correction: ectopic expression of a neospora caninum kazal type inhibitor triggers developmental defects in toxoplasma and plasmodium. 201525905860
the effect of a live neospora caninum tachyzoite vaccine in naturally infected pregnant dairy cows.neosporosis, caused by the intracellular protozoan neospora caninum, is a major cause of abortion and reproductive failure in cattle worldwide. the principal route of transmission of neosporosis is via in utero infection of the offspring. there is no effective prophylactic treatment or vaccine available against bovine neosporosis. a n. caninum ncis491 isolate was examined for its ability to immunize and reduce abortions in naturally infected dairy cows under field conditions. n. caninum-seroposi ...201525890821
influence of the gestational stage on the clinical course, lesional development and parasite distribution in experimental ovine neosporosis.neospora caninum is considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle, yet recent studies have also emphasised its relevance as an abortifacient in small ruminants. in order to gain deeper insight into the pathogenesis of ovine neosporosis, pregnant ewes were intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the nc-spain7 isolate at days 40, 90 or 120 of gestation. infection during the first term resulted in the death of all foetuses between days 19 and 21 post-infection, showing mainly n ...201525884945
comprehensive evaluation of toxoplasma gondii veg and neospora caninum liv genomes with tachyzoite stage transcriptome and proteome defines novel transcript features.toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals and causes opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised humans. its closest relative, neospora caninum, is an important veterinary pathogen that causes spontaneous abortion in livestock. comparative genomics of these two closely related coccidians has been of particular interest to identify genes that contribute to varied host cell specificity and disease. here, we describe a manual evaluation of these g ...201525875305
a large-scale proteogenomics study of apicomplexan pathogens-toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.proteomics data can supplement genome annotation efforts, for example being used to confirm gene models or correct gene annotation errors. here, we present a large-scale proteogenomics study of two important apicomplexan pathogens: toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. we queried proteomics data against a panel of official and alternate gene models generated directly from rnaseq data, using several newly generated and some previously published ms datasets for this meta-analysis. we identified ...201525867681
serological diagnosis of bovine neosporosis: a bayesian evaluation of two antibody elisa tests for in vivo diagnosis in purchased and abortion cattle.currently, there are no perfect reference tests for the in vivo detection of neospora caninum infection. two commercial n caninum elisa tests are currently used in belgium for bovine sera (test a and test b). the goal of this study is to evaluate these tests used at their current cut-offs, with a no gold standard approach, for the test purpose of (1) demonstration of freedom of infection at purchase and (2) diagnosis in aborting cattle. sera of two study populations, abortion population (n=196) ...201525861822
safety and immunogenicity of a soluble native neospora caninum tachyzoite-extract vaccine formulated with a soy lecithin/β-glucan adjuvant in pregnant cattle.the global economic impact of neospora caninum infection in cattle herds has promoted the development of vaccines that can be safely used during pregnancy. the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine formulated with the soluble fraction of tachyzoite's lysate and a soy-based aqueous adjuvant (sncag/avec), which was protective in the mouse model and induced strong ifn-γ responses and high avidity antibodies in non-pregnant cattle. ten pregnant heifers were vac ...201525851060
markers related to the diagnosis and to the risk of abortion in bovine neosporosis.bovine neosporosis has emerged as a main cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. an important question to understand the disease is why not all infected cows abort. in the present review we summarize the knowledge on markers related to the diagnosis and more importantly to the risk of abortion in the infected cow. markers considered herein include those based on specific antibodies, antibody titers and antibody subtypes, cellular immunological markers, hormones and other proteins related to gesta ...201525841793
a study of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibody seroprevalence in healthy cattle in the czech republic.the aim of study was to test the sera of healthy dairy cows by elisas, the methods also used in other groups of animals in the czech republic, and thus to obtain actual data about n. caninum and t. gondii seroprevalence in cattle.201525780824
neospora caninum recruits host cell structures to its parasitophorous vacuole and salvages lipids from organelles.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, which cause the diseases toxoplasmosis and neosporosis, respectively, are two closely related apicomplexan parasites. they have similar heteroxenous life cycles and conserved genomes and share many metabolic features. despite these similarities, t. gondii and n. caninum differ in their transmission strategies and zoonotic potential. comparative analyses of the two parasites are important to identify the unique biological features that underlie the basis of ...201525750213
improving the gene structure annotation of the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum fulfils a vital requirement towards an in silico-derived vaccine.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite which can cause abortion in cattle, instigating major economic burden. vaccination has been proposed as the most cost-effective control measure to alleviate this burden. consequently the overriding aspiration for n. caninum research is the identification and subsequent evaluation of vaccine candidates in animal models. to save time, cost and effort, it is now feasible to use an in silico approach for vaccine candidate prediction. precise protein seque ...201525747726
occurrence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii dna in brain tissue from hoary foxes (pseudalopex vetulus) in brazil.the hoary fox (pseudalopex vetulus) is a wild canid native to brazil and is commonly found in the semiarid northeastern area living in contact with cattle. the main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii dna in hoary foxes, in the state of paraíba, brazil. brain tissue samples were collected from 49 hoary foxes. from the samples, dna extraction and the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were performed using specific primers for n. caninum and ...201525746974
dynamic exophthalmos and lateral strabismus in a dog caused by masticatory muscle myositis.a 5.5-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of a 5-month history of deviation of the right globe upon opening the mouth and a 1-month history of conjunctivitis in the same eye. clinical findings, diagnostic imaging results, treatment and follow-up are described.201525728848
