an applied printing immunoassay with recombinant nc-sag1 for detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in cattle.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes an important reproductive disease in cattle. neospora caninum surface antigen 1 (nc-sag1) is an immunodominant candidate for the development of a diagnostic reagent for neosporosis. the current study describes the development and evaluation of an antigen print immunoassay (apia) with recombinant nc-sag1 for the detection of specific antibodies to n. caninum in cattle. the concordance between apia and a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent as ...201121908357
Parasite limiting macrophages promote IL-17 secretion in naive bovine CD4? T-cells during Neospora caninum infection.Neospora caninum infects bovine hosts giving rise to pro-inflammatory immune responses that can result in foetal death or spontaneous abortion, this appears to be mediated by the actions of IFN-? on cell activation and migration/trafficking. Yet successful vaccination or natural immunity is also strongly correlated with IFN-? production. We utilised in vitro infection of bovine macrophages to prime naive T-cell responses. Naive T-cells in contact with infected macrophages produce both IFN-? and ...201122005586
prevalence of neospora caninum antibodies in sheep and goats in pakistan.abstract the purpose of the present study was to obtain seroepidemiological information on the neospora caninum infection status of sheep and goats in different areas of punjab province and azad kashmir (pakistan). a cross-sectional study, using a competitive elisa showed an overall 27.7% (35 of 128) (95% ci ? 7.7%) and 8.6% (13 of 142)(95% ci ? 4.6%) seroprevalence of n. caninum antibodies in sheep and goats, respectively. the difference in seroprevalence between sheep and goat populations wa ...201121854220
Occurrence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and/or Toxoplasma gondii in dogs with neurological signs.This study aimed to evaluate occurrences of antibodies against Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dogs with neurological signs. Blood samples from 147 dogs were collected: 127 from owned dogs (attended at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná (HV-UFPR) and at private veterinary clinics in the city of Curitiba), and 20 from stray dogs found in Curitiba's metropolitan region. The dogs presented one or more of the following neurological signs: seizures, paresis ...201121961748
Development of a set of multiplex standard polymerase chain reaction assays for the identification of infectious agents from aborted bovine clinical samples.The current study describes the development of a set of 5 multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assays for the simultaneous detection of abortive infection agents in bovine fetal tissues, including Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., and Campylobacter fetus (mPCR1); Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii (mPCR2); Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila psittaci (mPCR3); Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, and Ureaplasma diversum (mPCR4); and Bovine viral diarrhea virus ...201121908306
Risk factors of Neospora caninum infection in dogs and cats in dairy farms in Western Thailand.The objectives of this study were to investigate the risk factors of Neospora caninum infection in dogs and cats found in dairy herds in western Thailand. A case-control study was conducted in dairy herds in three western provinces including Nakhon Pathom, Ratchaburi and Kanchanaburi. Blood samples of pets from 14 positive dairy herds and 26 herds from negative neighbouring farms which were randomly selected, in total blood samples from dogs and cats from 40 herds were collected and examined for ...201122193939
The immune enhancement of a novel soy lecithin/ß-glucans based adjuvant on native Neospora caninum tachyzoite extract vaccine in mice.Efficient, cost-effective and safe Th1-immunity-inducing vaccine formulations are paramount for achieving protection against Neospora caninum. In this study, a new adjuvant (Providean-AVEC(®)) was used in the development of a N. caninum vaccine and evaluated in a mouse model. Soluble N. caninum tachyzoite native protein extract (sNcAg) was selected as vaccine antigen based on its capacity to activate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines on dendritic cells. Vaccines containing 4 and 0.4µg of ...201122178728
serological survey of neospora caninum in small ruminants from pernambuco state, brazil.neospora caninum infection is an important cause of bovine abortion as well as neonatal mortality in goats and sheep. a serological survey for antibodies against n. caninum in goats and sheep was carried out in the municipality of ibimirim, pe, northeastern brazil. the imunnofluoresce antibody test showed that 26.6% (85/319) of the goats and 64.2% (52/81) of the sheep were positive. serologic reactivity was associated with age in goats (p < 0.01) and sheep (p > 0.05), with increasing rates in ol ...201121961757
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dairy goats from romania.little information is available about the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in goats in romania and even in europe. during 2007-2010, 735 serum samples were collected from dairy goats located in 4 historical regions (crişana, maramureş, transylvania and muntenia) of romania. sera were analyzed for t. gondii and n. caninum antibodies (igg type) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using two commercial kits (chekit toxotest antibody elisa and chekit neospo ...201122177331
artinm, a d-mannose-binding lectin from artocarpus integrifolia, plays a potent adjuvant and immunostimulatory role in immunization against neospora caninum.artinm and jacalin (jac) are lectins from the jackfruit (artocarpus integrifolia) that have important role in modulation of immune responses to pathogens. neospora caninum is an apicomplexa parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and reproductive disorders in cattle, with economic impact on the livestock industry. hence, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of artinm and jac in immunization of mice against neosporosis. six c57bl/6 mouse groups were subcutaneously immunized three times at ...201122001880
prevalence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera from camels (camelus dromedarius) in riyadh province, saudi arabia.from april to december 2010, blood samples were collected from 412 healthy camels in riyadh province, saudi arabia and used to evaluate serological screening for neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infection by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). of the 412 camels, antibodies to n. caninum were found in sixteen in titers of 1:20 and in seven in titers of 1:40 using whole n. caninum tachyzoites as ifat slide (vmrd inc., pullman, wa 99163, usa). antibodies to t. gondii were found in n ...201121980764
