assessment of transplacental transmission of neospora caninum in dairy cattle in the agreste region of pernambuco.the transplacental transmission is the primary route of neospora caninum infection in bovine herds around the world. this study aimed to determine the frequency of transplacental transmission of the parasite in dairy cattle of agreste region of pernambuco through serological tests (ifat and elisa). three hundred sixteen serum samples from cows and heifers and their offspring were analyzed. the transplacental transmission rate was 72.22% (13/18) for cows and 69.23% (9/13) for heifers by ifat. eli ...201727737368
toxoplasmatinae parasites in bats from bahia state, brazil.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are widespread cyst-forming coccidian parasites of the subfamily toxoplasmatinae that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. whereas t. gondii is a zoonotic disease, n. caninum is restricted to nonhuman animals. some chiropteran species can be infected by t. gondii and present fatal toxoplasmosis. in most cases, t. gondii -infected bats are believed to remain asymptomatic and to act as an infection source to other animals. it is not known whether ...201727705102
genetic characterization of neospora caninum from aborted bovine foetuses in aguascalientes, mexico.the cyst-forming protozoan parasite neospora caninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among n. caninum isolates based on multilocus microsatellite genotyping. currently, the most extensive study reported is based on the n. caninum genotyping of 96 samples from four countries on two continents (spain, argentina, germany and scotland) that demonstrate different ...201627692324
neospora caninum activates p38 mapk as an evasion mechanism against innate immunity.due to the high prevalence and economic impact of neosporosis, the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapies against this parasite has been a priority in the field and is crucial to limit horizontal and vertical transmission in natural hosts. limited data is available regarding factors that regulate the immune response against this parasite and such knowledge is essential in order to understand neospora caninum induced pathogenesis. mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) govern ...201627679624
neospora caninum in axis deer ( axis axis ) and fallow deer ( dama dama ) in northern mexico.serum samples from 18 axis deer ( axis axis ) and 19 fallow deer ( dama dama ) were analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for neospora caninum antibodies. two axis (11%) and two fallow deer (11%) were positive for n. caninum antibodies.201727669010
prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in iranian goats.many species of animals play the role of intermediate host for neospora caninum. although the neosporosis has a global distribution, however there is no information on goats' infection in iran. the main goal of present study was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum in goats of western iran. a total of 450 sera were taken and analyzed for antibodies to n. caninum using elisa technique. of those, 28 (6.2%) examined goats were found to be seropositive (95%, ci=6.2±2.2%). in which male goat ...201727614475
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in free ranging chickens (gallus domesticus).recently chickens are considered as an important intermediate hosts for neospora caninum. free range chickens expose to infection with n. caninum oocysts because they feed from the ground therefore they could be a good index of the environmental contamination. we studied n. caninum infection in free range chickens by serological. one hundred and fifty chickens purchased from five regions from fars province and their blood were used for serological testing. antibodies to n. caninum were found in ...201627605795
identification of latent neosporosis in sheep in tehran, iran by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the <i>nc-5</i> gene.little is known about latent infection and molecular characterisation of neospora caninum in sheep (ovis aries). in this study, 330 sheep samples (180 hearts and 150 brains) were analysed for n. caninum dna by nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting the nc-5 gene. neospora caninum dna was detected in 3.9% (13/330) of sheep samples. the parasite's dna was detected in 6.7% of heart samples (12/180) and 0.7% (1/150) of brain samples. no clinical signs were recorded from infected or uninfec ...201627543149
cytokine gene expression in aborting and non-aborting dams and in their foetuses after experimental infection with neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. however, it is not known why not all infected animals abort. in this study, th1 (ifn-γ), th2 (il4) and t reg (il-10) cytokine gene expression was examined by real time pcr using the taqman approach in all of these dams and their foetuses after experimental infection with the isolate nc-spain7 at 110 days of pregnancy and euthanasia 6 weeks after infection. in prior published work, foetal death was observed in three of six infected dams and ...201627523950
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant tgsag2 and ncsag1 to detect toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic animals in turkey.considering the scarce information on occurrences of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in domestic animals from turkey, the aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of these parasite infections in cattle, horses, sheep, goats and dogs in turkey. the specific antibodies against t. gondii and n. caninum were detected by ielisas based on the recombinant tgsag2 or ncsag1 in a total of 2,039 serum samples from eleven provinces. the seroprevalence of t. gondii infections was 46.3%, ...201727523504
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in feral swine (sus scrofa) in the united states.the protozoon neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. canids (canis familiaris, canis latrans, canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (sus scrofa) from 29 states of the usa were tested for n. caninum antibodies, using the n. caninum agglutination test (nat). of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, wit ...201627514880
maternal and foetal cytokine production in dams naturally and experimentally infected with neospora caninum on gestation day the present study, ifn-γ (th1), il-17a (th17) and il-4 (th2) concentrations in response to concanavalin (cona) and neospora caninum antigen (nc-1) stimulation were determined in cultures of cells from control uninfected (n=4), naturally n. caninum-infected (n=3) and experimentally n. caninum-infected (n=6) pregnant dams and their foetuses. experimental animals were infected at 110days of gestation and euthanized 6weeks post-infection. in culture supernatants from the dams, significantly highe ...201627473975