isolation, identification, and pathogenicity of neospora caninum china yanbian strain.the aim of the study was to provide a point of reference to study the neospora caninum infections in china.201425678924
a live vaccine against neospora caninum abortions in cattle. 201525659274
vertical transmission in experimentally infected sheep despite previous inoculation with neospora caninum ncnz1 isolate.recent reports indicate n. caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep in new zealand. knowledge about the mode of transmission of neosporosis in sheep in new zealand is limited. this study aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission that would occur in lambs born from experimentally inoculated ewes and to determine if previous inoculation would protect the lambs from n. caninum infection. a group of 50 ewes was divided into 2 groups with one group being inoculated with 5× ...201525638717
seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in small ruminants in china.little information is available about the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in sheep and goats in china. in the present investigation, the seroprevalence of t. gondii and n. caninum infections in sheep and goats were investigated in qinghai province, china between january 2012 and june 2013. a total of 1250 serum samples (600 sheep and 650 goats) collected from 8 administrative regions of qinghai province, china were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assa ...201525591976
immune response in the adipose tissue of lean mice infected with the protozoan parasite neospora caninum.the adipose tissue can make important contributions to immune function. nevertheless, only a limited number of reports have investigated in lean hosts the immune response elicited in this tissue upon infection. previous studies suggested that the intracellular protozoan neospora caninum might affect adipose tissue physiology. therefore, we investigated in mice challenged with this protozoan if immune cell populations within adipose tissue of different anatomical locations could be differently af ...201525581844
a vaccine formulation combining rhoptry proteins ncrop40 and ncrop2 improves pup survival in a pregnant mouse model of neosporosis.currently there are no effective vaccines for the control of bovine neosporosis. during the last years several subunit vaccines based on immunodominant antigens and other proteins involved in adhesion, invasion and intracellular proliferation of neospora caninum have been evaluated as targets for vaccine development in experimental mouse infection models. among them, the rhoptry antigen ncrop2 and the immunodominant ncgra7 protein have been assessed with varying results. recent studies have show ...201525579396
[endemic and epidemic bovine neosporosis: description of two events in beef cattle].the aim of this study was to describe two events in which neospora caninum was involved in bovine abortions in beef cattle. in the first event, 11 abortions in 57 heifers were recorded in 45 days. one aborted heifer was 5 times more likely to be seropositive than a non-aborted heifer (or=4.9; ic 1.2-19.9) (p<0.05). in the second event, no association between serological results and abortions were observed (or=0,69; 0,06-7,31) (p>0.05). neither antibodies nor isolation of other pathogens were ach ...201525576415
prevalence of immunoglobulin g (igg) antibody to neospora caninum in dairy cattle of hamedan province, west of iran.bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite n. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of hamedan province (west of iran) by elisa method. blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 63(12.80%) sera. a signific ...201425568710
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in slaughtered native cattle in kurdistan province, iran.neospora caninum is a worldwide distributed pathogen which causes abortion in cattle leading to economic loss in the cattle industry. the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum antibodies in the native cattle slaughtered in various areas of kurdistan province (western iran) from september 2010 to september 2011. serum samples from 368 cattle slaughtered in seven slaughterhouses in this region were taken for detection of anti-n. caninum antibodies using commercial n. ...201425568696
role of the chemokine receptor ccr5-dependent host defense system in neospora caninum infections.neospora caninum, a toxoplasma gondii-like obligate intracellular parasite, causes abortion in cattle and neurological signs in canines. to understand neosporosis better, studies on host cell migration and host immune responses during the early phase of infection are important. although the c-c chemokine receptor 5 (ccr5) plays a crucial role in immune cell migration, the role played by it in protective immunity against n. caninum is poorly understood.201525558986
flavonoids modulate the proliferation of neospora caninum in glial cell primary cultures.neospora caninum (apicomplexa; sarcocystidae) is a protozoan that causes abortion in cattle, horses, sheep, and dogs as well as neurological and dermatological diseases in dogs. in the central nervous system of dogs infected with n. caninum, cysts were detected that exhibited gliosis and meningitis. flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that exhibit antibacterial, antiparasitic, antifungal, and antiviral properties. in this study, we investigated the effects of flavonoids in a well-established i ...201425548412
erratum to: neospora caninum causes severe economic losses in cattle in the humid pampa region of argentina. 201525547804
exposure of free-living jaguars to toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and sarcocystis neurona in the brazilian pantanal.toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. in the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against t. gondii, n. caninum and s. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (panthera onca) in two protected areas in the pantanal region of mato grosso state, brazil. ten jaguars (90. ...201725517539
frequency of antibodies against sarcocystis neurona and neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of bahia, brazil.sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. it infects several mammalian species in the americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus didelphis (d. virginiana and d. albiventris) are found. domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against s. neurona had never before been demonstrated in brazilian cats. the aim of this study was to determine whether cats in bahia, brazil, are exposed to the par ...201725517534
seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) to neospora caninum in northeast thailand.water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in asia. although enzootic to thailand, the distribution of n. caninum among thai water buffalo is unclear. the objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum among water buffalo of northeast thailand and ...201525499824
low prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in jilin, henan and anhui provinces of the people's republic of china.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are important pathogens of worldwide distribution. n. caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and dogs are main reservoirs because they excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis and dogs are considered as sentinels for this parasite because of their close contact with people and cats; additionally dog meat is also used for human consumption in china. the aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence ...201425495616
histological and immunohistochemical characterization of the inflammatory and glial cells in the central nervous system of goat fetuses and adult male goats naturally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan that is considered one of the main agents responsible for abortion in ruminants. the lesions found in the central nervous system (cns) of aborted fetuses show multifocal necrosis, gliosis, and perivascular cuffs of mononuclear cells, but the inflammatory and glial cells have not been immunophenotypically characterized. the lesions in the cns of infected adult animals have rarely been described. therefore, in this study, we characterized the lesions, ...201425495444
susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum.neuropathogenesis is a feature of neospora caninum infection. in order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (schistocerca gregaria). we show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with n. caninum tachyzoites. this was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to ...201425493211
gallus gallus domesticus are resistant to infection with neospora caninum tachyzoites of the nc-1 strain.the aim of this study was to experimentally evaluate infection in gallus gallus domesticus with neospora caninum tachyzoites of the nc-1 strain. experimental infection was conducted in 90-day-old chickens, embryonated eggs and bioassays in dogs. in the first experiment, poults were randomly divided into four groups. groups i and ii were provided feed with coccidiostat, whereas groups iii and iv received feed without coccidiostat. when the poults from groups i and iii reached 90 days of age, they ...201425468016
effects of crossbreeding on endocrine patterns determined in pregnant beef/dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an intracellular coccidian parasite causing abortion worldwide in dairy cattle. studies have shown that n caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns and that beef cows or cows with a crossbreed pregnancy, especially for a greater maternal-paternal genetic distance, show a reduced risk of abortion when naturally infected compared with pure-breed holstein friesian (hf) pregnancies. this study examined the effects of crossbreeding on plasma progesterone (p4), pregnancy-associ ...201525459029
a 78 kda host cell invasion protein of neospora caninum as a potential vaccine candidate.neosporosis is an intracellular protozoan disease caused by neospora caninum. until now, there is no effective vaccine to prevent neosporosis. the host cell binding protein has the potential as neosporosis vaccine. in the present study, a t7 phage display library was constructed and screened using vero cells to obtain host cell binding protein of n. caninum. two host cell binding proteins, a hypothetical protein of 78 kda (named as ncp78) homologous to the acylglycerol lipase of toxoplasma gondi ...201525448355
blocking elisa using recombinant ncsrs2 protein for diagnosing bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, which leads to economic impacts on cattle industry. the reference method for serodiagnosis of neosporosis is the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). however, ifat is laborious, expensive, and is not practicable in high throughput screening. in order to facilitate the serological diagnosis of neosporosis, we developed a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (b-elisa) based on ncsrs2 recombinant protein (rncsrs2) and polyclonal an ...201525432863
role of ifn-γ and lps on neuron/glial co-cultures infected by neospora caninum.neospora caninum causes cattle abortion and neurological symptoms in dogs. although infection is usually asymptomatic, classical neurological symptoms of neosporosis may be associated with encephalitis. this parasite can grow in brain endothelial cells without markedly damages, but it can modulate the cellular environment to promote its survival in the brain. in previous studies, we described that ifn-γ decreased the parasite proliferation and down regulated nitric oxide (no) production in astro ...201425386119
abortion and foetal lesions induced by neospora caninum in experimentally infected water buffalos (bubalus bubalis).the water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) is an important species in several countries for its milk and meat production, as well as for transport and other agricultural activities. it is, in general, considered more resistant than cattle to different parasitic diseases, also less demanding for forage quality. it has been postulated that buffalo may be resistant to abortion caused by neosporosis, because of high serological prevalences found in buffalo herds from different localities, with no descripti ...201525324135
bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus displaying neospora caninum antigens as a vaccine candidate against n. caninum infection in mice.baculovirus display systems have been utilized for cell-specific gene transfer, regenerative medicine, and as vaccine vectors. in particular, baculovirus particles displaying surface antigens have been used as vaccines against some parasites and viruses. in this study, bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (bmnpv) particles displaying neospora caninum antigens (ncsag1, ncsrs2, and ncmic3) purified from the hemolymph or fat body of silkworm larvae were prepared to vaccinate mice against n. caninum. ea ...201525307182
seroprevalence and risk factors for neospora caninum in goats in santa catarina state, brazil.neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite neospora caninum. knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of santa catarina (sc), southern brazil. therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for n. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of sc. blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. the indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against n. canin ...201625271457
anti-neospora caninum antibody detection and vertical transmission rate in pregnant zebu beef cows (bos indicus): neospora caninum in pregnant beef cows (bos indicus).the aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-neospora caninum antibodies and the vertical transmission rate in naturally infected pregnant zebu beef cows (bos indicus) reared on pasture. the present study began with 200 cows from four farms (50 cows from each farm), and these animals were submitted to timed artificial insemination (tai). after ultrasonography, 76 pregnant cows were selected, 22, 15, 22, and 17, respectively, from farms 1, 2, 3, and 4. blood samples were taken from cows thri ...201425193073