molecular detection of coxiella burnetii and neospora caninum in equine aborted foetuses and neonates.abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death are major causes of equine mortality and cause severe economic loss to the equine industry. the present study was based on a complete necropsy protocol associated with classical microbiological examinations and molecular biology on 407 cases of abortion, stillbirths and neonate death. based on this retrospective survey, "less common" abortive infectious agents were characterised by molecular tools in nine independent cases of abortion or neonate mortality. ...201122130310
serological survey of neospora caninum infection in cattle herds from western romania.abstract serum samples from 376 randomly selected adult cattle, from 25 farms located in 3 counties (arad, bihor, and timiş) from western romania, were sampled for neospora caninum antibodies using a commercial elisa-kit (bio k 218, bio-x diagnostics, jemelle, belgium). seroprevalence values and risk factors for neosporosis (cow age, breed, herd size, farming system, previous abortion, and number of farm dogs) were examined using a generalized linear mixed model with a binomial distribution. o ...201122150344
factors associated with infection by neospora caninum in dogs in brazil.from august 2006 to 2008, 411 dogs in northeastern brazil were evaluated for seropositivity to neospora caninum. the dogs were clinically examined, and their owners were interviewed about the conditions in which the animals were maintained in order to assess the factors associated with infection by this parasite. a serum sample was taken from each dog for serological examination in an indirect fluorescent antibody test for n. caninum. the yates' chi-square test or fisher's exact test was used to ...201122015062
clinicopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in an angora cat.this report deals with a case of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a 2 year-old female angora cat. cutaneous lesions were characterized by prescapular ulcers and hyperemic nodules in the skin of the inguinal and dorsosacral regions. a skin biopsy sample was collected from the lesioned area and processed for histopathologic examination and immunoperoxidase test using toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum specific antibodies. toxoplasma gondii immunopositive reactions were detected in keratinocytes and ...201121950216
cytokine gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from neospora caninum naturally infected dams throughout gestation.neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle but it is not known why some infected animals suffer abortion while others do not. an essential role in protective immunity against n. caninum has been proposed for th1 cytokines such as ifn-γ and il-12 although cytokine patterns in n. caninum infected pregnant cattle have been scarcely addressed. in this study, gene expression of the cytokines ifn-γ, il-12, il-10, il-4 and tnf-α was analyzed by real time rt-pcr in peripheral blood mononucl ...201221846584
identification of two novel coccidian species shed by california sea lions (zalophus californianus).abstract routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic californa sea lions (zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 california sea lions admitted to the marine mammal center between april 2007 and october 2009. phylogenetic analysis using the full its-1 region, partial small subunit 18s rdna sequence and the apicomplexa rpob region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred ...201122091999
neospora caninum: comparative gene expression profiling of neospora caninum wild type and a temperature sensitive understand the genetic basis of virulence, gene expression profiles of a temperature-sensitive clone (ncts-8, relatively avirulent) and its wild type (nc-1) of neospora caninum were characterized and compared using a high-density microarray with approximately 63,000 distinct oligonucleotides. this microarray consists of 5692 unique n. caninum sequences, including 1980 tentative consensus sequences and 3712 singleton ests from the tigr n. caninum gene index (ncgi, release 5.0). each sequence w ...201121963790
occurrence of anti-neospora caninum and anti-toxoplasma gondii igg antibodies in goats and sheep in western maranhão, brazil.neosporosis and toxoplasmosis are parasitic diseases which can cause reproductive problems in goats and sheep. the current study aimed to determine the occurrence of anti-neospora caninum and anti-toxoplasma gondii igg antibodies in goats and sheep from the districts of amarante do maranhão and buritirana, imperatriz microregion, western area of maranhão state, northeastern brazil, and to assess factors associated to infection by these etiologic agents. blood samples from 110 animals (46 goats a ...201122166386
Molecular pathology, taxonomy and epidemiology of Besnoitia species (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae).Until recently, besnoitiosis has been a neglected disease of domestic animals. Now, a geographic expansion of the causing protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti in livestock has been recognized and the disease in cattle is considered emerging in Europe. Bovine besnoitiosis leads to significant economic losses by a decline in milk production, sterility, transient or permanent infertility of bulls, skin lesions and increase of mortality in affected cattle population. Phylogenetically, the Besnoitia ...201121906696
causes of abortion on new zealand dairy farms with a history of abortion associated with neospora caninum.abstract201222175426
Identification of a gene cluster for cell-surface genes of the SRS superfamily in Neospora caninum and characterization of the novel SRS9 gene.SUMMARYHere we present the detection of a gene cluster for Neospora caninum surface genes, similar to the Toxoplasma gondii SRS9 locus, and the cloning and characterization of the NcSRS9 gene. PCR genome walking, using NcBSR4 gene as a framework, allows the identification, upstream NcBSR4, of 2 sequences homologous to the SRS5 and the Ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase genes and, downstream NcBSR4, of an ORF of 1191 bp coding for a 396-amino acid polypeptide with 59% similarity to the TgSRS9 antig ...201121939586
sero-prevalence of neospora caninum and besnoitia besnoiti in south australian beef and dairy cattle.a serological survey for neospora caninum and besnoitia besnoiti was carried out in beef and dairy cattle in south australia. serum samples of dairy cattle (n=133) from 9 properties and tank milk samples from a further 122 dairy herds were tested. an additional 810 sera from beef cattle from 51 properties were also tested. testing at the individual animal level by idexx neospora x2 ab test elisa revealed a low prevalence of n. caninum antibodies of only 2.7% (95% ci; 1.6-3.7%) sera positive, as ...201122138306
Potential involvement of Neospora caninum in naturally occurring ovine abortions in New Zealand.Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite and is recognised as the leading cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Natural infection with N. caninum has been described in sheep but it has generally not been regarded as a significant cause of abortion. Recently, there have been several New Zealand cases of foetal abortions where N. caninum was detected which strongly suggested the involvement of Neospora in these abortions. However, there is minimal information about the prevalence of N. ...201122112976