foetal death in naive heifers inoculated with neospora caninum isolate nc-spain7 at 110 days of pregnancy.neospora caninum infection is a leading cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. the pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis, particularly during the second term of gestation when most abortions occur in naturally infected dams, is poorly understood. in the present study foetal death was observed in 3 of 6 experimentally infected dams at 110 days of gestation after 6 weeks of experimental period. all experimental heifers were febrile between 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi). inoculated dams seroconver ...201627388371
nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 prompts potent inflammatory stimuli during neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite responsible for major economic losses due to abortions in cattle. innate immune responses are crucial for host resistance against the infection, however the molecules involved in parasite recognition are still poorly understood. nod2 is a cytosolic receptor that recognizes several pathogens and its role during n. caninum infection has not yet been described. in that sense, we evaluated the role of nod2 in host response against this parasite. we found ...201627377650
the tandemly repeated ntpase (ntpdase) from neospora caninum is a canonical dense granule protein whose rna expression, protein secretion and phosphorylation coincides with the tachyzoite egress.ntpases (also ntpdases) are enzymes with apyrase activity. they are widely distributed among eukaryotes, and also among members of the family sarcocystidae. in toxoplasma gondii, the tgntpase accumulates in the dense granules, and has been commonly associated with the strain virulence. in the closely related neospora caninum, the ncntpase lacks nucleoside diphosphate hydrolase activity and appears to be more abundant in virulent isolates, indicating that it may contribute to the pathogenicity of ...201627329357
serological study of neospora caninum infection in dogs in central china.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. dogs are important in the epidemiology of n. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. to investigate the seroprevalence of n. caninum infection in dogs in central china, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in henan province, central china between march 2015 and february 2016 and tested for igg antib ...201627317461
vaccines for bovine neosporosis: current status and key aspects for development.bovine neosporosis is a worldwide concern due to its global distribution and great economic impact. reproductive failure in cattle due to abortion leads to major economic losses associated with the disease. currently, there is no treatment or vaccine available against abortion or transmission caused by neospora caninum infection in cattle. however, vaccination is considered the best measure of control against bovine neosporosis. several host and parasite factors can influence the dynamics of the ...201627314818
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in free-range chickens in henan province of china.background. chickens serve as an intermediate host for toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum; infection of free-range (fr) chickens with these organisms is a useful indicator of soil and environmental contamination with oocysts. a total of 700 fr chicken serum samples and 300 heart samples were collected from henan province from march to july 2015. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 18.86% (132/700) of the chickens by modified agglutination test (cut-off 1 : 25), while 23.14% (162/700) were ...201627274992
embryonated pigeon eggs as a model to investigate neospora caninum has been shown that embryonated chicken eggs can be used as animal models for experimental infections. the aim of the present study was to investigate pigeon embryonated eggs as animal models for experimental neosporosis. an infection with neospora caninum nc1 isolate was conducted in chicken and pigeon embryonated eggs to evaluate ld50. after calculation of ld50, 2ld50 of tachyzoites were injected into the eggs. macroscopic changes of each embryo were observed, and immunohistochemistry (ihc) ...201727236141
occurrence and first multilocus microsatellite genotyping of neospora caninum from naturally infected dogs in dairy farms in henan, central china.neospora caninum is one of the important causes of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. the dog is known as a definitive host of n. caninum and can transmit the parasite to cattle by shedding oocysts. the aim of the present study is to detect the presence of n. caninum in feces of dairy farm dogs and determine the genetic characteristics of n. caninum in central china. a total of 78 fecal samples were collected from dogs in dairy farms from may to november 2014 and examined by microscopy and nest ...201627230015
pathology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural findings associated with neurological sarcocystosis in cattle.paraffin-embedded blocks of brain of a nine months old bull calf that died of neurological signs in 1982 in germany were restudied. numerous schizonts and merozoites were found associated with extensive but focal necrosis and severe meningoencephalitis. developing stages of schizonts as well as free merozoites were identified. the schizonts were primarily in perivascular areas. ultrastructurally, schizonts were seen both in capillaries and in extravascular space. merozoites were often concentrat ...201627198793
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild small mammals: seroprevalence, dna detection and genotyping.generally, rodents and other small mammals are considered as one of the sources of toxoplasma gondii or neospora caninum infection for cats and dogs as the definitive hosts of these two parasites, respectively. the aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of these two parasites in wild small mammals from the czech republic and to characterize t. gondii isolates by methods of molecular biology. a total of 621 wild small mammals were caught in the czech republic during years 2002-2014. anti ...201627198782
seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from campania region, southern italy.hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to neospora caninum dubey, carpenter, speer, topper et uggla, 1988 and toxoplasma gondii nicolle et manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. the aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum and t. gondii in hunting dogs from southern italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 ...201627189127
diagnosis and control of bovine neosporosis.neosporosis is one of the most common and widespread causes of bovine abortion. the causative parasite is transmitted in at least two ways, horizontally from canids, and by endogenous transmission within maternal lines of infected cattle. the prevalence of neosporosis is higher in the dairy industry than in the beef industry because of risk factors associated with intensive feeding. there are no vaccines, but logical management options are discussed that can lower the risk of abortion outbreaks ...201627161392