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in goat abortions from argentina.the aims of this study were to identify the occurrence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum abortions in goats from argentina by serological, macroscopical and microscopical examination and bioassay, and to characterize the obtained isolates by molecular techniques. for this purpose, 25 caprine fetal fluids, 18 caprine fetal brains and 10 caprine placentas from 8 dairy/meat goat farms from argentina were analyzed. gestational age of the aborted fetuses was determined in 18 cases. protozoal ...201425128663
the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase vector as a tool for stable tagging of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular apicomplexa, a phylum where one of the current methods for functional studies relies on molecular genetic tools. for toxoplasma gondii, the first method described, in 1993, was based on resistance against chloramphenicol. as in t. gondii, we developed a vector constituted of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) flanked by the n. caninum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (dhfr-ts) 5' coding sequence flanking region. five weeks a ...201425127750
fluorescent ester dye-based assays for the in vitro measurement of neospora caninum proliferation.techniques for the measurement of parasite loads in different experimental models have evolved throughout the years. the quantification of stained slides using regular cytological stains is currently the most common technique. however, this modality of evaluation is labor-intensive, and the interpretation of the results is subjective because the successes of the assays mainly rely on the abilities of the professionals involved. moreover, the novel genetic manipulation techniques that are commonl ...201425095733
cytokine expression in the placenta of pregnant cattle after inoculation with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is recognized as a major cause of reproductive losses worldwide but its pathogenesis is not completely understood. immune mediated placental pathology has been reported as being responsible for compromising pregnancy probably due to the adverse effects of exacerbated th1 type response at the maternal-foetal interface. different clinical outcomes are known to occur following experimental infections of cattle at different stages of gestation, with foetal death being the most commo ...201425091332
occurrences of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in barbary sheep at curitiba zoo, southern brazil.barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia) have the potential to act as hosts of important infectious diseases, particularly zoonoses. blood samples from 17 barbary sheep at the curitiba zoo were collected to evaluate occurrences of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies, tested using the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat). anti-t. gondii and anti-n. caninum antibodies were detected in 4/17 (23.5%) and 4/17 (23.5%) samples, respectively. the present study has shown that ...201425054509
comparison of host cell invasion and proliferation among neospora caninum isolates obtained from oocysts and from clinical cases of naturally infected a previous study we have shown that the in vitro invasion rate (ir) and tachyzoite yield (ty) are associated with the virulence phenotypes of neospora caninum isolates of bovine origin. in addition, we recently observed marked differences in virulence when canine isolates were compared in a pregnant balb/c mouse model. in this study, we investigated whether invasion and proliferation capacities could be used as virulence-related n. caninum phenotypic traits. of the isolates compared in mice, ...201425045851
discovering a vaccine against neosporosis using computers: is it feasible?a vaccine is urgently needed to prevent cattle neosporosis. this infectious disease is caused by the parasite neospora caninum, a complex biological system with multifaceted life cycles. an in silico vaccine discovery approach attempts to transform digital abstractions of this system into adequate knowledge to predict candidates. researchers need current information to implement such an approach, such as understanding evasion mechanisms of the immune system, type of immune response to elicit, av ...201425028089
toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) fetus.a near-full-term alpaca (vicugna pacos) was stillborn 2 days before the expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within 6 hr of delivery. gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. on histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, liver, and lungs, although no etiology was recognized. within the brain, there was a mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and hydromyelia. both kidneys had inflammatory foci in cortex ...201425000722
diagnosis and treatment of neospora caninum--associated dermatitis in a red fox (vulpes vulpes) with concurrent toxoplasma gondii infection.a 3-mo-old red fox (vulpes vulpes) developed generalized crusty plaques on its body during rehabilitation after an automobile accident requiring amputation of one leg. histologic examination of skin lesion biopsy revealed granulomatous dermatitits with many intralesional protozoal tachyzoites. the protozoa stained positively with antibodies to neospora caninum but not to toxoplasma gondii. treatment with clindamycin hydrochloride (10 mg/kg, twice daily, s.c.) for 1 mo completely resolved lesions ...201425000720
neosporosis in naturally infected pregnant dairy cattle.neosporosis caused by caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum is one of the major causes of infectious abortion in bovines worldwide. a long-term prospective study was performed in a dairy herd endemic for n. caninum in order to analyze the impact of neosporosis on the proportion of aborting cows. a total of 1078 pregnant cows were tested for presence of antibodies and the proportion of abortions was calculated. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum found in the herd was 35.5%. t ...201424986462
metabolic footprinting of extracellular metabolites of brain endothelium infected with neospora caninum in vitro.the survival of the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum depends on its ability to adapt to changing metabolic conditions of the host cell. thus, defining cellular and metabolic changes in affected target tissues may aid in delineating pathogenetic mechanism. we undertook this study to assess the metabolic response of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hbmecs) to n. caninum infection in vitro.201424973017
prevalence and correlates of antibodies to neospora caninum in dogs in portugal.neosporosis, caused by neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. this study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to n. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland portugal. a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9%) dogs. seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between s ...201424972327