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection on dairy cattle in farms from southern romania.abstract neospora caninum, a coccidian parasite closely related to toxoplasma gondii, is one of the major causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. conventional serological techniques, such as indirect fluorescent antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), are routinely used in adult animals and aborted fetuses for the detection of anti-n. caninum antibodies. in romania, infection with n. caninum in cattle has been reported recently, but only in limited areas from the north and ...201121955278
neospora caninum in bovine fetuses of minas gerais, brazil: genetic characteristics of rdna.neosporosis is an important cause of abortion in cattle and information on their genetics and host parasite relationships are desirable. neospora caninum samples obtained from 24 bovine fetuses from minas gerais, were genetically analyzed in part of the rdna region, coding for rrnas. previously, brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, ovary or testis, uterus and skin of the ear were analyzed by conventional histopathology and immunohistochemistry. of thes ...201122166381
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue of feral rodents and insectivores caught on farms in the netherlands.we investigated the presence of both neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in 250 brain tissue samples from 9 species of feral rodents and insectivores caught on 10 organic farms in the netherlands in 2004. collected samples were conserved in 4% paraformaldehyde solution and analysed by real-time pcr. for n. caninum, 31 samples originating from 6 species tested positive (12.4%): common shrews (33.3%), wood mice (17.6%), harvest mice (16.7%), house mice (15.4%), white-toothed shrews (10.8%) and ...201121958437
prevalence and risk factors of giardia duodenalis in dogs from romania.the protozoan giardia duodenalis is a mammalian-infecting parasite that produces diarrhoea and malabsorption in its hosts. a survey to investigate canine infections with g. duodenalis in romania was undertaken between june 2008 and december 2009. the objectives of the study were to (i) estimate the prevalence of infection in different dog populations (kennels, shelters, shepherd, household) using microscopy and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) test kit; (ii) to ...201121899952
study of the risk factors associated with neospora caninum seroprevalence in algerian cattle populations.bovine abortions due to neospora caninum infection were reported worldwide. the situation in algeria was unknown. for the evaluation of the prevalence of n. caninum and its associated risk factors, 799 cattle belonging to 87 farms of the north and northeast of algeria were analyzed. the cattle were divided into imported cattle, local cattle and improved cattle corresponding to breeding between imported and local cattle. sera were examined for the presence of n. caninum antibodies by indirect flu ...201222244708
immunological characterization of neospora caninum cyclophilin.summaryneospora caninum is an intracellular parasite that poses a unique ability to infect a variety of cell types by causing host cell migration. although previous studies demonstrated that parasite-derived proteins could trigger host cell migration, the related molecules have yet to be determined. our study aimed to investigate the relationship between neospora-derived molecules and host cell migration using recombinant protein of n. caninum cyclophilin (nccyp). indirect fluorescent antibody t ...201222217002
neospora caninum: in vivo and in vitro treatment with artemisone.neosporosis caused by neospora caninum has global economic, clinical, and epidemiological impacts, mainly in the cattle industry. currently, there is no useful drug for treatment of neosporosis. this publication is the first to describe the significant benefits that artemisone has on neospora infections both in vitro and in vivo. artemisone is a new semi-synthetic 10-alkylamino artemisinin that is superior to other artemisinin derivatives in terms of its significantly higher antimalarial activit ...201122260899
experimental inoculation of neospora caninum in pregnant water buffalo.the aim of this study was to characterize the pathogenesis of neospora caninum in experimentally inoculated pregnant water buffalo (bubalus bubalis). twelve mediterranean female water buffaloes ranging in age from 4 to 14 years old and seronegative to n. caninum by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) were involved. ten females were intravenously inoculated with 10(8) tachyzoites of nc-1 strain at 70 (n=3) or 90 (n=7) days of pregnancy (dp). two control animals were inoculated with placebo ...201122244534
occurrence of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with t. gondii, but the importance of n. caninum remains uncertain. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of n. caninum and t. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. for this purpose ...201222260901
oocysts and high seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dogs living in remote aboriginal communities and wild dogs in australia.canines are definitive hosts of neospora caninum (apicomplexa). for horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of n. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. canids in australia include wild dogs and aboriginal community dogs. wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a ...201122245069
contact with domestic dogs increases pathogen exposure in endangered african wild dogs (lycaon pictus).infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including african wild dogs (lycaon pictus). mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic) "reservoir" hosts, and spill over into ...201222238695
a study of some infectious causes of reproductive disorders in cattle owned by resource-poor farmers in gauteng province, south africa.two hundred and thirty-nine cattle from gauteng province in south africa were tested for various pathogens causing reproductive diseases includingbovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (bvd/md) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (ibr/ipv) virus, neospora caninum and brucella abortus usingvarious tests. for bvd/md virus, 49.37% tested positive, 74.47% for ibr/ipv virus, 8.96% for neospora caninum and 3.8% for brucella abortus. the result for brucella abort ...201122616434
seroprevalence of neospora spp. in horses in south of iran.neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. however, limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of neospora antibodies in horses worldwide. the aim of the present study is to determine serological prevalence of neospora infection in horses in iran. blood samples were obtained from 200 horses and tested for serum antibodies against neospora spp. by the neospora modified direct agglutination test (n-mat). antibod ...201122433879