prevalence of antibodies against neospora caninum in père david's deer ( elaphurus davidianus ) in beijing, china.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan and causes neuromuscular disorders in canids and abortions in cattle worldwide. we screened sera samples from 49 free-ranging père david's deer ( elaphurus davidianus ) in a nature reserve in beijing, china, for antibodies against n. caninum using indirect fluorescence antibody tests and western blot tests. antibodies were found in 27% of the deer. western blot analysis revealed antibody reactivity against immunodominant n. caninum antigens of 16, 25 ...201627124330
estimating neospora caninum prevalence in wildlife populations using bayesian inference.prevalence of disease in wildlife populations, which is necessary for developing disease models and conducting epidemiologic analyses, is often understudied. laboratory tests used to screen for diseases in wildlife populations often are validated only for domestic animals. consequently, the use of these tests for wildlife populations may lead to inaccurate estimates of disease prevalence. we demonstrate the use of bayesian latent class analysis (lca) in determining the specificity and sensitivit ...201627099713
neonatal neosporosis in a 2-week-old bernese mountain dog infected with multiple neospora caninum strains based on ms10 microsatellite analysis.neonatal neosporosis is a challenging disease to diagnose in neonatal and young puppies because the first signs of this condition may not be strongly suggestive of an infectious aetiology. within two weeks of birth, three of four pups died with a subacute clinical course, some with dyspnea, some with diarrhoea and some with neurologic signs. neosporosis was diagnosed post-mortem, but only after microscopic examination of tissues collected at necropsy. histological findings consisted of (i) necro ...201627084485
crosstalk between uterine serpin (serpina14) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins at the fetal-maternal interface in pregnant dairy heifers experimentally infected with neospora caninum.infection with neospora caninum is the leading cause of abortion in cattle. in cows naturally infected with n caninum, plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (pag) 1 and 2 indicate fetal-placental well-being, whereas an excess of progesterone in the second trimester of gestation has been related to high abortion rate. the immunosuppressive action of progesterone on the uterus during gestation has been attributed in part to the uterine serpins (serpina14). this study examines ...201627045629
in vitro and in vivo effects of the phytohormone inhibitor fluridone against neospora caninum infection.neospora caninum causes abortion and stillbirth in cattle. identification of effective drugs against this parasite remains a challenge. previous studies have suggested that disruption of abscisic acid (aba)-mediated signaling in apicomplexan parasites such as toxoplasma gondii offers a new drug target. in this study, the aba inhibitor, fluridone (flu), was evaluated for its action against n. caninum. production of endogenous aba within n. caninum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromat ...201627021922
molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.cattle are common intermediate hosts of sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. three sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, s. cruzi, s. hirsuta, and s. hominis. the aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, neospora caninum and besnoitia by pcr and rflp methods. tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaught ...201627021183
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in the czech republic.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are worldwide spread parasites, causing serious illnesses in sensitive animals; toxoplasmosis is also important zoonosis. although neosporosis is not considered as a zoonosis, it leads to aborted births in cattle, as well as paresis and paralysis in dogs.201627007522
enrichment of ifn-γ producing cells in different murine adipose tissue depots upon infection with an apicomplexan we report that lean mice infected with the intracellular parasite neospora caninum show a fast but sustained increase in the frequency of ifn-γ-producing cells noticeable in distinct adipose tissue depots. moreover, ifn-γ-mediated immune memory could be evoked in vitro in parasite antigen-stimulated adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction cells collected from mice infected one year before. innate or innate-like cells such as nk, nk t and tcrγδ(+) cells, but also cd4(+) and cd8(+) tcrβ(+) l ...201627001522
anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from itu municipality, são paulo.capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the largest rodents found in south america. the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in 170 free-living capybaras in a residential park area in itu municipality, são paulo state, brazil. serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for t. gondii (ifat ≥ 1:16) and n. caninum (ifat ≥ 1:50). among the 170 samples analyzed, 10% (17/170) and 0% (0/17 ...201626982562
changes in neurotransmitter levels and expression of immediate early genes in brain of mice infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes neurological disorders in dogs and cattle. the majority of host animals are asymptomatic at the chronic stage of infection. however, it remains unclear whether cerebral function is normal in asymptomatic animals. in this study, mice were infected with n. caninum (strain nc-1) and their brains were examined to understand changes in cerebral function at the chronic stage of infection. mice infected with n. caninum showed impaired l ...201626971577
effect of different ecosystems and management practices on toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in wild ruminants in spain.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are two major abortifacient protozoans in domestic small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and they also parasitize a wide range of wildlife. numerous serosurveys have been conducted in wild ruminants worldwide. however, the potential effect of different ecosystems and management practices on these infections has not been investigated. we studied the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum in wild ruminants between 2007 and 2012 from four nat ...201626967135
canine cutaneous neosporosis in brazil.the clinical signs of infection in dogs with neospora caninum are usually associated with neurological disorders and are seen in young dogs. in this brief case report we observed multifocal ulcerative and exudative skin nodules on the neck and pelvic limbs of a 10-year-old cocker spaniel dog. infection with n. caninum was diagnosed on the basis of cytology and examination of skin tissues by pcr. the dog initially responded to treatment with clindamycin and then relapsed; the dog died. infection ...201626949109
experimental neospora caninum infection in pregnant dairy heifers raises concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins 1 and 2 in foetal fluids.plasma concentrations of pag-1 are used for pregnancy diagnosis and as a marker of placental/foetal well-being, while those of pag-2 may be an indicator of abortion risk in neospora caninum-infected cows. studies have shown that n. caninum infection modifies pag-1 and pag-2 patterns in maternal blood plasma. however, no prior work has examined the effects of n. caninum infection on concentrations of pags in foetal fluids. in this study, pag-1, pag-2 and ph levels were determined in the amniotic ...201626936628