two distinct populations of bovine il-17⁺ t-cells can be induced and wc1⁺il-17⁺γδ t-cells are effective killers of protozoan has emerged as a key player in the immune system, exhibiting roles in protection from infectious diseases and promoting inflammation in autoimmunity. initially thought to be cd4 t-cell-derived, the sources of il-17 are now known to be varied and belong to both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. mechanisms for inducing il-17 production in lymphoid cells are thought to rely on appropriate antigenic stimulation in the context of tgf-β1, il-6 and/or il-1β. using culture protoco ...201424961164
neospora caninum prevalence in dogs raised under different living conditions.neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. dogs are important in the epidemiology of n. caninum because they act as definitive hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. vertical transmission of the parasite is well recognized as an important aspect of the epidemiology of the parasite but the importance of horizontal transmission has been less studied. a n. caninum competitive elisa was used to examine serum samples from 600 dogs that were raised under 4 differ ...201424957000
first isolation of neospora caninum from blood of a naturally infected adult dairy cow in beijing, china.neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but the isolation of a viable parasite from an abortus is difficult, and viable n. caninum has not been isolated from any host in china. in the present study, peripheral blood samples were collected from a jugular vein of an adult dairy cow that had aborted; the cow was seropositive to n. caninum antibodies by elisa. white blood cells were separated and seeded onto vero cell monolayer cultures for parasite isolation. tachyzo ...201424945568
rop18 is a key factor responsible for virulence difference between toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii) and neospora caninum (n. caninum) are both obligate intracellular protozoan parasites and share many common morphological and biological features. despite these similarities the two parasites differ dramatically in virulence in mice, but the factors involved in virulence differences between the two parasites remain unknown. a secreted serine-threonine kinase called rhoptry protein 18 (rop18) was identified to play a crucial role on virulence differences among differ ...201424927100
experimental ruminant models for bovine neosporosis: what is known and what is present, bovine neosporosis is an important worldwide concern because of its wide geographic distribution and economic impact. abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine neosporosis in both dairy and beef cattle. ruminant challenge models are critical to evaluate potential vaccine candidates to help tackle bovine neosporosis and to study pathogenesis and host responses to infection. several research groups have developed ruminant models of neospora caninum infection independently of others, ...201424926962
genetic characterisation of neospora caninum strains from clinical samples of zebuine foetuses obtained in abattoirs in goiás, brazil.the neospora caninum microsatellite markers were applied to clinical samples. genotyping technology involving fluorescently labelled dna fragment analysis was used in combination with dna sequencing for markers with complex repetitive sequences. nineteen dna samples from 15 brains and four hearts of naturally infected non-aborted zebuine foetuses from abattoirs in goiás, brazil. n. caninum had been detected in these foetuses by nested-pcr of the internal transcribed spacer-1 rrna region, and the ...201424893690
maternal and fetal immune response patterns in heifers experimentally infected with neospora caninum in the second trimester of pregnancy--a descriptive study.fetal and maternal immune responses 3, 6 and 9 weeks post infection (wpi) were investigated in cows experimentally infected with neospora caninum on day 110 of gestation. descriptive analysis showed that the fetuses had lower percentages of spleen t cell subpopulations (cd3+, cd4+ and cd8+) at 6 wpi compared to 3 wpi and/or 9 wpi, with the lowest percentages observed in a dead fetus found upon euthanasia at that time. increased expression of most cytokines over levels recorded at 3 and 9 wpi wer ...201424880649
macrophage depletion prior to neospora caninum infection results in severe neosporosis in mice.we observed that murine macrophages showed greater activation and increased interleukin 6 (il-6), il-12p40, and interferon gamma (ifn-γ) production during neospora caninum infection. many macrophages migrated to the site of infection. furthermore, macrophage-depleted mice exhibited increased sensitivity to n. caninum infection. this study indicates that macrophages are required for achieving protective immunity against n. caninum.201424872515
statistical evaluation of a commercial neospora caninum competitive elisa in the absence of a gold standard: application to wild elk (cervus elaphus) in alberta.neospora caninum is an important abortive agent of domestic ruminants, but few diagnostic tools are available to reliably assess the exposure of wild cervid species such as elk (cervus elaphus) to this pathogen, which limits our ability to understand their role in the life cycle of this parasite. in the absence of a gold standard test or panels of samples from individuals of known infection status, classical laboratory-based validation methods are not applicable. however, there are a number of s ...201424861013
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum seroprevalences in domestic south american camelids of the peruvian andes.the objective of this study was to investigate the presence of toxoplasma gondii- and neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic south american camelids (sac) (llamas and alpacas) from the peruvian andes through a cross-sectional study. a wide panel of serum samples collected from 1,845 llamas and 2,874 alpacas from the two main sac production areas of peru was selected. immunofluorescence antibody technique was employed to detect and titrate specific anti-t. gondii and anti-n. caninum imm ...201424859240
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in cats from the czech republic.sera of 414 cats coming from different parts of the czech republic were tested for n. caninum antibodies. sera samples were collected during years 2002-2011. n. caninum antibodies were detected by a commercial competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) with cut off ≥30% inhibition. samples positive in celisa were confirmed by an indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat); titre ≥50 was considered positive. in total, 137 (33%) cats reacted positively in celisa; n. caninum a ...201424827111
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in northern provinces, thailand.neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of neosporosis, recognized as a major cause of bovine abortion around the world. thailand is a developing agricultural country located in southeast asia. livestock developments particularly in dairy cows of this country have been hampered by low productivity including milk and slow growth rate due to the impact of many pathogens including n. caninum. currently, there is no effective method for control of neosp ...201424827103