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in tabriz, northwest iran.the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibody to neospora caninum in healthy and aborted dairy cattle in tabriz, capital of east-azarbaijan in northwest of iran.201122347319
seroprevalence of neospora spp. in horses in north east of iran.neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle, while limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of neospora antibodies in horses' worldwide. the aim of the present study was to determine serologic prevalence of neospora infection in horses in iran.201122347290
neospora caninum and leishmania infantum co-infection in domestic dogs (canis familiaris) in meshkin-shahr district, northwestern iran.mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis (mvl) is an infectious disease that affects both human and animals. domestic dogs (canis familiaris) are principal reservoir hosts of mvl caused by leishmania infantum. dogs are definitive hosts for neospora caninum and a risk factor for infecting intermediate hosts. the immunosuppression caused by visceral leishmaniasis (vl) can promote the occurrence of co-infections with other agents such as neosporosis. this study aimed to determine the frequency of co-in ...201122808419
[seroprevalence of neospora caninum in dairy cattle farms in algeria's central northern region].as there has been little research into the epidemiological status of bovine neosporosis in algeria, the main aims of this study were to confirm the circulation of neospora caninum in the country and to determine its seroprevalence in dairy cattle in five provinces of algeria's central northern region by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence. a serological study of 186 dairy cattle declared brucellosis-free established an overall seroprevalence of 12.37%, conf ...201223520748
toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western thailand.beef is a main type of meat consumed by thais. the prevalences of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western thailand. a total of 389 blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of thailand: kanchanaburi, ratchaburi and nakhon pathom. an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) was performed using cut-off values of 1:128 for t. gondii an ...201223431814
fatal toxoplasmosis in a vinaceous amazon parrot (amazona vinacea).toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a vinaceous amazon parrot based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. the bird was prostrate on the bottom of the cage and died. necropsy revealed edema and congestion of the lungs, cloudy air sacs, and mild hepatomegaly. histopathology revealed severe pulmonary congestion and edema and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation associated with many cysts containing bradyzoites of toxoplasma gondii scattered throughout. the heart had mild multifocal lymphocyt ...201223397856
antimicrobial effects of murine mesenchymal stromal cells directed against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum: role of immunity-related gtpases (irgs) and guanylate-binding proteins (gbps).mesenchymal stromal cells (mscs) have a multilineage differentiation potential and provide immunosuppressive and antimicrobial functions. murine as well as human mscs restrict the proliferation of t cells. however, species-specific differences in the underlying molecular mechanisms have been described. here, we analyzed the antiparasitic effector mechanisms active in murine mscs. murine mscs, in contrast to human mscs, could not restrict the growth of a highly virulent strain of toxoplasma gondi ...201223269418
the rhoptry proteome of eimeria tenella sporozoites.proteins derived from the rhoptry secretory organelles are crucial for the invasion and survival of apicomplexan parasites within host cells. the rhoptries are club-shaped organelles that contain two distinct subpopulations of proteins that localise to separate compartments of the organelle. proteins from the neck region (rhoptry neck proteins, ron) are secreted early in invasion and a subset of these is critical for the formation and function of the moving junction between parasite and host mem ...201223262303
effects of ifn-γ, tnf-α, il-10 and tgf-β on neospora caninum infection in rat glial cells.neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and neurological disorders in dogs. the immunological response to this parasite has been described as predominantly of the th1 type. however, infected primary glial cell cultures release il-10 and il-6 but not ifn-γ. this suggests a rather protective response of the glia to avoid inflammatory damage of the nervous tissue. in this study, we investigated the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines in primary mixed cultures of rat astrocytes and microglia in ...201223262170
a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction panel for detecting neurologic pathogens in dogs with meningoencephalitis.meningoencephalitis (me) is a common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system in dogs. clinically, me has both infectious and non-infectious causes. in the present study, a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (mqpcr) panel was optimized for the detection of eight canine neurologic pathogens (blastomyces dermatitidis, cryptococcus spp., neospora caninum, borrelia burgdorferi, bartonella spp., toxoplasma gondii, ehrlichia canis, and canine distemper virus [cdv]). ...201526040611
immunopathological features of canine myocarditis associated with leishmania infantum infection.myocarditis associated with infectious diseases may occur in dogs, including those caused by the protozoa neospora caninum, trypanosoma cruzi, babesia canis, and hepatozoon canis. however, although cardiac disease due to leishmania infection has also been documented, the immunopathological features of myocarditis have not been reported so far. the aim of this study was to examine the types of cellular infiltrates and expression of mhc classes i and ii in myocardial samples obtained at necropsy f ...201627413751
maternal and foetal immune responses of cattle following an experimental challenge with neospora caninum at day 70 of gestation.the immune responses of pregnant cattle and their foetuses were examined following inoculation on day 70 of gestation either intravenously (iv) (group 1) or subcutaneously (sc) (group 2) with live nc1 strain tachyzoites or with vero cells (control) (group 3). peripheral blood mononuclear cell (pbmc) responses to neospora antigen and foetal viability were assessed throughout the experiment. two animals from each group were sacrificed at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post inoculation (pi). at post mortem ...201222536795
phenotypic characterisation of the cellular immune infiltrate in placentas of cattle following experimental inoculation with neospora caninum in late gestation.despite neospora caninum being a major cause of bovine abortion worldwide, its pathogenesis is not completely understood. neospora infection stimulates host cell-mediated immune responses, which may be responsible for the placental damage leading to abortion. the aim of the current study was to characterize the placental immune response following an experimental inoculation of pregnant cattle with n. caninum tachyzoites at day 210 of gestation. cows were culled at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post ino ...201323876124