n-terminal fusion of a toll-like receptor 2-ligand to a neospora caninum chimeric antigen efficiently modifies the properties of the specific immune response.immunoprophylactic products against neosporosis during pregnancy should induce an appropriately balanced immune response. in this respect, opri, a bacterial lipoprotein targeting toll like receptor (tlr)2, provides promising adjuvant properties. we report on the manipulation of the innate and the t-cell immune response through the fusion of opri with the neospora caninum chimeric protein mic3-1-r. in contrast to mic3-1-r, opri-mic3-1-r significantly activated bone-marrow dendritic cells from naï ...201626932317
neospora caninum: chronic and congenital infection in consecutive pregnancies of mice.neospora caninum, the causative agent of bovine neosporosis is the major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. the principal route of transmission is via in utero infection of the offspring. congenitally-infected dams remain persistently infected for life and might undergo abortions in consecutive pregnancies. in the present study, the effect of n. caninum in chronic and congenital infection was examined. cd1 mice were infected intra-peritoneally with live tachyzoites of the ncis491 isolate, wh ...201626921042
frequency of neospora caninum infections in beef cow-calf operations under extensive management.the aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of neospora caninum horizontal and vertical transmissions in beef cow-calf operations under three different extensive management systems: group a: 0.75 head per hectare pasturing on natural grass; group b: 1.1 head per hectare on natural grass and improved cultured pastures; and group c: 2 head per hectare on natural grass, improved cultured pasture and whole corn silage. serum samples from 72 multiparous cows assigned to each beef cow-calf o ...201626921037
repurposing of antiparasitic drugs: the hydroxy-naphthoquinone buparvaquone inhibits vertical transmission in the pregnant neosporosis mouse model.the three anti-malarial drugs artemiside, artemisone, and mefloquine, and the naphthoquinone buparvaquone known to be active against theileriosis in cattle and leishmania infections in rodents, were assessed for activity against neospora caninum infection. all four compounds inhibited the proliferation of n. caninum tachyzoites in vitro with ic50 in the sub-micromolar range, but artemisone and buparvaquone were most effective (ic50 = 3 and 4.9 nm, respectively). however, in a neosporosis mouse m ...201626883424
neospora caninum seropositivity and reproductive risk factors in dogs.despite the importance of neospora caninum in veterinary medicine, knowledge of distribution of neosporosis in dog populations in some countries is still poor. the aims of the present study were to determine the occurrence of anti-n. caninum antibodies in one-hundred dogs living in cattle farms or dog breedings in central italy and to evaluate the risk factors associated with seropositivity. the incidence of reproductive system disorders (e.g. infertility after first pregnancy) was also evaluate ...201626873272
neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in british columbia, canada.the protozoan pathogen neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. to evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in british columbia, canada. retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the animal health centre, abbotsford, british columbia, a provinci ...201626872927
experimental caprine neosporosis: the influence of gestational stage on the outcome of, we assessed outcome of experimental infection by neospora caninum in goats intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the nc-spain7 isolate at 40 (g1), 90 (g2) and 120 (g3) days of gestation. infected goats had fever between 5 and 9 days post inoculation (dpi); all were seropositive at the time of abortion/birth. foetal death occurred in g1 from 10 to 21 dpi (n = 7) and in g2 from 27 to 35 dpi (n = 4). goats in g2 also had seropositive stillbirth (n = 1) and healthy kids (n = 2). g ...201626864744
experimental neospora caninum infection modifies trophoblast cell populations and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 and 2 dynamics in pregnant dairy heifers.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion in cattle worldwide. plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (pag-1), produced by binucleate trophoblast cells, are used for pregnancy diagnosis and as a marker of foetal-placental well-being, while pag-2, produced by both mono- and binucleate trophoblast cells, may serve as an indicator of abortion risk. in prior work, natural n. caninum infection was found to modify plasma pag-1 and pag-2 patterns ...201626801588
herd-level seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in central and northeastern poland.a serosurvey was carried out to estimate the herd-level seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in cattle in central and northeastern poland. ninety seven dairy cattle herds from 2 provinces of poland (podlaskie, 47 herds and łodzkie, 50 herds) were randomly enrolled in the study using two-stage cluster method. a simple random selection was applied within each herd to select a sample of adult cows (≥18 month-old). a total number of 734 cows were enrolled in the study. the animals were scree ...201626751872
relation between neospora caninum and abortion in dairy cows: risk factors and pathogenesis of disease.neosporosis is a parasitic disease cause by neospora caninum, a parasite of great importance in livestock. this study aimed to evaluate the presence of antibody against n. caninum in dairy cattle with history of abortion, as well as to identify associated risk factors for neosporosis. animals suspected of neosporosis (n = 130) after clinical examination were randomly selected. sera samples from 29 farms were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence technique (ifa) in order to detect antibodies a ...201626747583
systemic and local immune responses in sheep after neospora caninum experimental infection at early, mid and late gestation.besides its importance in cattle, neospora caninum may also pose a high risk as abortifacient for small ruminants. we have recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant sheep with 10(6) nc-spain7 tachyzoites is strongly dependent on the time of gestation. in the current study, we assessed peripheral and local immune response in those animals. serological analysis revealed earlier and higher ifn-γ and igg responses in ewes infected at early (g1) and mid (g2) gestati ...201626739099
serology-based diagnostics for the control of bovine neosporosis.the protozoan neospora caninum is a primary infectious cause of abortion in cattle that causes significant economic losses worldwide. because effective vaccines and licensed pharmacological treatments are currently unavailable, control measures rely on biosecurity and management practice. serological diagnosis plays a crucial role in the identification of infected animals and several tests have been developed. however, owing to the particular dynamics of the host-parasite interaction and to the ...201626711188