red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in romania are carriers of toxoplasma gondii but not neospora caninum.brain samples from 182 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from romania were examined using a standard pcr technique. results provide evidence of toxoplasma gondii (11 foxes=6.0%) and neospora caninum (1 fox=0.5%) dna in red foxes from romania. no coinfections were found.201424807364
neospora caninum serostatus is affected by age and species variables in cohabiting water buffaloes and beef cattle.the aim of this study was to investigate how neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. a convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the northeast of argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (bos taurus and bos indicus crossbreeds) ...201424792747
neospora caninum versus brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in ethiopia: a case control study.this case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of neospora caninum and brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. the study was carried out between october 2011 and june 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of ethiopia. two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. the presence of antibody to n. caninum was screened usin ...201424781154
association of antibodies against neospora caninum in mares with reproductive problems and presence of seropositive dogs as a risk factor.sera from 112 mares from 5 horse-breeding farms was examined for the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), as well as from dogs and cattle present on these properties for the presence of antibodies to n. caninum. among the 112 mares, 35 had a history of reproductive problems in the last breeding season and 77 had no reproductive problems. the rates of seroprevalence of n. caninum in mares with and without a history of re ...201424731383
comparison of an elisa assay for the detection of adhesive/invasive neospora caninum tachyzoites.neospora caninum belongs to the phylum apicomplexa, the causative agent of neosporosis, which leads to economic impacts on cattle production. a common feature among apicomplexan parasites is the invasive process driven mostly by the parasite. as a first evaluation of candidate molecules that play a possible role by interfering in this invasive process, the in vitro invasion assay is a fast and direct way to screen future agonists or antagonists. this work involved the development of a new cell c ...201424728359
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in slaughtered pigs from northeast, brazil.the aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies, to identify associated risk factors and to isolate t. gondii from slaughtered pigs in paraíba state, brazil. a total of 190 pigs from public slaughterhouses were used in the study. an indirect immunofluorescence test was used to detect antibodies, and the isolation of t. gondii was performed with a bioassay in mice based on tissues from seropositive animals. a total of 50 g of bra ...201424703253
changes in purine levels associated with cellular brain injury in gerbils experimentally infected with neospora caninum.the present study was carried out in order to assess the possible alterations in purine levels of brain, associated neuronal lesions in gerbils experimentally infected with neospora caninum. for that, gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) were inoculated with nc-1 strain of n. caninum, composing two different experiments: experiment i (ei) and experiment ii (eii), where purine levels were measured along with the histopathologic study, on days 7 (ei), 15 and 30 (eii), post-infection (pi). as a result, ...201424702899
prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dogs.toxoplasmosis and neosporosis are parasitic diseases of global importance. the present study had the objective to determine the influence of age, sex and breed in the prevalence of antibodies against both diseases in dogs from brotas city, são paulo state, brazil. blood samples of 342 dogs were collected, and the age, sex and breed of each animal were recorded. the serological diagnosis for toxoplasmosis and neosporosis were performed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). the fischer ...201324688530
detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in moose (alces alces): the first report in europe.neospora caninum dubey, carpenter, speer, topper et uggla, 1988 is a protozoan parasite originally reported as a major cause of bovine abortions worldwide. it is documented that the parasite is widely spread among non-carnivorous cervids. the purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of n. caninum in moose (alces alces linnaeus). blood samples collected in 2010 and 2012 in the northeastern poland were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by agglutination test (nat), a commercial ...201424684051
neospora caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is an effective drug target for neosporosis therapy.despite the enormous economic importance of neospora caninum related veterinary diseases, the number of effective therapeutic agents is relatively small. development of new therapeutic strategies to combat the economic impact of neosporosis remains an important scientific endeavor. this study demonstrates molecular, structural and phenotypic evidence that n. caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (nccdpk1) is a promising molecular target for neosporosis drug development. recombinant nccdpk1 ...201424681759
control options for neospora caninum--is there anything new or are we going backwards?recent work has highlighted and enumerated the economic annual losses due to neospora caninum abortions worldwide, which should provide strong motivation for the control of bovine neosporosis. however, with the recent withdrawal from sale of the only commercially available vaccine, control options for n. caninum have become more restricted. while researchers continue to work on developing alternative efficacious vaccines, what are the control options presently available for the cattle industries ...201424667014
vaccines against neosporosis: what can we learn from the past studies?neospora caninum is an intracellular apicomplexan parasite, which is a leading cause of abortion in cattle; thus neosporosis represents an important veterinary health problem and is of high economic significance. the parasite can infect cattle via trans-placental transmission from an infected cow to its fetus (vertical transmission), or through the oral route via ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts that were previously shed with the feces of a canid definitive host (horizontal t ...201424602874
seroprevalences of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in pet rabbits in japan.the potential contamination of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum oocysts in the human environment is a concern from the public health viewpoint. however, estimation of their seroprevalences in humans cannot be performed in a manner that distinguishes between oocysts and tissue cysts as a source of infection. rabbits are considered popular pet animals in japan that can acquire natural infections by the aforementioned parasites only through the ingestion of oocysts. therefore, this study was ...201424584081