high rate of transplacental infection and transmission of neospora caninum following experimental challenge of cattle at day 210 of order to investigate the pathogenesis of neosporosis following a primary infection in late pregnancy, cattle were subcutaneously challenged with 5 × 108neospora caninum (nc1 isolate) tachyzoites at day 210 of gestation and serial necropsies were then carried out at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post-infection (dpi). no abortions occurred and all the foetuses were viable at the time of euthanasia. there was a high rate of vertical transmission, as parasites were detected by immunohistochemical labell ...201223228067
vaccines against a major cause of abortion in cattle, neospora caninum infection.neosporosis, caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum, represents one of the economically most important causes of abortion in cattle. during pregnancy, the parasite infects the placental tissue and the fetus, which can lead to stillbirth, abortion, or birth of weak calves. alternatively, calves are born without clinical symptoms, but they can carry over the parasite to the next generation. in addition, n. caninum causes neuromuscular disease in dogs. the economic importance of neosp ...201126486502
effect of vaccination of cattle with the low virulence nc-spain 1h isolate of neospora caninum against a heterologous challenge in early and vaccines have emerged as one of the most potentially cost-effective measures for the control of bovine neosporosis. previous studies have shown that nc-spain 1h is a naturally attenuated isolate of neospora caninum and that immunisation with live nc-spain 1h tachyzoites generated a protective immune response in mice. the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of immunisation in cattle. n. caninum-seronegative heifers were immunised subcutaneously twice with 107 live nc-sp ...201324180373
on the efficacy and safety of vaccination with live tachyzoites of neospora caninum for prevention of neospora-associated fetal loss in cattle.infection of cattle with neospora caninum may result in abortion or the birth of a congenitally infected calf. vaccination with live n. caninum protects against experimental infection of cattle and mice, and the naturally attenuated nc-nowra strain of n. caninum is of particular interest as a potential vaccine candidate. vaccination of heifers prior to breeding with live nc-nowra tachyzoites by either the subcutaneous or the intravenous route reduced the rate of abortion and the presence of the ...201323175289
generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the united states, europe and australia. furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. in fact the biotech companies i ...201425140515
pathogens at the livestock-wildlife interface in western alberta: does transmission route matter?in southwestern alberta, interactions between beef cattle and free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) may provide opportunities for pathogen transmission. to assess the importance of the transmission route on the potential for interspecies transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional study on four endemic livestock pathogens with three different transmission routes: bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 (predominantly direct transmission), mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (ma ...201424517283
serologic screening for 13 infectious agents in roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas.201526609692
neospora caninum - associated abortions in slovak dairy farm.neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of repeated abortions in livestock. this study aimed to determine the seropositivity to n. caninum using indirect elisa and the influence of the infection on the occurrence of abortions in selected dairy herd in slovakia.201525904951
host mitochondrial association evolved in the human parasite toxoplasma gondii via neofunctionalization of a gene toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite of humans and other animals, host mitochondrial association (hma) is driven by a gene family that encodes multiple mitochondrial association factor 1 (maf1) proteins. however, the importance of maf1 gene duplication in the evolution of hma is not understood, nor is the impact of hma on parasite biology. here we used within- and between-species comparative analysis to determine that the maf1 locus is duplicated in t. gondii and its nearest extant re ...201626920761
transcriptome and histopathological changes in mouse brain infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes neurological disorders in dogs and cattle. it can cause nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis and a variety of neuronal symptoms are observed, particularly in dogs. however, the pathogenic mechanism, including the relationship between the parasite distribution and the clinical signs, is unclear. in this study, to understand the pathogenic mechanism of neosporosis, parasite distribution and lesions were assessed in the brain of mice infected with ...201525604996
serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the central valley of costa rica.blood samples from 181 equines from the central valley of costa rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. the presence of antibodies against equine infectious anemia virus (eiav), equine herpes virus 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4), west nile virus (wnv), influenza a virus (iav), equine viral arteritis virus (evav), babesia caballi, theileria equi, neospora ca ...201426623349
survey of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, haemotropic mycoplasmas and other arthropod-borne pathogens in cats from albania.albania is a country on the western part of the balkan peninsula. the mediterranean climate is favourable for the stable development of many arthropod species, which are incriminated as vectors for various agents. recently, several papers have reported on epidemiological aspects of parasitic diseases including vector-borne disease agents of dogs with zoonotic characteristics in albania. however, data on the epidemiology of feline parasitic and bacterial agents in albania is scarce.201424517118
ectopic expression of a neospora caninum kazal type inhibitor triggers developmental defects in toxoplasma and plasmodium.regulated proteolysis is known to control a variety of vital processes in apicomplexan parasites including invasion and egress of host cells. serine proteases have been proposed as targets for drug development based upon inhibitor studies that show parasite attenuation and transmission blockage. genetic studies suggest that serine proteases, such as subtilisin and rhomboid proteases, are essential but functional studies have proved challenging as active proteases are difficult to express. protei ...201525803874