risk factors involved in transmission of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in rabbit farms in northern italy, rabbits are frequently reared for meat production. the aim of the study was to find the seroprevalence of t. gondii and n. caninum parasites, and risk factors of infection in rabbit farms.201526706976
serological evidence of antibodies to neospora caninum in stray and owned grenadian dogs.neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs, world wide. cattle become infected by ingesting oocysts voided by dogs. the aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of neospora caninum in two populations of dogs (stray and owned) in grenada, west indies. sera were collected from 625 dogs from all parishes in grenada. three hundred and sixty eight dogs were stray, while 257 dogs were owned. sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against n. caninu ...201526691257
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dogs from the state of tocantins: serology and associated factors.this study investigated occurrences of anti-neospora caninum and anti-toxoplasma gondii igg antibodies by means of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifat), along with risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis and neosporosis, in 204 dogs from urban and rural areas of the municipality of araguaína, state of tocantins, brazil. one hundred and thirty samples (63.7%) were positive for t. gondii using elisa: 57.1% and 70.7% in the urban and rural ar ...201526689184
risk factors for toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum seropositivity in buffaloes in paraiba state, brazil.the aims of this survey were to determine the frequency of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies and to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity among buffaloes in the state of paraíba, brazil. this survey included 136 buffaloes belonging to 14 herds. to detect anti-t. gondii and anti-n. caninum antibodies, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was used. among the 136 samples analyzed, 17 (12.5%) were positive for anti-t. gondii antibodies with titer ...201526689181
toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leishmania spp. serology and leishmania spp. pcr in dogs from pirassununga, sp.we examined the presence of antibodies against the parasites toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and leishmania spp., as well the presence of dna from leishmania spp., in dogs from pirassununga - sp. the seropositivity rate was compared with the animals' originating location. three hundred seventy-three blood samples from the county's kennel and local veterinary clinics were collected and analyzed. a total of 300 samples were tested for t. gondii and n. caninum using an indirect immunofluoresce ...201526689180
[prevalence of neospora caninum infection in the intestine of pet dogs in some areas of anhui and zhejiang].to investigate the prevalence of neospora caninum infection in the intestine of pet dogs in areas of anhui and zhejiang.201526672220
emergence of cutaneous neosporosis in a dog receiving immunosuppressive therapy: molecular identification and management.neosporosis is a multisystemic disease caused by the intracellular protozoan neospora caninum. in dogs the disease primarily affects the central nervous system. canine cutaneous neosporosis is a rare condition often associated with old age or concurrent immunosuppressive treatments for different underlying conditions.201626627466
approaches for the vaccination and treatment of neospora caninum infections in mice and ruminant models.neospora caninum is a leading cause of abortion in cattle, and is thus an important veterinary health problem of high economic significance. vaccination has been considered a viable strategy to prevent bovine neosporosis. different approaches have been investigated, and to date the most promising results have been achieved with live-attenuated vaccines. subunit vaccines have also been studied, and most of them represented components that are functionally involved in (i) the physical interaction ...201626626124
cell mediated immune responses in the placenta following challenge of vaccinated pregnant heifers with neospora caninum.the aim of the present study was to investigate and correlate the cell-mediated immune response and pathological changes at the maternal-fetal interface of neospora-challenged pregnant cattle previously immunized with live and inactivated experimental vaccines. pregnant heifers naïve to neospora caninum were divided in 5 groups of 4 animals, each one immunized before mating: group a heifers were intravenously (iv) immunized with 6.25 × 10(7) live tachyzoites of the nc-6 strain; group b heifers w ...201526553499
impact of spontaneous neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.the impact of spontaneous neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. cows were classified as seropositive (sp) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (sn) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against n caninum. seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (p < 0.001) inc ...201626542136
characterization of the neospora caninum ncrop40 and ncrop2fam-1 rhoptry proteins during the tachyzoite lytic cycle.virulence factors from the rop2-family have been extensively studied in toxoplasma gondii, but in the closely related neospora caninum only ncrop2fam-1 has been partially characterized to date. ncrop40 is a member of this family and was found to be more abundantly expressed in virulent isolates. both ncrop2fam-1 and ncrop40 were evaluated as vaccine candidates and exerted a synergistic effect in terms of protection against vertical transmission in mouse models, which suggests that they may be re ...201626521890
serological survey for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus and neospora caninum in a population of south australian alpacas (vicugna pacos).bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and neospora caninum may cause clinical disease in alpacas. both diseases are present in the australian cattle population. the objective of this study was to perform a serological prevalence survey for bvdv and n. caninum exposure in a regional alpaca population of south australia.201526456156
predominant role of interferon-γ in the host protective effect of cd8(+) t cells against neospora caninum is well established that cd8(+) t cells play an important role in protective immunity against protozoan infections. however, their role in the course of neospora caninum infection has not been fully elucidated. here we report that cd8-deficient mice infected with n. caninum presented higher parasitic loads in the brain and lungs and lower spleen and brain immunity-related gtpases than their wild-type counterparts. moreover, adoptive transfer of splenic cd8(+) t cells sorted from n. caninum-pr ...201526449650