adaptation of a commercial elisa to determine the igg avidity in sheep experimentally and naturally infected with neospora caninum.recent reports indicate neospora caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep in new zealand. knowledge about the epidemiology of neosporosis in sheep is limited. this study aimed to adapt and validate a commercially available elisa assay as an igg avidity assay to discriminate between acute (primary and re-inoculated) and chronic n. caninum infections in sheep. in addition, it was used to compare the antibody avidity values between lambs from ewes inoculated with n. caninum either ...201424582279
comparative study for the detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in milk and sera in dairy cattle in southern romania.the study aimed to assess the within-herd neospora caninum exposure in dairy cattle in southern romania, based on the detection of specific antibodies in milk and serum. a total of 104 paired samples of milk and serum were collected from four dairy farms. individual samples were analyzed for n. caninum antibodies by elisa: idexx neospora ab (idx) (three farms: a, b, c; n = 60) and id-vet lab (idv) (farm d; n = 44). additionally, four pooled milk samples, one per each farm (a, b, c) and a compose ...201424570044
pcr detection of neospora caninum in water buffalo foetal tissues.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum was surveyed by an elisa kit on two water buffalo herds of southern italy. seropositive samples were detected in 47% and 59% of individuals, respectively, thus indicating high level of exposure to the parasite even if the possibility of vertical transmission cannot be excluded. tissue samples collected from three aborted fetuses from the same herds were investigated for n. caninum presence by pcr assays targeting the 18s and the nc5 dna sequences, respectiv ...201424570043
pathogenicity of nc-bahia and nc-1 strains of neospora caninum in experimentally infected cows and buffaloes in early pregnancy.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite known as an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. little is currently known about how different strains of n. caninum vary in their pathogenicity. in this study, we compared a brazilian strain, nc-bahia, with the first isolate of this coccidian, nc-1. eight cows and seven buffaloes were submitted to fixed-time artificial insemination protocols for a better control of pregnancy. group 1 was inoculated with nc-bahia (n = 8; five cows and three buffa ...201424562816
transmission paths of neospora caninum in a dairy herd of crossbred cattle in the northeast of brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the transmission paths of neospora caninum in a dairy herd of crossbred cattle. two hundred and ninety animals were grouped according to the year of their birth to verify the distribution of infection according to age. the blood of 196 cattle was collected thrice, with an average interval of 210 days, to evaluate the existence of horizontal transmission in the herd. to evaluate vertical transmission, the blood of 64 calves was collected prior to ingestion o ...201424560936
infection by toxoplasma gondii specifically induces host c-myc and the genes this pivotal transcription factor regulates.toxoplasma gondii infection has previously been described to cause dramatic changes in the host transcriptome by manipulating key regulators, including stats, nf-κb, and micrornas. here, we report that toxoplasma tachyzoites also mediate rapid and sustained induction of another pivotal regulator of host cell transcription, c-myc. this induction is seen in cells infected with all three canonical types of toxoplasma but not the closely related apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum. coinfection of ...201424532536
characterization of immune cell infiltration in the placentome of water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) infected with neospora caninum during pregnancy.neospora caninum infection in cattle stimulates host immune responses, which may be responsible for placental damage leading to abortion. susceptibility of water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) to neosporosis is not well understood, although vertical transmission and fetal death have been documented. the aim of this study was to characterize the immune response in the placentome of water buffalo following experimental infection in early gestation with the nc-1 strain of n. caninum. placentomes were ...201424529512
isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus).neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. canids, including the dog and the dingo (canis familiaris), the coyote (canis latrans), and the gray wolf (canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. in an attempt to isolate viable n. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from minne ...201424522164
reproductive implications of exposure to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus ocydromus).australian marsupials are thought to be particularly vulnerable to pathologic impacts of toxoplasma gondii, and they may be similarly affected by neospora caninum. pathology due to either organism could be expressed as reduced female reproductive performance. we studied adult female western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus ocydromus) from suburban perth, western australia, between may 2006 and october 2008. we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to look for evidence of exposure to t. go ...201424506426
differential induction of tlr3-dependent innate immune signaling by closely related parasite species.the closely related protozoan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum display similar life cycles, subcellular ultrastructure, invasion mechanisms, metabolic pathways, and genome organization, but differ in their host range and disease pathogenesis. type ii (γ) interferon has long been known to be the major mediator of innate and adaptive immunity to toxoplasma infection, but genome-wide expression profiling of infected host cells indicates that neospora is a potent activator of the typ ...201424505488
neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (canis latrans) and feral swine (sus scrofa).limited information exists on neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. this coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. we examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. eighteen percen ...201324502735
inflammatory infiltration into placentas of neospora caninum challenged cattle correlates with clinical outcome of pregnancy.infection with neospora caninum stimulates host cell-mediated immune responses, which may be responsible for placental damage leading to bovine abortion. the aim of this study was to compare immune responses in the bovine placenta, following experimental infection in different stages of pregnancy. placentomes were examined by immunohistochemistry and inflammation in early gestation was generally moderate to severe, particularly in the placentas carrying non-viable foetuses, whereas it was milder ...201424484200