neospora caninum and wildlife.bovine neosporosis caused by neospora caninum is among the main causes of abortion in cattle nowadays. at present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. serological evidence in domestic, wild, and zoo animals indicates that many species have been exposed to this parasite. however, many aspects of the life cycle of n. caninum are unknown and the role of wildlife in the life cycle of n. caninum is still not completely elucidated. in north america, there are data consistent with a sylvatic cyc ...201327335866
a serosurvey for selected pathogens in greek european wild boar.serum samples, collected from 94 european wild boar (sus scrofa) during the hunting seasons 2006 -2010 from different regions of greece, were examined in order to estimate the role of these wildlife species as reservoir of pathogens important for livestock and/or public health.201526392908
artemisinin and its derivatives in treating protozoan infections beyond malaria.parasitic protozoan diseases continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems, which are also common among poor populations. currently available drugs for treatment present drawbacks, urging the need for more effective, safer, and cheaper drugs. artemisinin (art) and its derivatives are some of the most important classes of antimalarial agents originally derived from artemisia annua l. however, besides the outstanding antimalarial and antischistosomal activities, art and its de ...201727867026
infectious pathogens potentially transmitted by semen of the black variety of the manchega sheep breed: health constraints for conservation purposes.conservation of genetic resources from endangered breeds may be conducted through germinal banks. preservation of healthy samples is paramount to avoid preserving pathogens shed with germinal products. the black variety of manchega sheep (bms), and endangered breed endemic to south-central spain, is the subject of a conservation program; a germinal bank has been recently established. however, several pathogens circulating in bms flocks may be shed with semen and threaten bms preservation. theref ...201425066603
prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of brazil.although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. the present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina, and babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of brazil. a total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and s ...201424563780
serological survey on some pathogens in wild brown hares (lepus europaeus) in central determine the exposure of wild brown hares [lepus europaeus (l. europaeus), pallas] to anaplasma phagocytophilum (a. phagocytophilum), borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) sensu lato, encephalitozoon cuniculi (e. cuniculi), leishmania sp., neospora caninum (n. caninum) and toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii).201627261855
wild boar (sus scrofa) - reservoir host of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and anaplasma phagocytophilum in central europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently cf foodborne infections. in this study serological and molecular detection of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum. blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from southern slovakia were examined for antibodies to t. gondii by indirect and to n. caninum by ...201627078648
fatal pyogranulomatous myocarditis in 10 boxer puppies.over a period of 5 years, 10 pure-bred boxer puppies, 9-16 weeks old, were presented with a history of sudden death and were diagnosed with pyogranulomatous myocarditis. the myocarditis was characterized by a mixed infiltrate composed predominantly of neutrophils and macrophages. in our retrospective study, original case records and archived materials were examined. all dogs were positive for borrelia burgdorferi on immunohistochemistry (ihc). there was no evidence of infectious agents in formal ...201626965234
parasites and vector-borne pathogens in client-owned dogs in albania. blood pathogens and seroprevalences of parasitic and other infectious agents.knowledge on the epidemiology of parasitic and vector-borne infections is still very limited for albania, a country located in the balkan peninsula in southeast europe. recent publications indicated prevalence rates of up to 52% for vector-borne infections in less-cared dogs in albania. to provide data on the epidemiological situation in dogs under veterinary care, a total of 602 client-owned dogs presented to four small animal clinics between march 2010 and april 2011 in tirana, albania, were s ...201626453093
toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and tick-transmitted bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in one selected goat farm in slovakia.parasitic diseases of livestock together with poor welfare conditions can negatively affect the health status and production of small ruminants. protozoan parasites and tick-borne infectious agents are common threat of livestock including small ruminants mostly during the pasture season. therefore the priority of the study was to analyse the circulation and presence of two protozoan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum as well as tick-transmitted bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum i ...201324338316
using open-access taxonomic and spatial information to create a comprehensive database for the study of mammalian and avian livestock and pet infections.what are all the species of pathogen that affect our livestock? as 6 out of every 10 human pathogens came from animals, with a good number from livestock and pets, it seems likely that the majority that emerge in the future, and which could threaten or devastate human health, will come from animals. only 10 years ago, the first comprehensive pathogen list was compiled for humans; we still have no equivalent for animals. here we describe the creation of a novel pathogen database, and present outp ...201423906393
is the infectiousness of dogs naturally infected with trypanosoma cruzi associated with poly-parasitism?interactions among different species of parasites co-infecting the same host could be synergistic or antagonistic. these interactions may modify both the frequency of infected hosts and their infectiousness, and therefore impact on transmission dynamics. this study determined the infectiousness of trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive dogs (using xenodiagnosis) and their parasite load (quantified by qpcr), and tested the association between both variables and the presence of concomitant endoparasites. ...201627198799
the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern italy.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria ehrlichia canis and rickettsia species respectively. in this study, we investigated using standard and real-time pcr and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of e. canis and rickettsia species in the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) from the southern italian population. samples were screened by using molecular assays also for neospora caninum, ...201728267780