brazilian donkeys (equus asinus) have a low exposure to neospora spp.donkeys (equus asinus) are closely related to horses and are known to be infected by several equine pathogens. neospora caninum and neospora hughesi are protozoan parasites that infect horses, but they were not confirmed in donkeys up to this date. the aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of donkeys (equus asinus) to neospora spp. using tachyzoites of n. caninum as antigen and employing two common serologic methods, ifat and immunoblot. sera from 500 donkeys were obtained from 30 munic ...201526444065
evaluation and comparison of serological methods for the detection of bovine neosporosis in argentina.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion and important economic losses in cattle worldwide. the accurate diagnosis of neosporosis is essential for management and control measures. the aims of this study were: i) to evaluate the performance of an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the 38kda native antigen (p38-elisa) to diagnose bovine neosporosis in argentina using a well- characterized local sera panel from experimentally infected and naturally exposed catt ...201626409300
investigation of neospora caninum seroprevalence and potential impact on reproductive success in semi-free-ranging père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus).this study aimed to determine the prevalence and reproductive impact of neospora caninum in a herd of semi-free-ranging père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus) at a conservation facility, following a suspected abortion storm in 2008. serum samples (n=103) collected from 60 individuals between 2002 and 2011 were evaluated using competitive elisa for the detection of n. caninum-specific antibodies. of the 103 samples, 73 (70.9 per cent) were positive for n. caninum antibodies, with a mean±sd comp ...201526392906
detection of neospora caninum-dna in brain tissues from pigeons in changchun, jilin (china).neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan infecting many domestic and wild animals. the domestic chicken (gallus domesticus) and the sparrow (passer domesticus) are known as natural intermediate hosts of n. caninum, whereas the role of other birds such as pigeons is still unclear. in the present study, pigeon brain tissues collected in jilin of china were screened by n. caninum specific-nested pcr to determine whether pigeons functioned as the natural intermediate hosts of n. caninum. the p ...201526385650
neospora caninum in crows from israel.a cross-sectional neospora caninum seroprevalence study was performed on free ranging crows (corvus cornix, corvus monedula and corvus splendens) from israel in order to assess their exposure to this pathogen and evaluate their role as potential hosts or as sentinels of infection. using the modified agglutination test (mat) with a cutoff titer of 1:100, 30 out of 183 crows (16.4%) were found to be n. caninum seropositive. positive results were validated and confirmed by the indirect fluorescent ...201526359640
systemic neosporosis in a dog treated for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia.a 4-year-old male toy poodle was presented to the small animal veterinary hospital of the faculty of veterinary medicine of the autonomous university of mexico (fmvz, unam) because of depression, lethargy, and hemorrhages involving several areas of the skin and around the eyes. hematology data and a bone marrow analysis suggested hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. the dog was treated with prednisone, and after one month the hematology variables improved. however, the dog's cl ...201526345698
pathology in practice. meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis due to neospora caninum. 201526331418
neospora caninum tachyzoite immunome study reveals differences among three biologically different isolates.pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis is determined by different host- and parasite-dependent factors, including isolate virulence. a previous study identified that several neospora caninum tachyzoite proteins were more abundant in virulent isolates, nc-liv and nc-spain7, compared with the low-virulent isolate nc-spain1h. herein, we explored differences in the immunomes of these three isolates. protein extracts from the nc-liv, nc-spain1h and nc-spain7 isolates were analysed in a 3×3 design by 2-de ...201526324244
three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffractive imaging of whole frozen-hydrated cells.a structural understanding of whole cells in three dimensions at high spatial resolution remains a significant challenge and, in the case of x-rays, has been limited by radiation damage. by alleviating this limitation, cryogenic coherent diffractive imaging (cryo-cdi) can in principle be used to bridge the important resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy in bio-imaging. here, the first experimental demonstration of cryo-cdi for quantitative three-dimensional imaging of whole froz ...201526306199
a review of neospora caninum in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis).a number of countries in the world have reported infections with neospora caninum in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), from africa to asia, europe and south america and recently australia. in general, clinical manifestations (such as abortion) seem rare, which has raised the prospect that buffalo may be inherently resistant to clinical effects of n. caninum infection. worldwide, the seroprevalence of n. caninum infection (as a measure of exposure determined by the detection of antibody) in buffal ...201526298507
activity of several kinds of drugs against neospora caninum.neosporosis caused by neospora caninum is a serious disease in cattle and dogs worldwide. it is the major cause of abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle. in this study, we evaluated the anti-n. caninum activity of chinese medicine extracts (curcumin, artemether), herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), anticoccidiosis drugs (toltrazuril and ponazuril), cyclophosphamide, diminazene aceturate and praziquantel in vitro using parasite growth, replication and host cell invasion assays in human foreski ...201526264260
seroprevalence of antibody to ncsag1 antigen of neospora caninum in cattle from western java, indonesia.neospora caninum can cause fetal abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle, and is a cause of economic concern worldwide. this study aimed to determine the prevalence of neospora caninum-specific antibodies in cattle from western java, indonesia. serum samples from 991 cattle from 21 locations were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) on the basis of recombinant ncsag1. the overall seroprevalence was 16.6%, ranging from 0 to 87.5% in the sampl ...201626256492
in vitro and in vivo effects of the bumped kinase inhibitor 1294 in the related cyst-forming apicomplexans toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.we report on the in vitro effects of the bumped kinase inhibitor 1294 (bki-1294) in cultures of virulent neospora caninum isolates nc-liverpool (nc-liv) and nc-spain7 and in two strains of toxoplasma gondii (rh and me49), all grown in human foreskin fibroblasts. in these parasites, bki-1294 acted with 50% inhibitory concentrations (ic50s) ranging from 20 nm (t. gondii rh) to 360 nm (n. caninum nc-liv), and exposure of intracellular stages to 1294 led to the nondisjunction of newly formed tachyzo ...201526248379