neospora caninum infection during early pregnancy in cattle: how the isolate influences infection dynamics, clinical outcome and peripheral and local immune responses.this work studies the influence of neospora caninum intra-species diversity on abortion outcome, infection dynamics in terms of parasite dissemination and peripheral-local immune responses in pregnant cattle. animals were intravenously inoculated at day 70 of pregnancy with 10⁷ tachyzoites of two isolates showing marked differences in virulence in vitro and in pregnant mouse models: nc-spain7, a high virulence isolate, and nc-spain8, a low-to-moderate virulence isolate. after inoculation, pregna ...201424479988
toxoplasma gondii infection in llama (llama glama): acute visceral disseminated lesions, diagnosis, and development of tissue cysts.clinical toxoplasmosis has been reported in many species of warm-blooded animals but is rare in camelids. here we report acute fatal systemic toxoplasmosis involving heart, thyroid gland, stomach, intestine, diaphragm, kidneys, adrenal glands, and liver of a 13-mo-old llama (llama glama). many toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were associated with tissue necrosis in multiple organs. death was attributed to severe myocarditis. ulcers associated with numerous tachyzoites were present in the c3 compart ...201424475973
assessment of experimental infection for dogs using gallus gallus chorioallantoic membranes inoculated with neospora caninum.the aim of this study was to evaluate parasitism kinetics and tissue lesions in the first week of infection by neospora caninum in dogs fed gallus gallus chorioallantoic membranes (cms) previously infected in ovo. five two-month-old pups were used. each dog was given five cms that were previously infected with n. caninum via the oral route. four animals were euthanized in the first week of infection. all four dogs had their stools examined one week prior to and up to the day they were euthanized ...201424473883
gamma interferon production and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins 1 and 2 in gestating dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.gamma interferon (ifn-γ) production and cross-breed pregnancy have been attributed a role in protecting dairy cows infected with neospora caninum against abortion. plasma levels of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins-1 (pag-1) are a marker of placental/foetal well-being and of pag-2 is an abortion risk indicator in chronically n. caninum-infected animals. the present study examines, in cross-breed pregnancies, interactions between ifn-γ production and levels of pag-1 and pag-2 in non-aborting nat ...201424456132
a transgenic neospora caninum strain based on mutations of the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene.neospora caninum is an apicomplexa parasite related to abortion and losses of fertility in cattle. the amenability of toxoplasma gondii and plasmodium to genetic manipulation offers several tools to determine the invasion and replication processes, which support posterior strategies related to the combat of these diseases. for plasmodium the use of pyrimethamine as an auxiliary drug on malaria treatment has been affected by the rise of resistant strains and the analyses on dihydrofolate reductas ...201424440296
detection of neospora caninum in ovine abortion in iran.the present study was designed to assess the importance of ovine neosporosis in abortion of iraninan sheep. seventy aborted foetuses and dams from ovine dairy farms in northwest of iran were analyzed to investigate the role of neospora caninum (n. caninum) in ovine abortion. diagnosis of the infection was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a total of 70 aborted dairy ovine were blood sampled and used to evaluate serological status for n. caninum infection by enzyme-linke ...201324431549
comparison of different serological methods to detect antibodies specific to neospora caninum in bovine and canine sera.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite responsible for paresis in dogs and abortion in cattle worldwide. dogs serve as a definitive host, while cattle serve as intermediate host. many different methods have been developed to detect specific antibodies present in cattle and dog serum. in the present study, the dense granule protein ncgra6 was incorporated in a latex beads agglutination test (lat), and compared to other serological methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the di ...201424398907
diagnostic potential of anti-rncp-43 polyclonal antibodies for the detection of neospora caninum.neosporosis is a disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum, which is closely related to toxoplasma gondii. n. caninum infection represents an important cause of reproductive failure in sheep, goats, horses, and cattle worldwide. the diagnosis of neosporosis is based on the detection of pathogen-specific antibodies in animal sera or the presence of tissue cysts. however, morphological similarities and serological cross-reactivity between n. caninum and t. gondii can result in t ...201424310934
neospora caninum is a cause of perinatal mortality in axis deer (axis axis).neospora caninum is a worldwide distributed protozoan that may cause neuromuscular disease in dogs and reproductive failure in domestic and wild ruminants. one axis fawn (axis axis) and four neonates from the same deer herd died at a zoo in argentina within a four-month period. the fawn presented with dilatation of the anal sphincter at birth and incontinence, developed weakness and ataxia and died at 14 days of age. at necropsy, a mega formation of the distal large intestine was observed. micro ...201424295954
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii: relationship between hepatic lesions, cytological and biochemical analysis of the cavitary liquid during the acute phase of the diseases in experimental models.the objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis of ascites in mice infected with toxoplasma gondii and gerbils infected with neospora caninum during the acute phase disease. for that, 12 gerbils [experiment i: not infected/control (n=6) and infected (n=6)] and 12 mice [experiment ii: control (n=6) and infected (n=6)] were used. infected gerbils and mice showed marked ascites on days 5-7 post-infection (pi), while the not-infected animals had not ascites. peritoneal liquid was collec ...201424275558
neospora caninum dna detection by taqman real-time pcr assay in experimentally infected pregnant heifers.neosporosis has been considered the main cause of abortion between the first and the second trimester of pregnancy in cattle. therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the presence of neospora caninum dna obtained from experimental models based on the evaluation of different areas of the fetal nervous system and organs from heifers previously inoculated with nc-1 after or before insemination. this study was performed with hereford × nelore (n=29) heifers and all animals were conside ...201424269161
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