the parasitic fauna of the european bison (bison bonasus) (linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. part 1. the summarising list of parasites noted.during the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in bison bonasus. these are 22 species of protozoa (trypanosoma wrublewskii, t. theileri, giardia sp., sarcocystis cruzi, s. hirsuta, s. hominis, s. fusiformis, neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium sp., eimeria cylindrica, e. subspherica, e. bovis, e. zuernii, e. canadensis, e. ellipsoidalis, e. alabamensis, e. bukidnonensis, e. auburnensis, e. pellita, e. brasiliensis, babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species ...201425119348
the gatekeeper residue and beyond: homologous calcium-dependent protein kinases as drug development targets for veterinarian apicomplexa parasites.specific roles of individual cdpks vary, but in general they mediate essential biological functions necessary for parasite survival. a comparative analysis of the structure-activity relationships (sar) of neospora caninum, eimeria tenella and babesia bovis calcium-dependent protein kinases (cdpks) together with those of plasmodium falciparum, cryptosporidium parvum and toxoplasma gondii was performed by screening against 333 bumped kinase inhibitors (bkis). structural modelling and experimental ...201424927073
evaluation of a real-time pcr assay based on the single-copy sag1 gene for the detection of toxoplasma gondii.real-time pcr-based detection of toxoplasma gondii is very sensitive and convenient for diagnosing toxoplasmosis. however, the performance of the pcr assays could be influenced by the target gene chosen. here we evaluate a real-time pcr assay using double-stranded dna dyes (sybr(®) green i assay) with a new set of primers targeting the sag1 gene for the fast and specific detection of t. gondii. the assay showed higher sensitivity than conventional pcr protocols using t. gondii dna as template. t ...201323867074
library of apicomplexan metabolic pathways: a manually curated database for metabolic pathways of apicomplexan parasites.the library of apicomplexan metabolic pathways (lamp, is a web database that provides near complete mapping from genes to the central metabolic functions for some of the prominent intracellular parasites of the phylum apicomplexa. this phylum includes the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and theileriosis-diseases with a huge economic and social impact. a number of apicomplexan genomes have been sequenced, but the accurate annotation of gene function remains challe ...201323193253
[a duplex pcr method for detection of babesia caballi and theileria equi].to develop a duplex pcr assay for detection of babesia caballi and theileria equi.201526245119
serological cross-reactivity of trypanosoma cruzi, ehrlichia canis, toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and babesia canis to leishmania infantum chagasi tests in dogs.the aim of this study was to evaluate the serological cross-reactivity between leishmania sp. and other canine pathogens.201424603745
seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs.canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) is caused by the protozoan leishmania infantum, which infects dogs and humans in many regions of brazil. the present study involved an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) to analyze l. infantum, ehrlichia spp., babesia canis, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection rates in serum samples from 93 dogs in a rural settlement in ilha solteira, sp, brazil. the seroprevalence rates of anti-l. infantum, anti-ehrlichia, anti-b. canis, anti-t. gondii and ...201324252965
babesia divergens and neospora caninum apical membrane antigen 1 structures reveal selectivity and plasticity in apicomplexan parasite host cell cell invasion by the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites, including plasmodium (malaria) and toxoplasma (toxoplasmosis), requires a step-wise mechanism unique among known host-pathogen interactions. a key step is the formation of the moving junction (mj) complex, a circumferential constriction between the apical tip of the parasite and the host cell membrane that traverses in a posterior direction to enclose the parasite in a protective vacuole essential for intracellular survival ...201323169033
the absence of zoonotic agents in invasive bullfrogs (lithobates catesbeianus) in belgium and the netherlands.exotic invasive bullfrogs (lithobates catesbeianus) are considered to exert a considerable negative impact on native amphibian communities. this can be due to competition and predation, but they are also a notorious source of the infectious diseases chytridiomycosis and ranavirosis, affecting amphibian populations globally. little is known regarding their carriage of other microbial agents that might be transferred to humans or other animals. in this study we determined the occurrence of the amp ...201324162797
molecular phylogeny of toxoplasmatinae: comparison between inferences based on mitochondrial and apicoplast genetic sequences.phylogenies within toxoplasmatinae have been widely investigated with different molecular markers. here, we studied molecular phylogenies of the toxoplasmatinae subfamily based on apicoplast and mitochondrial genes. partial sequences of apicoplast genes coding for caseinolytic protease (clpc) and beta subunit of rna polymerase (rpob), and mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome b (cytb) were analyzed. laboratory-adapted strains of the closely related parasites sarcocystis falcatula and sarcocys ...201627007245
importance of serological cross-reactivity among toxoplasma gondii, hammondia spp., neospora spp., sarcocystis spp. and besnoitia besnoiti.toxoplasma gondii, neospora spp., sarcocystis spp., hammondia spp. and besnoitia besnoiti are genetically related cyst-forming coccidia. serology is frequently used for the identification of t. gondii, neospora spp. and b. besnoiti-exposed individuals. serologic cross-reactions occur in different tests among animals infected with t. gondii and h. hammondi, as well as among animals infected by t. gondii and n. caninum. infections caused by n. caninum and n. hughesi are almost indistinguishable by ...201728241894
besnoitia besnoiti lytic cycle in vitro and differences in invasion and intracellular proliferation among isolates.bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the protozoan besnoitia besnoiti, reduces productivity and fertility of affected herds. besnoitiosis continues to expand in europe and no effective control tools are currently available. experimental models are urgently needed. herein, we describe for the first time the kinetics of standardised in vitro models for the b. besnoiti lytic cycle. this will aid to study the pathogenesis of the disease, in the screening for vaccine targets and drugs potentially useful fo ...201626928430
characterization of an igg monoclonal antibody targeted to both tissue cyst and sporocyst walls of toxoplasma gondii.toxoplasma gondii infects animals habiting terrestrial and aquatic environments. its oocysts and tissue cysts are important for the horizontal transmission of this parasite. the oocyst and tissue cyst walls are crucial for the ability of the parasite to persist in the environment or in animal tissues, respectively. however, the composition of these walls is not well understood. we report the generation of monoclonal antibodies directed against wall components using mice immunized with oocyst ant ...201626836446