evaluation of neospora caninum truncated dense granule protein 2 for serodiagnosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in dogs.neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by neospora caninum, and it primarily affects cattle and dogs. an infection by n. caninum causes fetal abortion and neonatal mortality. previous proteomics and immunoscreening analyses revealed that n. caninum dense granule antigen 2 (ncgra2) has potential for serodiagnosis of n. caninum. consequently, we expressed the truncated ncgra2 (ncgra2t), which lacks a signal peptide. we compared the serodiagnostic performances of recombinant ncgra2t with that ...201526172405
[risk factors of increased abortions in dairy herds - a statistical analysis].to examine whether dairy herds with and without abortion problems differ in their management and prevalence of antibodies against various pathogens, through collecting and analysing data from these herds.201526166195
infection by neospora caninum in dairy cattle belonging to family farmers in the northern region of brazil.neosporosis is considered a major cause of abortion among cattle worldwide. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and correlate them with possible risk factors on 63 small farms (family farms) in the municipality of ji-paraná, the main milk-producing region of the state of rondônia, northern brazil. for this purpose, 621 serum samples were collected from cows and were evaluated by means of the indirect fluorescence antibody te ...201526154960
integration of rna-seq and proteomics data with genomics for improved genome annotation in apicomplexan parasites.while high quality genomic sequence data is available for many pathogenic organisms, the corresponding gene annotations are often plagued with inaccuracies that can hinder research that utilizes such genomic data. experimental validation of gene models is clearly crucial in improving such gene annotations; the field of proteogenomics is an emerging area of research wherein proteomic data is applied to testing and improving genetic models. krishna et al. [proteomics 2015, 15, 2618-2628] investiga ...201526152714
mic3, a novel cross-protective antigen expressed in toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.microneme protein 3 (mic3) is an important adhesion molecule expressed by toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum that plays a crucial role in invasion. in our study, we found that recombinant tgmic3 (rtgmic3) was recognized by both t. gondii-reactive sera and hyper-immune serum against n. caninum. polyclonal antibodies against tgmic3 reacted with n. caninum by western blot and immunofluorescence assay (ifa). these results indicate that mic3 is a novel cross-reactive antigen expressed in n. canin ...201526141436
comparative analysis of apicoplast-targeted protein extension lengths in apicomplexan general, the mechanism of protein translocation through the apicoplast membrane requires a specific extension of a functionally important region of the apicoplast-targeted proteins. the corresponding signal peptides were detected in many apicomplexans but not in the majority of apicoplast-targeted proteins in toxoplasma gondii. in t. gondii signal peptides are either much diverged or their extension region is processed, which in either case makes the situation different from other studied api ...201526114107
serological evidence of neospora caninum in alpacas from eastern australia.the aim of this study was to investigate if there was any serological evidence of neospora caninum in alpaca populations in south-eastern australia.201526113353
dose-dependent effects of experimental infection with the virulent neospora caninum nc-spain7 isolate in a pregnant mouse model.pregnant balb/c mice have been widely used as an in vivo model to study neospora caninum infection biology and to provide proof-of-concept for assessments of drugs and vaccines against neosporosis. the fact that this model has been used with different isolates of variable virulence, varying infection routes and differing methods to prepare the parasites for infection, has rendered the comparison of results from different laboratories impossible. in most studies, mice were infected with similar n ...201526104964
use of elisa based on ncsrs2 of neospora caninum expressed in pichia pastoris for diagnosing neosporosis in sheep and dogs.neosporosis is a disease caused by the protozoon neospora caninum that leads to significant economic losses in many countries. in the present study, we report on use of the recombinant protein ncsrs2 of n. caninum expressed in pichia pastoris in an indirect immunoenzymatic assay (elisa) for diagnosing neosporosis infection in sheep and dogs. we observed that the elisa test yielded specificity of 94.5% and sensitivity of 100% for sheep and specificity of 93.3% and sensitivity of 100% for dogs. we ...201526083692
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in farmed sika deer (cervus nippon) in china.neospora caninum is a worldwide protozoan that can induce neuromuscular disease in dogs and reproductive failure in domestic and wild ruminants. the objective of the present investigation was to determine the seroprevalence of n. caninum infection in farmed sika deer in china as little is known of this host-parasite relationship. a total of 1800 serum samples were collected during 2013 and 2014 from farmed sika deer in the major production areas of liaoning, jilin and heilongjiang provinces.assa ...201526073107
experimental neospora caninum infection in domestic bird's embryonated date, there are no reports regarding comparison between different bird species in neospora. caninum infection. in the present study 70 embryonated eggs from quail, partridge, broiler and egg laying chickens were divided into 7 groups equally. six groups in each species were inoculated with different dilutions (10, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6)) of tachyzoites/embryonated egg in the chorioallantoic membrane and the seventh group was considered as control. the mortality rates and clinic ...201526064008
sarcocystis spp. infection in two red panda cubs (ailurus fulgens).two neonatal male red panda (ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. one animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. to further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (tem), immunohistochemistry (ihc), polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. ihc was negative ...201526054654
serum levels of nitric oxide and protein oxidation in goats seropositive for toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.the aim of this study was to assess and analyze the levels of nitric oxide (no) and advanced oxidation protein products (aopp) in serum of goats naturally infected by toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, or concomitantly infected by these two parasites. thus, it was measured nox and aopp levels in twenty (n=20) sera samples of goats seronegative for t. gondii and n. caninum [negative control group (a)]; while the positive groups were composed by sera of infected animals, twelve (n=12) seropositi ...201526031474
