/or neospora caninum. blood, diaphragm, esophagus, and myocardium from 90 beef cattle from argentina were collected. histopathological, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction assays, and direct microscopical examination were carried out. sarcocysts from myocardium were measured and counted. indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for the three protozoans was perf ...200818066600
prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in cattle from the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines. it was described in 1988 and has been known as a major cause of abortion in bovines and neuromuscular alterations and death in dogs. to estimate the prevalence of bovine neosporosis in the 22 municipalities of the so-called estrato 1 subregion of the brazilian state of mato grosso do sul, blood samples were collected from cows aged 24 months and older, from december ...200718078599
dynamics of anti-neospora caninum antibodies during gestation in chronically infected dairy cows.the dynamics of antibody production against neospora caninum during the gestation period was examined in chronically infected dairy cows. data were obtained from 86 pregnant parous dairy cows, 21 of which had suffered abortion. the cows belonged to two herds in which a diagnosis of n. caninum infection had been previously confirmed in aborted foetuses. pregnancy diagnosis and blood collection were performed on post-insemination days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and at parturition or until the tim ...200717643822
babesia gibsoni: serodiagnosis of infection in dogs by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant bgtrap.the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of babesia gibsoni (bgtrap) is known as an immunodominant antigen and is, therefore, considered as a candidate for the development of a diagnostic reagent for canine babesiosis. the recombinant bgtrap (rbgtrap) expressed in escherichia coli was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detecting antibodies to b. gibsoni in dogs. the elisa with rbgtrap clearly differentiated between b. gibsoni-infected dog sera and specific pathogen-fre ...200818155197
neospora caninum infection in greek dairy cattle herds detected by two antibody assays in individual milk samples.a survey to demonstrate the presence and the extent of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle was carried out in greece. seven hundred and seventy-seven (777) individual milk samples from all milking cows in 10 dairy herds were tested using an elisa (p38-milk-elisa) and immunoblot analysis. the herd prevalence was 80.0% and 100.0%, while the overall prevalence was 15.2% (ranging between 0.0% and 38.9%) and 27.9% (ranging between 3.4% and 61.6%) based on the results of the elisa and the immun ...200818158217
studies on synchronous egress of coccidian parasites (neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, eimeria bovis) from bovine endothelial host cells mediated by calcium ionophore a23187.neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and eimeria bovis are coccidian parasites of veterinary importance. tachyzoites of n. caninum and t. gondii and sporozoites of e. bovis are able to invade and replicate in endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. as it holds true for all eukaryotic cells, the survival of parasitized host cells and the parasites themselves should be dependent on ion balances, especially on extra- and intracellular calcium concentrations. addition of the calcium ionophore a23187 ...200818158611
isolation of neospora caninum from dairy zero grazing cattle in israel.first israeli neospora caninum isolates were obtained from brain tissues of aborted fetuses (ncis491 and ncis580) from dairy farms endemic for neosporosis and maintaining cattle on zero grazing. tissues from different parts of the fetus brains were used to infect vero cells. tachyzoites of n. caninum were first observed in cultures from days 30 and 32 after infection. to confirm the identity of the isolated parasites, dna extracts from brains and cultures were tested by pcr with specific primers ...200717850972
prevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in cattle from santarém, pará, brazil.prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies was measured in serum samples randomly collected from dairy (40 cows from four farms) and beef cattle (120 animals from 12 farms) from the municipality of santarém, pará state, brazil, calculated by using the win episcope 2.0 statistical program. the presence of anti-n. caninum antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence-antibody test with a cut-off value of 1:100. we found that 13 farms (81.25%) showed infection rates above 10%, which ...200817619028
evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serological diagnosis of neospora caninum infection in sheep and determination of the apparent prevalence of infection in new zealand.neospora caninum has recently been shown to be a cause of abortions of sheep in new zealand. a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was validated for use in sheep with sera from experimentally infected sheep. a cut-off threshold was established that demonstrated sero-conversion between 7 and 14 days post-infection. higher inocula led to earlier sero-conversion. this elisa was applied to 640 sera collected from rams across new zealand and 0.625% (+/-0.61%) (4/640) were ...200818083308
prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild ruminants from the countryside or captivity in the czech republic.in the czech republic, sera from 720 wild ruminants were examined for antibodies to neospora caninum by screening competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat); the same sera were also examined for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by ifat. neospora caninum antibodies were found in 14% (11 positive/79 tested) roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 14% (2/14) sika deer (cervus nippon), 6% (24/ 377) red deer (cervus elaphus), 1% (2/143) ...200718163361
loss of infectivity of neospora caninum oocysts maintained for a prolonged time.the purpose of this study was to investigate whether sporulated neospora caninum oocysts, which had been stored for 46 mo in a 2% sulfuric acid solution at 4 degrees c, remain morphologically viable and infective to gerbils (meriones unguiculatus). six gerbils were orally inoculated with doses of 400 or 1,200 oocysts. two mo after inoculation, the animals did not show any clinical signs, had no histological lesions, and were seronegative for n. caninum at 1: 50 in an immunofluorescent antibody t ...200718165712
low seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection associated with the limousin breed in cow-calf herds in andorra, europe.neospora caninum seroprevalence and risk factors affecting seroprevalence in beef cattle in andorra were investigated. antibodies to n. caninum were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on a yearly basis in 1,758 animals older than 6 mo, belonging to 26 herds. mean seroprevalence of antibodies to n. caninum for the herds was 7.4 +/- 1.2% (130/1,758). logistic regression analyses were performed on data from each animal, considering n. caninum seropositivity as the dependent va ...200718163335