naturally acquired bovine besnoitiosis: differential distribution of parasites in the skin of chronically infected cattle.bovine besnoitiosis is caused by besnoitia besnoiti, an apicomplexan parasite closely related to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. in the acute stage of besnoitiosis, cattle suffer from pyrexia, swollen lymph nodes, anorexia and subcutaneous edema. in the chronic stage, tissue cysts are formed in a variety of tissues including the skin. knowledge about the distribution of tissue cysts of different parts of the skin of infected animals is scarce. four chronically infected cattle were euthan ...201626801602
endoparasite survey of free-swimming baleen whales (balaenoptera musculus, b. physalus, b. borealis) and sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus) using non/minimally invasive methods.a number of parasitic diseases have gained importance as neozoan opportunistic infections in the marine environment. here, we report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of three baleen whale species and one toothed whale: blue (balaenoptera musculus), fin (balaenoptera physalus), and sei whales (balaenoptera borealis) and sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus) from the azores islands, portugal. in total, 17 individual whale fecal samples [n = 10 (b. physalus); n = 4 (p. macrocephalus); n = ...201626593736
anti-neospora caninum and anti-sarcocystis spp. specific antibodies cross-react with besnoitia besnoiti and influence the serological diagnosis of bovine besnoitiosis.bovine besnoitiosis control remains a challenge because the disease continues to spread and control relies solely on accurate diagnosis coupled to management measures. however, recent studies have reported that routinely used elisas may raise a high number of false-positive results. herein, cross-reactions between besnoitia besnoiti antigens and anti-neospora caninum and/or anti-sarcocystis spp.-specific antibodies were studied in an in house elisa since n. caninum and sarcocystis spp. are close ...201526386830
a small-molecule cell-based screen led to the identification of biphenylimidazoazines with highly potent and broad-spectrum anti-apicomplexan in vitro screening of the anti-apicomplexan activity of 51 compounds, stemming from our chemical library and from chemical synthesis, was performed. as a study model, we used toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii), expressing β-galactosidase for the colorimetric assessment of drug activity on parasites cultivated in vitro. this approach allowed the validation of a new series of molecules with a biphenylimidazoazine scaffold as inhibitors of t. gondii growth in vitro. hence, 8 molecules significantly i ...201525462254
combination of monoclonal antibodies improves immunohistochemical diagnosis of neospora caninum.histological analysis is commonly used for a conclusive diagnosis of neosporosis. immunohistochemistry (ihc) using monoclonal (mab) and polyclonal (pab) antibodies can improve diagnosis; however, the use of pab may induce cross-reactivity with other related parasites. the aims of this study were to compare the performance of mabs and their combinations with that of pab in ihc and evaluate the usefulness of mab to identify neospora caninum infection in aborted bovine fetal tissues. for this purpo ...201323927916
novel tools for the diagnosis and differentiation of acute and chronic bovine besnoitiosis.diagnosis of acute bovine besnoitiosis is a major diagnostic problem. we developed diagnostic tests to serologically diagnose and differentiate acute and chronic cases of bovine besnoitiosis using affinity purified antigens of besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites in immunoblots and in both, a conventional elisa and an avidity elisa. sera of acutely and chronically infected cattle were investigated using these tests. acutely infected cattle initially recognised an antigen of 74 kda relative molecular m ...201323160022
serological evidence of besnoitia spp. infection in canadian wild ruminants and strong cross-reaction between besnoitia besnoiti and besnoitia tarandi.bovine besnoitiosis, caused by besnoitia besnoiti, is considered to be emergent in europe and responsible for severe economic losses due to the chronic and debilitating course of the disease but has not been reported in north america. besnoitia tarandi is a related species and it has been reported in reindeer and caribou from different locations of the arctic pole, including north america. diagnosis of clinical besnoitiosis is largely based on the recognition of dermal grossly visible tissue cys ...201222795672
evaluation of cross immunity and histopathological findings in experimentally infected balb/c mice with neospora caninum and besnoitia caprae.caprine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease of goats. neospora caninum, another coccidian parasite of worldwide distribution, infects several animal species and is a major cause of abortion in cattle. combined infections of n. caninum and besnoitia caprae can occur in geographical areas endemic for both species of parasite in goats. this experiment was conducted to investigate the possible cross-immunity between these two infections in experimentally infected balb/c mice.201323682267
pathogens of zoonotic and biological importance in roe deer (capreolus capreolus): seroprevalence in an agro-system population in france.antibody prevalence for several infectious and parasitic diseases in a population of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) inhabiting a mixed agricultural landscape (south of france) has been analyzed. serological analyses with elisa in 245 animals captured from 2008 to 2012 has been performed. we found a high prevalence of toxoplasma gondii (46.4%), chlamydophila abortus (17.27%) and coxiella burnetii (11.26%) compared to other studies in europe. seroprevalence varied strongly among years for t. gondi ...201424576494
a transversal study on antibodies against selected pathogens in dromedary camels in the canary islands, spain.the canary islands contain the most important dromedary camel (camelus dromedarius) population in the european union and are the main export point of dromedaries to continental europe and latin america. we investigated the presence of antibodies against relevant disease agents in 100 canarian camel sera. selected blood samples of the same animals were also tested by pcr. sera were tested for antibodies against bluetongue virus (btv; 0%), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv; 0%), camelpox virus (c ...201323992795
neospora caninum infection as a cause of reproductive failure in a sheep flock.neospora caninum has been detected only sporadically in cases of ovine abortion, and it has therefore traditionally been considered as an unimportant parasite in small ruminants. this study was carried out with the aim of identifying the pathogen causing serious reproductive problems on a commercial sheep farm. sera from all rams and ewes tested negative for antibodies against border disease virus, schmallenberg virus and coxiella burnetii, and infections by these agents were therefore ruled out ...201425158756
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