prevalence and distribution of neospora caninum in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the northern territory of australia.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the northern territory (nt) of australia has never been determined. a total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the nt government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the northern territory were tested by commercial elisa for anti-n. caninum antibodies. the water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence o ...201525992666
genetic diversity of bovine neospora caninum determined by microsatellite markers.neospora caninum is one of the most significant parasitic organisms causing bovine abortion worldwide. despite the economic impact of this infection, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of this parasite. in this study, using nc5 and its1 nested pcr, n. caninum has been detected in 12 brain samples of aborted fetuses from 298 seropositive dairy cattle collected from four different regions in tehran, iran. these specimen (nc-iran) were genotyped in multilocus using 9 different m ...201525988829
neospora caninum: the first demonstration of the enteroepithelial stages in the intestines of a naturally infected dog.a 1.5-month-old kangal breed puppy from a dairy cattle farm died after showing severe diarrhoea and incoordination. necropsy examination revealed multifocal pulmonary consolidation and necrosis and fibrinohaemorrhagic enteritis. microscopically, there was necrotic and purulent bronchopneumonia, myocarditis and non-purulent encephalitis. in the jejunum and ileum there was villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia with oocyst-like and schizont-like structures in the epithelia. immunohistochemically, n ...201525981437
a review of neosporosis and pathologic findings of neospora caninum infection in wildlife.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a devastating infectious disease regarded as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs worldwide. this protozoan pathogen is maintained in the environment by a heteroxenous life cycle that involves a definitive canid host and a wide range of intermediate hosts. in recent years, a number of wildlife species have been investigated for their possible involvement in the n. ca ...201525973393
molecular detection of neospora caninum in house sparrows (passer domesticus) in iran.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite with a wide range of intermediate bird hosts. there is little information describing the prevalence and genetic characterization of n. caninum in bird hosts worldwide and in iran. in this study, a total of 217 brain samples of house sparrow (passer domesticus) were examined for n. caninum presence by nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the nc-5 gene. n. caninum dna was detected in 3.68% (8/217) of sparrows. sequencing of the nc5 geno ...201525971651
identification and characterization of a microneme protein (ncmic6) in neospora caninum.neospora caninum, an apicomplexa parasite, is the causative agent of neosporosis. as described for other members of apicomplexa, microneme proteins (mics) play a key role in attachment and invasion of host cells by n. caninum. herein we identified n. caninum microneme protein 6 (ncmic6) that is orthologous to toxoplasma gondii microneme protein 6 (tgmic6). the open reading frame of the ncmic6 gene is 984 bp and encodes a 327 amino acid peptide. sequence analysis showed that ncmic6 included a sig ...201525956399
buparvaquone is active against neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice.the naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for neospora caninum infection. in 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited n. caninum tachyzoite replication (ic50 = 4.9 nm; ic100 = 100 nm). however, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nm buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. parasiticida ...201525941626
evaluation of recombinant neospora caninum antigens purified from silkworm larvae for the protection of n. caninum infection in mice.three antigens (ncsag1, ncsrs2 and ncmic3) from neospora caninum were expressed using the bmnpv bacmid system in silkworm larvae and purified from the hemolymph. from 20 silkworm larvae, 1.5, 1.2 and 1.4 mg of purified recombinant ncsag1, ncsrs2 and ncmic3 were obtained, respectively. when each purified recombinant antigen was immunized with freund's incomplete adjuvant (fia) to mice, recombinant ncsag1 induced a th2 immune response in immunized mice and produced a sag1-specific antibody. in the ...201525935502
study on the use of toltrazuril to eliminate neospora caninum in congenitally infected lambs born from experimentally infected determine if toltrazuril was effective in eliminating neospora caninum infection from congenitally infected lambs. twenty-eight ewes were allocated to 3 groups where animals in groups a and b were inoculated with 1 × 10(7)n. caninum tachyzoites on day 120 of gestation and group c was maintained as a negative control group. lambs born from ewes in group a were treated with toltrazuril (20mg/kg) on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after birth. lambs in groups b and c were untreated. all lambs in groups a a ...201525935293
in vitro effects of new artemisinin derivatives in neospora caninum-infected human fibroblasts.from a panel of 34 artemisinin derivatives tested in vitro, artemisone, gc007 and gc012 were most efficacious at inhibiting neospora caninum replication (ic50 values of 3-54nm), did not notably impair the invasiveness of tachyzoites and were non-toxic for human foreskin fibroblasts (hffs). transmission electron microscopy of drug-treated n. caninum-infected hffs demonstrated severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the matrix of the parasitophorous vacuole (pv) ...201525934265
isolation and molecular characterization of a new neospora caninum isolate from cattle in argentina.neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of bovine abortion, but isolation of live parasites from infected tissue is difficult. the aims of the present study were to obtain new isolates of n. caninum from congenitally infected asymptomatic newborn cattle in argentina and to perform characterization by multilocus-microsatellite analysis. five clinically normal born calves, with demonstrable n. caninum antibodies in precolostrum serum by indirect fluorescent antibody test, were euthani ...201525913666
antibodies to neospora caninum in sheep from slaughterhouses in the state of são paulo, brazil.neosporosis is an emergent disease responsible for considerable economic impact due to reproductive losses. its zoonotic potential remains unknown. this study involved a survey of antibodies to neospora caninum in slaughtered sheep and their association with epidemiological variables. serum samples from 596 sheep from the states of são paulo and rio grande do sul, brazil, were collected in two slaughterhouses located in são paulo and evaluated by indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat), using ...201525909261
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