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from durango city, mexico.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are structurally similar parasites, with many hosts in common. the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum was determined in sera from dogs from durango city, mexico. using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to t. gondii were found in 52 (51.5%) of the 101 dogs with titers of 1:25 in 27, 1:50 in 11, 1:100 in 5, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 2, 1:800 in 2, and 1:3,200 or higher in 1. antibodies to n. caninum were determined by the indirect immunof ...200718163336
occurrence of toxoplasma gondii and hammondia hammondi oocysts in the faeces of cats from germany and other european countries.faecal samples of 24,106 cats from germany and other european countries were examined microscopically in a veterinary laboratory in germany between october 2004 and november 2006 to estimate the prevalence of animals shedding toxoplasma gondii or hammondia hammondi oocysts. oocysts of 9-15 microm size with a morphology similar to that of h. hammondi and t. gondii were found in 74 samples (0.31%). a total of 54 samples were further characterised to achieve a species diagnosis and to determine the ...200818226453
vaccination with microneme protein ncmic4 increases mortality in mice inoculated with neospora caninum.ncmic4 is a neospora caninum microneme protein that has been isolated and purified on the basis of its unique lactose-binding properties. we have shown that this protein binds to galactosyl residues of lactose; antibodies directed against ncmic4 inhibit host cell interactions in vitro, thus making it a vaccine candidate. because of this feature, ncmic4 was first purified on a larger scale in its native, functionally active form using lactose-agarose affinity chromatography. second, ncmic4 was ex ...200718163338
seroprevalence and risk factors associated with neospora caninum infection in different dog populations in spain.in this study, neospora caninum seroprevalence and some associated risk factors were investigated in four different dog populations in spain. n. caninum seropositivity was significantly higher in farm dogs (51%, 51/100) (p<0.001) and lower in household dogs (2.9%, 3/102) (p<0.0001). the seroprevalence in hunting (23%, 23/100) and stray (24.5%, 23/94) dogs was moderate, and no significant differences were observed between these two populations (p>0.05). a significantly higher number of dogs showe ...200818241992
seroepidemiology of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infection in yaks (bos grunniens) in qinghai, china.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite and is closely related to toxoplasma gondii, but they are antigenically different. n. caninum and t. gondii infection in a variety of animals such as cattle, dogs, and cats has been reported, but there is little information on the infection of these parasites in domestic yaks. seroprevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum in yaks (bos grunniens) from eight regions of qinghai, china were investigated by the indirect agglutination test (iat) and ...200818242860
a survey of abortifacient infectious agents in livestock in luzon, the philippines, with emphasis on the situation in a cattle herd with abortion problems.in the philippines, insufficient consideration has been given to the implementation of systematic control measures against major abortifacient infectious agents in livestock. to elucidate the epidemiology of abortifacient infectious agents in livestock, the prevalence of four abortifacient agents was assessed. initially, a total of 96 cattle including 17 cows with history of abortion were examined in a herd in luzon at the request of the farm owner. six (35.3%) of the 17 aborting cows were found ...200818243149
natural postnatal neospora caninum infection in cattle can persist and lead to endogenous transplacental infection.a serological follow-up study of 3.5 years duration was done of a dairy herd that had experienced a mass seroconversion to neospora caninum following a point source exposure shortly before the 17th of january 2000. a total of 913 blood samples of 244 animals at seven sampling dates were used to investigate the seroprevalence dynamics in the herd. most postnatally infected cattle remained seropositive during the period of investigation but 11 animals became seronegative after 6-27 months indicati ...200818280662
high seroprevalence of neospora caninum in the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the pyrenees (ne spain).antibodies to neospora caninum were determined in the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the pyrenees, north-eastern spain. sera from 53 red foxes (29 male and 24 female) were tested using a neospora agglutination test (nat). seroprevalence at dilutions of 1/40, 1/80 and 1/160 was 69.8%, 47.2% and 7.5%, respectively. sex differences were significant only at a dilution of 1:40. the high seroprevalence observed in red fox suggests that this species is highly exposed to n. caninum in this area.200818280664
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dogs in south-western poland.the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies was determined in serum samples from 110 dogs in south-western poland, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). antibodies to n. caninum were found in 18 dogs (16.36%), of which 7 were also positive to toxoplasma gondii. the titres of anti-n. caninum antibodies varied from 1:50 to 1:200.200818291587
transplacental toxoplasmosis in a wild southern sea otter (enhydra lutris nereis).in september 2004, a neonatal sea otter pup was found alive on the beach in northern monterey bay, ca. efforts to locate the mother were unsuccessful. due to a poor prognosis for successful rehabilitation, the pup was euthanized. postmortem examination revealed emaciation, systemic lymphadenopathy and a malformation of the left cerebral temporal lobe. on histopathology, free tachyzoites and tissue cysts compatible with toxoplasma gondii were observed in the brain, heart, thymus, liver, lymph nod ...200818304737
bovine immune response to inoculation with neospora caninum surface antigen srs2 lipopeptides mimics immune response to infection with live parasites.infection of cattle with neospora caninum protozoa, the causative agent of bovine protozoal abortion, results in robust cellular and humoral immune responses, particularly cd4(+) t-lymphocyte activation and gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) secretion. in the present study, n. caninum srs2 (ncsrs2) t-lymphocyte-epitope-bearing subunits were incorporated into dna and peptide preparations to assess cd4(+) cell proliferation and ifn-gamma t-lymphocyte-secretion immune responses in cattle with predetermin ...200818305105
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